WorldWideScience

Sample records for elemental mass movement

  1. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D.

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs

  2. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs.

  3. Discrete element modeling of the mass movement and loose material supplying the gully process of a debris avalanche in the Bayi Gully, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-wen; Huang, Kang-xin; Shi, Chong; Hao, Ming-hui; Guo, Chao-xu

    2015-03-01

    The dynamic process of a debris avalanche in mountainous areas is influenced by the landslide volume, topographical conditions, mass-material composition, mechanical properties and other factors. A good understanding of the mass movement and loose material supplying the gully process is very important for understanding the dynamic properties of debris avalanches. Three-dimensional particle flow code (PFC3D) was used to simulate a debris avalanche in Quaternary deposits at the Bayi Gully, Southwest China. FORTRAN and AutoCAD were used for the secondary development to display the mass movement process and to quantitatively describe the mass movement and loose material supplying the gully process. The simulated results show that after the landslide is initiated, the gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy with a variation velocity for the sliding masses. Two stages exist for the average-movement velocity: the acceleration stage and the slowdown stage, which are influenced by the topographical conditions. For the loose materials supplying the gully process, the cumulative volume of the sliding masses into the gully gradually increases over the time. When the landslide volume is not large enough, the increasing landslide volume does not obviously influence the movement process of the sliding masses. The travel distance and movement velocity increase with the decreasing numerical parameters, and the mass-movement process is finished more quickly using low-value parameters. The deposition area of the sliding masses decreases with the increasing numerical parameters and the corresponding deposition thickness increases. The mass movement of the debris avalanche is not only influenced by the mechanical parameters but is also controlled by the topographical conditions.

  4. Spatial and temporal analysis of mass movement using dendrochronology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.R.; Weiss, E.E.J.; Burrough, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Tree growth and inclination on sloping land is affected by mass movement. Suitable analysis of tree growth and tree form can therefore provide considerable information on mass movement activity. This paper reports a new, automated method for studying the temporal and spatial aspects of mass

  5. Rainfall influence on styles of mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Rengers, F. K.; Foster, M. A.; Winchell, E. W.; Anderson, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation characteristics influence whether hillslope materials move in rain-splash driven hops, shallow landslides, or in deep-seated failures. While one might expect a particular style of slope failure to dominate in a region, we report on multiple distinctive mass movements on a single ridge, each associated with different weather events. This suggests that understanding climate regulation of denudation rates and hillslope morphology requires quantifying both triggering hydro-climates, and the corresponding hillslope response to the full spectrum of events. We explore these connections on Dakota Ridge, a hogback at the eastern margin of the Colorado Front Range. The dipslope of Dakota Ridge has generated slumps, debris flows, and an earthflow over the last 4 years; Pleistocene-era deep-seated landslides are also evident. We document mass-movements along a 1 km long segment of Dakota Ridge. Weeklong precipitation and flooding in September 2013 produced slumps, each of which displaced 50-100 m3 of mobile regolith several meters downslope, and some of which triggered shallow, relatively non-erosive debris flows. By contrast, a similar precipitation total over the month of May 2015 mobilized an earthflow. The 10 m wide earthflow displaced mobile regolith downslope as much as 10 m over its 150 m length. These recent landslides are dwarfed by a 400 m wide deep-seated landslide that controls slope morphology from ridge crest to toe. Exposure ages (10Be) suggest a late-Pleistocene age for this feature. Although the September 2013 storm produced record-setting rainfall totals at daily, monthly and annual timescales (e.g., annual exceedance probability of <1/1000 for daily totals), the failures from that event, while numerous, were the smallest of all the landslides in the study area. These observations raise the question: what hydro-climatic conditions produce deep-seated, bedrock involved slope failures? Recent storms suggest that within mobile regolith, individual

  6. Downward Movement of Potentially Toxic Elements in Biosolids Amended Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Irene Torri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentially toxic elements (PTEs in soils are mainly associated with the solid phase, bound to the surface of solid components, or precipitated as minerals. For most PTEs, only a small portion is dissolved in the soil solution. However, there is an interest in following the fate of mobile PTEs in the environment, for a growing amount of evidence indicates that downward movement of PTEs may occur in biosolids amended soils, leading to groundwater contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that control the release of these elements after land application of biosolids, in order to overcome problems related to downward movement of PTEs in the soil profile.

  7. ELEMENT MASSES IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii]  λ 7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  8. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  9. Dyspraxia in ASD: Impaired coordination of movement elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Danielle; Pillai, Ajay S; Tiedemann, Alyssa; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Ewen, Joshua B

    2017-04-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have long been known to have deficits in the performance of praxis gestures; these motor deficits also correlate with social and communicative deficits. To date, the precise nature of the errors involved in praxis has not been clearly mapped out. Based on observations of individuals with ASD performing gestures, we hypothesized that the simultaneous execution of multiple movement elements is especially impaired in affected children. We examined 25 school-aged participants with ASD and 25 age-matched controls performing seven simultaneous gestures that required the concurrent performance of movement elements and nine serial gestures, in which all elements were performed serially. There was indeed a group × gesture-type interaction (P decrement with simultaneous (vs. serial) gestures than controls. These results point to a potential deficit in the simultaneous processing of multiple inputs and outputs in ASD. Such deficits could relate to models of social interaction that highlight the parallel-processing nature of social communication. Autism Res 2016,. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 648-652. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Detecting rapid mass movements using electrical self-potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Limbrock, Jonas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Rapid mass movements are a latent danger for lives and infrastructure in almost any part of the world. Often such mass movements are caused by increasing pore pressure, for example, landslides after heavy rainfall or dam breaking after intrusion of water in the dam. Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing and for earthquake prediction. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than the pressure diffusion. We will present results of laboratory experiments under drained and undrained conditions with fluid triggered as well as manually triggered mass movements, monitored with self-potential measurements. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. We will discuss results of numerical simulations reproducing the observed effect. Our

  11. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  12. Characterization of the preferential movement of elements during sputtering of binary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarya, F.

    1982-01-01

    The knowledge of the physics of ion bombardment effects has matured considerably during the last decade. This has generated an ever increasing number of new applications and the subsequent need for better understanding of the collisional interaction, especially in bombardment of multicomponent materials. This research investigates the near-surface composition changes due to the preferential movement of target elements in binary systems under ion bombardment. The Monte-Carlo code EVOLVE, which has been developed at the University of Maryland for ion transport studies, has been utilized for these investigations. The effects of differences in three key parameters, surface binding energy, displacement energy, and mass of target elements have been studied. It has been observed that in the absence of any binding energy differences, the effect of the mass difference of target elements is contrary to the previously commonly held belief that the lighter target elements tend to be preferentially implanted inward relative to the heavier elements. Cases are presented where preferential inward movement of the heavier elements were observed. Further studies were carried out using EVOLVE and it has been observed that the heavier elements, while having shorter path length relative to the lighter elements, have a longer projected penetration depth. Due to the lack of standard reference materials (SRM's) for studing ion bombardment effects, quantitative comparison of results obtained using different techniques has been unreliable. In an effort to help resolve this need, multilayered thin-film structures (prepared for SRM use) have been studied using both experimental techniques and computer simulaton. The characteristics of those structures which are useful for SMR application, such as layer thickness, layer periodicity, and interface widths are presented

  13. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  14. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  15. Mass movement processes associated with volcanic structures in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Valerio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City, one of the most populated areas of the world, has been affected by various hazards of natural origin, such as subsidence and cracking of the soil, seismicity, floods and mass movement processes (MMPs. Owing to the lack of space on the plain, in recent years urban growth has been concentrated particularly on the slopes of the surrounding mountain ranges, and this has significantly modified the dynamics of the relief as well as the hydrogeological conditions. The specific character of natural susceptibility to mass movements is strongly dependent on the geological–structural and morphological characteristics of the volcanic bodies that form the mountainous relief. This natural susceptibility, combined with the characteristics of vulnerability of the society, creates risk conditions that can generate severe consequences for the population and the economy. Hence, based on an inventory of mass movement processes comprising 95 data points, the present study aimed to achieve a zoning of the areas susceptible to these processes, as well as to characterize the mechanisms of instability in the volcanic structures that form the relief of the area in question. The results of this work clearly show the role of the lithology, the mode of emplacement and the morpho–structural characteristics of the volcanic structures, in the types of mass movement processes. In addition, it identifies the diverse activities of anthropogenic origin that favour slope instability in the zone: deforestation and burning of rubbish, felling of timber on the slopes for building infrastructure and dwellings, leakages of water, vibrations of vehicles, rotating machinery and the use of explosives in mining works, overloading the heads of the slopes, disturbance of the geohydrological regime, generation of rubbish tips, terracing of the slopes for cultivation, inadequate building regulations, and the use of counterproductive or ineffectual stabilization measures.

  16. Stability Assessment as a Criterion of Stabilization of the Movement Trajectory of Mobile Crane Working Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacalak, W.; Budniak, Z.; Majewski, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a stability assessment method of the mobile crane handling system based on the safety indicator values that were accepted as the trajectory optimization criterion. With the use of the mathematical model built and the model built in the integrated CAD/CAE environment, analyses were conducted of the displacements of the mass centre of the crane system, reactions of the outrigger system, stabilizing and overturning torques that act on the crane as well as the safety indicator values for the given movement trajectories of the crane working elements.

  17. Potential Identification of Sublimation-Driven Downslope Mass Movement on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliband, C. C.; Conway, S. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    We have identified a further example of mass movement, in addition to the previously identified example in the pyroclastic vent NE of Rachmaninoff. Both examples show evidence of hollow sublimation being a cause of the mass movements.

  18. Parameterization experiments performed via synthetic mass movements prototypes generated by 3D slope stability simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    The central purpose of this work is to perform a reverse procedure in the mass movement conventional parameterization approach. The idea is to generate a number of synthetic mass movements by means of the "slope stability simulator" (Colangelo, 2007), and compeer their morphological and physical properties with "real" conditions of effective mass movements. This device is an integrated part of "relief unity emulator" (rue), that permits generate synthetic mass movements in a synthetic slope environment. The "rue" was build upon fundamental geomorphological concepts. These devices operate with an integrated set of mechanical, geomorphic and hydrological models. The "slope stability simulator" device (sss) permits to perform a detailed slope stability analysis in a theoretical three dimensional space, by means of evaluation the spatial behavior of critical depths, gradients and saturation levels in the "potential rupture surfaces" inferred along a set of slope profiles, that compounds a synthetic slope unity. It's a meta-stable 4-dimensional object generated by means of "rue", that represents a sequence evolution of a generator profile applied here, was adapted the infinite slope model for slope. Any slope profiles were sliced by means of finite element solution like in Bishop method. For the synthetic slope systems generated, we assume that the potential rupture surface occurs at soil-regolith or soil-rock boundary in slope material. Sixteen variables were included in the "rue-sss" device that operates in an integrated manner. For each cell, the factor of safety was calculated considering the value of shear strength (cohesion and friction) of material, soil-regolith boundary depth, soil moisture level content, potential rupture surface gradient, slope surface gradient, top of subsurface flow gradient, apparent soil bulk density and vegetation surcharge. The slope soil was considered as cohesive material. The 16 variables incorporated in the models were analyzed for

  19. Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Chen, H.R. Strauss, S.C. Jardin, W. Park, L.E. Sugiyama, G. Fu, J. Breslau

    2005-01-01

    There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied

  20. Finite element model for heat conduction in jointed rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.; Thomas, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    A computatonal procedure for simulating heat conduction in a fractured rock mass is proposed and illustrated in the present paper. The method makes use of a simple local model for conduction in the vicinity of a single open fracture. The distributions of fractures and fracture properties within the finite element model are based on a statistical representation of geologic field data. Fracture behavior is included in the finite element computation by locating local, discrete fractures at the element integration points

  1. Susceptibility to mass movement processes in the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec, Sierra Norte de Puebla

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    Roberto Carlos Borja Baeza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since historical times, mass movement processes have taken place in the Mexican territory as a result of its topography, heterogeneous lithology, intense rainfall and the impact of anthropic activity, particularly in mountainous areas such as the Sierra Norte de Puebla. In this region, as a result of extremely high rainfall, a large number of landslides occurred in October 1999. These were mainly slides and flows; they affected economic, structural and environmental aspects and caused the loss of dozens of human lives. Among the various approaches to analysis of this type of hazard, cartography is of considerable importance since it allows the understanding and assessment of spatial distribution, as well as of the interactions of elements of the terrain that determine slope instability. Hence, some studies of landslide hazard cartography have been carried out in Mexico; these have mainly been based on the overlaying, against a background of geographic information systems, of layers of information concerning the parameters that are involved in slope instability. However, there is a tendency for this approach to establish similar degrees of influence for all factors, regardless of specific local conditions. The present aim was to consider the influence of the five most important parameters controlling regional slope instability in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (slope, morphogenesis, relief dissection, deforestation and roads, and to validate the results by means of a recurrence index. Multicriteria analysis has allowed a map of susceptibility to mass movement processes to be produced for the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec.

  2. Experimental investigation of flow-induced control-element movements by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, G.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility has been reported of separating a single noise component due to flow-induced vibrations of a certain control element from a complex neutron signal which also contained contributions of many other control elements vibrating similarly. One of the basic assumptions for the different methods applied was that the body sound signal originating from touch events with the channel wall is closely correlated with the control-element movement. Some discrepancies between the results of the different methods showed that this assumption may not be entirely fulfilled. This paper investigates this correlation more accurately by measurements of an air flow model of the control-element channel. The pendulum movement of the element, and the body-sound signal due to the touch events with the channel wall, were measured at different flow-rates. The result is that the correlation is not an ideal one. For a constant flow-rate the touch events happen mainly within a small angle region, which means that the touch event marks a certain phase of the movement period and is therefore correlated with the movement. The dispersion of the touch events' angle distribution explains the small discrepancy between the so-called modified averaging method, which uses the sound signal to trigger the averaging procedure, and the partial spectral density method. But not all discrepancies can be explained by these results; they await further investigation. (author)

  3. Empirical Coulomb matrix elements and the mass of 22Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, R.R.; Watt, A.; Kelvin, D.; Rutherford, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to obtain a set of Coulomb matrix elements which fit the known Coulomb energy shifts in the nuclei of mass 18 to 22. The interaction obtained fits the data well with only a few exceptions, one of these being the Coulomb shift of the notorious third 0 + state in 18 Ne. These Coulomb matrix elements are used together with the Chung-Wildenthal interaction to obtain a new prediction for the mass excess of 22 Al. The results indicate that 22 Al should be bound against proton emission. (Auth.)

  4. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Body Mass Index in Korean Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Lee, Kang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood obesity is a serious worldwide problem, and fundamental movement skills (FMS) are very important factors in human movement. Thus, several advanced studies have examined the associations between FMS and body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate BMI and FMS (locomotion and object control skills) in Korean…

  5. Very-high resolution monitoring of mass movement of surface material movements within a landslide

    OpenAIRE

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Van Oost, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    UAV-based aerial pictures processed with Structurefrom- Motion algorithms provide an efficient, low-cost and rapid framework for remote monitoring of dynamic environments. This methodology is particularly suitable for repeated topographic surveys in remote or poorly accessible areas. The aim of the study is to assess differential movement of surface material within a landslide located in the northern foothills of the Swiss Alps based on a time series of digital surface models derived from the...

  6. Potential tsunamigenic hazard associated to submarine mass movement along the Ionian continental margin (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramicola, S.; Tinti, S.; Praeg, D.; Zaniboni, F.; Planinsek, P.

    2012-04-01

    Submarine mass movements are natural geomorphic processes that transport marine sediment down continental slopes into deep-marine environments. Type of mass wasting include creep, slides, slump, debris flows, each with its own features and taking place over timescale from seconds to years. Submarine landslides can be triggered by a number of different causes, either internal (such as changes in physical chemical sediment properties) or external (e.g. earthquakes, volcanic activity, salt movements, sea level changes etc.). Landslides may mobilize sediments in such a way as to form an impulsive vertical displacement of a body of water, originating a wave or series of waves with long wavelengths and long periods called tsunamis ('harbor waves'). Over 600 km of continental margin has been investigated by OGS in the Ionian sea using geophysical data - morpho-bathymetry (Reson 8111, 8150) and sub-bottom profiles (7-10 KHz) - collected aboard the research vessel OGS Explora in the framework of the MAGIC Project (Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts), funded by the Italian Civil Protection. The objective of this project is the definition of elements that may constitute geological risk for coastal areas. Geophysical data allowed the recognition of four main types of mass wasting phenomena along the slopes of the ICM: 1) mass transport complexes (MTCs) within intra-slope basins. Seabed imagery show the slopes of all the seabed ridges to be marked by headwall scarps recording widespread failure, multiple debris flows in several basins indicate one or more past episodes of failure that may be linked to activity on the faults bounding the structural highs. 2) submarine landslide - a multiple failure event have been identified (Assi landslide) at about 6 km away from the coastline nearby Riace Marina. Headwall scars up to 50 m high across water depths of 700 to 1400 m, while sub-bottom profiles indicate stacked slide deposits at and near seabed. 4) canyon headwalls - in the

  7. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  8. Center of mass movement estimation using an ambulatory measurement sytem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2007-01-01

    Center of Mass (CoM) displacement, an important variable to characterize human walking, was estimated in this study using an ambulatory measurement system. The ambulatory system was compared to an optical reference system. Root-mean-square differences between the magnitudes of the CoM appeared to be

  9. Geomorphologycal Study for Flood and Mass Movement Occurrence at Parang Sub Village, Paranggupito District, Wonogiri Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amin Sunarhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are knowing factors that impacts to flood and mass movement hazard at karst region. Area of this study are covering Parang Sub Village, Ngasem, Paranggupito District, Wonogiri Regency. To achieve this objective, geomorphic approaches (static, as well as dynamic environmental geomorphology were analyzed, using survey and secondary data collection. Results from this study are describe that Parang is a karst depression and had water accumulated from Parang boundaries area as upper landform. Mass movement at study area is caused by saturation of soil by water after rainfall. Supported by steep slope impact sliding mass movement. Based on the priority, to change the water running direction and will not concentrate to Parang Depresion, there are need the water-massbank stability. This bank will prevent the soil mass to stable.

  10. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, E.K. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the Moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the Moon of these volatile elements are considered. (Auth.)

  11. Distribution, movement, and evolution of the volatile elements in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The abundances and distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in lunar soils are reviewed. Carbon and nitrogen have a predominantly extra-lunar origin in lunar soils and breccias, while sulfur is mostly indigeneous to the moon. The lunar processes which effect the movement, distribution, and evolution of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, along with the volatile alkali elements sodium, potassium, and rubidium during regolith processes are discussed. Possible mechanisms which may result in the addition to or loss from the moon of these volatile elements are considered.

  12. Evaluation of apical force distribution for orthodontic tooth movements -A flnite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rex

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available FEM is defined as a technique of discrediting a continuum into simple geometric shapes elements, enforcing material properties and governing relationships on these elements giving due consideration to loading and boundary conditions which results in a set of equation, solution which gives the approximate behaviour of the continuum.This study was undertaken to determine the types of orthodontic forces that cause high stress at the root apex. A 3-dimensional finite clement model of a maxillary central incisor, its periodontal ligament (POL,and alveolar bone was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology.The maxillary centralincisor was chosen for study because it is one of the teeth at greatest risk for apical root resorption. The material properties of enamel dentin, POL, and bone and 5 different load systems (tipping, intrusion,extrusion,bodily movement,and rotational force were tested. The finite element analysis showed that purely intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces had stresses concentrated at the apex of the root. The principal stress from a tipping force was located at the alveolar crest. For bodily movement,stress was distributed throughout the PDL;however,it was concentrated more at the alveolar crest. We conclude that intrusive,extrusive, and rotational forces produce more stress at the apex. Bodily movement and tipping forces concentrate forces at the alveolar crest, not at the apex.

  13. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribičič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  14. TWO EXTRASOLAR ASTEROIDS WITH LOW VOLATILE-ELEMENT MASS FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni, and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.

  15. Mass movement on Vesta at steep scarps and crater rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Hoogenboom, T.; Wagner, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Garry, B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Scully, J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Kersten, E.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K.-D.; Pieters, C. M.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Quadrangles Av-11 and Av-12 on Vesta are located at the northern rim of the giant Rheasilvia south polar impact basin. The primary geologic units in Av-11 and Av-12 include material from the Rheasilvia impact basin formation, smooth material and different types of impact crater structures (such as bimodal craters, dark and bright crater ray material and dark ejecta material). Av-11 and Av-12 exhibit almost the full range of mass wasting features observed on Vesta, such as slump blocks, spur-and-gully morphologies and landslides within craters. Processes of collapse, slope instability and seismically triggered events force material to slump down crater walls or scarps and produce landslides or rotational slump blocks. The spur-and-gully morphology that is known to form on Mars is also observed on Vesta; however, on Vesta this morphology formed under dry conditions.

  16. Mass Movement on Vesta at Steep Scarps and Crater Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Hoogenboom, T.; Wagner, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Garry, B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Scully, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Quadrangles Av-11 and Av-12 on Vesta are located at the northern rim of the giant Rheasilvia south polar impact basin. The primary geologic units in Av-11 and Av-12 include material from the Rheasilvia impact basin formation, smooth material and different types of impact crater structures (such as bimodal craters, dark and bright crater ray material and dark ejecta material). Av-11 and Av-12 exhibit almost the full range of mass wasting features observed on Vesta, such as slump blocks, spur-and-gully morphologies and landslides within craters. Processes of collapse, slope instability and seismically triggered events force material to slump down crater walls or scarps and produce landslides or rotational slump blocks. The spur-and-gully morphology that is known to form on Mars is also observed on Vesta; however, on Vesta this morphology formed under dry conditions.

  17. Real and imaginary elements of fermion mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masina, I.; Savoy, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the recent better determination of the angles of the unitarity triangle, we re-appraise the problem of finding simple fermion mass textures, possibly linked to some symmetry principle and compatible with grand unification. In particular, the indication that the angle α is close to rectangle turns out to be the crucial ingredient leading us to single out fermion mass textures whose elements are either real or purely imaginary. In terms of the five parameters ascribed to the quark sector, these textures reproduce the eight experimental data on quark mass ratios and mixings within 1σ. When embedded in an SU(5) framework, these textures suggest a common origin for quark and lepton CP violations, also linked to the spontaneous breaking of the gauge group

  18. Paradigms in isotope dilution mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry currently stands out as the method providing results with unchallenged precision and accuracy in elemental speciation. However, recent history of isotope dilution mass spectrometry has shown that the extent to which this primary ratio measurement method can deliver accurate results is still subject of active research. In this review, we will summarize the fundamental prerequisites behind isotope dilution mass spectrometry and discuss their practical limits of validity and effects on the accuracy of the obtained results. This review is not to be viewed as a critique of isotope dilution; rather its purpose is to highlight the lesser studied aspects that will ensure and elevate current supremacy of the results obtained from this method

  19. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  20. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future.

  1. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Determination of trace elements by resonant ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruster, W.; Ames, F.; Rehklau, D.; Mang, M.; Muehleck, C.; Rimke, H.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant ionization mass spectrometer has been developed as an analytical tool for the detection of trace elements, especially of plutonium and other radionuclides. The sample, deposited on a rhenium filament, is evaporated by electrical heating and the atoms of the element under investigation are selectively ionized by laser light delivered from three dye lasers pumped by a copper vapour laser. The resulting photoions are detected in a time-of-flight spectrometer with a channelplate detector. For plutonium a mass resolution of M/ΔM=1500 was obtained and an overall detection efficiency of 4x10 -6 was determined for stepwise excitation and ionization via autoionizing states. With a laser light bandwidth of 3-5 GHz neighbouring isotopes could be suppressed by a factor of 20 due to isotope shifts in the excitation transitions. The isotope composition of synthetic samples was measured and good agreement was found with mass spectroscopic results. The influence of the hyperfine structure on the isotope ratios is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Elemental mass size distribution of the Debrecen urban aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Size distribution is one of the basic properties of atmospheric aerosol. It is closely related to the origin, chemical composition and age of the aerosol particles, and it influences the optical properties, environmental effects and health impact of aerosol. As part of the ongoing aerosol research in the Group of Ion Beam Applications of the Atomki, elemental mass size distribution of urban aerosol were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique. Aerosol sampling campaigns were carried out with 9-stage PIXE International cascade impactors, which separates the aerosol into 10 size fractions in the 0.05-30 ?m range. Five 48-hours long samplings were done in the garden of the Atomki, in April and in October, 2007. Both campaigns included weekend and working day samplings. Basically two different kinds of particles could be identified according to the size distribution. In the size distribution of Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ba, Ti, Mn and Co one dominant peak can be found around the 3 m aerodynamic diameter size range, as it is shown on Figure 1. These are the elements of predominantly natural origin. Elements like S, Cl, K, Zn, Pb and Br appears with high frequency in the 0.25-0.5 mm size range as presented in Figure 2. These elements are originated mainly from anthropogenic sources. However sometimes in the size distribution of these elements a 2 nd , smaller peak appears at the 2-4 μm size ranges, indicating different sources. Differences were found between the size distribution of the spring and autumn samples. In the case of elements of soil origin the size distribution was shifted towards smaller diameters during October, and a 2 nd peak appeared around 0.5 μm. A possible explanation to this phenomenon can be the different meteorological conditions. No differences were found between the weekend and working days in the size distribution, however the concentration values were smaller during the weekend

  4. Lumped Mass Modeling for Local-Mode-Suppressed Element Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joung, Young Soo; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    connectivity parameterization (ECP) is employed. On the way to the ultimate crashworthy structure optimization, we are now developing a local mode-free topology optimization formulation that can be implemented in the ECP method. In fact, the local mode-freeing strategy developed here can be also used directly...... experiencing large structural changes, appears to be still poor. In ECP, the nodes of the domain-discretizing elements are connected by zero-length one-dimensional elastic links having varying stiffness. For computational efficiency, every elastic link is now assumed to have two lumped masses at its ends....... Choosing appropriate penalization functions for lumped mass and link stiffness is important for local mode-free results. However, unless the objective and constraint functions are carefully selected, it is difficult to obtain clear black-and-white results. It is shown that the present formulation is also...

  5. Estimation of atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masahiro [Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To estimate unknown atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements, three kinds of formula: FRDM (finite range droplet model by Moeller et al.), TUYY (an empirical formula by Tachibana et al.) and our KUTY are explained. KUTY estimates the crude shell energies of spherical nucleus from sum of single-particle energies. Then, the refined shell energies in due consideration of paring and deformation are obtained by mixing with the functions of the crude shell energies. Experimental values of U and Fm isotopes were compared with estimation mass of KUTY and FRDM. In the field with experimental values of U isotopes, the value of KUTY and FRDM separated the same difference from the experimental value. The behavior of KUTY and FRDM for Fm isotopes were same as that of U, but ETFSI deviated a little from the experimental values. (S.Y.)

  6. MASS MOVEMENTS' DETECTION IN HIRISE IMAGES OF THE NORTH POLE OF MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fanara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating change detection techniques to automatically detect mass movements at the steep north polar scarps of Mars, in order to improve our understanding of these dynamic processes. Here we focus on movements of blocks specifically. The precise detection of such small changes requires an accurate co-registration of the images, which is achieved by ortho-rectifying them using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE Digital Terrain Models (DTMs. Moreover, we deal with the challenge of deriving the true shape of the moved blocks. In a next step, these results are combined with findings based on HiRISE DTMs from different points in time in order to estimate the volume of mass movements.

  7. Movement of Trace Elements During Residence in the Antarctic Ice: a Laboratory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Melissa M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work has determined that differences in the trace element distribution between Antarctic eucrites and non-Antarctic eucrites may be due to weathering during residence in the ice, and samples that demonstrate trace element disturbances do not necessarily correspond to eucrites that appear badly weathered to the naked eye. This study constitutes a preliminary test of the idea that long-term residence in the ice is the cause of the trace element disturbances observed in the eucrites. Samples of a non-Antarctic eucrite were leached in water at room temperature conditions. Liquid samples were analyzed for rare earth element abundances using ion chromatography. The results for the short-term study showed little or no evidence that leaching had occurred. However, there were tantalizing hints that something may be happening. The residual solid samples are currently being analyzed for the unleached trace metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis and should show evidence of disturbance if the chromatography clues were real. In addition, another set of samples continues to be intermittently sampled for later analysis. The results should give us information about the movement of trace elements under our conditions and allow us to make some tentative extrapolations to what we observe in actual Antarctic eucrite samples.

  8. Automatic Identification of Alpine Mass Movements by a Combination of Seismic and Infrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Johannes; McArdell, Brian W.; Walter, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    The automatic detection and identification of alpine mass movements such as debris flows, debris floods, or landslides have been of increasing importance for devising mitigation measures in densely populated and intensively used alpine regions. Since these mass movements emit characteristic seismic and acoustic waves in the low-frequency range (<30 Hz), several approaches have already been developed for detection and warning systems based on these signals. However, a combination of the two methods, for improving detection probability and reducing false alarms, is still applied rarely. This paper presents an update and extension of a previously published approach for a detection and identification system based on a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors. Furthermore, this work evaluates the possible early warning times at several test sites and aims to analyze the seismic and infrasound spectral signature produced by different sediment-related mass movements to identify the process type and estimate the magnitude of the event. Thus, this study presents an initial method for estimating the peak discharge and total volume of debris flows based on infrasound data. Tests on several catchments show that this system can detect and identify mass movements in real time directly at the sensor site with high accuracy and a low false alarm ratio. PMID:29789449

  9. Automatic Identification of Alpine Mass Movements by a Combination of Seismic and Infrasound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schimmel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The automatic detection and identification of alpine mass movements such as debris flows, debris floods, or landslides have been of increasing importance for devising mitigation measures in densely populated and intensively used alpine regions. Since these mass movements emit characteristic seismic and acoustic waves in the low-frequency range (<30 Hz, several approaches have already been developed for detection and warning systems based on these signals. However, a combination of the two methods, for improving detection probability and reducing false alarms, is still applied rarely. This paper presents an update and extension of a previously published approach for a detection and identification system based on a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors. Furthermore, this work evaluates the possible early warning times at several test sites and aims to analyze the seismic and infrasound spectral signature produced by different sediment-related mass movements to identify the process type and estimate the magnitude of the event. Thus, this study presents an initial method for estimating the peak discharge and total volume of debris flows based on infrasound data. Tests on several catchments show that this system can detect and identify mass movements in real time directly at the sensor site with high accuracy and a low false alarm ratio.

  10. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  11. Effect of bracket slot and archwire dimensions on anterior tooth movement during space closure in sliding mechanics: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Jun-ya; Ozaki, Hiroya; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Sumi, Mayumi; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Bourauel, Christoph; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2014-08-01

    It has been found that controlled movement of the anterior teeth can be obtained by attaching a certain length of power arm onto an archwire in sliding mechanics. However, the impact of the archwire/bracket play on anterior tooth movement has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the power arm on anterior tooth movements with different dimensions of bracket slots and archwires. A 3-dimensional finite element method was used to simulate en-masse anterior tooth retraction in sliding mechanics. Displacements of the maxillary central incisor and the archwire deformation were calculated when applying retraction forces from different lengths of power arms. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was engaged into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement of the incisor was obtained with 9.1-mm length of the power arm. When a 0.022-in slot system was coupled with a 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire, bodily movement was observed with a power arm length of 11.6 mm. Archwire/bracket play has a remarkable impact on anterior tooth movement. An effective torque application to the anterior teeth becomes clinically difficult in sliding mechanics combined with power arms when the archwire/bracket play is large. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mass movements and tree rings: A guide to dendrogeomorphic field sampling and dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Butler, David R.; Corona, Christophe

    2013-10-01

    Trees affected by mass movements record the evidence of geomorphic disturbance in the growth-ring series, and thereby provide a precise geochronological tool for the reconstruction of past activity of mass movement. The identification of past activity of processes was typically based on the presence of growth anomalies in affected trees and focused on the presence of scars, tilted or buried trunks, as well as on apex decapitation. For the analyses and interpretation of disturbances in tree-ring records, in contrast, clear guidelines have not been established, with largely differing or no thresholds used to distinguish signal from noise. At the same time, processes with a large spatial footprint (e.g., snow avalanches, landslides, or floods) will likely leave growth anomalies in a large number of trees, whereas a falling rock would only cause scars in one or a few trees along its trajectory.

  14. Mitigating mass movement caused by earthquakes and typhoons: a case study of central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Typhoons caused huge damages to Taiwan at the average of 3.8 times a year in the last 100 years, according to Central Weather Bureau data. After the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 at the magnitude of Richard Scale 7.3, typhoons with huge rainfall would cause huge debris flow and deposits at river channels. As a result of earthquakes, loose debris falls and flows became significant hazards in central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and data about the sites of slope failure show that damage from natural hazards was enhanced in the last 20 years, as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. There are three main types of mass movement in Central Taiwan: landslides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and river channel banks. Many dams, check dams, housing structures and even river channels can be raised to as high as 60 meters as a result of stacking up floating materials of landslides. Debris flows occurred mainly through typhoon periods and activated ancient debris deposition. New gullies were thus developed from deposits loosened and shaken up by earthquakes. Extreme earthquakes and typhoon events occurred frequently in the last 20 years. This paper analyzes the geological and geomorphologic background for the precarious areas and typhoons in central Taiwan, to make a systematic understanding of mass movement harzards. The mechanism and relations of debris flows and rainfall data in central Taiwan are analyzed. Ways for mitigating mass movement threats are also proposed in this paper. Keywords: mass movement, earthquakes, typhoons, hazard mitigation, central Ta

  15. District element modelling of the rock mass response to glaciation at Finnsjoen, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengren, L.; Stephansson, O.

    1990-12-01

    Six rock mechanics models of a cross section of the Finnsjoen test site have been simulated by means of distinct element analysis and the computer code UDEC. The rock mass response to glaciation, deglaciation, isostatic movements and water pressure from an ice lake have been simulated. Four of the models use a boundary condition with boundary elements at the bottom and sides of the model. This gives a state of stress inside the model which agrees well with the analytical solution where the horizontal and vertical stresses are almost similar. Roller boundaries were applied to two models. This boundary condition cause zero lateral displacement at the model boundaries and the horizontal stress are always less than the vertical stress. Isostatic movements were simulated in one model. Two different geometries of fracture Zone 2 were simulated. Results from modelling the two different geometries show minor changes in stresses, displacements and failure of fracture zones. Under normal pore pressure conditions in the rock mass the weight of the ice load increases the vertical stresses in the models differ depending on the boundary condition. An ice thickness of 3 km and 1 km and an ice wedge of 1 km thickness covering half the top surface of the model have been simulated. For each loading sequence of the six models a complete set of data about normal stress, stress profiles along selected sections, displacements and failure of fracture zones are presented. Based on the results of this study a protection zone of about 100 m width from the outer boundary of stress discontinuity to the repository location is suggested. This value is based on the result that the stress disturbance diminishes at this distance from the outer boundary of the discontinuity. (25 refs.) (authors)

  16. Continuum model for water movement in an unsaturated fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.R.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The movement of fluids in a fractured, porous medium has been the subject of considerable study. This paper presents a continuum model that may be used to evaluate the isothermal movement of water in an unsaturated, fractured, porous medium under slowly changing conditions. This continuum model was developed for use in evaluating the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Thus its development has been influenced by the conditions thought to be present at Yucca Mountain. A macroscopic approach and a microscopic approach are used to develop a continuum model to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both approaches assume that the pressure head in the fractures and the matrix are identical in a plane perpendicular to flow. Both approaches lead to a single-flow equation for a fractured rock mass. The two approaches are used to calculate unsaturated hydrologic properties, i.e., relative permeability and saturation as a function of pressure head, for several types of tuff underlying Yucca Mountain, using the best available hydrologic data for the matrix and the fractures. Rock mass properties calculated by both approaches are similar

  17. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  18. Movement and Orientation Decision Modeling of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in the Grain Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Erick M G; Campbell, James F; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-04-01

    Grain stored in bins is initially a relatively homogenous resource patch for stored-product insects, but over time, spatial pattern in insect distribution can form, due in part to insect movement patterns. However, the factors that influence stored-product insect movement patterns in grain are not well-understood. This research focused on the movement of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), within a simulated wheat grain mass (vertical monolayer of wheat) and the identification of factors that contribute to overall and upward movement (age since adult emergence from an infested kernel [1, 7, and 14 d], sex, strain, and different levels of environment quality). We also used the model selection approach to select the most relevant factors and determine the relationships among them. Three-week-old adults tended to stay closer to the surface compared with 1- or 2-wk-old insects. Also, females tended to be more active and to explore a larger area compared with males. Explored area and daily displacement were also significantly strain-dependent, and increasing grain infestation level decreased daily displacement and explored area. Variation in movement pattern is likely to influence the formation of spatial pattern and affect probability to disperse. Understanding movement behavior within a grain bin is crucial to designing better strategies to implement and interpret monitoring programs and to target control tactics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Numeric simulation model for long-term orthodontic tooth movement with contact boundary conditions using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ryo; Yamaoka, Satoshi; Anh, Tuan Nguyen; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2017-11-01

    Although many attempts have been made to simulate orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method, most were limited to analyses of the initial displacement in the periodontal ligament and were insufficient to evaluate the effect of orthodontic appliances on long-term tooth movement. Numeric simulation of long-term tooth movement was performed in some studies; however, neither the play between the brackets and archwire nor the interproximal contact forces were considered. The objectives of this study were to simulate long-term orthodontic tooth movement with the edgewise appliance by incorporating those contact conditions into the finite element model and to determine the force system when the space is closed with sliding mechanics. We constructed a 3-dimensional model of maxillary dentition with 0.022-in brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire. Forces of 100 cN simulating sliding mechanics were applied. The simulation was accomplished on the assumption that bone remodeling correlates with the initial tooth displacement. This method could successfully represent the changes in the moment-to-force ratio: the tooth movement pattern during space closure. We developed a novel method that could simulate the long-term orthodontic tooth movement and accurately determine the force system in the course of time by incorporating contact boundary conditions into finite element analysis. It was also suggested that friction is progressively increased during space closure in sliding mechanics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Hip Hop Voices in the era of Mass Incarceration: An examination of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...

  1. Laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometer for isotope mass detection and elemental analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Ahmed, Rizwan; Umar, Z. A.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the construction and modification of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer to improve its mass resolution. This system consists of a laser ablation/ionization section based on a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 500 mJ, 5 ns pulse duration) integrated with a one meter linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with an electric sector and a magnetic lens and outfitted with a channeltron electron multiplier for ion detection. The resolution of the system has been improved by optimizing the accelerating potential and inserting a magnetic lens after the extraction region. The isotopes of lithium, lead and cadmium samples have been resolved and detected in accordance with their natural abundance. The capability of the system has been further exploited to determine the elemental composition of a brass alloy, having a certified composition of zinc and copper. Our results are in excellent agreement with its certified composition. This setup is found to be extremely efficient and convenient for fast analyses of any solid sample.

  2. Alteration of glacigenic landforms by gravitational mass movements, Ragnarbreen and Ebbabreen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Pleskot, Krzysztof; Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The extensive recession of Svalbard's glaciers exposed areas containing large amount of dead-ice covered by relatively thin - usually less than a couple of meters - veneer of debris. This landscape can be very dynamic, mainly due to the mass movement processes and dead-ice melting. Continuous redistribution of sediments causes several phases of debris transfer and relief inversion. Hence, the primary glacial deposits released from ice are subsequently transferred by mass movement processes, until they finally reach more stable position. Investigations of dynamics of the mass movement and the way in which they alter the property of glacigenic sediments are therefore cruicial for proper understanding of sedimentary records of previous glaciations. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify short-term dynamic of mass wasting processes; (2) investigate the transformation of the sediment's characteristic by mass wasting processes; (3) asses the contribution of different process to the overall dynamic of proglacial landscape. We focused on the mass-wasting processes in the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden, Spitsbergen. Repetitive topographic scanning was combined with sedimentological analysis of: grain size, clast shape in macro and micro scale and thin sections. Debris falls, slides, rolls and flows were the most important processes leading to reworking of glacigenic sediments and altering their properties. Contribution of different processes to the overall dynamic of the landforms was related mainly to the local conditions. Four different morphological types of sites were identified: (1) near vertical ice-cliffs covered with debris, transformed mainly due to dead-ice backwasting and debris falls and slides, (2) steep debris slopes with exposed ice-cores dominated by debris slides, (3) gentle sediment-mantled slopes transformed due to debris flows, and (4) non

  3. SUBMARINE MASS MOVEMENT AND LOCALIZED TSUNAMI POTENTIALITY OF MENTAWAI BASIN, SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Permana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The new bathymetry and seismic data were acquired during the PreTI-Gap marine survey (February 15 to March 6, 2008. The survey was carried out along the NE margin of Mentawai Island using multi-beam swath bathymetry equipment, and 28-channels seismic streamer and four-airgun source. The first target was the Mega Island region near the epicenter of the 2007 great earthquake. The shallow bathymetry is characterized as a flat coral platform suggesting that 200 km elongated plateau is slowly subsiding without any active faults. Further north, from South Pagai to North of Siberut Islands, the seafloor morphology changes significantly. The deep and wide canyons or valleys produce very rough seafloor morphology between 50 and 1100 m water depth. In general, the submarine topography shows two break slopes at different depths. Between slope breaks, the undulating, hilly and circular features dominate, possibly caused by mass movement. A push-up ridge is observed that dams the sediments eroded within a steep slope northeastward side. The seismic reflection data acquired along 14 dip seismic lines at the NE flank of Mentawai Islands, from Siberut to the South of Pagai Islands. We observed a set of southwestward dipping back thrust bounding the NE margin of the Mentawai Island and the push-up ridge observed on bathymetric image, which suggest that Mentawai fault is not pure a strike slip fault, but consists of a set of back thrusts. Such kind of back thrust movement at the flank of Mentawai basin can trigger mass movement or landslide that can produce localized tsunami causing damages to Sumatera mainland such as Padang, Painan or northern Bengkulu provinces and Mentawai Islands. Therefore, it is important to re-design the tsunami warning system, especially in this region, in order to mitigate tsunami risk to coastal region of western Sumatera.

  4. Kinematics of a mass movement constrained by sparse and inhomogeneous data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karbon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On 12 February 2008, a landslide occurred along a 50 m high bank of the Danube river near Dunaszekcsö, Hungary. The initial state is only incompletely documented and the geodetic data acquired after the mass movement are sparse. A generalized 3-D topographic model of the landslide and its surrounding area was assembled and a representative longitudinal profile extracted. The reconstruction of the original surface is based on an orthophoto as well as on morphological considerations. Recorded observations include the locations of the outcrops of basal sliding surfaces, displacements at the main scarp and in the lower part of the slide, and a value to describe the total mass transport. Such sparse and inhomogeneous data were insufficient to derive a comprehensive documentation of the landslide or obtain adequate constraints for an accurate numerical analysis. Therefore, slider block models were fitted to the field data, which have only a small number of free parameters. A general view on the morphology of the mass movement justifies its classification as a rotational slide. A double slider block model fits all observational parameters within their error margin and supplies valuable information on the geometry of the slide. Estimates of the residual friction angles were derived and the question of reactivation was addressed. Finite Difference (FD modelling and the application of conventional stability analysis support the geometry of the slider blocks and the computed average residual friction angles. Generally, the results are assumed to represent preliminary information, which could only be attained by the combination of the thinly distributed geodetic data with qualitative morphological observations and the implementation of a model. This type of information can be gained quickly and may be valuable for preliminary hazard mitigation measures or the planning of a comprehensive exploration and monitoring program.

  5. Evaluation of the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise by postural orientation movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Litvinenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Examine the kinematic structure of indicators key elements of sports equipment exercise (difficult to coordinate. The method of postural orientation movements. Material : The study involved acrobats jumpers on the path of high qualification (n = 7. The method used video - computer recording the movements of the athlete. Results : Identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck. Exercise performed after rondat and double back flip and stretch after rondat - flick (coup ago. In the preparatory phase of motor actions acrobatic exercises isolated and studied central element of sports equipment - starting posture of the body; in the phase of the main motor action - animation poses of the body; in the final phase - the final body posture (stable landing. Conclusions : The method of video - computer registration allowed to perform a biomechanical analysis and evaluation of key elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and a double back flip and stretch. Also gain new knowledge about the mechanism of the phase structure of movements when performing double somersaults.

  6. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  7. FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF “GEZI” : TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE AND POSSIBLE EFFECTS IN THE MASS MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trauma refers an distinct experience with excessive stressful and destructive characteristics. According to criteari of diagnose in DSM-III (1980, traumatic events create death or threat of death, serious injury, threat to pyhsical integrity as well as feeling of intense fear, horror and helplessness. Many of individuals with traumatic events is not develop Post Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD. Only 5 to 25 percent of individuals exposured to traumatic experiences develops PTSD. In this context, it may be concluded that traumatic event can not be cause of PTSD itself. However, the type of traumatic event, in terms of context, appears to be a significant factor. The present study aims to provide the impacts on mental health of traumatic event in terms of “Gezi Activity” which is an example of mass movements. Thus, it was interwieved with 11 participants who involved in “Gezi Activity” by using semi-structured interwiev. In this context, a semi-structured interwiev form was created related to determine the political participation, the motivation to be involved in the “Gezi” process, the traumatic exposure in the process, and the effects on mental health of individuals. 2 of 11 participants to the research are individuals who injured in the process of “Gezi” and have received inpatient treatment for a while. The data has been established by making qualitative research, was evaluated by content analysis. The findings were that the majority of the participants answered in the direction of “yes” to questions related to political participant, the traumatic exposure and emotions (fear, horror and helplessness. However small of the participants answered in the direction of “yes” to questions of post traumatic re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal. To sum up the findings, while the participants expressed traumatic exposure and emotions in the process of “Gezi”, they reported that they did not experience post trauma re

  8. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...... site is located approximately 2 km NW of the topographic summit; the surface velocity at the GISP 2 site is 1.7 m/yr in the W direction. The present mass balance at Summit is calculated to be -0.03+/-0.04 m/yr, i.e. close to steady state. This result is the best now available for Summit. A small...... thinning rate might be a transient response of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to the temperature increase at the Wisconsin-Holocene transition....

  9. Analysis of kinematic movement characteristics of the common center of athlete's body mass while performing the crouch start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Shesterova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the basic conditions for minimizing the cost of effort to accelerate the movement speed of the common center of athlete's body mass in the specified direction of his movement. Material & Methods: the study used video footage for short distances of the world's leading sprinters and athletes of various qualifications. To solve the problems, we used: a method for estimating the angles between biosigns and storyboard video, method of analogies, method of the theory of similarity and dimension, the method of computer modeling, statistical analysis, estimation of physical stress and strength impulse using the method of estimating the interdependence of the developed effort on the angle of expansion between the corresponding biokinematic links. Results: it sets the basic position kinematics movement common center of the athlete's body mass (CCM, which improves the efficiency of performance crouch start. The results of the dynamics of the movement of a common force vector are presented, which determines the direction of movement of the body's CCM in three-dimensional space, ensuring its movement along the center line of the run are presented. On the basis of the observed dynamics of the change in the direction of the resultant force vector, when a crouch start is performed, it is established that the trajectory of its movement is a helicoid. Conclusion: movement of the common center of body mass is carried out along the helicoid with subsequent reduction of its radius. Changes in the length of the helix forming the radius are systematic and reflect the energy efficiency of the running costs. The dynamics of the helicoidal movement of the generating vector is observed in each supporting phase of the running step, which makes it possible to assess the stability of the dynamic stereotype manifestation of the running step, and to judge by these indicators about the degree of athlete fatigue at the distance.

  10. Finite element analysis of the effect of force directions on tooth movement in extraction space closure with miniscrew sliding mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yukio; Kawamura, Jun; Fukui, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    Miniscrews placed in bone have been used as orthodontic anchorage in extraction space closure with sliding mechanics. The movement patterns of the teeth depend on the force directions. To move the teeth in a desired pattern, the appropriate direction of force must be selected. The purpose of this article is to clarify the relationship between force directions and movement patterns. By using the finite element method, orthodontic movements were simulated based on the remodeling law of the alveolar bone. The power arm length and the miniscrew position were varied to change the force directions. When the power arm was lengthened, rotation of the entire maxillary dentition decreased. The posterior teeth were effective for preventing rotation of the anterior teeth through an archwire. In cases of a high position of a miniscrew, bodily tooth movement was almost achieved. The vertical component of the force produced intrusion or extrusion of the entire dentition. Within the limits of the method, the mechanical simulations demonstrated the effect of force direction on movement patterns. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Badass gullies: Fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes in New Zealand's East Coast region, and potential for remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Michael; Fuller, Ian C.; Herzig, Alexander; Betts, Harley D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews gully erosion in the East Coast region of New Zealand's North Island and conceptualises fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes as badass gully systems. Tectonic setting and lithological control, with steep slopes and a climate influenced by tropical cyclones, predispose hill country in the East Coast region to gully erosion. The clearance of indigenous forest since the late 1800s has dramatically increased catchment erosion and paved the way for development of large-scale fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes. These features are a composite of fluvial and mass movement processes. They are conceptualised as 'badass' by not conforming to any existing gully model and by generating disproportionate results in East Coast catchment sediment cascades. Their remediation is discussed, but their nature means that prevention is better than a cure.

  12. Tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F

    2014-11-01

    The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. HEAVY-ELEMENT ENRICHMENT OF A JUPITER-MASS PROTOPLANET AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL LOCATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helled, R.; Schubert, G.

    2009-01-01

    One possible mechanism for giant planet formation is disk instability in which the planet is formed as a result of gravitational instability in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star. The final composition and core mass of the planet will depend on the planet's mass, environment, and the planetesimal accretion efficiency. We calculate heavy-element enrichment in a Jupiter-mass protoplanet formed by disk instability at various radial distances from the star, considering different disk masses and surface density distributions. Although the available mass for accretion increases with radial distance (a) for disk solid surface density (σ) functions σ = σ 0 a -α with α 5 years of planetary evolution, when the planet is extended and before gap opening and type II migration take place. The accreted mass is calculated for disk masses of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 M sun with α = 1/2, 1, and 3/2. We show that a Jupiter-mass protoplanet can accrete 1-110 M + of heavy elements, depending on the disk properties. Due to the limitation on the accretion timescale, our results provide lower bounds on heavy-element enrichment. Our results can explain the large variation in heavy-element enrichment found in extrasolar giant planets. Since higher disk surface density is found to lead to larger heavy-element enrichment, our model results are consistent with the correlation between heavy-element enrichment and stellar metallicity. Our calculations also suggest that Jupiter could have formed at a larger radial distance than its current location while still accreting the mass of heavy elements predicted by interior models. We conclude that in the disk instability model the final composition of a giant planet is strongly determined by its formation environment. The heavy-element abundance of a giant planet does not discriminate between its origin by either disk instability or core accretion.

  14. Maxillary anterior en masse retraction using different antero-posterior position of mini screw: a 3D finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, mini screws are used in orthodontic tooth movement to obtain maximum or absolute anchorage. They have gained popularity among orthodontists for en masse retraction of anterior teeth after first premolar extraction in maximum anchorage cases. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of anterior tooth movement during the time when force was applied from different mini screw placements to the anterior power arm with various heights. Methods A finite element method was used for modeling maxillary teeth and bone structure. Brackets, wire, and hooks were also designed for modeling. Two appropriate positions for mini screw in the mesial and distal of the second premolar were designed as fixed nodes. Forces were applied from the mini screw to four different levels of anterior hook height: 0, 3, 6, and 9 mm. Initial tooth movement in eight different conditions was analyzed and calculated with ANSYS software. Results Rotation of anterior dentition was decreased with a longer anterior power arm and the mesial placement of the mini screw. Bodily movements occurred with the 9-mm height of the power arm in both mini screw positions. Intrusion or extrusion of the anterior teeth segment depended on the level of the mini screw and the edge of the power arm on the Z axis. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the best control in the sagittal plane during anterior en masse retraction was achieved by mesial placement of the mini screw and the 9-mm height of the anterior power arm. Where control in the vertical plane was concerned, distal placement of the mini screw with the 6-mm power arm height had minimum adverse effect on anterior dentition.

  15. Quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ure, A.M.; Bacon, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental details are given of the quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry. The effects of interfering species, and corrections that can be applied, are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomić, Sergej [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Čolić, Miodrag [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Medical Faculty, University of Niš, Boulevard of Dr. Zoran Djindjić 81, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Beran, Alfred [Dipartimento di Oceanografia Biologica, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10{sup −12} g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  17. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogrinc, Nina; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Tomić, Sergej; Čolić, Miodrag; Beran, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10 −12 g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created

  18. FEHM, Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; and double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities. 2 - Methods: FEHM uses a preconditioned conjugate gradient solution of coupled linear equations and a fully implicit, fully coupled Newton Raphson solution of nonlinear equations. It has the capability of simulating transport using either a advection/diffusion solution or a particle tracking method. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: Disk space and machine memory are the only limitations

  19. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  20. Multi-elemental determination of trace elements in deep seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Takashi; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Tao, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    A miniaturized column (ca. 3 mm i.d., 40 mm length), packed with a chelating resin (0.2 g) with iminodiacetic acid groups (Muromac A-1), was tested for the preconcentration of trace elements in seawater. After preconcentration, the column was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and water to remove the major elements, such as Ca and Mg, and was then eluted with 4 ml of 2 mol l -1 nitric acid. Twenty-six trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The necessary volume of the seawater sample was only 200 ml. The recoveries for most of the elements tested were over 90%, although those for Al, V and Th were around 70%. The trueness and precision were evaluated by analyzing a standard reference material of seawater (NASS-4, NRC Canada). The observed values obtained with the present method showed good agreement with the certified values. The present method was also applied to deep seawater samples collected at Muroto, Japan. A difference in the rare earth element pattern, especially the Ce anomaly, between the deep seawater sample and the surface seawater sample was observed, as well as the differences of the concentrations of many trace elements. (author)

  1. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  2. Multi-scale mass movements: example of the Nile deep-sea fan (NDSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, L.; Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.; Gaullier, V.; Mascle, J.; Migeon, S.

    2003-04-01

    , sedimentary overloading, sea-level fluctations, or fluids) and scales of the identified destabilizations, the NDSF appears as an excellent natural laboratory to study mass movement processes.

  3. Near shore seismic movements induced by seaquakes using the boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Carbajal-Romero; Norberto Flores-Guzmán; J.Efraín Rodríguez-Sánchez; Andriy Kryvko

    2017-01-01

    This study quantifies seismic amplifications in near-shore arising from seaquakes.Within the Boundary Element Method,boundary elements are used to irradiate waves and force densities obtained for each element.Huygens Principle is implemented since the diffracted waves are constructed at the boundary from which they are radiated,which is equivalent to Somigliana's theorem.Application of boundary conditions leads to a system of integral equations of the Fredholm type of second kind and zero order.Several numerical configurations are analyzed:The first is used to verify the present formulation with ideal sea floor configurations to estimate seismic amplifications.With the formulation verified,simple slope configurations are studied to estimate spectra of seismic motions.It is found that P-waves can produce seismic amplifications from 1.2 to 3.9 times the amplitude of the incident wave.SV-waves can generate seismic amplifications up to 4.5 times the incident wave.Another relevant finding is that the highest amplifications are at the shore compared to the ones at the sea floor.

  4. Finite element simulation of moisture movement and solute transport in a large caisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyakorn, P.S.; Jones, B.G.; Parker, J.C.; Wadsworth, T.D.; White, H.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the solute transport experiments performed on compacted, crushed Bandelier Tuff in caisson B of the experimental cluster described by DePoorter (1981) are simulated. Both one- and three-dimensional simulations of solute transport have been performed using two selected finite element codes. Results of bromide and iodide tracer experiments conducted during near-steady flow conditions have been analyzed for pulse additions made on December 6, 1984, and followed over a period of up to 60 days. In addition, a pulse addition of nonconservative strontium tracer on September 28, 1984, during questionably steady flow conditions has been analyzed over a period of 240 days. One-dimensional finite element flow and transport simulations were carried out assuming the porous medium to be homogeneous and the injection source uniformly distributed. To evaluate effects of the nonuniform source distribution and also to investigate effects of inhomogeneous porous medium properties, three dimensional finite element analyses of transport were carried out. Implications of the three-dimensional effects for the design and analysis of future tracer studies are discussed

  5. The two-mass contribution to the three-loop pure singlet operator matrix element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Schoenwald, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We present the two-mass QCD contributions to the pure singlet operator matrix element at three loop order in x-space. These terms are relevant for calculating the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at O(α{sup 3}{sub s}) as well as for the matching relations in the variable flavor number scheme and the heavy quark distribution functions at the same order. The result for the operator matrix element is given in terms of generalized iterated integrals that include square root letters in the alphabet, depending also on the mass ratio through the main argument. Numerical results are presented.

  6. Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smolík

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Berner low pressure impactor was used to collect size-segregated aerosol samples at Finokalia, located on the north-eastern coast of Crete, Greece during July 2000 and January 2001. Several samples were also collected during the summer campaign aboard the research vessel "AEGAIEO" in the Aegean Sea. Gravimetric analysis and inversion techniques yielded daily PM1 and PM10 mass concentrations. The samples were also analysed by PIXE giving the elemental size distributions of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, S, Cl, Ni, V, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb. The crustal elements and sea-salt had a unimodal supermicron size distribution. Sulphur was found predominantly in submicron fractions. K, V, and Ni exhibited a bimodal distribution with a submicron mode produced by forest fires and oil combustion. The anthropogenic elements had broad and not well-defined distributions. The time series for PM1 and PM10 mass and elemental concentrations showed both daily and seasonal variation. Higher mass concentrations were observed during two incursions of Saharan dust, whilst higher concentrations of S, Cu, Zn, and Pb were encountered in samples collected in air masses arriving from northern Greece or the western coast of Turkey. Elevated concentrations of chlorine were found in samples with air masses either originating above the Atlantic Ocean and arriving at Finokalia via western Europe or recirculating over the western coast of the Black Sea.

  7. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); IHES, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-05-15

    Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η=m{sup 2}{sub c}/m{sup 2}{sub b}∝1/10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived earlier (I. Bierenbaum, J: Bluemlein, S. Klein, 2009). We present the moments N=2,4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element A{sup (3)}{sub gq}. We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element A{sub gg}. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  8. Nucleon scalar matrix elements with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate scalar matrix elements of the nucleon using N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions at a fixed value of the lattice spacing of a{approx}0.078 fm. We compute disconnected contributions to the relevant three-point functions using an efficient noise reduction technique. Using these methods together with an only multiplicative renormalization applicable for twisted mass fermions, allows us to obtain accurate results in the light and strange sector. (orig.)

  9. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ablinger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η=mc2/mb2∼1/10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived in [1]. We present the moments N=2,4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element Agq(3. We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element Agg. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  10. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  11. A mass and energy conserving spectral element atmospheric dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M A; Edwards, J; Thomas, S; Nair, R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a conservative formulation of the spectral element method applied to global atmospheric circulation modeling. Exact local conservation of both mass and energy is obtained via a new compatible formulation of the spectral element method. Compatibility insures that the key integral property of the divergence and gradient operators required to show conservation also hold in discrete form. The spectral element method is used on a cubed-sphere grid to discretize the horizontal directions on the sphere. It can be coupled to any conservative vertical/radial discretization. The accuracy and conservation properties of the method are illustrated using a baroclinic instability test case

  12. Soil moisture retention and mass movement of volcanic soils from the “Sabinas” sector in Caldas, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    William Chavarriaga Montoya; Josè Gabriel Cruz Cerón; Johan Cuervo Correa

    2017-01-01

    The mass movement of soils, are soil, rocks displacements or both, caused by soil water excesses in terrains due to gravity effects and other factors. The aim of this research was to quantify the moisture retention capacity of volcanic soils as a threat indicator in the mass removal phenomena. This research was carried out on soils of the Malteria - Las Margaritas road transept to Magdalena river, right bank of the Chinchiná river in the Department of Caldas, Colombia. Through soil sample des...

  13. Mass Movement Hazards in the Mediterranean; A review on applied techniques and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziade, R.; Abdallah, C.; Baghdadi, N.

    2012-04-01

    Emergent population and expansions of settlements and life-lines over hazardous areas in the Mediterranean region have largely increased the impact of Mass Movements (MM) both in industrialized and developing countries. This trend is expected to continue in the next decades due to increased urbanization and development, continued deforestation and increased regional precipitation in MM-prone areas due to changing climatic patterns. Consequently, and over the past few years, monitoring of MM has acquired great importance from the scientific community as well as the civilian one. This article begins with a discussion of the MM classification, and the different topographic, geologic, hydrologic and environmental impacting factors. The intrinsic (preconditioning) variables determine the susceptibility of MM and extrinsic factors (triggering) can induce the probability of MM occurrence. The evolution of slope instability studies is charted from geodetic or observational techniques, to geotechnical field-based origins to recent higher levels of data acquisition through Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Since MM detection and zoning is difficult in remote areas, RS and GIS have enabled regional studies to predominate over site-based ones where they provide multi-temporal images hence facilitate greatly MM monitoring. The unusual extent of the spectrum of MM makes it difficult to define a single methodology to establish MM hazard. Since the probability of occurrence of MM is one of the key components in making rational decisions for management of MM risk, scientists and engineers have developed physical parameters, equations and environmental process models that can be used as assessment tools for management, education, planning and legislative purposes. Assessment of MM is attained through various modeling approaches mainly divided into three main sections: quantitative/Heuristic (1:2.000-1:10.000), semi-quantitative/Statistical (1

  14. A systematic review of the health impacts of mass Earth movements (landslides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-04-30

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as 'landslides') are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of 'disaster' chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides. Mental

  15. Stiffness and Mass Matrices of FEM-Applicable Dynamic Infinite Element with Unified Shape Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the construction and evaluation of mass and stiffness matrices of elastodynamic four and five node infinite elements with unified shape functions (EIEUSF), recently proposed by the author. Such elements can be treated as a family of elastodynamic infinite elements appropriate for multi-wave soil-structure interaction problems. The common characteristic of the proposed infinite elements is the so-called unified shape function, based on finite number of wave shape functions. The idea and the construction of the unified shape basis are described in brief. This element belongs to the decay class of infinite elements. It is shown that by appropriate mapping functions the formulation of such an element can be easily transformed to a mapped form. The results obtained using the proposed infinite elements are in a good agreement with the superposed results obtained by a series of standard computational models. The continuity along the finite/infinite element line (artificial boundary) in two-dimensional substructure models is also discussed in brief. In this type of computational models such a line marks the artificial boundary between the near and the far field of the model.

  16. Elemental signatures in otoliths of hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Distinctiveness and utility fo detecting origins and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Reinemer, D. K.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.; Winkelman, D.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Otolith chemistry in freshwater has considerable potential to reveal patterns of origin and movement, which would benefit traditional fisheries management and provide a valuable tool to curb the spread of invasive and illicitly stocked species. We evaluated the relationship between otolith and water chemistry for five markers (Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/ Ca, Zn/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the existing hatchery system in Colorado and Wyoming, USA, to provide controlled, seminatural conditions. Otolith Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr reflected ambient levels, whereas Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca did not. Using only the markers correlated with water chemistry, we classified fish to their hatchery of origin with up to 96% accuracy when element and isotope data were used together. Large changes in 87Sr/Sr were evident in otolith transects, although subtler changes in Sr/Ca were also detectable. Our results suggest the relatively few otolith markers that reflect ambient chemistry can discriminate among locations and track movements well enough to provide valuable insight in a variety of applied contexts.

  17. ISMAS international discussion meet on elemental mass spectrometry in health and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Telmore, V.M.

    2011-04-01

    Mass spectrometry is an indispensable analytical tool associated with almost all branches of science including biology, chemistry, earth sciences, nuclear science, physics, etc. The technique holds tremendous potential owing to its high sensitivity, selectivity and its ability to measure small changes in the isotopic abundances of different elements. Innovations in mass spectrometry instrumentation are further widening the scope by making it possible to handle very large bio-molecules and polymers. New techniques for mass analysis, novel designs for ionization and developments in electronic accessories have contributed to elevate mass spectrometry to a position of prime importance in research. Development in mass spectrometry has revolutionized the study of micro-nutrient metabolism, of biologically active compounds and for drug discovery in pharmaceutical research. Elemental mass spectrometry is making major contributions to food toxicology, food forensics, and study of metabolism of nutrient minerals including Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu and Se. The area of speciation analysis using hyphenated techniques as well as electro-spray ionization have undergone a phenomenal evolution and development in the recent past. Impressive progress in mass spectrometry towards lower detection limits, higher resolution and molecule-specific detection at trace levels in complex matrices allows new frontiers to be crossed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Recent developments for high-precision mass measurements of the heaviest elements at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Ackermann, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Droese, C.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Herfurth, F.; Heßberger, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct high-precision mass measurements of No and Lr isotopes performed. • High-precision mass measurements with a count rate of 1 ion/hour demonstrated. • The results provide anchor points for a large region connected by alpha-decay chains. • The binding energies determine the strength of the deformed shell closure N = 152. • Technical developments and new techniques will pave the way towards heavier elements. -- Abstract: Atomic nuclei far from stability continue to challenge our understanding. For example, theoretical models have predicted an “island of stability” in the region of the superheavy elements due to the closure of spherical proton and neutron shells. Depending on the model, these are expected at Z = 114, 120 or even 126 and N = 172 or 184. Valuable information on the road to the island of stability is derived from high-precision mass measurements, which give direct access to binding energies of short-lived trans-uranium nuclei. Recently, direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP have been extended to nobelium and lawrencium isotopes around the deformed shell gap N = 152. In order to further extend mass measurements to the region of superheavy elements, new technical developments are required to increase the performance of our setup. The sensitivity will increase through the implementation of a new detection method, where observation of one single ion is sufficient. Together with the use of a more efficient gas stopping cell, this will us allow to significantly enhance the overall efficiency of SHIPTRAP

  19. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  20. Gravity-dependent estimates of object mass underlie the generation of motor commands for horizontal limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2014-07-15

    Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Controlled Dissolution of Surface Layers for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorge, Susan Elizabeth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Determining the composition of thin layers is increasingly important for a variety of industrial materials such as adhesives, coatings and microelectronics. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are some of the techniques that are currently employed for the direct analysis of the sample surface. Although these techniques do not suffer from the contamination problems that often plague sample dissolution studies, they do require matrix matched standards for quantification. Often, these standards are not readily available. Despite the costs of clean hoods, Teflon pipette tips and bottles, and pure acids, partial sample dissolution is the primary method used in the semiconductor industry to quantify surface impurities. Specifically, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) coupled to ICP-MS or total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides elemental information from the top most surface layers at detection sensitivities in the 107-1010atoms/cm2 range. The ability to quantify with standard solutions is a main advantage of these techniques. Li and Houk applied a VPD-like technique to steel. The signal ratio of trace element to matrix element was used for quantification. Although controlled dissolution concentrations determined for some of the dissolved elements agreed with the certified values, concentrations determined for refractory elements (Ti, Nb and Ta) were too low. LA-ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements indicated that carbide grains distributed throughout the matrix were high in these refractory elements. These elements dissolved at a slower rate than the matrix element, Fe. If the analyte element is not removed at a rate similar to the matrix element a true

  2. [Study on the determination of 14 inorganic elements in coffee by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xi-Du; Fu, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Samples of coffee were digested by microwave digestion, and inorganic elements amounts of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.84% for all the elements, and the recovery was found to be 92.00% -106.52% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of coffee, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements of coffee.

  3. Development of filter element from nanocomposites of ultra high molar mass polyethylene having silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzo, Maurizio A.; Wang, S. Hui

    2015-01-01

    The production of polymer based filter elements for water is widespread in the market but has an undesirable characteristic, they are not always efficient and capable of retaining or eliminating microorganisms. This paper proposes the production of filters with biocidal activity, comprised by nanocomposites of ultra-high molar mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) containing silver nanoparticles. The polymer is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filter element and the Ag nanoparticles for its biocidal action. The filter elements were produced from two kinds of UHMMPE particles with different particle size distributions, one in the range of 150 to 200μm and the other of 300 to 400μm. Samples were collected from the obtained filter elements and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. The results indicated the formation of nanocomposite containing silver nanoparticles. (author)

  4. Mass movements of lowland areas in long range TLS and ALS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The development of geodynamic processes in lowland areas remains an interesting issue for geomorphology and geology as well as civil engineering. Landslides, slumps, slope washes, rills and gully erosion are considered both geomorphological processes and natural hazards. In order to know precisely their origin and development, it is crucial to determine the rate and direction of their change. Previously such studies used geodesy and photogrammetry but the recent progress in the LiDAR technology allows collecting the data in a wider range and comparable or higher precision than most of geodetic methods. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is also a good tool, but high costs and low frequency of the surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of the studied phenomena and processes. Nevertheless, this method enables gathering information from large areas, which is useful for the preliminary identification of the research issues and nomination of the areas for subsequent case studies. It is, however, more common to use Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for the detailed studies of morphology and its change. This method provides mobility and high accuracy, and enables frequent measurements. The problem in the analysis of many geoprocesses lies in the limited range of this method. This study concerns the Lower Vistula Valley located in northern Poland. It presents the results of measurements of landslides located in the escarpment zone of a big river valley. The object of the studies is mass movements developing within the quaternary deposits on the valley slopes. These processes were monitored in previous years with the traditional survey methods, mainly based on the geodesy field observations (benchmark) as well as the analyses of historical maps and archives. The ALS method used during the study enabled gathering the data on the valley with the density of 8 points per sq m, which provided the background for the consecutive monitoring study. In the surveys a terrestrial

  5. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event

  6. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The variation with age of the mass fraction of 37 chemical elements in intact nonhyperplastic prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short- and long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fractions (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis) of the chemical elements studied were: Ag—0.055±0.007, Br—33.2±3.3, Ca—2150±118, Cl—13014±703, Co—0.038±0.003, Cr—0.47±0.05, Fe—99.3±6.1, Hg—0.044±0.006, K—11896±356, Mg—1149±68, Mn—1.41±0.07, Na—10886±339, Rb—12.3±0.6, Sb—0.049±0.005, Sc—0.021±0.003, Se—0.65±0.03, and Zn—795±71. The mass fraction of other chemical elements measured in this study were lower than the corresponding detection limits (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis): As<0.1, Au<0.01, Ba<100, Cd<2, Ce<0.1, Cs<0.05, Eu<0.001, Gd<0.02, Hf<0.2, La<0.5, Lu<0.003, Nd<0.1, Sm<0.01, Sr<3, Ta<0.01, Tb<0.03, Th<0.05, U<0.07, Yb<0.03, and Zr<0.3. This work revealed that there is a significant trend for increase with age in mass fractions of Co (p<0.0085), Fe (p<0.037), Hg (p<0.035), Sc (p<0.015), and Zn (p<0.0014) and for a decrease in the mass fraction of Mn (p<0.018) in prostates, obtained from young adult up to about 60 years, with age. In the nonhyperplastic prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of mass fractions of all chemical element were maintained at near constant levels. Our finding of correlation between the prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great variation of chemical element relationships with age. - Highlights: • 37 trace elements were determined in prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males by NAA. • Co, Fe, Hg, Sc, and Zn contents significantly increase with age. • Mn content significantly decreases with age. • All elemental contents in the sixth to ninth decades are near constant level. • There is a great disturbance of chemical element

  7. Uniform elemental analysis of materials by sputtering and photoionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, He; Basler, J.N.; Becker, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the elemental composition of surfaces commonly involves techniques in which atoms or ions are ablated from the material's surface and detected by mass spectrometry. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry is widely used for detection with high sensitivity (down to a few parts per billion) but technical problems prevent it from being truly quantitative. Some of these problems are circumvented by nonresonant laser post-ionization of sputtered atoms followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (surface analysis by laser ionization: SALI). But when there are large differences in ionization probabilities amongst different elements in the material, the detection sensitivity can be non-uniform and accurate quantification remains out of reach. Here we report that highly uniform, quantitative and sensitive analysis of materials can be achieved using a high-energy (5-keV) ion beam for sputtering coupled with a very-high-intensity laser to induce multiphoton ionization of the sputtered atoms. We show uniform elemental sensitivity for several samples containing elements with very different ionization potentials, suggesting that this approach can now be regarded as quantitative for essentially any material. (author)

  8. The Effect of Branding on the Success or Failure of Nonviolent Mass Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Bonnaroo (an annual music - arts festival and campout) than a protest. He also noted that successful movements are not just a bunch of people camping out... music ,” and “public assemblies.”43 Helvey broke the communications techniques down into symbols, slogans, music , print media, audio-visual, and...activists. The movement’s campsite came to be seen more like a strange festival than a political organization. With this unintended branding, both the

  9. Slow movement resistance training using body weight improves muscle mass in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Determination of isotope ratio of elements by mass distribution in molecules of varied chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, I.S.; Babichev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure and program for calculation of isotope ratio of elements involving in the compound being studied using data of mass spectrometry were elaborated. The methods developed for the O 2 , SiH 4 , Cd(CH 3 ) 2 molecules were demonstrated for the illustration. The results of calculation provide support for the efficiency of the program and satisfactory reliability of the results during calculation of the isotope and complex compound concentrations. The program may be used for the estimation of the degree of nonequilibrium isotope distributions, it may indicate on the errors of the mass spectroscopy results [ru

  11. Levels of Essential Elements in Different Medicinal Plants Determined by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid I. Brima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the content of essential elements in medicinal plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Five different medical plants (mahareeb (Cymbopogon schoenanthus, sheeh (Artemisia vulgaris, harjal (Cynanchum argel delile, nabipoot (Equisetum arvense, and cafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus were collected from Madina city in the KSA. Five elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe levels were the highest and Se levels were the lowest in all plants. The range levels of all elements in all plants were as follows: Fe 193.4–1757.9, Mn 23.6–143.7, Zn 15.4–32.7, Se 0.13–0.92, and Cu 11.3–21.8 µg/g. Intakes of essential elements from the medical plants in infusion were calculated: Fe 4.6–13.4, Mn 6.7–123.2, Zn 7.0–42.7, Se 0.14–1.5, and Cu 1.5–5.0 µg/dose. The calculated intakes of essential elements for all plants did not exceed the daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. These medicinal plants may be useful sources of essential elements, which are vital for health.

  12. The element analysis of high purity beryllium by method of laser mass-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virich, V.D.; Kisel', O.V.; Kovtun, K.V.; Pugachev, N.S.; Yakobson, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The operation is devoted to examination of a possibility of the analysis of element composition pure and high purity model of a beryllium is model by a method of laser mass spectrometry. The advantages of a method in a part of finding of a small amount of admixtures in comparison with other modes of the analysis are exhibited. The possibility of quantitative definition of a content in beryllium samples of gas-making admixtures-C,N,O surveyed

  13. The measurements of critical mass with uranium fuel elements and thorium rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiquan; Chen Zhicheng; Yao Zewu; Ji Huaxiang; Bao Borong; Zhang Jiahua

    1991-01-01

    The critical experiments with uranium elements and Thorium rods have been performed in zero power reactor at Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. The critical masses have been measured in various U/Th ratios. The fuels are 3% 235 U-enriched uranium. The Thorium rods are made from power of ThF 4 . Ratios of calculated values to experimental values are nearly constant at 0.995

  14. Long-lived heavy mass elements half-lives (A > 125)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Reported values of half-lives of intermediate mass and heavy elements are evaluated. The evaluation analysis estimates the systematic error the resulting standard deviation. Recommended values are then presented for 128 Te, 130 Te, 129 I, 138 La, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, /sup 146,147,148/Sm, 152 Gd, 154 Dy, 176 Lu, 174 Hf, 180 Ta, 187 Re, 186 Os, 190 Pt, /sup 204,205/Pb, and /sup 230,232/Th. 103 refs., 21 tabs

  15. Analysis of trace elements by means of accelerator secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of material composition and trace element concentration is of increasing interest primarily in semiconductor technology but also in metallurgy, geology, biology and medicine. At present, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is in many respects the best technique to provide 3-dimensional information on the distribution of trace elements with concentrations below 1 ppm. However, due to the presence of molecular ions the detectability of many trace elements it restricted because of molecular mass interferences. In addition, detectors used in SIMS have a background counting rate of 0.1-1 Hz, which further limits trace element analysis. In Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) long-lived radionuclides are detected free of molecular interferences and detector background at isotopic ratios as low as 10 -15 . Moreover, isobaric interferences can be reduced as well. In order to benefit from these advantages a combination of SIMS and AMS (Accelerator SIMS) has been proposed almost 20 years ago, but no facility has ever been fully developed. It has been the aim of this work to add a new sputtering chamber for AMS measurements of ultrapure semiconductor material to the existing PSI/ETH AMS facility. To fulfill the requirements of material analysis, an UHV chamber with special precautions against contamination has been built and adapted to the existing AMS setup. For sputtering, a commercial Cs gun with an ExB filter and a 1 o beam bend for neutral particle suppression is used to obtain a pure Cs ion beam. The gun is equipped with different apertures for varying the diameter of the beam spot. With the integrated scanning unit the 10 keV Cs beam can be rastered over approximately 1 mm 2 . This allows different applications such as bulk analysis, depth profiling and imaging. The secondary ion extraction is matched to the ion optical and geometrical requirements of the existing accelerator mass spectrometer. (author) figs., tabs., 67 refs

  16. Detection and quantification of proteins and cells by use of elemental mass spectrometry: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaowen; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2013-07-01

    Much progress has been made in identification of the proteins in proteomes, and quantification of these proteins has attracted much interest. In addition to popular tandem mass spectrometric methods based on soft ionization, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), a typical example of mass spectrometry based on hard ionization, usually used for analysis of elements, has unique advantages in absolute quantification of proteins by determination of an element with a definite stoichiometry in a protein or attached to the protein. In this Trends article, we briefly describe state-of-the-art ICPMS-based methods for quantification of proteins, emphasizing protein-labeling and element-tagging strategies developed on the basis of chemically selective reactions and/or biospecific interactions. Recent progress from protein to cell quantification by use of ICPMS is also discussed, and the possibilities and challenges of ICPMS-based protein quantification for universal, selective, or targeted quantification of proteins and cells in a biological sample are also discussed critically. We believe ICPMS-based protein quantification will become ever more important in targeted quantitative proteomics and bioanalysis in the near future.

  17. Mass spectrographic analysis of selected chemical elements by microbial leaching of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.; Bullmann, M.; Iske, U.

    1986-01-01

    Spark source mass spectrometry is a useful method for chemical element analysis of geological and biological samples. This sensitive technique (detection limit down to the ppb-range) is used to analyze leaching processes by means of several microorganisms. The problem of microbial leaching of chemical resistent materials was tested under laboratory conditions with regard to possible analytical and technical applications. Leaching of metals with chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic, organic acids producing microorganisms has been investigated with zircon from the Baltic Shield containing 0.7% rare earth elements and 1.67% hafnium. When zircon is leached with strains of thiobacillus ferrooxidans about 80% of the rare earth elements, Hf, Th and U can be recovered. (orig.) [de

  18. Determination of impurity elements in steel by spark source mass spectrometry using powdered salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Morimasa; Sudo, Emiko

    1975-01-01

    Determination of impurity elements in steel by speak source mass spectrometry using powdered salts sample electrode was studied. The instrument used in this study was an AEI MS-7 mass spectrograph and the ion detector was Ilford Q2 photograph. Sample, (0.5--1) gram, was dissolved in hydrochloric acid (1 : 1) or nitric acid (1 : 1) together with yttrium of 1 microgram as the internal standard and then the solution was evaporated to dryness without baking. The salt residues were dried at 70 0 C for 30 minutes under vacuum. They were mixed with an equal amount of graphite powder for 5 minutes in a mixer mill, and then pressed into electrodes. When the relative sensitivity coefficient (Fe=1) was determined by using NBS 460 series standard samples, the results obtained by the proposed method for elements of Mo, Sn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, V, P, Si, and B were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional method using solid sample electrodes (the solid method) and the precision of this method for 11 elements mentioned above was about 10% better than those of the solid method. However, both the accuracy and precision for elements of Nb, Ti, S and W were not good. This method was applied to the determination of impurities in NBS stainless steel and others. The relative standard deviations were within 20%. (auth.)

  19. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seyoung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  20. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials(KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  1. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  2. Coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element models for soft tissues using ABAQUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Simon, B R; Rigby, Paul H; Newberg, Tyler P

    2011-04-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) including characteristic large deformations in highly nonlinear materials (hyperelasticity and coupled diffusive/convective transport of neutral mobile species) will allow quantitative study of in vivo tissues. Such FEMs will provide basic understanding of normal and pathological tissue responses and lead to optimization of local drug delivery strategies. We present a coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element approach developed using a commercially available ABAQUS finite element software. The PHEXPT transient simulations are based on sequential solution of the porohyperelastic (PHE) and mass transport (XPT) problems where an Eulerian PHE FEM is coupled to a Lagrangian XPT FEM using a custom-written FORTRAN program. The PHEXPT theoretical background is derived in the context of porous media transport theory and extended to ABAQUS finite element formulations. The essential assumptions needed in order to use ABAQUS are clearly identified in the derivation. Representative benchmark finite element simulations are provided along with analytical solutions (when appropriate). These simulations demonstrate the differences in transient and steady state responses including finite deformations, total stress, fluid pressure, relative fluid, and mobile species flux. A detailed description of important model considerations (e.g., material property functions and jump discontinuities at material interfaces) is also presented in the context of finite deformations. The ABAQUS-based PHEXPT approach enables the use of the available ABAQUS capabilities (interactive FEM mesh generation, finite element libraries, nonlinear material laws, pre- and postprocessing, etc.). PHEXPT FEMs can be used to simulate the transport of a relatively large neutral species (negligible osmotic fluid flux) in highly deformable hydrated soft tissues and tissue-engineered materials.

  3. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass Using the Matrix Element Technique in Dilepton Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-08-18

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data were collected by the D0 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1. The matrix element technique is applied to ttbar events in the final state containing leptons (electrons or muons) with high transverse momenta and at least two jets. The calibration of the jet energy scale determined in the lepton + jets final state of ttbar decays is applied to jet energies. This correction provides a substantial reduction in systematic uncertainties. We obtain a top quark mass of mt = 173.93 +- 1.84 GeV.

  4. LiDAR for monitoring mass movements in permafrost environments at the cirque Hinteres Langtal, Austria, between 2000 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost areas receive more and more attention in terms of natural hazards in recent years due to ongoing global warming. Active rockglaciers are mixtures of debris and ice (of different origin in high-relief environments indicating permafrost conditions for a substantial period of time. Style and velocity of the downward movement of this debris-ice-mass is influenced by topoclimatic conditions. The rockglacier Hinteres Langtalkar is stage of extensive modifications in the last decade as a consequence of an extraordinary high surface movement. Terrestrial laserscanning (or LiDAR campaigns have been out once or twice per year since 2000 to monitor surface dynamics at the highly active front of the rockglacier. High resolution digital terrain models are the basis for annual and inter-annual analysis of surface elevation changes. Results show that the observed area shows predominantly positive surface elevation changes causing a consequent lifting of the surface over the entire period. Nevertheless a decreasing surface lifting of the observed area in the last three years leads to the assumption that the material transport from the upper part declines in the last years. Furthermore the rockglacier front is characterized by extensive mass wasting and partly disintegration of the rockglacier body. As indicated by the LiDAR results as well as from field evidence, this rockglacier front seems to represent a permafrost influenced landslide.

  5. Simulation of incompressible flows with heat and mass transfer using parallel finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Abedi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The stabilized finite element formulations based on the SUPG (Stream-line-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and PSPG (Pressure-Stabilization/Petrov-Galerkin methods are developed and applied to solve buoyancy-driven incompressible flows with heat and mass transfer. The SUPG stabilization term allows us to solve flow problems at high speeds (advection dominant flows and the PSPG term eliminates instabilities associated with the use of equal order interpolation functions for both pressure and velocity. The finite element formulations are implemented in parallel using MPI. In parallel computations, the finite element mesh is partitioned into contiguous subdomains using METIS, which are then assigned to individual processors. To ensure a balanced load, the number of elements assigned to each processor is approximately equal. To solve nonlinear systems in large-scale applications, we developed a matrix-free GMRES iterative solver. Here we totally eliminate a need to form any matrices, even at the element levels. To measure the accuracy of the method, we solve 2D and 3D example of natural convection flows at moderate to high Rayleigh numbers.

  6. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  7. Determination of elemental composition of metals using ambient organic mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiea, Christopher [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Chen, Yi-Lun [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-22

    Conventional inorganic mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of metals can require time-consuming and tedious sample preparation. We thus report the novel and direct characterization of metals in solid samples using an organic MS technique known as electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS). No sample pretreatment was needed, and results were rapidly obtained due to the ambient and laser-based nature of ELDI/MS. Metals from samples were desorbed and ionized by laser irradiation, after which they reacted with EDTA and then post-ionized and detected as metal-EDTA complexes. Aluminum, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc from plates, foils, and coins were characterized in seconds. This study demonstrates that an ESI/MS system can be easily modified to analyze metal elements in solids by involving a chelating agent, indicating a potentially promising development in MS towards the analysis of metals using organic MS. - Highlights: • “Organic MS” was utilized as “inorganic MS” to detect metal ions in solid samples. • Element ions desorbed by laser irradiation rapidly reacted with a chelating reagent before they were detected by MS. • Elemental composition of metals was determined by this “Organic MS” method.

  8. Determination of elemental composition of metals using ambient organic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiea, Christopher; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Chen, Yi-Lun; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-01-01

    Conventional inorganic mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of metals can require time-consuming and tedious sample preparation. We thus report the novel and direct characterization of metals in solid samples using an organic MS technique known as electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS). No sample pretreatment was needed, and results were rapidly obtained due to the ambient and laser-based nature of ELDI/MS. Metals from samples were desorbed and ionized by laser irradiation, after which they reacted with EDTA and then post-ionized and detected as metal-EDTA complexes. Aluminum, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc from plates, foils, and coins were characterized in seconds. This study demonstrates that an ESI/MS system can be easily modified to analyze metal elements in solids by involving a chelating agent, indicating a potentially promising development in MS towards the analysis of metals using organic MS. - Highlights: • “Organic MS” was utilized as “inorganic MS” to detect metal ions in solid samples. • Element ions desorbed by laser irradiation rapidly reacted with a chelating reagent before they were detected by MS. • Elemental composition of metals was determined by this “Organic MS” method.

  9. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton final state using the matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohsjean, Alexander [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The precise knowledge of its mass yields important constraints on the mass of the yet-unobserved Higgs boson and allows to probe for physics beyond the Standard Model. The first measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel with the Matrix Element method at the D0 experiment is presented. After a short description of the experimental environment and the reconstruction chain from hits in the detector to physical objects, a detailed review of the Matrix Element method is given. The Matrix Element method is based on the likelihood to observe a given event under the assumption of the quantity to be measured, e.g. the mass of the top quark. The method has undergone significant modifications and improvements compared to previous measurements in the lepton+jets channel: the two undetected neutrinos require a new reconstruction scheme for the four-momenta of the final state particles, the small event sample demands the modeling of additional jets in the signal likelihood, and a new likelihood is designed to account for the main source of background containing tauonic Z decay. The Matrix Element method is validated on Monte Carlo simulated events at the generator level. For the measurement, calibration curves are derived from events that are run through the full D0 detector simulation. The analysis makes use of the Run II data set recorded between April 2002 and May 2008 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.8 fb-1. A total of 107 t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events with one electron and one muon in the final state are selected. Applying the Matrix Element method to this data set, the top quark mass is measured to be mtopRun IIa = 170.6 ± 6.1(stat.)-1.5+2.1(syst.)GeV; mtopRun IIb = 174.1 ± 4.4(stat.)-1.8+2.5(syst.)GeV; m

  10. [Determination of Heavy Metal Elements in Diatomite Filter Aid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xi-du; Fu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    This study established a method for determining Be, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Sn, Tl, Hg and Pb, total 10 heavy metals in diatomite filter aid. The diatomite filter aid was digested by using the mixture acid of HNO₃ + HF+ H₃PO₄ in microwave system, 10 heavy metals elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The interferences of mass spectrometry caused by the high silicon substrate were optimized, first the equipment parameters and isotopes of test metals were selected to eliminate these interferences, the methane was selected as reactant gas, and the mass spectral interferences were eliminated by dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Li, Sc, Y, In and Bi were selected as the internal standard elements to correct the interferences caused by matrix and the drift of sensitivity. The results show that the detection limits for analyte is in the range of 3.29-15.68 ng · L⁻¹, relative standard deviations (RSD) is less than 4.62%, and the recovery is in the range of 90.71%-107.22%. The current method has some advantages such as, high sensitivity, accurate, and precision, which can be used in diatomite filter aid quality control and safety estimations.

  11. Food authenticity studies via multi-elemental and isotopic pattern using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, R.; Brunner, M.; Abranko, L.; Prohaska, T.; Stefanka, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our study has been the development of an analytical method based on Sr isotope and elemental fingerprint analysis for discriminating food samples from different geographical origin. Several types of foods were involved in the investigation representing different stages of food processing such as pulverized spicy paprika (sparsely processed food product) and wine samples (processed product). Independent inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like ICP-SFMS, ICP-CCMS, and MC-ICPMS were used for method validation and investigation of the geographical origin. The advantage and limitations of the developed methods are discussed critically. (author)

  12. Device for determining element contents of lignite mass flows by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Maul, E.; Rose, W.; Wagner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple device is presented, apt for continuous operation, to determine the element contents of bulk goods of flowable materials with a suitable granularity, in particular of lignite mass flows to assess the coal quality. Several kilograms of samples can be reproducibly dosed and homogeneously activated by a device consisting of a shielding container with activation chamber and radiation source, a measuring unit with detectors, and a source container, and characterized by a blade wheel in the activation chamber which causes the dosing and homogeneous activation of the sample

  13. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  14. Investigation of Elemental Mass Spectrometry in Pharmacology for Peptide Quantitation at Femtomolar Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cordeau

    Full Text Available In the search of new robust and environmental-friendly analytical methods able to answer quantitative issues in pharmacology, we explore liquid chromatography (LC associated with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to monitor peptides in such complex biological matrices. The novelty is to use mass spectrometry to replace radiolabelling and radioactivity measurements, which represent up-to now the gold standard to measure organic compound concentrations in life science. As a proof of concept, we choose the vasopressin (AVP/V1A receptor system for model pharmacological assays. The capacity of ICP-MS to provide highly sensitive quantitation of metallic and hetero elements, whatever the sample medium, prompted us to investigate this technique in combination with appropriate labelling of the peptide of interest. Selenium, that is scarcely present in biological media, was selected as a good compromise between ICP-MS response, covalent tagging ability using conventional sulfur chemistry and peptide detection specificity. Applying selenium monitoring by elemental mass spectrometry in pharmacology is challenging due to the very high salt content and organic material complexity of the samples that produces polyatomic aggregates and thus potentially mass interferences with selenium detection. Hyphenation with a chromatographic separation was found compulsory. Noteworthy, we aimed to develop a straightforward quantitative protocol that can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a standard macrobore LC-ICP-MS system, in order to avoid time-consuming sample treatment or special implementation of instrumental set-up, while allowing efficient suppression of all mass interferences to reach the targeted sensitivity. Significantly, a quantification limit of 57 ng Se L-1 (72 femtomoles of injected Se was achieved, the samples issued from the pharmacological assays being directly introduced into the LC-ICP-MS system. The established method was successfully

  15. A measurement of the top quark mass with a matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Adam Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark. The event sample is selected from proton-antiproton collisions, at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy, observed with the CDF detector at Fermilab's Tevatron. They consider a 318 pb-1 dataset collected between March 2002 and August 2004. They select events that contain one energetic lepton, large missing transverse energy, exactly four energetic jets, and at least one displaced vertex b tag. The analysis uses leading-order t$\\bar{t}$ and background matrix elements along with parameterized parton showering to construct event-by-event likelihoods as a function of top quark mass. From the 63 events observed with the 318 pb-1 dataset they extract a top quark mass of 172.0 ± 2.6(stat) ± 3.3(syst) GeV/c2 from the joint likelihood. The mean expected statistical uncertainty is 3.2 GeV/c2 for m $\\bar{t}$ = 178 GTeV/c2 and 3.1 GeV/c2 for m $\\bar{t}$ = 172.5 GeV/c2. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty of the jet energy scale.

  16. ICP Mass and Optical Emission Spectrometry of Ore Samples Containing Rare Earth Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.E.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICPMS) are widely accepted as a rapid and sensitive techniques for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) analysis of geological samples. However, the achievable accuracy of these techniques are seriously limited by the problem of matrix interferences. In this study, matrix effects in ICP-AES were addressed using two approaches. In the first approach, the mechanisms of matrix interferences and analyte excitation were elucidated fundamentally. First, matrix effects from a comprehensive list of thirty-nine elements were investigated. It was confirmed that matrix elements with low second (instead of the widely reported first) ionization potentials (IP) produce a stronger matrix effect in all cases. Another critical parameter defining the severity of the matrix effect was found to be the availability of low-lying energy levels in the doubly charged matrix ion. Penning ionization followed by ion electron recombination through successive cycles is proposed as the mechanism for the more severe matrix effects caused by low second-IP matrices. In the second approach ICP-OES and ICP-MS are applied in this study for the analysis of Rare Earth Elements of two selected standard reference samples namely AGV-2 and BCR-2 beside a fluorspar geological sample (G-9 sample). Effective procedures are developed to avoid the spectral interference from matrix elements by using ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 before determination of REEs using ICP-OES and ICPMS. The potential of the method is evaluated by analysis of Certified Reference Materials (AGV-2 and BCR-2). Results obtained by ICP-MS show that experimental data are in agreement with the certified values and their values could be used as a quantitative data. The results obtained using ICP-OES were compared and discussed.

  17. Los movimientos sociales: ¿la nueva masa psicológica?. (Social Movements: the New Psychological Mass?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Freud parece explicar el comportamiento psicológico de las masas organizadas a partir de los procesos anímicos de la psique individual. Bajo las consideraciones freudianas y a la luz de ciertas apreciaciones lacanianas, el presente trabajo, resultado de la una investigación de tesis de grado de la maestría en Psicoanálisis, subjetividad y Cultura de la Universidad Nacional, caracterizará una nueva formación colectiva que se ha venido gestando desde la década de los 80 y que parece diferenciarse radicalmente la masa psicológica freudiana. Se trata de los Movimientos Sociales, denominados así por los sociólogos y estudiosos de la psicología colectiva más recientes. Ésta nueva formación colectiva a primera vista parece poner en tela de juicio las apreciaciones freudianas sobre la psicología de las masas, o al menos demandar una nueva consideración de las mismas desde los aportes psicoanalíticos. Palabras clave: lazo social, psicología, masa, psicoanálisis, Movimiento Social. Abstract Freud seems to explain the psychological behavior of the organized masses from the mental processes of the individual psyche. Under the Freudian considerations and in light of certain Lacanian findings, the present research work, the result of an investigation thesis of the Master's Degree in Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity, and Culture at the National University of Colombia, will characterize a new collective formation that has been growing from the 1980s and that seems to be radically different from the Freudian psychological mass. This is the Social Movements, so called by the most recent sociologists and scholars of collective psychology. This new collective formation appears to call into question the Freudian insights on group psychology, or it demands at least a new consideration of masses from the psychoanalytic contributions. Keywords: social bond, psychology, mass, psychoanalysis, Social Movement. Résumé Freud semble expliquer le

  18. Multielement determination of rare earth elements in rock sample by liquid chromatography / inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamanaka, Tadashi; Itoh, Akihide; Itoh, Shinya; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Haraguchi, Hiroki.

    1995-01-01

    Rare earth elements in geological standard rock sample JG-1 (granodiolite)issued from the Geological Survey of Japan have been determined by a combined system of liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (author)

  19. Analytical and experimental investigation on a multiple-mass-element pendulum impact damper for vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Philipp; Caracoglia, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Impact dampers are often used in the field of civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering for reducing structural vibrations. The behavior of this type of passive control device has been investigated for several decades. In this research a distributed-mass impact damper, similar to the "chain damper" used in wind engineering, has been examined and applied to the vibration reduction on a slender line-like structural element (stay-cable). This study is motivated by a practical problem and describes the derivation of a reduced-order model for explaining the behavior, observed during a field experiment on a prototype system. In its simplest form, the dynamics of the apparatus is modeled as a "resilient damper", composed of mass-spring-dashpot secondary elements, attached to the primary structure. Various sources of excitation are analyzed: free vibration, external harmonic force and random excitation. The proposed model is general and potentially applicable to the analysis of several structural systems. The study also shows that the model can adequately describe and explain the experimentally observed behavior.

  20. Double Beta Decay and Neutrino Masses Accuracy of the Nuclear Matrix Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2005-01-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decay is forbidden in the standard model of the electroweak and strong interaction but allowed in most Grand Unified Theories (GUT's). Only if the neutrino is a Majorana particle (identical with its antiparticle) and if it has a mass, the neutrinoless double beta decay is allowed. Apart of one claim that the neutrinoless double beta decay in 76 Ge is measured, one has only upper limits for this transition probability. But even the upper limits allow to give upper limits for the electron Majorana neutrino mass and upper limits for parameters of GUT's and the minimal R-parity violating supersymmetric model. One further can give lower limits for the vector boson mediating mainly the right-handed weak interaction and the heavy mainly right-handed Majorana neutrino in left-right symmetric GUT's. For that one has to assume that the specific mechanism is the leading one for the neutrinoless double beta decay and one has to be able to calculate reliably the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. In the present contribution, one discusses the accuracy of the present status of calculating the nuclear matrix elements and the corresponding limits of GUT's and supersymmetric parameters

  1. Mass spectrometric characterization of elements and molecules in cell cultures and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlinghaus, H.F.; Kriegeskotte, C.; Fartmann, M.; Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Lipinsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and laser post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS) have been used to image and quantify targeted compounds, intrinsic elements and molecules with subcellular resolution in single cells of both cell cultures and tissues. Special preparation procedures for analyzing cell cultures and tissue materials were developed. Cancer cells type MeWo, incubated with boronated compounds, were sandwiched between two substrates, cryofixed, freeze-fractured and freeze-dried. Also, after injection with boronated compounds, different types of mouse tissues were extracted, prepared on a special specimen carrier and plunged with high velocity into LN 2 -cooled propane for cryofixation. After trimming, these tissue blocks were freeze-dried. The measurements of the K/Na ratio demonstrated that for both cell cultures and tissue materials the special preparation techniques used were appropriate for preserving the chemical and structural integrity of the living cell. The boron images show inter- and intracellular boron signals with different intensities. Molecular images show distinct features partly correlated with the cell structure. A comparison between laser-SNMS and ToF-SIMS showed that especially laser-SNMS is particularly well-suited for identifying specific cell structures and imaging ultratrace element concentrations in tissues

  2. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preliminary study of elemental mass size distribution of urban aerosol collected in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Kiss, A.Z.; Koltay, E.; Szabo, Gy.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol sampling campaigns were performed during January-February 1998 and August 1998 at an urban location (in the yard of the Institute of Nuclear Research), where aerosol sampling has been carried out continuously since 1991 with single stage Nuclepore filter holders, and since 1994 with 2-stage Gent stacked filter units (SFU). In the winter period in four weekdays 24-hours samplings were performed with a 7-stage PIXE International Cascade Impactor (PCI) and simultaneously with a SFU. On 19-25 August 1998, a week-long aerosol sampling campaign was carried out with the PCI (24-hour samplings), a SFU (24-hour samplings), and a streaker sampler (168-hour continuous sampling). For this period meteorological data were also obtained by a micro-meteorological station installed at the same location by the Radon Group. Elemental concentrations for Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb of the aerosol samples were determined by PIXE using the 2 MeV energy proton beam of the 5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Institute. The obtained average elemental concentrations and the seasonal variation in the elemental concentrations show good correlation with the results obtained from the analysis of the samples collected in previous years. In winter the elemental concentrations are usually lower than in summer, except Cl. The Cl concentration in the coarse fraction is higher with a factor of 10 than in summer due to the salting of the roads and pavements. The summer period included a long weekend with a national holiday. During the weekend the elemental concentrations and also the total mass decreased, and in the beginning of the following week it started to increase. Size distribution: the impactor we have used separate the aerosol within the size range of 0.25 μm and 30 μm into 7 fractions. The mass size distribution for elements of natural origin, like Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Mn has one mode: the coarse mode. The

  4. Elemental composition of air masses under different altitudes in Azores, central north Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, B.J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Between 8th July 2002 and 18th June 2004, aerosol samples were collected in Azores. Their inorganic composition was obtained by neutron activation analysis in order to study the differences of aerosols in two atmospheric altitudes of the central north Atlantic: (1) PICO-NARE observatory (Lower Free Troposphere-LFT) at Pico mountain summit (38,470 deg N, 28,404 deg W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in Pico Island, Azores, where air masses from the surrounding continents (Africa, Europe, Central and North America) pass through, carrying aerosols with anthropogenic (Sb, Br, Mo, U, Se and Tb) and/or natural emissions (Fe, Co, La, Na, Sm, Cr, Zn, Hf, K and Th); (2) TERCEIRA-NARE station (Marine Boundary Layer) at Serreta (38,69 deg N, 27,36 deg W, 50 m a.s.l.), in Terceira Island, Azores, where natural aerosols (I, Cl, Na, Br and other soil related elements) are predominant. However, a combined interpretation of the data points out to a co-existence of the anthropogenic elements Sb and Mo, eventually with similar origins as the ones passing Pico Mountain summit. Very high concentrations and enrichment factors for Sb, Mo and Br in LFT, higher than the ones found in other areas, confirm atmospheric long-range transport mainly from the west boundary of north Atlantic; this may indicate eventual accumulation and persistence of those elements in the area due to the presence of Azores high pressures or the Hadley cells effect. A significant correlation between Fe and Yb and the enrichment of rare earth elements (La, Sm, Tb and Yb) and Th in LFT aerosols, both reflect a mineral dust intrusions from north Africa (Sahara and Sahel region). (author)

  5. Lithology and Bedrock Geotechnical Properties in Controlling Rock and Ice Mass Movements in Mountain Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, A.; Kargel, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides and ice avalanches kill >5000 people annually (D. Petley, 2012, Geology http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G33217.1); destroy or damage homes and infrastructure; and create secondary hazards, such as flooding due to blocked rivers. Critical roles of surface slope, earthquake shaking, soil characteristics and saturation, river erosional undercutting, rainfall intensity, snow loading, permafrost thaw, freeze-thaw and frost shattering, debuttressing of unstable masses due to glacier thinning, and vegetation burn or removal are well-known factors affecting landslides and avalanches. Lithology-dependent bedrock physicochemical-mechanical properties—especially brittle elastic and shear strength, and chemical weathering properties that affect rock strength, are also recognized controls on landsliding and avalanching, but are not commonly considered in detail in landslide susceptibility assessment. Lithology controls the formation of weakened, weathered bedrock; the formation and accumulation of soils; soil saturation-related properties of grain size distribution, porosity, and permeability; and soil creep related to soil wetting-drying and freeze-thaw. Lithology controls bedrock abrasion and glacial erosion and debris production rates, the formation of rough or smoothed bedrock surface by glaciation, fluvial, and freeze-thaw processes. Lithologic variability (e.g., bedding; fault and joint structure) affects contrasts in chemical weathering rates, porosity, and susceptibility to frost shattering and chemical weathering, hence formation of overhanging outcrops and weakened slip planes. The sudden failure of bedrock or sudden slip of ice on bedrock, and many other processes depend on rock lithology, microstructure (porosity and permeability), and macrostructure (bedding; faults). These properties are sometimes considered in gross terms for landslide susceptibility assessment, but in detailed applications to specific development projects, and in detailed mapping over

  6. Thirty years of precise gravity measurements at Mt. Vesuvius: an approach to detect underground mass movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Berrino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1982, high precision gravity measurements have been routinely carried out on Mt. Vesuvius. The gravity network consists of selected sites most of them coinciding with, or very close to, leveling benchmarks to remove the effect of the elevation changes from gravity variations. The reference station is located in Napoli, outside the volcanic area. Since 1986, absolute gravity measurements have been periodically made on a station on Mt. Vesuvius, close to a permanent gravity station established in 1987, and at the reference in Napoli. The results of the gravity measurements since 1982 are presented and discussed. Moderate gravity changes on short-time were generally observed. On long-term significant gravity changes occurred and the overall fields displayed well defined patterns. Several periods of evolution may be recognized. Gravity changes revealed by the relative surveys have been confirmed by repeated absolute measurements, which also confirmed the long-term stability of the reference site. The gravity changes over the recognized periods appear correlated with the seismic crises and with changes of the tidal parameters obtained by continuous measurements. The absence of significant ground deformation implies masses redistribution, essentially density changes without significant volume changes, such as fluids migration at the depth of the seismic foci, i.e. at a few kilometers. The fluid migration may occur through pre-existing geological structures, as also suggested by hydrological studies, and/or through new fractures generated by seismic activity. This interpretation is supported by the analyses of the spatial gravity changes overlapping the most significant and recent seismic crises.

  7. The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celasin, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…

  8. Vaporization studies on elemental tellurium and selenium by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R., E-mail: rvis1953@gmail.com; Balasubramanian, R., E-mail: rbs@igcar.gov.in; Darwin Albert Raj, D., E-mail: darwinalbertraj1953@gmail.com; Sai Baba, M., E-mail: msb@igcar.gov.in; Lakshmi Narasimhan, T.S., E-mail: tslak@igcar.gov.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A detailed KEMS study of vaporization of elemental tellurium and selenium systems. • Clusters Te{sub i}(g) (i = 2 to 7) and Se{sub i}(g) (i = 2 to 9) identified over Te(s) and Se(s). • p–T relations for Te{sub i}(g) (590 to 690 K) and Se{sub i}(g) (380 to 480 K). • Vapor phase of Te dominated by Te{sub 2}(g) (∼95%) while that of Se by Se{sub 6}(g) (∼50%) and Se{sub 5}(g) (∼25%). • Sublimation and atomization enthalpies deduced for Te{sub i}(g) and Se{sub i}(g). - Abstract: Vaporization studies on elemental tellurium and selenium were conducted by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature range of 590–690 K and 380–480 K, respectively. The ionic species Te{sub i}{sup +} (i = 1–7) and Se{sub i}{sup +}(g) (i = 1–9) were detected in the mass spectra over these two condensed phases. Measurement of ion intensities were performed as a function of electron impact energy and as a function of temperature (at different electron impact energies) for identifying the gaseous precursor species as well as for determining the partial pressure–temperature relations and sublimation enthalpies for these species. While the major species over elemental tellurium was confirmed to be Te{sub 2}(g) (with all other gaseous species Te{sub 3}–Te{sub 7} put together constituting less than 5%), the major species over elemental selenium was found to be Se{sub 6}(g), closely followed by Se{sub 5}(g) (with other gaseous species Se{sub 2}–Se{sub 4} and Se{sub 7}–Se{sub 9} put together also moderately constituting ∼25%). From the partial pressures, the thermodynamic data for the sublimation reactions i Te(s) = Te{sub i}(g) and i Se(s) = Se{sub i}(g) were deduced by second- and third-law methods. The atomization enthalpies of tellurium and selenium clusters were also deduced by using the recommended enthalpies of formation of monomeric species. Comparison of the findings obtained in the present study with those in previous studies revealed

  9. User's manual for the FEHM application - A finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data, including individual input records or parameters, and the various output files. The system interface is described, including the software environment and installation instructions

  10. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatographic separation using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the rare earth elements (REEs) prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The use of HPLC-ICP-MS in series combines the separation power and speed of HPLC with the sensitivity, isotopic selectivity and speed of ICP-MS. The detection limits for the REEs are in the sub-ng ml -1 range and the response is linear over four orders of magnitude. A preliminary comparison of isotope dilution and external standard results for the determination of REEs in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM 1633a) Fly Ash is presented. (author)

  11. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some zones of carbonatite intrusions (sovites) and recrystallized calcites from highly metamorphosed metallic ore deposits. Most calcite marbles, though possibly appropriate as Sr standards, show substantial inhomogeneity in Mg, Mn and Ba. Some hydrothermal “Iceland Spar” calcite may prove useful as a reference for extremely low concentrations of Mg, Sr and Ba. The best carbonatitic calcites currently in use appear homogeneous to

  12. Elemental analysis of chamber organic aerosol using an aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Chhabra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of laboratory chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA from glyoxal uptake, α-pinene ozonolysis, isoprene photooxidation, single-ring aromatic photooxidation, and naphthalene photooxidation is evaluated using Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer data. SOA O/C ratios range from 1.13 for glyoxal uptake experiments to 0.30–0.43 for α-pinene ozonolysis. The elemental composition of α-pinene and naphthalene SOA is also confirmed by offline mass spectrometry. The fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 is generally a good measure of SOA oxygenation for α-pinene/O3, isoprene/high-NOx, and naphthalene SOA systems. The agreement between measured and estimated O/C ratios tends to get closer as the fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 increases. This is in contrast to the glyoxal uptake system, in which m/z 44 substantially underpredicts O/C. Although chamber SOA has generally been considered less oxygenated than ambient SOA, single-ring aromatic- and naphthalene-derived SOA can reach O/C ratios upward of 0.7, well within the range of ambient PMF component OOA, though still not as high as some ambient measurements. The spectra of aromatic and isoprene-high-NOx SOA resemble that of OOA, but the spectrum of glyoxal uptake does not resemble that of any ambient organic aerosol PMF component.

  13. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-456 Marine Sediment Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of prime concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess t h e reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass amount contents for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, vanadium and zinc was recently produced by the IAEA Environment Laboratories. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, including material homogeneity and the stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign, and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, certified values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty were

  14. Modification of the finite element heat and mass transfer code (FEHMN) to model multicomponent reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    The finite element code FEHMN is a three-dimensional finite element heat and mass transport simulator that can handle complex stratigraphy and nonlinear processes such as vadose zone flow, heat flow and solute transport. Scientists at LANL have been developed hydrologic flow and transport models of the Yucca Mountain site using FEHMN. Previous FEHMN simulations have used an equivalent K d model to model solute transport. In this thesis, FEHMN is modified making it possible to simulate the transport of a species with a rigorous chemical model. Including the rigorous chemical equations into FEHMN simulations should provide for more representative transport models for highly reactive chemical species. A fully kinetic formulation is chosen for the FEHMN reactive transport model. Several methods are available to computationally implement a fully kinetic formulation. Different numerical algorithms are investigated in order to optimize computational efficiency and memory requirements of the reactive transport model. The best algorithm of those investigated is then incorporated into FEHMN. The algorithm chosen requires for the user to place strongly coupled species into groups which are then solved for simultaneously using FEHMN. The complete reactive transport model is verified over a wide variety of problems and is shown to be working properly. The simulations demonstrate that gas flow and carbonate chemistry can significantly affect 14 C transport at Yucca Mountain. The simulations also provide that the new capabilities of FEHMN can be used to refine and buttress already existing Yucca Mountain radionuclide transport studies

  15. Sample diagnosis using indicator elements and non-analyte signals for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antler, Margaret; Ying Hai; Burns, David H.; Salin, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    A sample diagnosis procedure that uses both non-analyte and analyte signals to estimate matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry is presented. Non-analyte signals are those of background species in the plasma (e.g. N + , ArO + ), and changes in these signals can indicate changes in plasma conditions. Matrix effects of Al, Ba, Cs, K and Na on 19 non-analyte signals and 15 element signals were monitored. Multiple linear regression was used to build the prediction models, using a genetic algorithm for objective feature selection. Non-analyte elemental signals and non-analyte signals were compared for diagnosing matrix effects, and both were found to be suitable for estimating matrix effects. Individual analyte matrix effect estimation was compared with the overall matrix effect prediction, and models used to diagnose overall matrix effects were more accurate than individual analyte models. In previous work [Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57 (2002) 277], we tested models for analytical decision making. The current models were tested in the same way, and were able to successfully diagnose matrix effects with at least an 80% success rate

  16. FEHMN 1.0: Finite element heat and mass transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.; Dash, Z.; Kelkar, S.

    1991-04-01

    A computer code is described which can simulate non-isothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media. It is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and ground-water flow. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved using the finite element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat and mass transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. A summary of the equations in the model and the numerical solution procedure are provided in this report. A user's guide and sample problems are also included. The main use of FEHMN will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields in the saturated zone below the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. 33 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yiling; Chang Chaochiang; Jiang Shiuhjen

    2003-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soil samples. The dried soil powder was pressed into a pellet for LA-ICP-MS analysis. Triton X-100 was added to work as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The influences of instrument operating conditions (LA and ICP-MS) and pellet preparation on the ion signals were reported. For Cr determination, the ICP-MS was operated under the dynamic reaction cell mode which alleviated the mass overlap interference. Standard addition method and isotope dilution method were used for the quantitation work. The powder sample was spiked with suitable amounts of element standards and/or enriched isotopes, well-mixed, dried and then pressed into a pellet for LA-ICP-MS analysis. This method has been applied to determine Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil reference materials. The analysis results were in agreement with the certified values. The precision between sample replicates was better than 5% with LA-ICP-MS method. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were approximately 0.9, 2, 9, 0.7 and 0.3 ng g -1 for Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively

  18. Effects of geolocators on hatching success, return rates, breeding movements, and change in body mass in 16 species of Arctic-breeding shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiser, Emily L; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C; Alves, José A.; Battley, Phil; Bentzen, Rebecca; Bêty, Joël; Bishop, Mary Anne; Boldenow, Megan; Bollache, Loïc; Casler, Bruce; Christie, Maureen; T. Coleman, Jonathan; Conklin, Jesse; B. English, Willow; Gates, H. River; Gilg, Olivier; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Gosbell, Ken; Hassell, Chris J.; Helmericks, Jim; Johnson, Andrew; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Koivula, Kari; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lang, Johannes; Lank, David B.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Liebezeit, Joe; Loverti, Vanessa; McKinnon, Laura; Minton, Clive D. T.; Mizrahi, David; Minton, Clive D. T.; Nol, Erica; Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Perz, Johanna; Porter, Ron; Rausch, Jennie; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Rönkä, Nelli; Saalfeld, Sarah; Senner, Nathan; Sittler, Benoit; Smith, Paul A.; Sowl, Kristine; Taylor, Audrey; Ward, David H.; Yezerinac, Stephen; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geolocators are useful for tracking movements of long-distance migrants, but potential negative effects on birds have not been well studied. We tested for effects of geolocators (0.8–2.0 g total, representing 0.1–3.9 % of mean body mass) on 16 species of migratory shorebirds, including

  19. Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L.; Dragnev, T.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectra from ''infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Mass movements in the Rio Grande Valley (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Northwestern Argentina): a methodological approach to reduce the risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Pasuto, A.; Rivelli, F. R.

    2009-10-01

    Slope processes such as slides and debris flows, are among the main events that induce effects on the Rio Grande sediment transport capacity. The slides mainly affect the slope of the Rio Grande river basin while debris and mud flows phenomena take place in the tributary valleys. In the past decades several mass movements occurred causing victims and great damages to roads and villages and therefore hazard assessment and risk mitigation is of paramount importance for a correct development of the area. This is also an urgent need since the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. The growing tourism business may lead to an uncontrolled urbanization of the valley with the consequent enlargement of threatened areas. In this framework mitigation measures have to take into account not only technical aspects related to the physical behaviour of the moving masses but also environmental and sociological factors that could influence the effectiveness of the countermeasures. Mitigation of landslide effects is indeed rather complex because of the large extension of the territory and the particular geological and geomorphological setting. Moreover the necessity to maintain the natural condition of the area as prescribed by UNESCO, make this task even more difficult. Nowadays no in-depth study of the entire area exists, therefore an integrated and multidisciplinary investigation plan is going to be set up including geological and geomorphological investigations as well as archaeological and historical surveys. The better understanding of geomorphological evolution processes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca will bridge the gap between the necessity of preservation and the request of safety keeping of the recommendation by UNESCO.

  1. Mass movements in the Rio Grande Valley (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Northwestern Argentina: a methodological approach to reduce the risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Slope processes such as slides and debris flows, are among the main events that induce effects on the Rio Grande sediment transport capacity. The slides mainly affect the slope of the Rio Grande river basin while debris and mud flows phenomena take place in the tributary valleys. In the past decades several mass movements occurred causing victims and great damages to roads and villages and therefore hazard assessment and risk mitigation is of paramount importance for a correct development of the area. This is also an urgent need since the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. The growing tourism business may lead to an uncontrolled urbanization of the valley with the consequent enlargement of threatened areas.

    In this framework mitigation measures have to take into account not only technical aspects related to the physical behaviour of the moving masses but also environmental and sociological factors that could influence the effectiveness of the countermeasures.

    Mitigation of landslide effects is indeed rather complex because of the large extension of the territory and the particular geological and geomorphological setting. Moreover the necessity to maintain the natural condition of the area as prescribed by UNESCO, make this task even more difficult.

    Nowadays no in-depth study of the entire area exists, therefore an integrated and multidisciplinary investigation plan is going to be set up including geological and geomorphological investigations as well as archaeological and historical surveys. The better understanding of geomorphological evolution processes of the Quebrada de Humahuaca will bridge the gap between the necessity of preservation and the request of safety keeping of the recommendation by UNESCO.

  2. Multi-element determination in environmental samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilpert, K.; Waidmann, E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the multi-element analysis of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb in pine needles by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization has been reported in Part I of this paper. This procedure is now transferred to the non-vegetable material 'Oyster Tissue' (Standard Reference Material 1566, National Bureau of Standards, USA). By a modification of the analytical procedure, it was possible to determine Cr in this material in addition to the aforementioned elements. No concentrations are certified for the elements Ga, Ba and Tl analyzed in this work. The concentrations of the remaining elements obtained by the multi-element analysis agree well with those certified. (orig.)

  3. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geochemical samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.

  4. Modification of the finite element heat and mass transfer code (FEHM) to model multicomponent reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, H.S.

    1996-08-01

    The finite element code FEHMN, developed by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is a three-dimensional finite element heat and mass transport simulator that can handle complex stratigraphy and nonlinear processes such as vadose zone flow, heat flow and solute transport. Scientists at LANL have been developing hydrologic flow and transport models of the Yucca Mountain site using FEHMN. Previous FEHMN simulations have used an equivalent Kd model to model solute transport. In this thesis, FEHMN is modified making it possible to simulate the transport of a species with a rigorous chemical model. Including the rigorous chemical equations into FEHMN simulations should provide for more representative transport models for highly reactive chemical species. A fully kinetic formulation is chosen for the FEHMN reactive transport model. Several methods are available to computationally implement a fully kinetic formulation. Different numerical algorithms are investigated in order to optimize computational efficiency and memory requirements of the reactive transport model. The best algorithm of those investigated is then incorporated into FEHMN. The algorithm chosen requires for the user to place strongly coupled species into groups which are then solved for simultaneously using FEHMN. The complete reactive transport model is verified over a wide variety of problems and is shown to be working properly. The new chemical capabilities of FEHMN are illustrated by using Los Alamos National Laboratory's site scale model of Yucca Mountain to model two-dimensional, vadose zone 14 C transport. The simulations demonstrate that gas flow and carbonate chemistry can significantly affect 14 C transport at Yucca Mountain. The simulations also prove that the new capabilities of FEHMN can be used to refine and buttress already existing Yucca Mountain radionuclide transport studies

  5. Certification of Trace Elements and Methylmercury Mass Fractions in Tuna Fish Flesh Homogenate IAEA-436A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioactive isotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is a primary concern for the IAEA. The Marine Environment Studies Laboratory, as a part of IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco, acts as the analytical support centre for Member State laboratories and is the pillar of the quality assurance programme for the determination of non-nuclear pollutants, trace elements and organic contaminants in the marine environment. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Good laboratory practice and quality assurance and control are essential components of the analytical process for the production of data. Quality control procedures are commonly based on analyses of certified reference materials to assess reproducibility and measurement biases and uncertainties. Certified reference materials are key tools for quality assurance. They are used to validate analytical methods and to establish traceability to internationally agreed references. They are cornerstones for laboratory accreditation and the correct implementation of national and international regulations. In the development and validation of new methods, certified reference materials play a vital role in state of the art technologies where measurements are critical. The IAEA supports the development and production of environmental certified reference materials for monitoring laboratories in Member States. The reference material IAEA-436, characterized for trace elements and methylmercury mass fractions in tuna fish flesh homogenate, was produced by the IAEA in Monaco in 2006. This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-436A, which is based on the

  6. Development of an advanced mechanised gait trainer, controlling movement of the centre of mass, for restoring gait in non-ambulant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Uhlenbrock, D

    1999-01-01

    The study aimed at further development of a mechanised gait trainer which would allow non-ambulant people to practice a gait-like motion repeatedly. To simulate normal gait, discrete stance and swing phases, lasting 60% and 40% of the gait cycle respectively, and the control of the movement of the centre of mass were required. A complex gear system provided the gait-like movement of two foot plates with a ratio of 60% to 40% between the stance and swing phases. A controlled propulsion system adjusted its output according to patient's efforts. Two eccenters on the central gear controlled phase-adjusted the vertical and horizontal position of the centre of mass. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation of a normal subject were similar when using the mechanised trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists supported treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact-free, and less spastic. The weight-bearing muscles were activated in a similar fashion during both conditions. The vertical displacement of the centre of mass was bi-instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. In conclusion, the gait trainer allowed wheelchair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists.

  7. Determination of trace and ultra-trace elements in Dergaon meteorite by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaram, V.; Gnaneswara Rao, T.; Anjaiah, K.V.; Phukon, N.; Majumdar, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed methodology for high precision measurement of several trace and ultra-trace elements including REE and PGE have been presented using effective sample preparation techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discussion is focussed on aspects, such as total dissolution and recovery of all elements, minimization of oxide and doubly-charged and other polyatomic ion interferences, calibration by matrix matching standards, accuracy and precision

  8. Geochemistry, water dynamics and metals: Major, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotope constraints on their origins and movements in a small anthropized catchment over a flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream

  9. Deposits of Large-scale Mass Movements in the Sediments of Hallstätter See (Austria) - Recurrent Natural Hazards at a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Strasser, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Kowarik, K.; Reschreiter, H.; Spatl, C.; Brauer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The cultural importance of underground salt mining in Hallstatt (Austria), which is documented since the Middle Bronze Age, has been recognized already 20 years ago by assigning the status of a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site to the Hallstatt area, particularly because of the wealth of archaeological artefacts from the Early Iron Age. Local mining activity is well documented for prehistoric times and known to have been repeatedly affected by large-scale mass movements, for example at the end of the Bronze Age and during the Late Iron Age. In contrast, evidence of mining activity between the 5th and late 13th century AD is scarce, which could be related to socio-economic changes but also to continued mass movement activity, possibly biasing the archaeological record. Within the present study, a 15.63-m-long 14C-dated sediment core from Hallstätter See has been investigated with respect to the deposits of large-scale mass movements. Most of the lake sediment sequence consists of cm- to sub-mm-scale laminated carbonate mud with frequently intercalated small-scale turbidites, reflecting seasonally variable detrital input from the tributaries, but two major event layers clearly stand out. The upper one comprises a 2.45-m-thick basal mass transport deposit (containing folded laminated sediments, homogenized sediments with liquefaction structures, and coarse gravel) and an overlying 1.45-m-thick co-genetic turbidite. From the lower event layer only the topmost part of the turbiditic sequence with a (minimum) thickness of 1.49 m was recovered. Based on their sedimentological characteristics, both event layers are interpreted as the subaqueous continuation of large-scale mass movements, which occurred at ca. 1050 and 2300 cal. years BP and possibly originated from the rock walls along the western lake shore where also the salt mining area is located. This indicates that mass movement activity not only threatened prehistoric salt mining, but occurred also repeatedly

  10. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass fractions for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, V and Zn was recently produced by the NAEL in the frame of a project between the IAEA and the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, the material homogeneity and stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded

  11. Intermediate-mass Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Reveal Neutron Star Kicks by Asymmetric Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morii, Mikio; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Mori, Koji; Müller, Ewald; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The birth properties of neutron stars (NSs) yield important information about the still-debated physical processes that trigger the explosion as well as on intrinsic neutron-star physics. These properties include the high space velocities of young neutron stars with average values of several 100 km s‑1, with an underlying “kick” mechanism that is not fully clarified. There are two competing possibilities that could accelerate NSs during their birth: anisotropic ejection of either stellar debris or neutrinos. Here we present new evidence from X-ray measurements that chemical elements between silicon and calcium in six young gaseous supernova remnants are preferentially expelled opposite to the direction of neutron star motion. There is no correlation between the kick velocities and magnetic field strengths of these neutron stars. Our results support a hydrodynamic origin of neutron-star kicks connected to asymmetric explosive mass ejection, and they conflict with neutron-star acceleration scenarios that invoke anisotropic neutrino emission caused by particle and nuclear physics in combination with very strong neutron-star magnetic fields.

  12. Fundamental and methodological investigations for the improvement of elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass soectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Christopher Hysjulien [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies meant to improve the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The emission behavior of individual droplets and LA generated particles in an ICP is studied using a high-speed, high frame rate digital camera. Phenomena are observed during the ablation of silicate glass that would cause elemental fractionation during analysis by ICP-MS. Preliminary work for ICP torch developments specifically tailored for the improvement of LA sample introduction are presented. An abnormal scarcity of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr{sup +}) is observed during ICP-MS analysis. Evidence shows that MAr{sup +} ions are dissociated by collisions with background gas in a shockwave near the tip of the skimmer cone. Method development towards the improvement of LA-ICP-MS for environmental monitoring is described. A method is developed to trap small particles in a collodion matrix and analyze each particle individually by LA-ICP-MS.

  13. Effect of whole-body vibration on center-of-mass movement during standing in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huaqing; Beerse, Matthew; Ke, Xiang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) can affect postural control and muscular activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the center-of-mass (COM) movement of children and young adults before, during, immediately after, and 5min after 40-s WBV in quiet standing. Fourteen young adults (mean age 24.5 years) and fourteen children (mean age 8.1 years) participated in the study. A full-body 35-marker set was placed on the participants and used to calculate COM. Forty-second standing trials were collected before, during, immediately after, and 5min after WBV with an frequency of 28Hz and an amplitude of range, sway area and fractal dimension), frequency-domain measures (total power and median frequency), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Results show that during WBV both children and adults increased average velocity and median frequency, but decreased range and the DFA scaling exponent. Immediately after WBV both groups increased the range, but showed pre-vibration values for most of the COM variables. Comparing to adults, children displayed a higher COM velocity, range, fractal dimension, and total power, but a lower DFA scaling exponent at all phases. The results suggest that both children and adults can quickly adapt their postural control system to WBV and maintain balance during and after vibration. Children display some adult-like postural control during and after WBV; however, their postural development continues into adolescence. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Media Coverage of a ?Connective? Action: The Interaction Between the 15-M Movement and the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Davesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses Twitter messages sent in May 2011 to study the ability of the so-called 15-M movement, a "connective"? movement, to place their demands on the media agenda and maintain control over their own discourse. The results show that the activists' discourse included many issues, although greatest attention was given to three: electoral and party systems, democracy and governance, and civil liberties. Moreover, the study reveals that the media covered all the movement's issues and that activists maintained their plural discourse throughout the protest. This article contributes to the literature on "connective" social movements, showing that in certain circumstances these movements have the capacity to determine media coverage.

  15. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The long-term safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories requires a detailed understanding of the chemistry of actinide elements in the geosphere. The development of advanced analytical tools is required to gain detailed insights into actinide redox speciation in a given system. The mobility of radionuclides is mostly determined by the geochemical conditions which control the redox state of radionuclides. Besides the longlived radionuclides plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np), which are key elements in high level nuclear waste, iron (Fe) represents a main component in natural systems controlling redox related geochemical processes. Analytical techniques for determining oxidation state distribution for redox sensitive radionuclides and other metal ions often have a lack of sensitivity. The detection limits of these methods (i.e. UV/vis, TRLFS, XANES) are in general in the range of ≥ 10 -6 mol.L -1 . As a consequence ultrasensitive new analytical techniques are required. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) are powerful separation methods for metal ions. In the course of this thesis different speciation method for iron, neptunium and plutonium were optimized. With the optimized setup redox speciation analysis of these elements in different samples were done. Furthermore CE hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (CE - ICP - SF - MS) was used to measure the redox speciation of Pu (III, IV, V, VI), Np (IV, V, VI) and Fe (II, III) at concentrations lower than 10 -7 mol.L -1 . CE coupling and separation parameters such as sample gas pressure, make up flow rate, capillary position, auxiliary gas flow, as well as the electrolyte system were optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity. The methodes detection limits are 10 -12 mol.L -1 for Np and Pu. The various oxidation state species of Pu and Np in different samples were separated by application of an acetate based electrolyte system. The separation of Fe (II

  16. The determination of low level trace elements in coals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.; Krause, P.; Cox, A.G. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-11-01

    The rapid determination of elements present in low level concentrations in bituminous coals is possible using laser abalation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (l.a.-i.c.p.-m.s.). A wide range of trace elements can routinely be determined using this technique but it is for environmentally sensitive elements, such as As, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Hg, that it is of most use due to the low levels of detection. Calibration of the i.c.p.-m.s. was achieved using a series of uncertified coals and the method evaluated using the South African certified coals, Sarm 18, 19 and 20. A critical evaluation of the data obtained shows that for many of the elements studied the results obtained are both accurate and precise, even at very low concentrations, with the limits of detection for all of the elements being in the {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) range. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Determination of the distribution of uranium and the transuranic elements in the environment by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1987-01-01

    Protection of the world population from releases of uranium, plutonium, and other transuranic materials requires, among other things, a knowledge of the sources, transport, and distribution of these elements in the environment. Both isotopic and quantitative analytical data are required in the determination of these factors. Also, the analyses must be precise and accurate enough to distinguish newly released material from older material such as the worldwide deposits from atmospheric weapons testing. For this reason, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium and other transuranic elements in the environment are routinely determined by high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometric techniques. With current instrumentation and techniques, routine isotope dilution and isotopic analyses are made with purified elemental samples as small as 2 x 10 -14 g. The detection limit for uranium and most of the transuranic isotopes is ∼ 5 x 10 18 g (∼ 13,000 atoms), which is at least an order of magnitude better than the detection limits of the radiometric counting techniques normally employed. The mass spectral sensitivities are equal for all of the isotopes of a given element but vary from element to element. Thus, each elemental sample must be highly purified. Separation techniques recover ∼ 80% of the uranium and the transuranic material from soils and other materials. Interelement separation factors > 10 5 are achieved with advanced ion exchange methods. Results of recent application of these techniques at the Savannah River Lab. and other laboratories are include

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in high purity rare earth oxides by liquid chromatography, thermionic mass spectrometry and combined liquid chromatography/thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijfhoorn, D.E.; Stray, H.; Hjelmseth, H.

    1993-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of rare earth elements in rocks has been modified and used for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in high purity rare earth oxides. The detection limit was 1-1.5 ng or 2-3 mg/kg when a solution corresponding to 0.5 mg of the rare earth oxide was injected. The REE determination was also carried out by adding a mixture of selected REE isotopes to the sample and analysing the collected HPLC-fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) using a thermionic source. Since the matrix element was not collected, interference from this element during the mass spectrometric analysis was avoided. Detection limits as low as 0.5 mg/kg could then be obtained. Detection limits as low as 0.05 mg/kg were possible by MS without HPLC-pre-separation, but this approach could only be used for those elements that were not affected by the matrix. Commercial samples of high purity Nd 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 and Dy 2 O 3 were analysed in this study, and a comparison of results obtained by HPLC, combined HPLC/MS and direct MS is presented. (Author)

  19. Mass spectrometric methods for studying nutrient mineral and trace element absorption and metabolism in humans using stable isotopes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crews, H.M.; Eagles, J.; Mellon, F.A.; Luten, J.B.; McGaw, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods for determining stable isotopes of nutrient minerals and trace elements in human metabolic studies are described and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques of electron ionization, fast atom bombardment, thermal ionization, and inductively coupled plasma and gas chromatography mass spectrometry are evaluated with reference to their accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and convenience, and the demands of human nutrition research. Examples of specific applications are described and the significance of current developments in mass spectrometry are discussed with reference to present and probable future research needs. (Author)

  20. Lepton mixing matrix element U13 and new assignments of universal texture for quark and lepton mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koichi; Nishiura, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We reanalyze the mass matrix model of quarks and leptons that gives a unified description of quark and lepton mass matrices with the same texture form. By investigating possible types of assignment for the texture components of the lepton mass matrix, we find that a different assignment for neutrinos than for charged leptons can also lead to consistent values of the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata-Pontecorv (MNSP) lepton mixing matrix. We also find that the predicted value for the lepton mixing matrix element U 13 of the model depends on the assignment. A proper assignment will be discriminated by future experimental data for U 13

  1. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschy, Daniela; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Survey of bio-analytical approaches utilizing biomolecule labelling. ► Detailed discussion of methodology and chemistry of elemental labelling. ► Biomedical and bio-analytical applications of elemental labelling. ► FI-ICP-MS and LC–ICP-MS for quantification of elemental labelled biomolecules. ► Review of selected applications. - Abstract: This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be presented emphasizing the potential, which lies in such methodological approaches. In this context, ICP-MS as detector provides high sensitivity, selectivity and robustness in biological samples and offers the capability for multiplexing and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Fundamental methodology of elemental labelling will be highlighted and analytical, as well as biomedical applications will be presented. A special focus will lie on established applications underlining benefits and bottlenecks of such approaches for the implementation in real life analysis. Key research made in this field will be summarized and a perspective for future developments including sophisticated and innovative applications will given.

  2. Non-constant relative atomic masses due to varying isotopic abundance of polynuclidic elements and their effect on the accuracy of analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Alterations of actual relative atomic masses occur in natural samples by natural isotope ratio shifts of polynuclidic elements. Therefore, using nuclear properties for gaining a measuring signal, isotopic shifts of certain elements may lead to significant measuring errors

  3. Investigations on the direct introduction of cigarette smoke for trace elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Michael J.; Naworal, John D.; Walker, Kathleen; Connell, Chris T.

    2003-01-01

    Direct introduction of mainstream cigarette smoke into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been investigated with respect to its feasibility for on-line analysis of trace elements. An automated apparatus was designed and built interfacing a smoking machine with an ICP-MS for smoke generation, collection, injection and analysis. Major and minor elements present in the particulate phase and the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke of 2R4F reference cigarettes have been qualitatively identified by examination of their full mass spectra. This method provides a rapid-screening analysis of the transfer of trace elements into mainstream smoke during cigarette combustion. A full suite of elements present in the whole cigarette smoke has been identified, including As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Tl and Zn. Of these elements, the major portions of B, Ba, Cs, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sn, Tl and Zn are present in the particulate phase, whereas the major portion of Hg is present in the gas phase. As, Br, Cd, Cl, I and Sb exist in a distribution between the gas phase and the particulate phase. Depending on the element, the precision of measurement ranges from 5 to 25% in terms of relative standard deviation of peak height and peak area, based on the fourth puff of 2R4F mainstream cigarette smoke analyzed in five smoking replicates

  4. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-458 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate the analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity and stability study, selection of laboratories, evaluation of results from the certification campaign and assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty for 16 trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Sn, V and Zn) in marine sediment were established

  5. Metabolomic database annotations via query of elemental compositions: Mass accuracy is insufficient even at less than 1 ppm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomic studies are targeted at identifying and quantifying all metabolites in a given biological context. Among the tools used for metabolomic research, mass spectrometry is one of the most powerful tools. However, metabolomics by mass spectrometry always reveals a high number of unknown compounds which complicate in depth mechanistic or biochemical understanding. In principle, mass spectrometry can be utilized within strategies of de novo structure elucidation of small molecules, starting with the computation of the elemental composition of an unknown metabolite using accurate masses with errors Results High mass accuracy (95% of false candidates. This orthogonal filter can condense several thousand candidates down to only a small number of molecular formulas. Example calculations for 10, 5, 3, 1 and 0.1 ppm mass accuracy are given. Corresponding software scripts can be downloaded from http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu. A comparison of eight chemical databases revealed that PubChem and the Dictionary of Natural Products can be recommended for automatic queries using molecular formulae. Conclusion More than 1.6 million molecular formulae in the range 0–500 Da were generated in an exhaustive manner under strict observation of mathematical and chemical rules. Assuming that ion species are fully resolved (either by chromatography or by high resolution mass spectrometry, we conclude that a mass spectrometer capable of 3 ppm mass accuracy and 2% error for isotopic abundance patterns outperforms mass spectrometers with less than 1 ppm mass accuracy or even hypothetical mass spectrometers with 0.1 ppm mass accuracy that do not include isotope information in the calculation of molecular formulae.

  6. From single steps to mass migration: the problem of scale in the movement ecology of the Serengeti wildebeest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Colin J; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Morrison, Thomas A; Couzin, Iain D; Levin, Simon A

    2018-05-19

    A central question in ecology is how to link processes that occur over different scales. The daily interactions of individual organisms ultimately determine community dynamics, population fluctuations and the functioning of entire ecosystems. Observations of these multiscale ecological processes are constrained by various technological, biological or logistical issues, and there are often vast discrepancies between the scale at which observation is possible and the scale of the question of interest. Animal movement is characterized by processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Second-by-second decisions accumulate to produce annual movement patterns. Individuals influence, and are influenced by, collective movement decisions, which then govern the spatial distribution of populations and the connectivity of meta-populations. While the field of movement ecology is experiencing unprecedented growth in the availability of movement data, there remain challenges in integrating observations with questions of ecological interest. In this article, we present the major challenges of addressing these issues within the context of the Serengeti wildebeest migration, a keystone ecological phenomena that crosses multiple scales of space, time and biological complexity.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Mass movement susceptibility mapping - A comparison of logistic regression and Weight of evidence methods in Taounate-Ain Aicha region (Central Rif, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEMMAH A I

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taounate region is known by a high density of mass movements which cause several human and economic losses. The goal of this paper is to assess the landslide susceptibility of Taounate using the Weight of Evidence method (WofE and the Logistic Regression method (LR. Seven conditioning factors were used in this study: lithology, fault, drainage, slope, elevation, exposure and land use. Over the years, this site and its surroundings have experienced repeated landslides. For this reason, landslide susceptibility mapping is mandatory for risk prevention and land-use management. In this study, we have focused on recent large-scale mass movements. Finally, the ROC curves were established to evaluate the degree of fit of the model and to choose the best landslide susceptibility zonation. A total mass movements location were detected; 50% were randomly selected as input data for the entire process using the Spatial Data Model (SDM and the remaining locations were used for validation purposes. The obtained WofE’s landslide susceptibility map shows that high to very high susceptibility zones contain 62% of the total of inventoried landslides, while the same zones contain only 47% of landslides in the map obtained by the LR method. This landslide susceptibility map obtained is a major contribution to various urban and regional development plans under the Taounate Region National Development Program.

  8. Slope mass movements on rocky sea-cliffs: A power-law distributed natural hazard on the Barlavento Coast, Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sebastião Braz

    2006-06-01

    The coast of the Central Algarve, Portugal, is dominated by sea-cliffs, cut on Miocene calcarenites; here, the main coastal geologic hazards result from the conflict between human occupation and sea-cliff recession. The evolution of this rocky coast occurs through an intermittent and discontinuous series of slope mass movements, along a 46 km cliff front. For the last 30 years, the increase of tourism occupation has amplified the risks to both people and buildings. In the last decade we have seen several accidents caused by cliff failure, which killed or wounded people and destroyed several buildings. The definition of buffer zones limited by hazard lines parallel to the cliff edge, where land use is restricted, is a widely used and effective preventive measure for mitigating risk. Rocky coasts typically show a slow cliff evolution. The process of gathering statistically significant field inventories of mass movements is, thus, very long. Although mass movement catalogues provide fundamental information on sea cliff evolution patterns and are an outstanding tool in hazard assessment, published data sets are still rare. In this work, we use two inventories of mass movement width, recorded on sea cliffs cut on Miocene calcarenites: a nine year long continuous field inventory (1995-2004) with 140 recorded events, and a 44 year long catalogue based on comparative analysis of aerial photographs (1947-1991), that includes 177 events. The cumulative frequency-width distributions of both data sets fit, above a critical width value corresponding to the threshold of full completeness of the inventories, to power-law distributions. The knowledge of the limits of the catalogues enabled the construction of a 53 year long record inventory over the range of mean width ⩾3 m ( n=167 events) and maximum width ⩾4 m ( n=155 events). The data assembled corresponds to a partial series and was converted to a return period-size distribution. Both return period-width distributions

  9. Application of slurry nebulization to trace elemental analysis of some biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Sakashita, A.; Iwata, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Gunji, N.

    1991-01-01

    The application of slurry nebulization/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to trace elemental analysis of biological samples has been investigated. Three standard samples of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were dispersed in 1% aqueous Triton X-100 solution by grinding with a planetary micronizing mill. The resulting slurries were nebulized into an ICP without any additional treatments. The 1% (m/v) slurry of the NIST bovine liver showed no significant influence on cone blockage and signal suppression/enhancement. Detection limit, precision and accuracy were discussed for the determination of 24 elements of interest in bovine liver, rice flour and pine needles. Detection limits ranged from 0.0001 μg g -1 for U to 0.52 μg g -1 for Zn at the effective integrating time of 10 s. For high mass elements, low blank values were obtained, yielding excellent limits ( -1 ). Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements in the NIST bovine liver and rice flour, even for the volatile elements, such as As, Se and Br. However, relatively poor accuracy was obtained for the analysis of pine needles. (orig.)

  10. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-461 Clam (Gafrarium tumidum) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess the reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. This publication describes the production of the IAEA-461 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Material Producers. A sample of approximately 60 kg of clams (Gafrarium tumidum) was collected in Noumea, New Caledonia, and processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material of marine biota. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials

  11. The effect of the mass of a moderator positioned in the central region of a hollow fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.E.; Leonidou, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a short slowing down length moderator, in the central region of a hollow fuel element is investigated as a function of the mass per unit length of the central moderator . The increase of the thermal neutron flux level, when comparing the situation with that existing without a central moderator , is shown to depend on the quantity of the central moderator and on the mode of the geometrical distribution of the moderator material in the central region of the hollow fuel element. (orig.) [de

  12. Biomonitor-Reflection of Large-Distance Air Mass Transported Trace Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques Vieira, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis’ topic is the biomonitoring of atmospheric trace elements with attention focused on the long-range transported trace elements. The aim was to provide improved understanding of aerosol characteristics under the atmospheric transport dynamics of Central North Atlantic at different

  13. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Sing, David K; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S; Lewis, Nikole K; Mandell, Avi M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M

    2017-05-12

    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H 2 O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b's atmospheric heavy element content ([Formula: see text] times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Elemental Mass Balance of the Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with the Baturappe Epithermal Silver-Base Metal Prospect, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Irzal; Idrus, Arifudin; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Harijoko, Agung; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imai, Akira; Jaya, Asri; Irfan, Ulva Ria; Sufriadin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Baturappe prospect situated in southernmost part of Sulawesi island, Indonesia, is a hydrothermal mineralization district which is characterized by occurrences of epithermal silver-base metal mineralizations. The mineralizations hosted in basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks of the late Middle-Miocene Baturappe Volcanics. This paper discusses a recent study of relationships between alteration mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry, which focused on elemental mass balance calculat...

  15. An application of a relational database system for high-throughput prediction of elemental compositions from accurate mass values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nozomu; Ara, Takeshi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Yukiko; Iijima, Yoko; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Motegi, Takeshi; Aoki, Koh; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-01-15

    High-accuracy mass values detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis enable prediction of elemental compositions, and thus are used for metabolite annotations in metabolomic studies. Here, we report an application of a relational database to significantly improve the rate of elemental composition predictions. By searching a database of pre-calculated elemental compositions with fixed kinds and numbers of atoms, the approach eliminates redundant evaluations of the same formula that occur in repeated calculations with other tools. When our approach is compared with HR2, which is one of the fastest tools available, our database search times were at least 109 times shorter than those of HR2. When a solid-state drive (SSD) was applied, the search time was 488 times shorter at 5 ppm mass tolerance and 1833 times at 0.1 ppm. Even if the search by HR2 was performed with 8 threads in a high-spec Windows 7 PC, the database search times were at least 26 and 115 times shorter without and with the SSD. These improvements were enhanced in a low spec Windows XP PC. We constructed a web service 'MFSearcher' to query the database in a RESTful manner. Available for free at http://webs2.kazusa.or.jp/mfsearcher. The web service is implemented in Java, MySQL, Apache and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. sakurai@kazusa.or.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particle sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  17. Computation of the velocity field and mass balance in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem

  18. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  19. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples by spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, Akiyoshi

    1978-01-01

    A chemical concentration-mass spectrographic procedure was described for the determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in various environmental samples: airborne particulate matter, dustfall, soil and so forth. A 0.5 to 1 gram of sample material was decomposed by fusion with sodium carbonate. The silica dehydrated in the usual way was filtered off and the filtrate from the silica was then treated with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate the rare earth elements. After ignition of the precipitate, two ml of internal standard solution containing 20 μg/ml of silver were added and the mixture was then evaporated to dryness. The residue was mixed with an equal amount of graphite powder and then pressed into electrodes. Relative sensitivity coefficients (Ag=1.0) were determined by using Spex Mix and U. S. Geological Survey rock standard G-2. U. S. Geological Survey rock standard GSP-1 and N.B.S. coal fly ash SRM 1633 were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison of the mass spectral values with literature ones indicated a good agreement. The coefficient of variation obtained by replicate analysis of SRM 1633 was better than 25%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of rare earth elements in airborne particulate matter and dustfall collected on polystyrene filter and in dustjars, respectively. Results for the rare earth elements in the blank of glass fiber filter which was widely used for the collection of airborne particulate matter were also presented. (auth.)

  20. Can laser-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry be a promising alternative to laser ablation/inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry for the elemental analysis of solids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sysoev, AA; Sysoev, AA

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the age of laser-ionisation mass spectrometry (LIMS) increasing numbers of publications were observed. However, later the method began to run into obstacles associated with poor reproducibility of analysis and large variations in elemental sensitivities so that the wide interest

  1. Validity of M-3Y force equivalent G-matrix elements for calculations of the nuclear structure in heavy mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lan; Huang Weizhi; Zhou Baosen

    1996-01-01

    Using the matrix elements of M-3Y force as the equivalent G-matrix elements, the spectra of 210 Pb, 206 Pb, 206 Hg and 210 Po are calculated in the framework of the Folded Diagram Method. The results show that such equivalent matrix elements are suitable for microscopic calculations of the nuclear structure in heavy mass region

  2. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Goonetilleke, Ashantha [School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Allen, Charlotte [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia); Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George St, 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (−52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. - Highlights: • Wet milling was used to produce pressed tablet sediment for LA-ICP-MS analysis. • Milling was effective for refractive elements with narrow range of particle size. • This is the first use of LA-ICP-MS for Hg analysis in sediment samples. • Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements studied. • Detection limits down to parts per trillion were observed for some elements.

  3. The massive 3-loop operator matrix elements with two masses and the generalized variable flavor number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Schoenwald, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Goedicke, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-12-15

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the two-mass contributions to 3-loop operator matrix elements (OMEs). These OMEs are needed to compute the corresponding contributions to the deep-inelastic scattering structure functions and to generalize the variable flavor number scheme by including both charm and bottom quarks. We present the results for the non-singlet and A{sub gq,Q} OMEs, and compare the size of their contribution relative to the single mass case. Results for the gluonic OME A{sub gg,Q} are given in the physical case, going beyond those presented in a previous publication where scalar diagrams were computed. We also discuss our recently published two-mass contribution to the pure singlet OME, and present an alternative method of calculating the corresponding diagrams.

  4. Wave Propagation in Finite Element and Mass-Spring-Dashpot Lattice Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt-Phoenix, Marianne S

    2006-01-01

    ...), and a mass-spring-dashpot lattice model (MSDLM) are investigated. Specifically, the error in the ultrasonic phase speed with variations in Poisson's ratio and angle of incidence is evaluated in each model of an isotropic elastic solid...

  5. Some error estimates for the lumped mass finite element method for a parabolic problem

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzipantelidis, P.; Lazarov, R. D.; Thomé e, V.

    2012-01-01

    for the standard Galerkin method carry over to the lumped mass method whereas nonsmooth initial data estimates require special assumptions on the triangulation. We also discuss the application to time discretization by the backward Euler and Crank-Nicolson methods

  6. FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2013-01-01

    Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.

  7. Some error estimates for the lumped mass finite element method for a parabolic problem

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzipantelidis, P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the spatially semidiscrete lumped mass method for the model homogeneous heat equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Improving earlier results we show that known optimal order smooth initial data error estimates for the standard Galerkin method carry over to the lumped mass method whereas nonsmooth initial data estimates require special assumptions on the triangulation. We also discuss the application to time discretization by the backward Euler and Crank-Nicolson methods. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.

  8. Flavour symmetry restoration and kaon weak matrix elements in quenched twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Palombi, Filippo; Peña, C; Sint, S; Vladikas, A

    2007-01-01

    We simulate two variants of quenched twisted mass QCD (tmQCD), with degenerate Wilson quarks of masses equal to or heavier than half the strange quark mass. We use Ward identities in order to measure the twist angles of the theory and thus check the quality of the tuning of mass parameters to a physics condition which stays constant as the lattice spacing is varied. Flavour symmetry breaking in tmQCD is studied in a framework of two fully twisted and two standard Wilson quark flavours, tuned to be degenerate in the continuum. Comparing pseudoscalar masses, obtained from connected quark diagrams made of tmQCD and/or standard Wilson quark propagators, we confirm that flavour symmetry breaking effects, which are at most 5%, decrease as we approach the continuum limit. We also compute the pseudoscalar decay constant in the continuum limit, with reduced systematics. As a consequence of improved tuning of the mass parameters at $\\beta = 6.1$, we reanalyse our previous $B_K$ results. Our main phenomenological findin...

  9. Determination of the elemental composition of ferromanganese formations certified reference materials by mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zarubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of 41 elements in the Russian standard samples of ferromanganese nodules OOPE 601, OOPE 602, OOPE 603 and ore crust OOPE 604 were identified by mass-spectrometry with inductively-coupled plasma. Content of W was firstly presented in the sample OOPE-603. Relative standard deviation for most elements was in the range of 3-10%. A description of ICP-MS technique including sample preparation procedure and other instrumental parameters were given as well as analysis of ferromanganese nodules standard samples NOD-A-1 and NOD-P-1 of U.S. Geological Survey was demonstrated for validation. Normalized to chondrite distribution curves of REE in the studied samples were shown as an indicator of the internal consistency offound concentrations. The available literature data on the content of a wide range of elements and its comparison with the matter obtained by us was produced. Measured contents of elements in the established CRM may be useful in the analytical practice to evaluate precision of results. There is a lack of relevant information on a variety of geochemically important elements in the Russian standard samples of OOPE series and the new data can be taken into account in their certification.

  10. Molecules and elements for quantitative bioanalysis: The allure of using electrospray, MALDI, and ICP mass spectrometry side-by-side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Michael W

    2018-03-30

    To understand biological processes, not only reliable identification, but quantification of constituents in biological processes play a pivotal role. This is especially true for the proteome: protein quantification must follow protein identification, since sometimes minute changes in abundance tell the real tale. To obtain quantitative data, many sophisticated strategies using electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) have been developed in recent years. All of them have advantages and limitations. Several years ago, we started to work on strategies, which are principally capable to overcome some of these limits. The fundamental idea is to use elemental signals as a measure for quantities. We began by replacing the radioactive 32 P with the "cold" natural 31 P to quantify modified nucleotides and phosphorylated peptides and proteins and later used tagging strategies for quantification of proteins more generally. To do this, we introduced Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) into the bioanalytical workflows, allowing not only reliable and sensitive detection but also quantification based on isotope dilution absolute measurements using poly-isotopic elements. The detection capability of ICP-MS becomes particularly attractive with heavy metals. The covalently bound proteins tags developed in our group are based on the well-known DOTA chelate complex (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid) carrying ions of lanthanoides as metal core. In this review, I will outline the development of this mutual assistance between molecular and elemental mass spectrometry and discuss the scope and limitations particularly of peptide and protein quantification. The lanthanoide tags provide low detection limits, but offer multiplexing capabilities due to the number of very similar lanthanoides and their isotopes. With isotope dilution comes previously unknown accuracy. Separation techniques such as electrophoresis and HPLC were used and just

  11. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  12. Study of elemental mass size distributions at Skukuza, South Africa, during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cafmeyer, Jan; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the final dry season campaign of SAFARI 2000, a 12-stage small deposit area low pressure impactor (SDI) was operated at Skukuza, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, from 17 August until 19 September 2000. Separate day and night samples were collected (64 in total), starting at about 7:00 and at about 18:00 local time, respectively. The samples were analysed for 28 elements by PIXE. The total concentrations (summed over all 12 stages) varied quite substantially during the campaign (up to a factor of 50), but no systematic day/night difference pattern was observed. Also the size distributions were rather similar during day and night. S, K, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Pb had most of their mass in the submicrometre size range, with maximum typically at about 0.3 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter. Several of those elements are good indicators for biomass burning. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were calculated for the various elements and compared with those obtained during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, which also took place in the dry season, 41 daily samples were taken at Skukuza with a PIXE International cascade impactor (PCI). For the crustal and sea-salt elements, fairly similar MMADs were obtained in the two campaigns. For the fine-mode elements, however, the MMADs were substantially lower during SAFARI 2000 than during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, the MMADs were most likely overestimated. Compared to the SDI, the PCI is much less appropriate for studying the size distribution in the submicrometre size range

  13. Size Resolved Mass Concentration and Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean Area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Lazaridis, M.; Havránek, Vladimír; Eleftheriadis, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Bryant, C.; Colbeck, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2003), s. 2207-2216 ISSN 1680-7324 Grant - others:ENVK2(XE) 1999/00052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901; CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : atmospheric particles * elemental composition * PM1 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.317, year: 2003

  14. Size Resolved Mass Concentration and Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean Area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Lazaridis, M.; Havránek, Vladimír; Eleftheriadis, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Bryant, C.; Colbeck, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2003), s. 2547-2573 ISSN 1680-7367 Grant - others:ENVK2(XE) 1999/00052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901; CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : atmospheric particles * PM1 * elemental composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Application of ICP-MS to a trace elements mass balance study in a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettinelli, M.; Spezia, S.; Fiore, A.; Pastorelli, N.; Terni, C.; Holland, G.; Tanner, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The distributions of seven trace elements in a power plant are detd. in 3 fuels (Orimulsion, coal, and fuel oil) and output flows, i.e., ash, wastewater, gypsum, and emulsions by using ICP-MS. The power plant is equipped with sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide removal facilities. [on SciFinder (R)

  16. Determination of refractive and volatile elements in sediment using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Allen, Charlotte; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-10-22

    Wet-milling protocol was employed to produce pressed powder tablets with excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation (LA) analysis of volatile and refractive elements in sediment. The influence of sample preparation on analytical performance was also investigated, including sample homogeneity, accuracy and limit of detection. Milling in volatile solvent for 40 min ensured sample is well mixed and could reasonably recover both volatile (Hg) and refractive (Zr) elements. With the exception of Cr (-52%) and Nb (+26%) major, minor and trace elements in STSD-1 and MESS-3 could be analysed within ±20% of the certified values. Comparison of the method with total digestion method using HF was tested by analysing 10 different sediment samples. The laser method recovers significantly higher amounts of analytes such as Ag, Cd, Sn and Sn than the total digestion method making it a more robust method for elements across the periodic table. LA-ICP-MS also eliminates the interferences from chemical reagents as well as the health and safety risks associated with digestion processes. Therefore, it can be considered as an enhanced method for the analysis of heterogeneous matrices such as river sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F.; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  18. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  19. Measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the semileptonic decay channel at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The top quark plays a special role in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. With its enormous mass of about 170 GeV it is as heavy as a gold atom and is the only quark with a mass near the electroweak scale. Together with the W boson mass, the top quark mass allows indirect constraints on the mass of the hypothetical Higgs boson, which might hold the clue to the origin of mass. Top pair production with a semileptonic decay t anti t→W ± W -+ b anti b→q anti qlνb anti b is the ''golden channel'' for mass measurements, due to a large branching fraction and a relatively low background contamination compared to other decay channels. Top mass measurements based on this decay, performed with the matrix element method, have always been among the single best measurements in the world. In 2007, the top mass world average broke the 1% level of precision. Its measurement is no longer dominated by statistical but instead by systematic uncertainties. The reduction of systematic uncertainties has therefore become a key issue for further progress. This thesis introduces two new developments in the treatment of b jets. The first improvement is an optimization in the way b identification information is used. It leads to an enhanced separation between signal and background processes and reduces the statistical uncertainty by about 16%. The second improvement determines differences in the detector response and thus the energy scales of light jets and b jets. Thereby, it addresses the major source of systematic uncertainty in the latest top mass measurements. The method was validated on Monte Carlo events at the generator level, calibrated with fully simulated events, including detector simulation, and applied to D0 Run II data corresponding to 1 fb -1 of integrated luminosity. Possible sources of systematic uncertainties were studied. The top mass is measured to be: m t =(169.2±3.5(stat.)±1.0(syst.)) GeV. The simultaneous measurement of a scaling factor for the jet energy

  20. Measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the semileptonic decay channel at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Petra

    2008-07-31

    The top quark plays a special role in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. With its enormous mass of about 170 GeV it is as heavy as a gold atom and is the only quark with a mass near the electroweak scale. Together with the W boson mass, the top quark mass allows indirect constraints on the mass of the hypothetical Higgs boson, which might hold the clue to the origin of mass. Top pair production with a semileptonic decay t anti t{yields}W{sup {+-}}W{sup -+}b anti b{yields}q anti ql{nu}b anti b is the ''golden channel'' for mass measurements, due to a large branching fraction and a relatively low background contamination compared to other decay channels. Top mass measurements based on this decay, performed with the matrix element method, have always been among the single best measurements in the world. In 2007, the top mass world average broke the 1% level of precision. Its measurement is no longer dominated by statistical but instead by systematic uncertainties. The reduction of systematic uncertainties has therefore become a key issue for further progress. This thesis introduces two new developments in the treatment of b jets. The first improvement is an optimization in the way b identification information is used. It leads to an enhanced separation between signal and background processes and reduces the statistical uncertainty by about 16%. The second improvement determines differences in the detector response and thus the energy scales of light jets and b jets. Thereby, it addresses the major source of systematic uncertainty in the latest top mass measurements. The method was validated on Monte Carlo events at the generator level, calibrated with fully simulated events, including detector simulation, and applied to D0 Run II data corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Possible sources of systematic uncertainties were studied. The top mass is measured to be: m{sub t}=(169.2{+-}3.5(stat.){+-}1.0(syst.)) GeV. The

  1. The influence of rock movement on the stress/strain situation in tunnels or bore holes with radioactive canisters embedded in a bentonite/quartz buffer mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1977-08-01

    The report presents the author's main ideas concerning the possible recurence of large unexpected movements in Swedish pre-Cambrian rock and gives the theoretical basis for the calculation of stress and strain in the canisters and the buffer mass. A rough calculation shows that a sudden and large shear strain at actual depths will only occur along already existing continous weak zones in the bedrock. In situ rock investigations to find and locate weak zones are essential. Shear tests with a model shear apparatus were run with the canister embedded in 10 percent bentonite 90 percent quarz buffer mass. The least favourable theory (Meyerhof) gave high contact pressures which cause high bending momentum on the canister. The stresses can be reduced by changing the geometry of the canister. (L.B.)

  2. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschy, Daniela; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be presented emphasizing the potential, which lies in such methodological approaches. In this context, ICP-MS as detector provides high sensitivity, selectivity and robustness in biological samples and offers the capability for multiplexing and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Fundamental methodology of elemental labelling will be highlighted and analytical, as well as biomedical applications will be presented. A special focus will lie on established applications underlining benefits and bottlenecks of such approaches for the implementation in real life analysis. Key research made in this field will be summarized and a perspective for future developments including sophisticated and innovative applications will given. PMID:23062431

  3. PM mass and elemental species concentration data for I-96 monitoring sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PM2.5 (fine) and PM10-2.5 (coarse) mass concentrations for monitoring sites located 10 m, 100 m and 300 m north of Interstate I-96 in Detroit, the water-soluble and...

  4. Mass and elemental concentrations of air bone particles at Kuala Lumpur site in 2000 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric Pollution due to air bone particle is a major concern to many cities in the Southeast Asian region, including Kuala Lumpur. Within the last six years air particulate samples have been collected from a site in Kuala Lumpur and measured for their PM10, PM2.5 and elemental concentrations. The results showed that the daily PM10 (<10μ diameter) concentrations were generally acceptable but the values occasionally very high, especially during the haze episodes. The PM10 annual average values were just below the national set standard and these values were mostly contributed by the fine particles (<2μ diameter) concentration. The annual average for PM2.5 (fine particle) concentrations over the past few years were considerably high where elemental carbon, sulfur and potassium were the main components. (Author)

  5. Cyltran: finite element programs for flow and mass transport under cylindrically symmetric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1984-11-01

    A group of finite element programs are described which may be used for the analysis of complex single borehole hydraulic and tracer experiments in porous media. An outline is given of the theoretical development of the model and the computational procedures used. The equations are solved with the aid of routines specifically designed for efficient operation on vector processing machines. Finally, two simple examples of output generated by the programs are given. (author)

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Bela; Borbely, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages are detailed, moreover special interference effects of the examined elements are evaluated. The detection limits of different ICP-MS instruments are compared. As a result of our research work various solutions are proposed for multielement analysis (e.g. Se, I, Co, As, Te, Cd, Pb and Cr) of the above various samples to reach more accurate and more precise results using ICP-MS instrument

  7. Microwave assisted digestion of atmospheric aerosol samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, K.; Judd, C.D.; Orsini, J.; Yang, K.X. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research; Husain, L. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research; Dept. of Environmental Health and Toxicology, State Univ. of New York, Albany (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A microwave digestion method in a closed vessel was developed for the determination of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A recovery study for the elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, and Pb was conducted using multi-elemental standard solutions, NIST 1633b Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash, and NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter. A simple digestion method using only HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}gave good recoveries (90%-108%) for all elements except Cr in SRM 1648, but yielded low recoveries for SRM 1633b. A more robust method using HNO {sub 3}/H {sub 2}O {sub 2}/HF/H {sub 3}BO {sub 3} yielded higher recoveries (82%-103%) for the lighter elements (V - Zn) in SRM 1633b, and improved the Cr recovery in SRM 1648, but decreased the Se recovery in both SRMs. A comparative analysis of aerosol samples obtained at a remote mountain location Nathiagali, Pakistan (2.5 km above mean sea level), and Mayville, New York, downwind from the highly industrialized Midwestern United States, was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, and Sb. The simple digestion method yielded excellent agreement for Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Se, and Sb, with slopes of the ICP-MS vs. INAA regressions of 0.90-1.00 and R {sup 2} values of 0.96-1.00. The regressions for Mn and Co had slopes of 0.82 and 0.84 with R {sup 2} values of 0.83 and 0.82, respectively. Addition of HF/H {sub 3}BO {sub 3} did not improve the correlation for any of the elements and degraded the precision somewhat. The technique provides sensitivity and accuracy for trace elements in relatively small aerosol samples used in atmospheric chemistry studies related to SO {sub 2} oxidation in cloud droplets. The ability to determine concentrations of a very large number of elements from a single analysis will permit source apportionment of various trace pollutants and hence strategies to control the

  8. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  9. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  10. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  11. Langerhans′ cell histiocytosis involving posterior elements of the dorsal spine: An unusual cause of extradural spinal mass in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells occurring as an isolated lesion or as part of a systemic proliferation. It is commoner in children younger than 10 years of age with sparing of the posterior elements in more than 95% of cases. We describe a case of LCH in an adult female presenting with paraplegia. MRI revealed a well-defined extradural contrast enhancing mass at D2-D4 vertebral level involving the posterior elements of spine. D2-5 laminectomy with excision of lesion was performed which lead to marked improvement of patients neurological status. Histopathology was suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. We describe the case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare tumor presentation.

  12. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  13. Measuring the Higgs Boson Self Coupling at the LHC and Finite Top Mass Matrix Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, Ulrich; Rainwater, D L; Baur, Uli; Plehn, Tilman; Rainwater, David

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive Standard Model Higgs boson pair production and subsequent decay to same-sign dileptons via weak gauge W bosons at the CERN Large Hadron Collider has the capability to determine the Higgs boson self-coupling, lambda. The large top quark mass limit is found not to be a good approximation for the signal if one wishes to utilize differential distributions in the analysis. We find that it should be possible at the LHC with design luminosity to establish that the Standard Model Higgs boson has a non-zero self-coupling and that lambda/lambda(SM) can be restricted to a range of 0--3.7 at 95% confidence level if its mass is between 150 and 200 GeV.

  14. Certification for Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-452 Scallop (Pecten maximus) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA, particularly to its Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments needed to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Two fundamental requirements to ensure the reliability of analytical results are quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA). Since the early 1970s, NAEL has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Relevant activities include global interlaboratory comparison exercises and regional proficiency tests, the production of marine reference materials, and the development of reference methods for analysis of trace elements and organic pollutants in marine samples. QA, QC and associated good laboratory practice should be essential components of all marine environmental monitoring. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of reference materials to assess reproducibility and measurement bias. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparison exercises, which compare and evaluate the analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. The need for good QA/QC in the chemical analysis of marine environmental samples is widely recognized and has been tested in a number of international QA exercises. Such diligence also needs to be applied to other components of the monitoring exercise, since these may represent a greater source of error in many instances. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead

  15. Advanced Electronic Structure Calculations For Nanoelectronics Using Finite Element Bases and Effective Mass Theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, John King [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielsen, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baczewski, Andrew David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moussa, Jonathan Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gao, Xujiao [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinger, Andrew G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes our work over the past few years to use tools from quantum chemistry to describe electronic structure of nanoelectronic devices. These devices, dubbed "artificial atoms", comprise a few electrons, con ned by semiconductor heterostructures, impurities, and patterned electrodes, and are of intense interest due to potential applications in quantum information processing, quantum sensing, and extreme-scale classical logic. We detail two approaches we have employed: nite-element and Gaussian basis sets, exploring the interesting complications that arise when techniques that were intended to apply to atomic systems are instead used for artificial, solid-state devices.

  16. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  17. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.E.; Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66 Zn/ 63 Cu, 208 Pb/ 238 U, 232 Th/ 238 U, 66 Zn/ 232 Th and 66 Zn/ 208 Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Dulski, P.; Luck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Shortly after sampling, rare earth elements (REEs) from 11.5 l of seawater were concentrated in 35 ml solutions by ion exchange chromatography on board the German research vessel ''Sonne'' using Chelex 100 chelating resin for preconcentration. Two millilitres of a 0.2 μg g -1 Lu spike was added to the seawater samples (i) for monitoring the chemical yield which was always found to vary between 85 and 112% (mean: 100±6) and (ii) as an internal standard. Rare earth elements have been determined by ICP-MS, with REE concentrations ranging from 100 (La) to 1 (Eu) pmol kg -1 . La in blanks can be as high as 30 pmol kg -1 , but blank concentrations for other REEs range between 0.5 and 0.01 pmol kg -1 . The trend of the precision of relative response factors varies between 12% (La) and 4% (Yb). The accuracy is estimated to be about 10% with the exception of La and Ce. Methodology improvements are suggested. (author)

  19. On the elemental analysis of different cigarette brands using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation time of flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Umar, Zeshan A.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Aslam Baig, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present qualitative and quantitative analysis of the trace elements present in different brands of tobacco available in Pakistan using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser ablation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (LA-TOFMS). The compositional analysis using the calibration free LIBS technique is based on the observed emission spectra of the laser produced plasma plume whereas the elemental composition analysis using LA-TOFMS is based on the mass spectra of the ions produced by laser ablation. The optical emission spectra of these samples contain spectral lines of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon, strontium, barium, lithium and aluminum with varying intensities. The corresponding mass spectra of the elements were detected in LA-TOF-MS with their composition concentration. The analysis of different brands of cigarettes demonstrates that LIBS coupled with a LA-TOF-MS is a powerful technique for the elemental analysis of the trace elements in any solid sample.

  20. Improved method for eliminating center-of-mass coordinates from matrix elements in oscillator basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.H.; Shapiro, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, efficient method of reducing potential energy matrix elements to relative coordinates, when one is using an oscillator basis. It is especially suited to computer calculations. One nice feature of the method is its modular form, which allows a wide range of calculations. Separate FORTRAN subroutines have been written which calculate and store tables of the one-dimensional brackets of an equation that is presented and the single particle brackets from the isotropic to the axially symmetric oscillator equations. The tables are used by other subroutines which calculate the modified brackets and the brackets with spin. The methods developed here are a substantial improvement over what has been done heretofore, and open up new possibilities for performing nuclear structure calculations

  1. A provenance study of iron archaeological artefacts by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry multi-elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Mariet, Clarisse; Dillmann, Philippe; Joron, Jean Louis; Fluzin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Raw materials and wastes (i.e. ore, slag and laitier) from ironmaking archaeological sites have been analyzed in order to understand the behavior of the trace elements in the ancient ironmaking processes and to find the significant-most elements to characterize an iron making region. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) appears to be an excellent technique for this type of studies. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Addition method and the INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses) results proved that Sc, Co, (Ni), Rb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Th, U contents in the ores, slag and laitiers, and Co and Ni contents in the cast iron can be successfully determined by ICP-MS after wet acid digestion (low detection limits, good sensitivity and precision). By using significant trace element pairs (Yb/Ce, Ce/Th, La/Sc, U/Th, Nb/Y) present in the ores, laitiers and slag, it is possible to discriminate different French ironmaking regions as the Pays de Bray, Lorraine and Pays d'Ouche. These results open the way to further studies on the provenance of iron objects. The comparison between the ICP-MS results obtained with the Standard Calibration Curves method and the INAA results shows that matrices rich in iron, affect the ICP-MS analyses by suppressing the analytes signal. Further studies are necessary to improve understanding matrix effects

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry of heavy elements: /sup 36/Cl to /sup 205/Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, W

    1987-08-25

    Measurements are discussed in which the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry was applied to problems involving heavy radioisotopes. These measurements, which depend on the ion energies that can be reached with the new heavy-ion accelerator facilities, were performed at the Argonne tandem linac accelerator system (ATLAS) and at the UNILAC accelerator at GSI. The topics include a discussion of measurements of long nuclear lifetimes, of radioisotope detection of interest to solar neutrino experiments, and of a determination of the /sup 41/Ca concentration in natural samples of terrestrial origin by making use of isotopic pre-enrichment in an isotope separator. A long-known method of isobar separation, employing a gas-filled magnetic field region, has been revived for some of these measurements and its characteristics and advantages are briefly reviewed.

  3. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Yildirim; Benderli, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. it was evaluated the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it was achieved profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker

  4. Determination of rare earth elements in environmental matrices by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, J; Vanhaecke, F; Moens, L; Dams, R

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of an international certification campaign, sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sector-field ICP-MS) was used for the accurate determination of the rare earth elements in five candidate reference materials: aquatic plant, calcareous soil, mussel tissue, river sediment, and tuna muscle. All samples were taken into solution by use of microwave-assisted or mixed microwave-assisted / open beaker acid digestion. Subsequently, the samples were appropriately diluted and subjected to ICP-MS analysis. Except for Sc, all the elements involved were determined at low mass resolution (R = 300). For Sc, application of a higher resolution setting (R = 3,000) was required to separate the analyte signal from those of several molecular ions which gave rise to spectral overlap at low mass resolution. Some of the heavier REE can also suffer from spectral overlap attributed to the occurrence of oxide ions (MO+) of the lighter REE and Ba. This spectral overlap could be successfully overcome by mathematical correction. Matrix effects were overcome by use of two carefully selected internal standards, such that external calibration could be used. On each occasion, a geological reference material was analyzed as a quality-control sample and the reliability of all results obtained was additionally checked by means of chondrite normalization. For tuna muscle the content of all REE was below the limit of detection. For calcareous soil and river sediment, low to sub microg g(-1) values were observed, whereas the REE content of aquatic plant and mussel tissue was considerably lower (low to sub ng g(-1)). Overall, the results obtained were in excellent agreement with the average values, calculated on the basis of all "accepted" values, obtained in different laboratories using different techniques.

  5. Stiffness of a wobbling mass models analysed by a smooth orthogonal decomposition of the skin movement relative to the underlying bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Raphaël; Jacquelin, Eric

    2017-09-06

    The so-called soft tissue artefacts and wobbling masses have both been widely studied in biomechanics, however most of the time separately, from either a kinematics or a dynamics point of view. As such, the estimation of the stiffness of the springs connecting the wobbling masses to the rigid-body model of the lower limb, based on the in vivo displacements of the skin relative to the underling bone, has not been performed yet. For this estimation, the displacements of the skin markers in the bone-embedded coordinate systems are viewed as a proxy for the wobbling mass movement. The present study applied a structural vibration analysis method called smooth orthogonal decomposition to estimate this stiffness from retrospective simultaneous measurements of skin and intra-cortical pin markers during running, walking, cutting and hopping. For the translations about the three axes of the bone-embedded coordinate systems, the estimated stiffness coefficients (i.e. between 2.3kN/m and 55.5kN/m) as well as the corresponding forces representing the connection between bone and skin (i.e. up to 400N) and corresponding frequencies (i.e. in the band 10-30Hz) were in agreement with the literature. Consistently with the STA descriptions, the estimated stiffness coefficients were found subject- and task-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. User's Manual for the FEHM Application-A Finite-Element Heat- and Mass-Transfer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Zyvoloski; Bruce A. Robinson; Zora V. Dash; Lynn L. Trease

    1997-07-07

    This document is a manual for the use of the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media. The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. The code is also capable of incorporating the various adsorption mechanisms, ranging from simple linear relations to nonlinear isotherms, needed to describe the very complex transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data

  7. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchun Li

    2015-01-01

    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Post glacial mass movements in Western Norway with special emphasis on the 2000 - 2200 BP and 2800 - 3200 BP periods - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Lepland, Aivo; Blikra, Lars Harald; Longva, Oddvar; Soenstegaard, Eivind

    2002-01-01

    The Ormen Lange Gas Field was discovered in the Norwegian Sea outside the Moere og Romsdal in 1997. The development of this field which is located in the area of the Storegga Slide, requires safety assessment. The project aims to collect and compile data on slides, avalanches and gravitational faults that may have resulted from large earthquakes or tsunamis in the north west of Western Norway. A major task in the present project has been to investigate the spatial extent and interpret the origin of a postulated mass movement event ca. 2000 years ago and to evaluate its causes, climate variations, a tsunami (possibly caused by an earthquake affecting the offshore area), and earthquake only affecting parts of Western Norway or a combination of an earthquake and a tsunami. Several other mass movements, including the Storegga Slide tsunami deposits and pre-Storegga Slide slide and debris flow deposits have been studied both in the fjord and the lake sediments. Five of the 16 investigated fjords (Dalsfjorden, Foerdefjorden, Syvdsfjorden, Voldafjorden, Oerstadfjorden) provide evidence for a 2000 - 2200 years BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950) event. Previous investigations show no indication of a large shelf edge slide in the Storegga area, that may have created a tsunami at that time, nor are any mass movement deposits found on land or in the investigated lakes. This suggests that the 2000 - 2200 BP debris flows and turbidites were most likely related to one or more earthquakes on land or close to the coast and not an offshore mega slide generated tsunami. The Storegga Slide (8200 BP) tsunami deposits are observed in cores over most of the investigated area, both in the deep fjords and in lakes. Striking similarity between major slide and debris flow deposits at the 2000 - 2200 BP and ca. 11000 - 11700 BP stratigraphic levels suggest a common triggering mechanism, probably earthquakes with epicentres in the Sunnfjord Sunnmoere region. A period of debris flows

  9. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry for the multi-element analysis of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, M.; García-Ruiz, E.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2005-11-01

    In this work, the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of polymers has been explored. Different real-life samples (polyethylene shopping bags, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material and various plastic bricks) as well as several reference materials (VDA 001 to 004, Cd in polyethylene) have been selected for the study. Two polyethylene reference materials (ERM-EC 680 and 681), for which a reference or indicative value for the most relevant metals is available, have proved their suitability as standards for calibration. Special attention has been paid to the difficulties expected for the determination of Cr at the μg g - 1 level in this kind of materials, due to the interference of ArC + ions on the most abundant isotopes of Cr. The use of ammonia as a reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell is shown to alleviate this problem, resulting in a limit of detection of 0.15 μg g - 1 for this element, while limiting only modestly the possibilities of the technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis. In this regard, As is the analyte most seriously affected by the use of ammonia, and its determination has to be carried out in vented mode, at the expense of measuring time. In all cases studied, accurate results could be obtained for elements ranging in content from the sub-μg g - 1 level to tens of thousands of μg g - 1 . However, the use of an element of known concentration as internal standard may be needed for materials with a matrix significantly different from that of the standard (polyethylene in this work). Precision ranged between 5% and 10% RSD for elements found at the 10 μg g - 1 level or higher, while this value could deteriorate to 20% for analytes found at the sub-μg g - 1 level. Overall, the technique evaluated presents many advantages for the fast and accurate multi-element analysis of these materials, avoiding laborious digestion procedures and minimizing the risk of analyte losses due

  10. Investigating the Lymphatic System by Dual-Color Elemental Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Niehoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphedema accompanied with strong restrictions in quality of life is still major side effects in cancer therapy. Therefore, dedicated diagnostic tools and further investigation of the lymphatic system are crucial to improve lymphedema therapy. In this pilot study, a method for quantitative analysis of the lymphatic system in a rat model by laser ablation (LA with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging (ICP-MSI is presented. As a possible lymph marker, thulium(III(1R,4R,7R,10R-α,α′,α′′,α′′′-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (Tm-DOTMA is introduced and compared to the clinically used magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium(III2,2′,2′′-(10-((2R,3S-1,3,4-trihydroxybutan-2-yl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyltriacetate (Gd-DO3A-butrol. Gadobutrol functioned as standard contrast media in MRI lymphangiography to detect lymphatic flow qualitatively. Thus, Tm-DOTMA was investigated as lymphatic marker to detect lymphatic flow quantitatively. Both contrast agents were successfully used to visualize the lymphatic flow in successive lymph nodes in LA-ICP-MS due to lower limits of detection compared to MRI. Furthermore, the distribution of contrast agents by multicolored imaging showed accumulation in specific areas (sectors of the lymph nodes after application of contrast agents in different areas.

  11. Mass spectrometry imaging: Towards mapping the elemental and molecular composition of the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veličković, Dušan; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-06-01

    This short review will discuss and provide perspective into the utilization of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) in studying the rhizosphere. It also serves to compliment the multi-omic focused review by White et al. in this journal issue, as MSI is capable of elucidating chemical distributions within samples of interest in an in situ fashions, and thus can provide spatial context to MS omics data in complementary experimental endeavors. The majority of reported MSI-based studies of plant-microbe interactions have focused on the phyllosphere and ‘associated rhizosphere’ (e.g., material that is not removed during harvesting), as sample preparation for these in situ analyses tends to be a limiting factor. These studies have provided valuable insight into the spatial arrangement of proteins, peptides, lipids, and other metabolites within these systems. We intend for this short review to be a primer about the history of MSI and its role in plant-microbe analysis. Along the way we reference many comprehensive reviews for the interested reader. Lastly, we offer a perspective on the future of MSI and its use in understanding the molecular transformations beyond what we coined as the ‘associated rhizosphere’ to the rest of rhizosphere zone and into the bulk soil.

  12. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-470 Oyster Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the production of the IAEA-470 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Materials Producers. A sample of approximately 10 kg of dried oysters was taken from oysters collected, dissected and freeze-dried by the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and was further processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, methyl mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials containing the processed oyster sample were carefully capped and stored for further certification studies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability during dispatch and storage were quantified in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006, Reference Materials - General and Statistical Principles for Certification. The material was characterized by laboratories with demonstrated competence and adhering to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Uncertainties of the certified values were calculated in compliance with the guide to the Expression of Uncerdainty in Measurement (JCGM 100:2008), including uncertainty associated with heterogeneity and instability of the material, and with the characterization itself. The material is intended for the quality control and assessment of method performance. As with any reference material, it can also be used for control charts or validation studies

  13. Elemental analysis of forensic glasses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Bayne, Charles K.; Morton, Sherman A.; Smith, David H.; Koons, Robert D.; Furton, Kenneth G.

    1999-02-01

    Flat glass is a common type of evidence collected from the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, vandalism, and hit-and- run accidents. The usefulness of such evidence lies in the ability to associate the glass from the scene (or a suspect) to the original source. Physical and chemical analysis of the glass can be used for discrimination between the possible sources of glass. If the sample is large enough, physical attributes such as fracture matches, density, color, and thickness can be employed for comparison between a recovered fragment(s) to the suspect source. More commonly, refractive index (RI) comparisons are employed. Due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses where approximately 6 - 9% of casework samples are not expected to be distinguished by RI alone even if they originated from different sources. Employing methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS for the comparison of trace elemental compositions has been shown to be more discriminating than RI comparisons. The multielement capability and the sensitivity of ICP-AES and ICP-MS provide for excellent discrimination power. In this work, the sources of variability in ICP-MS of glass analysis are investigated to determine possible sources of variation. The sources of variation examined include errors due to sample preparation, instrument accuracy and precision, and interlaboratory reproducibility. Other sources of variation include inhomogeneity across a sheet of glass from the same source. Analysis of variance has been applied to our ICP-MS analysis of NIST standards and to the interlaboratory comparisons of float glass samples collected across a sheet in a production facility. The results of these experiments allows for a more accurate interpretation of forensic glass data and a better understanding of the discriminating power (absolute and practical) of ICP-MS.

  14. Measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the semileptonic decay channel at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Petra [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2008-07-31

    The top quark plays a special role in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. With its enormous mass of about 170 GeV it is as heavy as a gold atom and is the only quark with a mass near the electroweak scale. Together with theW boson mass, the top quark mass allows indirect constraints on the mass of the hypothetical Higgs boson, which might hold the clue to the origin of mass. Top pair production with a semileptonic decay t $\\bar{t}$ →W±W b$\\bar{b}$ →q $\\bar{t}$lnb$\\bar{b}$ is the ”golden channel” for mass measurements, due to a large branching fraction and a relatively low background contamination compared to other decay channels. Top mass measurements based on this decay, performed with the matrix element method, have always been among the single best measurements in the world. In 2007, the top mass world average broke the 1% level of precision. Its measurement is no longer dominated by statistical but instead by systematic uncertainties. The reduction of systematic uncertainties has therefore become a key issue for further progress. This thesis introduces two new developments in the treatment of b jets. The first improvement is an optimization in the way b identification information is used. It leads to an enhanced separation between signal and background processes and reduces the statistical uncertainty by about 16%. The second improvement determines differences in the detector response and thus the energy scales of light jets and b jets. Thereby, it addresses the major source of systematic uncertainty in the latest top mass measurements. The method was validated on Monte Carlo events at the generator level, calibrated with fully simulated events, including detector simulation, and applied to D0 Run II data corresponding to 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. Possible sources of systematic uncertainties were studied. The top mass is measured to be: mt = (169.2±3.5(stat.)±1.0(syst.)) GeV . The

  15. User`s manual for the FEHM application -- A finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data, including individual input records or parameters, and the various output files. The system interface is described, including the software environment and installation instructions.

  16. Summary of the models and methods for the FEHM application - a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    The mathematical models and numerical methods employed by the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multi-component flow in porous media, are described. The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The component models of FEHM are discussed. The first major component, Flow- and Energy-Transport Equations, deals with heat conduction; heat and mass transfer with pressure- and temperature-dependent properties, relative permeabilities and capillary pressures; isothermal air-water transport; and heat and mass transfer with noncondensible gas. The second component, Dual-Porosity and Double-Porosity/Double-Permeability Formulation, is designed for problems dominated by fracture flow. Another component, The Solute-Transport Models, includes both a reactive-transport model that simulates transport of multiple solutes with chemical reaction and a particle-tracking model. Finally, the component, Constitutive Relationships, deals with pressure- and temperature-dependent fluid/air/gas properties, relative permeabilities and capillary pressures, stress dependencies, and reactive and sorbing solutes. Each of these components is discussed in detail, including purpose, assumptions and limitations, derivation, applications, numerical method type, derivation of numerical model, location in the FEHM code flow, numerical stability and accuracy, and alternative approaches to modeling the component

  17. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  18. Correlation Results for a Mass Loaded Vehicle Panel Test Article Finite Element Models and Modal Survey Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons

  19. Modernisation of a test rig for determination of vehicle shock absorber characteristics by considering vehicle suspension elements and unsprung masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniowski, M.; Para, S.; Knapczyk, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a modernization approach of a standard test bench for determination of damping characteristics of automotive shock absorbers. It is known that the real-life work conditions of wheel-suspension dampers are not easy to reproduce in laboratory conditions, for example considering a high frequency damper response or a noise emission. The proposed test bench consists of many elements from a real vehicle suspension. Namely, an original tyre-wheel with additional unsprung mass, a suspension spring, an elastic top mount, damper bushings and a simplified wheel guiding mechanism. Each component was tested separately in order to identify its mechanical characteristics. The measured data serve as input parameters for a numerical simulation of the test bench behaviour by using a vibratory model with 3 degrees of freedom. Study on the simulation results and the measurements are needed for further development of the proposed test bench.

  20. Isotopic abundance analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with a combined elemental analyzer-mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, K.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are of growing interest as analytical tool in many fields of research, but applications were somewhat hindered in the past by the fact that cumbersome sample preparation was necessary. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an elemental analyzer with an isotope mass spectrometer, enabling fast and reliable conversion of C-, N- and S-compounds in any solid or liquid sample into the measuring gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide for on-line isotopic analysis. The experimental set-up and the main characteristics are described in short and examples of application in environmental research, food analysis and clinical diagnosis are given. (orig.)

  1. Finite element simulations of low-mass readout cables for the CBM Silicon Tracking System using RAPHAEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, M., E-mail: M.Singla@gsi.de [Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Chatterji, S.; Müller, W.F.J.; Kleipa, V.; Heuser, J.M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-21

    The first three-dimensional simulation study of thin multi-line readout cables using finite element simulation tool RAPHAEL is being reported. The application is the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM), under design at the forthcoming accelerator center FAIR in Germany. RAPHAEL has been used to design low-mass analog readout cables with minimum possible Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC). Various trace geometries and trace materials have been explored in detail for this optimization study. These cables will bridge the distance between the microstrip detectors and the signal processing electronics placed at the periphery of the silicon tracking stations. SPICE modeling has been implemented in Sentaurus Device to study the transmission loss (dB loss) in cables and simulation has been validated with measurements. An optimized design having minimum possible ENC, material budget and transmission loss for the readout cables has been proposed.

  2. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of moderate-to-high atomic-number elements at low photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajuddin, A.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients for 12 selected moderate-to-high atomic-number elements have been obtained from good-geometry measurements made at five 241 Am photon energies of significant emission intensity. Particular interest focuses on measured values for photon energies close to absorption edges. Comparisons with renormalized cross-section predictions indicate agreement to within stated error limits for the majority of cases. Significant discrepancies (> 10%) are noted for Ta at 17.8 and 26.3 keV and W at 59.5 keV. Some support for a discrepancy between measurement and theory for W in the region of 60 keV is found in the reported measurements of others. (author)

  3. Calculation of mass flow and steam quality distribution on fuel elements of light-water cooled boiling water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, H.J.

    1977-04-01

    By the example of light-water cooled nuclear reactors, the state of the calculation methods at disposal for calculating mass flow and steam quality distribution (sub-channel analysis) is indicated. Particular regard was paid to the transport phenomena occurring in reactor fuel elements in the range of two phase flow. Experimentally determined values were compared with recalculations of these experiments with the sub-channel code COBRA; from the results of these comparing calculations, conclusions could be drawn on the suitability of this code for defined applications. Limits of reliability could be determined to some extent. Based on the experience gained and the study of individual physical model concepts, recognized as being important, a sub-channel model was drawn up and the corresponding numerical computer code (SIEWAS) worked out. Experiments made at GE could be reproduced with the code SIEWAS with sufficient accuracy. (orig.) [de

  4. Elemental Composition Analysis to Investigate NOx Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol from α-Pinene Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Babar, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for 20-70% of atmospheric fine aerosol. NOx plays crucial roles in SOA formation and consequently affects the composition and yield of SOA. SOA component speciation is incomplete due to its complex composition of polar oxygenated and multifunctional species. In this study, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) was applied to improve the understanding of NOx effects on biogenic SOA formation by identifying the elemental composition of SOA. Additional research aim was to investigate oligomer components that are considered as a driving force for SOA formation and growth. In this study α-pinene SOA from photochemical reaction was examined. SOA formation was performed in the absence and presence of NOx at dry condition (grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-01350000).

  5. Development of realtime monitoring technology for laser photoreaction product - Development of glow discharge-mass spectrometry (GD-MS) hybrid techniques for trace analysis of refractory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chun [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea); Kim, Ha Suck [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyo Jin [Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research is focusing on development of hybrid techniques of glow discharge-mass spectrometry for the trace analysis of refractory elements. At first, we developed a glow discharge(GD) ionization cell and its characteristics was investigated. The new GD cell was designed based on direct current hollow cathode glow discharge and it is used for quadrupole mass analyzer and time-of-flight mass analyzer. Currently, GD-quadrupole mass spectrometry is working for the analysis of refractory elements. The experimental results show relatively good for trace analysis. In addition, ion mobile spectrometry using plasma and liquid discharge technique were investigated for the analysis of refractory elements and both techniques need more investigation to deduce the their usefulness. 30 refs., 67 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  6. [Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of thirty metals and metalloids elements in blood samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chun-guang; Zhu, Chun; Liu, De-ye; Dong, Ming; Zhang, Ai-hua; Pan, Ya-juan; Yan, Hui-fang

    2012-08-01

    To establish an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) method for determination of 30 trace elements including As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ni, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl, V, Ge, Mo, Nb, Ti, W, Te, Se, Zr, In, Sb, Hg, Ce, La, and Sm in human blood. The blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS after diluted 1/10 with 0.01% Triton-X-100 and 0.5% nitric acid solution. Y, Rh and Lu were selected as internal standard in order to correct the matrix interference of Cr, As, Se, and Hg by a hex pole-based collision-reaction cell. Other elements were determined with standard method. The limits of detection, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated. The accuracy was validated by the determination of the whole blood reference material. All the 30 trace elements have good linearity in their determination range, with the correlation coefficient > 0.9999. The limits of detection of the 30 trace elements were in the range of 1.19 - 2.15 µg/L and the intra-precision and inter-precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) were less than 14.3% (except Hg RSD < 21.2%, and Ni RSD < 15.4%). The spiked recovery for all elements fell within 59.3% - 119.2%. Among the 13 whole blood reference materials, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Te, and Pb (1.45, 1.19, 18.40, 0.18, 1.57, 591.00, 2.97, 61.00, 0.35, 1.86, and 9.70 µg/L respectively) fell within the acceptable range and the detection results of Hg (0.59 µg/L) and Mo (1.59 µg/L) were slightly beyond the range. This method was simple, fast and effective. It can be used to monitor the multi-elementary concentration in human blood.

  7. Bioimaging mass spectrometry of trace elements – recent advance and applications of LA-ICP-MS: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.Sabine, E-mail: s.becker@fz-juelich.de [Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics (ZEA-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Matusch, Andreas, E-mail: a.matusch@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Wu, Bei, E-mail: b.wu@fz-juelich.de [Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics (ZEA-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich D-52425 (Germany)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Bioimaging LA-ICP-MS is established for trace metals within biomedical specimens. • Trace metal imaging allows to study brain function and neurodegenerative diseases. • Laser microdissection ICP-MS was applied to mouse brain hippocampus and wheat root. - Abstract: Bioimaging using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) offers the capability to quantify trace elements and isotopes within tissue sections with a spatial resolution ranging about 10–100 μm. Distribution analysis adds to clarifying basic questions of biomedical research and enables bioaccumulation and bioavailability studies for ecological and toxicological risk assessment in humans, animals and plants. Major application fields of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and metallomics have been in brain and cancer research, animal model validation, drug development and plant science. Here we give an overview of latest achievements in methods and applications. Recent improvements in ablation systems, operation and cell design enabled progressively better spatial resolutions down to 1 μm. Meanwhile, a body of research has accumulated covering basic principles of the element architecture in animals and plants that could consistently be reproduced by several laboratories such as the distribution of Fe, Cu, Zn in rodent brain. Several studies investigated the distribution and delivery of metallo-drugs in animals. Hyper-accumulating plants and pollution indicator organisms have been the key topics in environmental science. Increasingly, larger series of samples are analyzed, may it be in the frame of comparisons between intervention and control groups, of time kinetics or of three-dimensional atlas approaches.

  8. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  9. Determination of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in Jatropha curcas seeds, oil and biodiesel using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, P.B.; Barros de, L.L.S.; Duarte, E.C.M.; Harder, M.N.C.; Abreu, Jr.C.H.; Villanueva, F.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable and biodegradable fuel that can be used in diesel engines as a replacement for fossil diesel. A suitable alternative is to produce it from Jatropha curcas, which has high quality oil concentration. Nevertheless, the presence of particular chemical elements above certain limits can affect the product quality, leading to vehicle engine problems and acting as air pollution source. The objective of this work is to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, and Pb in J. curcas seeds, oil and biodiesel using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. This material was evaluated because has been successfully employed in India for biodiesel production as well as in other places where there is an incentive to family farming, without affect the food chain. The oil was obtained from seeds via mechanical extraction and the biodiesel was achieved by oil transesterification. After optimization of the microwave digestion method for the different sample types, the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1515 (apple leaves) and the recovery tests were carried out to ensure the accuracy of the proposed method, which made possible the quantification of several nutrients and potentially toxic elements in J. curcas seeds, oil and biodiesel, especially Na, K, Ca, Mg, P and S in biodiesel which are mandatory analyzed by Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuel National Agency (ANP). This work highlights the findings of the first study of potentially toxic and nutrient elements in the production chain steps seed-oil-biodiesel from J. curcas. (author)

  10. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Calcium Binding Properties and Allosteric Regulation of Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Craig, Theodore A; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L

    2017-07-18

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) is an EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding protein that also binds to a specific DNA sequence, downstream regulatory elements (DRE), and thereby regulates transcription in a calcium-dependent fashion. DREAM binds to DRE in the absence of Ca 2+ but detaches from DRE under Ca 2+ stimulation, allowing gene expression. The Ca 2+ binding properties of DREAM and the consequences of the binding on protein structure are key to understanding the function of DREAM. Here we describe the application of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the Ca 2+ binding properties and the subsequent conformational changes of full-length DREAM. We demonstrate that all EF-hands undergo large conformation changes upon calcium binding even though the EF-1 hand is not capable of binding to Ca 2+ . Moreover, EF-2 is a lower-affinity site compared to EF-3 and -4 hands. Comparison of HDX profiles between wild-type DREAM and two EF-1 mutated constructs illustrates that the conformational changes in the EF-1 hand are induced by long-range structural interactions. HDX analyses also reveal a conformational change in an N-terminal leucine-charged residue-rich domain (LCD) remote from Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands. This LCD domain is responsible for the direct interaction between DREAM and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and regulates the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB-binding protein. These long-range interactions strongly suggest how conformational changes transmit the Ca 2+ signal to CREB-mediated gene transcription.

  11. Mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} at an industrial site in Kingston, Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Johan, E-mail: johan.boman@chem.gu.se; Gaita, Samuel M.

    2015-11-15

    An estimated three million premature deaths yearly can be attributed to ambient particulate pollution, a majority of them in low and middle income countries. The rapid increase in the vehicle fleet in urban areas of the Caribbean countries have experienced contributes to the bad urban air quality. In this study aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than, or equal to, 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected over 24 h at a site along Spanish Town Road, one of the main commuter roads in Kingston, Jamaica. The study was aimed at determining the mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} in Kingston. Although lead in the gasoline was phased out in the year 2000, up to 5000 ppm of sulfur is still allowed in the diesel, leading to an extensive secondary particle formation. PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected using a Mini-vol sampler between 12 December 2013 and 21 March 2014 and analyzed for trace elements using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Lund University, Sweden. Concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. Elemental concentrations showed a high temporal variation and the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration (44 μg m{sup −3}) is higher than the air quality standards that apply in the European Union (25 μg m{sup −3}) and in the USA (12 μg m{sup −3}). From this we can conclude that the air quality in the area is severely influenced by PM{sub 2.5} pollution and that there is a need to develop plans for improving the air quality in Kingston city.

  12. Spatial correlation between the predictor variables and the weighting values calculated during the mapping of the environmental factors of mass movements in the Beni Idder region (northern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait Brahim L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tleta of Beni Ider region located in the SW of Tetouan (Rif Septentrional knows many mass instabilities. The diagnostic via the inventory, the mapping and the characterization of mass movements was made by using satellite imagery, aerial photography and field data coupled with existing documents (geological, geomorphological,…. The understanding of both their spatial distribution and the mechanism generating them, is very complex because of the existence of an important number of natural factors (geological, geomorphological, hydrological in a relative mountainous landscape with deep valleys, steep slopes and significant elevation changes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to elaborate the landslide susceptibility map of the region taking into account interactions and causal relationships between the various natural parameters that tend to accentuate and aggravate the setting of landslides. The multidisciplinary database allowed us to evaluate the susceptibility thanks to a bivariate probabiliste model (Weight of Evidence. The obtained landslide susceptibility map is a major contribution to the development of urban development plans in the region.

  13. Study on elemental analysis of metal and ceramic samples by using laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry(LAITMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Park, Hyun Kook; Lee, Sang Chun; SONG, Kyu Seok

    2002-01-01

    Laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry (LAITMS) was developed for the analysis of metal and ceramic samples. For this study, XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) was used for ablating the samples and ITMS was used as a detector. Samples were introduced from outside of a ring electrode and this way of sample introduction was very effective for solid samples when laser ablation was employed. Helium gas was used as a buffer gas, and its effect on sensitivity and some parameters (buffer gas pressure, ion storage time, and cut-off RF voltage) were studied. The optimized conditions were 1 x 10 - 4 Torr of buffer gas pressure, 100 ms of ion storage time and 1150 V p- p of cut-off RF voltage. From that results, copper (Cu) and molybdenum(Mo) metals were tested with LAITMS and the mass spectra of these pure metals were compared with the natural abundance of isotope ratio. We also examined ceramic samples (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and represented the result of elements analysis

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) Study of Mass-Transfer Mechanisms in Riser Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Varas, Álvaro E; Peters, E A J F; Kuipers, J A M

    2017-05-17

    We report a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation study on the interplay between mass transfer and a heterogeneous catalyzed chemical reaction in cocurrent gas-particle flows as encountered in risers. Slip velocity, axial gas dispersion, gas bypassing, and particle mixing phenomena have been evaluated under riser flow conditions to study the complex system behavior in detail. The most important factors are found to be directly related to particle cluster formation. Low air-to-solids flux ratios lead to more heterogeneous systems, where the cluster formation is more pronounced and mass transfer more influenced. Falling clusters can be partially circumvented by the gas phase, which therefore does not fully interact with the cluster particles, leading to poor gas-solid contact efficiencies. Cluster gas-solid contact efficiencies are quantified at several gas superficial velocities, reaction rates, and dilution factors in order to gain more insight regarding the influence of clustering phenomena on the performance of riser reactors.

  15. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Oz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  16. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurler, O.; Oz, H.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature

  17. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  18. Slope mass movements on SPOT satellite images: A case of the Železniki area (W Slovenia after flash floods in September 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Jemec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods in Slovenia, which was exposed on September 18th 2007, demanded 6 lives, several thousand houses and over one thousand kilometres of roads were damaged and more also than 50 bridges. The highest amount of rain fell at west and north-west parts of Slovenia (northern Primorska region and southern Gorenjska region,from where heavy rain spread eastwards over the central Slovenia and in east part of Slovenia. In the article we focused on area of western and north-western part of Slovenia. The aim of present research was in the first phase to describe methodology to determine landslide occurrences from satellite images before and after natural disaster on Železniki region. Second phase was based on comparison of obtained results with the existing models for prediction of slope mass movements, and finally also to determine identificability of landslide types on a satellite image.Results have shown, that the highest part of obtaining area from supervised and unsupervised classification of satellite images, are comparable with classes of landslide susceptibility, where occurrences of landslide are largest.

  19. Software requirements, design, and verification and validation for the FEHM application - a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Z.V.; Robinson, B.A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1997-07-01

    The requirements, design, and verification and validation of the software used in the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media, are described. The test of the DOE Code Comparison Project, Problem Five, Case A, which verifies that FEHM has correctly implemented heat and mass transfer and phase partitioning, is also covered

  20. Os movimentos populares no Brasil: elementos sócio-históricos e desafios atuais * The popular movements in Brazil: elements historic social and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELLY FERREIRA MONTEIRO ELIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo reflete sobre alguns desafios dos movimentos sociais de caráter popular no contexto atual da luta de classes no país. Consideram-se os movimentos populares como manifestações das lutas sociais que possuem determinações específicas de acordo com o movimento histórico. Diante das lutas que se configuraram da década de 1980 até os anos 2000, atualmente os desafios colocados para os movimentos populares estão permeados pela fragilidade do movimento operário; pela permanência da reestruturação produtiva e predominância do capital financeiro no contexto imperialista; pela continuidade de uma correlação de forças desfavoráveis para as lutas da classe trabalhadora e por uma conjuntura política caracterizada pelo Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT no comando do Governo Federal.Palavras-chave: lutas sociais; movimentos populares; realidade brasileira.Abstract: This article reflects about some challenges of social movements of popular character in the current context of class struggles in the country. Consider the popular movements as expressions of social struggles which have specific determinations in accordance with the historical movement. Faced of the struggles that have taken shape of the decade from 1980 until the year 2000, currently the challenges posed to the popular movements are permeated by the weakness of the labor movement; the permanence of productive restructuring and the predominance of financial capital in the context imperialist; by continuity of a correlation of forces unfavourable for the struggles of the working class and by a political situation characterized by the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT in command of the Federal Government.Keywords: social struggles; populars movements; Brazilian reality.

  1. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity–plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform. (paper)

  2. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  3. The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of toxic and essential elements in different types of food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, C.; Dehelean, A.; Kovacs, M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements. In this context, levels of essential and toxic elements must be determined routinely in consumed food products. The content of trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, Hg) in different types of food samples (e.g. rice, bread, sugar, cheese, milk, butter, wheat, coffee, chocolate, biscuits pasta, etc.) was determined, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Trace element contents in some foods were higher than maximum permissible levels of toxic metals in human food (Cd in bread, Zn in cheese, Cu in coffee, Hg in carrots and peppers).

  4. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  5. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  6. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuta, Jan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kynický, Jindřich [Department of Pedology and Geology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Elements in phosphate and oxalate urolith phases were quantified by LA-ICP-MS. • SRM NIST 1486 Bone Meal was proved suitable for quantification in uroliths. • Different ablation rates in particular phases were included at quantification. • Oxalate and apatite phases show opposite hardness order to natural minerals. • Uroliths were classified according to elemental association to phases.

  7. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  8. Dynamic Cluster Analysis: An Unbiased Method for Identifying A+2 Element Containing Compounds in Liquid Chromatographic High-Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometric Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Hansen, Per Juel; Jørgensen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    over 2800 u or metabolites which contained other A+2 elements, such as Cu, Ni, Mg, and Zn. It was determined that with an inter-isotopic mass accuracy of 1 ppm, in a fully automated process, using all three parameters, it is possible to specifically filter a chromatogram for S containing metabolites...

  9. On the time-stepping stability of continuous mass-lumped and discontinuous Galerkin finite elements for the 3D acoustic wave equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (SIP-DG). Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog

  10. Single-experiment simultaneous-measurement of elemental mass-attenuation coefficients of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen for 0.123-1.33 MeV gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teli, M.T.; Nathuram, R.; Mahajan, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    As it is inconvenient to use elements like hydrogen, carbon and oxygen in pure forms for measurement of their gamma mass-attenuation coefficients, the measurements are to be done indirectly, by using compounds of the elements or a mixture of them. We give here a simple method of measuring the total mass-attenuation coefficients μ/ρ of the elements in a compound simultaneously and in a single experiment through the measurements of the μ/ρ values of the concerned compounds and using the mixture rule. The method is applied for the measurement of μ/ρ of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen by using acetone, ethanol and 1-propanol. Our results (for E γ =0.123-1.33 MeV) are seen to be in better agreement with the theoretical values of Hubbell and Seltzer (1995) [Hubbell J.H. and Seltzer S.M. (1995). Tables of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy-absorption coefficients 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest. NISTIR 5632] as compared to the results of El-Kateb and Abdul-Hamid (1991) [El-Kateb, A.H., Abdul-Hamid, A.S., 1991. Photon attenuation coefficient study of some materials containing hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Appl. Rad. Isot. 42, 303-307

  11. Elemental analysis of coal by tandem laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Meirong; Oropeza, Dayana; Chirinos, José; González, Jhanis J.; Lu, Jidong; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The capabilities and analytical benefits of combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS were evaluated for the analysis of coal samples. The ablation system consisted of a Nd:YAG laser operated 213 nm. A Czerny-turner spectrograph with ICCD detector and time-of-flight based mass spectrometer were utilized for LIBS and ICP-MS detection, respectively. This tandem approach allows simultaneous determination of major and minor elements (C, Si, Ca, Al, Mg), and trace elements (V, Ba, Pb, U, etc.) in the coal samples. The research focused on calibration strategies, specifically the use of univariate and multivariate data analysis on analytical performance. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was shown to minimize and compensate for matrix effects in the emission and mass spectra improving quantitative analysis by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. The correlation between measurements from these two techniques demonstrated that mass spectral data combined with LIBS emission measurements by PLSR improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of trace elements in coal. - Highlights: • Tandem LIBS LA-ICP-MS • Simultaneous determination of major and minor elements and trace elements in the coal samples. • Extended Dynamic Range • Correlation between LIBS with LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of coal

  12. Elemental analysis of coal by tandem laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Meirong [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Oropeza, Dayana [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chirinos, José [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Escuela de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1041a (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lu, Jidong [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Mao, Xianglei [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Russo, Richard E., E-mail: RERusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The capabilities and analytical benefits of combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS were evaluated for the analysis of coal samples. The ablation system consisted of a Nd:YAG laser operated 213 nm. A Czerny-turner spectrograph with ICCD detector and time-of-flight based mass spectrometer were utilized for LIBS and ICP-MS detection, respectively. This tandem approach allows simultaneous determination of major and minor elements (C, Si, Ca, Al, Mg), and trace elements (V, Ba, Pb, U, etc.) in the coal samples. The research focused on calibration strategies, specifically the use of univariate and multivariate data analysis on analytical performance. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was shown to minimize and compensate for matrix effects in the emission and mass spectra improving quantitative analysis by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. The correlation between measurements from these two techniques demonstrated that mass spectral data combined with LIBS emission measurements by PLSR improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of trace elements in coal. - Highlights: • Tandem LIBS LA-ICP-MS • Simultaneous determination of major and minor elements and trace elements in the coal samples. • Extended Dynamic Range • Correlation between LIBS with LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved the accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of coal.

  13. Scanning transmission ion microscopy mass measurements for quantitative trace element analysis within biological samples and validation using atomic force microscopy thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deves, Guillaume [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)]. E-mail: deves@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, F33405 Talence cedex (France); Ortega, Richard [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    We used the nuclear microprobe techniques, micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission), micro-RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in order to perform the characterization of trace element content and spatial distribution within biological samples (dehydrated cultured cells, tissues). The normalization of PIXE results was usually expressed in terms of sample dry mass as determined by micro-RBS recorded simultaneously to micro-PIXE. However, the main limit of RBS mass measurement is the sample mass loss occurring during irradiation and which could be up to 30% of the initial sample mass. We present here a new methodology for PIXE normalization and quantitative analysis of trace element within biological samples based on dry mass measurement performed by mean of STIM. The validation of STIM cell mass measurements was obtained in comparison with AFM sample thickness measurements. Results indicated the reliability of STIM mass measurement performed on biological samples and suggested that STIM should be performed for PIXE normalization. Further information deriving from direct confrontation of AFM and STIM analysis could as well be obtained, like in situ measurements of cell specific gravity within cells compartment (nucleolus and cytoplasm)

  14. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for elemental analysis and isotope ratio determinations in individual organic compounds separated by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, N.S.; Houk, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) with a packed column was interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to yield atomic mass spectra from volatile organic compounds. Atomization of injected compounds was nearly complete and independent of molecular structure, so that elemental ratios could be determined. Detection limits were in the range 0.001 to 400 ng s -1 , depending on the ionization energy of the element and its abundance in the background spectrum. The relative standard deviation of measured isotope ratios varied from 0.4% for Br (i.e., a ratio close to unity) to 18% for N (a very large ratio). Thus, GC-ICP-MS provides elemental and isotope ratio information that is complementary to the molecular information derived from GC-MS with conventional ionization methods

  15. Trace Element Analysis of Minerals in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ores by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Approaches and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS has rapidly established itself as the method of choice for generation of multi-element datasets for specific minerals, with broad applications in Earth science. Variation in absolute concentrations of different trace elements within common, widely distributed phases, such as pyrite, iron-oxides (magnetite and hematite, and key accessory minerals, such as apatite and titanite, can be particularly valuable for understanding processes of ore formation, and when trace element distributions vary systematically within a mineral system, for a vector approach in mineral exploration. LA-ICP-MS trace element data can assist in element deportment and geometallurgical studies, providing proof of which minerals host key elements of economic relevance, or elements that are deleterious to various metallurgical processes. This contribution reviews recent advances in LA-ICP-MS methodology, reference standards, the application of the method to new mineral matrices, outstanding analytical uncertainties that impact on the quality and usefulness of trace element data, and future applications of the technique. We illustrate how data interpretation is highly dependent on an adequate understanding of prevailing mineral textures, geological history, and in some cases, crystal structure.

  16. Environmental application of elemental speciation analysis based on liquid or gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Maximilian; Hann, Stephan; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the number of environmental applications of elemental speciation analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector has increased significantly. The analytical characteristics, such as extremely low detection limits (LOD) for almost all elements, the wide linear range, the possibility for multi-elemental analysis and the possibility to apply isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) make ICP-MS an attractive tool for elemental speciation analysis. Two methodological approaches, i.e. the combination of ICP-MS with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC), dominate the field. Besides the investigation of metals and metalloids and their species (e.g. Sn, Hg, As), representing 'classic' elements in environmental science, more recently other elements (e.g. P, S, Br, I) amenable to ICP-MS determination were addressed. In addition, the introduction of isotope dilution analysis and the development of isotopically labeled species-specific standards have contributed to the success of ICP-MS in the field. The aim of this review is to summarize these developments and to highlight recent trends in the environmental application of ICP-MS coupled to GC and HPLC.

  17. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  18. Mass loading of selected major and trace elements in Lake Fork Creek near Leadville, Colorado, September-October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    load to the stream were the parts of the study reach containing inflow from the tribu-taries Halfmoon Creek (calcium) and Willow Creek (sulfate). The Arkansas River and its tributaries upstream from Lake Fork Creek were the source of most of the calcium (70 percent), sulfate (82 percent), manganese (77 percent), lead (78 percent), and zinc (95 percent) loads in the Arkansas River downstream from the Lake Fork confluence. In contrast, Lake Fork Creek was the major source of aluminum (68 percent), copper (65 percent), and iron (87 percent) loads to the Arkansas River downstream from the confluence. Attenuation was not important for calcium, sulfate, or iron. However, other metals loads were reduced up to 81 percent over the study reach (aluminum, 25 percent; copper, 20 percent; manganese, 81 percent; lead, 30 percent; zinc, 72 percent). Metal attenuation in the stream occurred primarily in three locations (1) the irrigation diversion ditch; (2) the beaver pond complex extending from upstream from the Colorado Gulch inflow to just downstream from that inflow; and (3) the stream reach that included the inflow from Willow Creek. The most likely attenuation mechanism is precipitation of metal oxides and hydroxides (primarily manganese), and sorption or coprecipitation of trace elements with the precipitating phase. A mass-balance calculation indicated that the wetland between the Dinero Tunnel and Lake Fork Creek removed iron, had little effect on zinc mass load, and was a source for, or was releasing, aluminum and manganese. In contrast, the wetland that occurred between the Siwatch Tunnel and Lake Fork Creek removed aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc from the tunnel drainage before it entered the creek. Inflow from the National Fish Hatchery increased dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Lake Fork Creek and slightly changed the composition of the dissolved organic carbon. However, dissolved organic carbon loads increased in the stream reach downs

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the determination of toxic and essential elements in Australian foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Bowles, C.J.; Farrar, Y.J.; Warner, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    Current Australian legislation specifies the maximum permitted levels of nine toxic elements in foods while the National Health and Medical Research Council (NH and NRC) has listed recommended daily intake figures for seven essential elements. This investigation examined the compliance of Australian foods with both these requirements. Australia-wide samples of representative foods from the diets of Australians were used in this study after the NH and NRC kindly permitted us to join their Market Basket (Noxious Substance) Survey. Both toxic and essential element concentrations in these foods were determined using the advanced analytical techniques of instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. With very few exceptions foods do not exceed the maximum, permitted levels for toxic substances. Daily intake figures for essential elements generally lie close to the maximum recommended values listed by NH and NRC. (author). 11 refs, 22 figs, 17 tabs

  20. On the prospects to detect superheavy elements (SHE) in the earth's crust using the high energy synchrotron radiation and the mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnier, C.

    2001-01-01

    There are many indications for the existence of superheavy elements (SHE) in the Earth's crust. The appropriate detection methods are X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using the high energy synchrotron radiation and the mass spectrometry. The characteristic X-rays of each element up to Z >120 (corresponding binding energy of the K-electrons E b >230 keV) can be precisely excited with synchrotron XRF. Up to now, the XRF with high energy photons has never been applied to the quest for SHE. New methods of mass spectrometry eg using resonance ionization (RIMS) are promising to detect unambiguously atomic masses about 300 in solid matrices. It is proposed to restart the quest for SHE in the nature. Finding a SHE in the Earth's crust would be very important, because of what it will tell us about the origin of the elements eg about the nucleosynthesis during a super nova explosion, the structure of the atomic nuclei and the site of SHE in the periodic table of elements. (orig.) [de

  1. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  2. Quantification of trace amounts of rare earth elements in high purity gadolinium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Abrao, A.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have received much attention in the fields of geochemistry and industry. Gadolinium oxide is used for many different high technology applications such as infrared absorbing automotive glass, petroleum cracking catalyst, gadolinium-yttrium garnets, microwave applications, and color TV tube phosphors. It can also be used in optical glass manufacturing and in the electronic industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of the rare earth elements are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. In general, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) presents some advantages for trace element analysis, due to high sensitivity and resolution, when compared with other analytical techniques. In this work, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y, and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the ICP-MS system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the ICP-MS system were about 0.2-8 pg ml -1 . The recovery percentage ranged from 95 to 100% for different rare earth elements. The %R.S.D. of the methods varying between 1.5 and 2.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two high pure gadolinium oxides samples (IPEN and JMC) was performed. IPEN's material is highly pure (>99.99%) and was successfully analyzed without spectral interference

  3. Direct determination of trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples with slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guoqiang; Jiang Zucheng; He Man; Hu Bin

    2005-01-01

    A method for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples by slurry sampling fluorinating electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent. It was found that Si, as a main matrix element in ancient porcelain sample, could be mostly removed at the ashing temperature of 1200 deg. C without considerable losses of the analytes. However, the chemical composition of ancient porcelain sample is very complicated, which makes the influences resulting from other matrix elements not be ignored. Therefore, the matrix effect of ancient porcelain sample was also investigated, and it was found that the matrix effect is obvious when the matrix concentration was larger than 0.8 g l -1 . The study results of particle size effect indicated that when the sample particle size was less than 0.057 mm, the particle size effect is negligible. Under the optimized operation conditions, the detection limits for rare earth elements by fluorinating electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were 0.7 ng g -1 (Eu)-33.3 ng g -1 (Nd) with the precisions of 4.1% (Yb)-10% (La) (c = 1 μg l -1 , n = 9). The proposed method was used to directly determine the trace rare earth elements in ancient porcelain samples produced in different dynasty (Sui, Ming and Qing), and the analytical results are satisfactory

  4. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  5. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  6. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N ∝ 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of 241 Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    , drying, milling and sieving to collect the fraction of particles less than 150 mu m in sizer In this fraction the trace elements were homogeneously distributed using a 400 mg sample intake for analysis, The total track element concentrations were determined by graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic...... mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for qualitative verification, Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the analytical data using the DANREF software, it was decided to assign certified values for mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the NFA Shrimp, and mercury, selenium and arsenic in the NFA Plaice...

  8. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Geologic Samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; US DOE Topical Report - DOE/NETL-2016/1794

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, Tracy L. [AECOM, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Roth, Elliot A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tinker, Phillip [AECOM, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Granite, Evan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-17

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to measure the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in certified standard reference materials including shale and coal. The instrument used in this study is a Perkin Elmer Nexion 300D ICP-MS. The goal of the study is to identify sample preparation and operating conditions that optimized recovery of each element of concern. Additionally, the precision and accuracy of the technique are summarized and the drawbacks and limitations of the method are outlined.

  9. Determination of δ13C, δ15N, or δ34S by isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry using an elemental analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gulbransen, Cayce A.; Emmons, Matthew P.

    2018-02-14

    This report describes procedures used in the Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, to determine the stable-isotope ratios 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 34S/32S in solid materials. The procedures use elemental analyzers connected directly to gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. A different elemental–analyzer–mass-spectrometer system is used for 13C/12C and 15N/14N than is used for 34S/32S to accommodate differences in reagents, catalysts, and instrument settings.

  10. The determination of the C, N, O and trace element content of Triticum aestivum by activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Dahn, E.; Dietze, H.J.; Freyer, K.; Geisler, M.; Hartmann, G.; Jung, K.; Schelhorn, H.

    1979-01-01

    The results of determinations of the C, N, O and trace element content of grains, sprouts and leaves of Triticum aestivum by means of various methods of activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry are presented. The C and O contents were determined by X-ray excitation; the O, N, P and Si contents were measured by NAA with 14-MeV neutrons, and the trace elements were determined by NAA with thermal neutrons. A mass-spectrometric survey analysis confirmed the results obtained by NAA. The use of neutron-induced nuclear reactions together with autoradiography enabled a representative picture to be formed of the spatial distribution in two dimensions of 14 N in biological specimens. (author)

  11. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  12. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with the D0 Detector at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV using the Matrix Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, Kevin Alexander; /Bonn U.

    2004-04-01

    Using a data set of 158 and 169 pb{sup -1} of D0 Run-II data in the electron and muon plus jets channel, respectively, the top quark mass has been measured using the Matrix Element Method. The method and its implementation are described. Its performance is studied in Monte Carlo using ensemble tests and the method is applied to the Moriond 2004 data set.

  13. Mass-movement and flood-induced deposits in Lake Ledro, southern Alps, Italy: implications for Holocene palaeohydrology and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonneau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores from Lake Ledro combined with soil and riverbed samples from the lake's catchment area are used to assess the recurrence of natural hazards (earthquakes and flood events in the southern Italian Alps during the Holocene. Two well-developed deltas and a flat central basin are identified on seismic profiles in Lake Ledro. Lake sediments have been finely laminated in the basin since 9000 cal. yr BP and frequently interrupted by two types of sedimentary events (SEs: light-coloured massive layers and dark-coloured graded beds. Optical analysis (quantitative organic petrography of the organic matter present in soil, riverbed and lacustrine samples together with lake sediment bulk density and grain-size analysis illustrate that light-coloured layers consist of a mixture of lacustrine sediments and mainly contain algal particles similar to the ones observed in background sediments. Light-coloured layers thicker than 1.5 cm in the main basin of Lake Ledro are synchronous to numerous coeval mass-wasting deposits remoulding the slopes of the basin. They are interpreted as subaquatic mass-movements triggered by historical and pre-historical regional earthquakes dated to AD 2005, AD 1891, AD 1045 and 1260, 2545, 2595, 3350, 3815, 4740, 7190, 9185 and 11 495 cal. yr BP. Dark-coloured SEs develop high-amplitude reflections in front of the deltas and in the deep central basin. These beds are mainly made of terrestrial organic matter (soils and lignocellulosic debris and are interpreted as resulting from intense hyperpycnal flood event. Mapping and quantifying the amount of soil material accumulated in the Holocene hyperpycnal flood deposits of the sequence allow estimating that the equivalent soil thickness eroded over the catchment area reached up to 5 mm during the largest Holocene flood events. Such significant soil erosion is interpreted as resulting from the combination of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. The

  14. PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chiang Mai (Thailand): Seasonal variations, source identification, health risk assessment and their relationship to air-mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriya, Wan; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn

    2013-04-01

    found that vehicle emission and biomass burning were the main sources of PM10 and PAHs in this area. The high ratio value of benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene (BaA/CHR) in the dry season of 2010 indicated possible photochemical processes and long distance emissions. Findings on source identification of PM10 and PAHs were found to be relevant to the direction and speed of air mass movement run by backward trajectory.

  15. Mass distribution and elemental analysis of the resultant atmospheric aerosol particles generated in controlled biomass burning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordou, N.; Agranovski, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air contamination resulting from bushfires is becoming increasingly important research question, as such disasters frequently occur in many countries. The objectives of this project were focused on physical and chemical characterisations of particulate emission resulting from burning of common representatives of Australian vegetation under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that leaves are burned mostly with flaming phase and producing black smoke resulting in larger particles compared to white smoke in case of branches and grass, dominated by smouldering phase, producing finer particles. Following elemental analysis determined nine main elements in three different size fractions of particulate matter for each category of burning material, ranging from 14.1 μm to particle sizes below 2.54 μm. Potassium was found to be one of the main biomass markers, and sulphur was the ubiquitous element among the smoke particles followed by less prevalent trace elements like Na, Al, Mg, Zn, Si, Ca, and Fe.

  16. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and strontium isotopes by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2001-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) determination of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium in forest, pasture, field and kitchen garden soils from a Russian territory and in certified reference materials (JLK-1, JSD-2 and BCR-1) is described. In addition to concentration data, strontium isotopic composition of the soil samples were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The measurements contributed to the understanding of the background levels of these elements in an area contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. There was not a significant variation in the concentration of REEs at different depth levels in forest soil samples, however, the ratio of Th/U varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varied to some extent, the ratio did not show much variation. The value of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, was in the top layer soil sample relatively higher than in the lower layers. (author)

  17. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  18. Implementation of fully coupled heat and mass transport model to determine the behaviour of timber elements in fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pečenko, Robert; Huč, Sabina; Turk, Goran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of timber beam exposed to fire. The numerical procedure is divided into two physically separated but closely related phases. In the first phase coupled problem of moisture and heat transfer over the timber beam is numerically solved using...... the enhanced finite element method. The results of the first computational stage were used as the input data for the numerical analysis of mechanical response of timber element....

  19. The matrix effect of biological concomitant element on the signal intensity of Ge, As, and Se in inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Su; Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Young Man; Kim, Yun Je; Lee, Won

    2002-01-01

    The non-spectroscopic interference effects that occurred in inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry were studied for Ge, As and Se in human urine and serum. Many biological samples contain Na, K, Cl and organic compounds, which may cause the enhancement and depression on the analyte signal. The effect of 1% concomitant elements such as N, Cl, S, P, C, Na, and K on a 100 μg/L germanium, arsenic and selenium signal has been investigated by ICP/MS. The interference effects were not in the same direction. It appeared that concomitant elements such as Cl, S and C induce an enhancement effect, whereas N and P did not show any significant effect. And, Na and K caused a depression . We have found a link between the abundance of analytes and the ionization potential of concomitant elements (eV), except carbon and nitrogen

  20. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in 1.96 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collisions Using a Novel Matrix Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDF Collaboration; Freeman, John; Freeman, John

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass in t(bar t) → l + jets candidate events, obtained from p(bar p) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector, is presented. The measurement approach is that of a matrix element method. For each candidate event, a two dimensional likelihood is calculated in the top pole mass and a constant scale factor, 'JES', where JES multiplies the input particle jet momenta and is designed to account for the systematic uncertainty of the jet momentum reconstruction. As with all matrix element techniques, the method involves an integration using the Standard Model matrix element for t(bar t) production and decay. However, the technique presented is unique in that the matrix element is modified to compensate for kinematic assumptions which are made to reduce computation time. Background events are dealt with through use of an event observable which distinguishes signal from background, as well as through a cut on the value of an event's maximum likelihood. Results are based on a 955 pb -1 data sample, using events with a high-p T lepton and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark; 149 events pass all the selection requirements. They find M meas = 169.8 ± 2.3(stat.) ± 1.4(syst.) GeV/c 2

  1. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kefu; Kamber, Balz S.; Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Zhao Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change

  2. Multi-element quantification of ancient/historic glasses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using sum normalization calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elteren, Johannes T. van; Tennent, Norman H.; Selih, Vid S.

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for quantitative analysis of ancient/historic glasses is subject to calibration issues which have been addressed in this work. Since ancient/historic glasses have widely ranging matrix compositions, a complementary analysis by an alternative method is generally employed to determine at least one major element which can be used as an internal standard. We demonstrate that such a complementary analysis is unnecessary using a so-called sum normalization calibration technique (mathematically formulated) by simultaneous measurement of 54 elements and normalizing them to 100% [w/w] based on their corresponding oxide concentrations. The crux of this approach is that by assuming a random internal standard concentration of a particular major oxide, e.g. SiO 2 , the normalization algorithm varies the internal standard concentration until the cumulated concentrations of all 54 elemental oxides reach 100% [w/w]. The fact that 54 elements are measured simultaneously predetermines the laser ablation mode to rastering. Nine glass standards, some replicating historic compositions, were used for calibration. The linearity of the calibration graphs (forced through the origin) represented by the relative standard deviations in the slope were between 0.1 and 6.6% using SiO 2 as an internal standard. This allows high-accuracy determination of elemental oxides as confirmed by good agreement between found and reported values for major and minor elemental oxides in some synthetic glasses with typical medieval composition (European Science Foundation 151 and 158). Also for trace elemental concentrations of lanthanides in a reference glass (P and H Developments Ltd. DLH7, a base glass composition with nominally 75 μg g -1 elements added) accurate data were obtained. Interferences from polyatomic species and doubly charged species on the masses of trace elements are possible, depending on the base composition of the

  3. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO) 6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data. - Highlights: ► APs were directly introduced into ICP-MS and real-time analysis was performed. ► The real-time data were calibrated by a multi-element standard solution from USN. ► During real

  4. Multi-element Analysis of variable sample matrices using collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.F.; Helal, A.I.; Amr, M.A.; Amr, M.A.; Al-saad, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    An ICP-MS with an octopole reaction/collision cell is used for the multielement determination of trace elements in water, plants, and soil samples. The use of a reaction or collision gas reduces serious spectral interferences from matrix elements such as Ar Cl or Ar Na. The background equivalent concentration (BEC) is reduced one order of magnitude at helium flow rate of 1 mL/min. Certified reference material namely , NIST Water-1643d, Tomato leaves 1573a, and Montana soil 2711 are used. The trace elements Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd and Pb are determined in the different matrices with a accuracy better than 8% to the certified values

  5. Forensic Discrimination of Concrete Pieces by Elemental Analysis of Acid-soluble Component with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Igawa, Takao; Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Since fragments of concrete can be evidence of crime, a determination of whether or not they come from the same origin is required. The authors focused on nitric acid-soluble components in the fragments of concrete. As a result of qualitative analysis with ICP-MS, it was confirmed that elements such as Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Pb were contained in the fragments. After the nitric acid-soluble components in the fragments of concrete were separated by dissolving them in nitric acid, the concentrations of these elements in the dissolved solution were quantitatively determined by ICP-MS. The concentration ratios of nine elements compared to La were used as indicators. By comparing these indicators, it was possible to discriminate between the fragments of concrete.

  6. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Elemental and isotopic characterization of Japanese and Philippine polished rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food for most Asian countries such as the Philippines and Japan and as such its elemental and isotopic content are of interest to the consumers. Its elemental content may reflect the macro nutrient reduction during milling or probable toxic elements uptake. Three Japanese and four Philippine polished rice samples in his study mostly came from rice bought from supermarkets.These rice samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/3 to 1/10 of Mg, Mn, K and Na. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. Isotopic ratio of ae 13 C show signature of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature of Japanese rice within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. More rice samples will be analyzed to gain better understanding of isotopic signatures to distinguish inter-varietal and/or geographical differences. Elemental composition of soil samples of rice samples sources will be determined for better understanding of uptake mechanisms. (author)

  8. Application of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the determination of toxic and essential elements in Australian foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J.; Warner, I.M.; Tan Mingguang

    1994-01-01

    Current Australian Legislation specifies the maximum permitted levels of nine toxic elements in food while the National Health and Medical Research Council (NH and MRC) has listed recommended daily intake figures for seven essential elements. This investigation examined the compliance of Australian foods with both these requirements. Australia-wide samples of representative foods from the diets of Australians were used in this study after the NH and MRC kindly permitted us to join their Market Basket (Noxious Substance) Survey. Both toxic and essential element concentrations in these foods were determined using the advanced analytical techniques of instrumental (INAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With very few exceptions, foods do not exceed the maximum permitted levels for toxic substances. Daily intake figures for essential elements generally lie close to the maximum recommended values listed by NH and MRC. Since another source of toxic element intake is drinking water, samples from different locations were analyzed by NAA and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). They were extremely low in trace elements with the exception of copper, iron, zinc and lead which approached the maximum permitted concentrations. The performance of NAA and ICP-MS for analyzing biological materials were compared. NAA cannot match the superior sensitivity for a wider range of elements obtained by ICP-MS. This has been verified for a wide range of food materials. While NAA is an inconvenient and time-consuming technique for many applications, it does not suffer from blank problems after irradiation of the sample and becomes the preferred technique where low limits of detection are required for trace concentrations in solid samples. (author). 22 refs, 27 figs, 21 tabs

  9. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  10. Top quark mass measurement in the dilepton electron-muon channel with the matrix element method in the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demilly, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHC produced proton-proton collisions data at 7 TeV of center of mass energy in 2011 and 8 TeV in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of, respectively, 5 fb"-"1 and 23 fb"-"1. Data acquired by ATLAS have led to a better understanding of the detector and its performance, to many measurements of physical quantities and the discovery of the Higgs boson. Top quark is involved in many processes beyond the Standard Model. Its mass is an important parameter for the Standard Model and any New Physics theory, thus measuring its mass accurately is necessary. After a description of the Standard Model of Particle Physics, and the role of the top quark in it, the first half of this thesis describes the ATLAS detector and its electromagnetic calorimeter, for which a study of the calibration constant patching is detailed. The second half details top quark physics events detected in ATLAS and their selection. Theoretical aspects of the matrix element method and its implementation for the top quark mass measurement in the dilepton electron-muon channel in the experimental framework of ATLAS are discussed. The measurement calibration and optimisation studies for the analysis are presented. Finally, systematic uncertainties are described and estimated. This measurement yields a top quark mass of (173.65 ± 0.70 ± 2.36) GeV ; showing no discrepancy with current worldwide measurements. (author)

  11. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  12. Rare earth elements determined in Antarctic ice by inductively coupled plasma-Time of flight, quadrupole and sector field-mass spectrometry: An inter-comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, D.; Wegner, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Ruth, U.; Barbante, C.; Kriews, M.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a suitable tool for multi-element analysis at low concentration levels. Rare earth element (REE) determinations in standard reference materials and small volumes of molten ice core samples from Antarctica have been performed with an ICP-time of flight-MS (ICP-TOF-MS) system. Recovery rates for REE in e.g. SPS-SW1 amounted to ∼103%, and the relative standard deviations were 3.4% for replicate analysis at REE concentrations in the lower ng L -1 range. Analyses of REE concentrations in Antarctic ice core samples showed that the ICP-TOF-MS technique meets the demands of restricted sample mass. The data obtained are in good agreement with ICP-Quadrupole-MS (ICP-Q-MS) and ICP-Sector Field-MS (ICP-SF-MS) results. The ICP-TOF-MS system determines accurately and precisely REE concentrations exceeding 5 ng L -1 while between 0.5 and 5 ng L -1 accuracy and precision are element dependent

  13. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry of ion beam sputtered neutrals for element- and isotope-selective analysis of plutonium in micro-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, N. [Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Passler, G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Micro-particles containing actinides are of interest for risk assessments of contaminated areas, nuclear forensic analyses, and IAEA as well as Euratom safeguards programs. For their analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been established as the state-of-the-art standard technique. In the case of actinide mixtures within the particles, however, SIMS suffers from isobaric interferences (e.g., {sup 238}U/{sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am/{sup 241}Pu). This can be eliminated by applying resonance ionization mass spectrometry which is based on stepwise resonant excitation and ionization of atoms with laser light, followed by mass spectrometric detection of the produced ions, combining high elemental selectivity with the analysis of isotopic compositions. This paper describes the instrumental modifications for coupling a commercial time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS apparatus with three-step resonant post-ionization of the sputtered neutrals using a high-repetition-rate (kHz) Nd:YAG laser pumped tunable titanium:sapphire laser system. Spatially resolved ion images obtained from actinide-containing particles in TOF-SIMS mode demonstrate the capability for isotopic and spatial resolution. Results from three-step resonant post-ionization of bulk Gd and Pu samples successfully demonstrate the high elemental selectivity of this process. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass at D0 Run II with the Matrix Element Method in the Lepton+Jets Final State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieferdecker, Philipp [Ludwig Maximilian Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2005-08-05

    The mass of the top quark is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model. Its precise knowledge yields valuable insights into unresolved phenomena in and beyond the Standard Model. A measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the lepton+jets final state in D0 Run II is presented. Events are selected requiring an isolated energetic charged lepton (electron or muon), significant missing transverse energy, and exactly four calorimeter jets. For each event, the probabilities to originate from the signal and background processes are calculated based on the measured kinematics, the object resolutions and the respective matrix elements. The jet energy scale is known to be the dominant source of systematic uncertainty. The reference scale for the mass measurement is derived from Monte Carlo events. The matrix element likelihood is defined as a function of both, m{sub top} and jet energy scale JES, where the latter represents a scale factor with respect to the reference scale. The top mass is obtained from a two-dimensional correlated fit, and the likelihood yields both the statistical and jet energy scale uncertainty. Using a dataset of 320 pb-1 of D0 Run II data, the mass of the top quark is measured to be: m$ℓ+jets\\atop{top}$ = 169.5 ± 4.4(stat. + JES)$+1.7\\atop{-1.6}$(syst.) GeV; m$e+jets\\atop{top}$ = 168.8 ± 6.0(stat. + JES)$+1.9\\atop{-1.9}$(syst.) GeV; m$μ+jets\\atop{top}$ = 172.3 ± 9.6(stat.+JES)$+3.4\\atop{-3.3}$(syst.) GeV. The jet energy scale measurement in the ℓ+jets sample yields JES = 1.034 ± 0.034, suggesting good consistency of the data with the simulation. The measurement forecasts significant improvements to the total top mass uncertainty during Run II before the startup of the LHC, as the data sample will grow by a factor of ten and D0's tracking capabilities will be employed in jet energy reconstruction and flavor identification.

  15. Multi-element analysis of urine using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS — A practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brodzka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The method for the determination of As, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb (toxic elements and Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (essential elements in human urine by the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (quadrupole ICP-MS DRCe Elan, Perkin Elmer with the dynamic reaction cell (DRC was developed. Materials and Methods: The method has been applied for multi-element analysis of the urine of 16 non-exposed healthy volunteers and 27 workers employed in a copper smelter. The analysis was conducted after initial 10-fold dilution of the urine samples with 0,1% nitric acid. Rhodium was used as an internal standard. The method validation parameters such as detection limit, sensitivity, precision were described for all elements. Accuracy of the method was checked by the regular use of certified reference materials ClinCheck®-Control Urine (Recipe as well as by participation of the laboratory in the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS. Results: The detection limits (DL 3s of the applied method were 0.025, 0.007, 0.002, 0.004, 0.004, 0.086, 0.037, 0.009, 0.016, 0.008, 0.064 (μg/l for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in urine, respectively. For each element linearity with correlation coefficient of at least 0.999 was determined. Spectral interferences from some of the ions were removed using DRC-e with addition of alternative gas: methane for cobalt, copper, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel and rhodium, and oxygen for arsenic. Conclusions: The developed method allows to determine simultaneously eleven elements in the urine with low detection limits, high sensitivity and good accuracy. Moreover, the method is appropriate for the assessment of both environmental and occupational exposure.

  16. Improved accuracy and precision in δ15 NAIR measurements of explosives, urea, and inorganic nitrates by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry using thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Michael J; Howa, John D; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2015-08-15

    Elemental analyzer systems generate N(2) and CO(2) for elemental composition and isotope ratio measurements. As quantitative conversion of nitrogen in some materials (i.e., nitrate salts and nitro-organic compounds) is difficult, this study tests a recently published method - thermal decomposition without the addition of O(2) - for the analysis of these materials. Elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) was used to compare the traditional combustion method (CM) and the thermal decomposition method (TDM), where additional O(2) is eliminated from the reaction. The comparisons used organic and inorganic materials with oxidized and/or reduced nitrogen and included ureas, nitrate salts, ammonium sulfate, nitro esters, and nitramines. Previous TDM applications were limited to nitrate salts and ammonium sulfate. The measurement precision and accuracy were compared to determine the effectiveness of converting materials containing different fractions of oxidized nitrogen into N(2). The δ(13) C(VPDB) values were not meaningfully different when measured via CM or TDM, allowing for the analysis of multiple elements in one sample. For materials containing oxidized nitrogen, (15) N measurements made using thermal decomposition were more precise than those made using combustion. The precision was similar between the methods for materials containing reduced nitrogen. The %N values were closer to theoretical when measured by TDM than by CM. The δ(15) N(AIR) values of purchased nitrate salts and ureas were nearer to the known values when analyzed using thermal decomposition than using combustion. The thermal decomposition method addresses insufficient recovery of nitrogen during elemental analysis in a variety of organic and inorganic materials. Its implementation requires relatively few changes to the elemental analyzer. Using TDM, it is possible to directly calibrate certain organic materials to international nitrate isotope reference materials without off

  17. Submarine mass movements around the Iberian Peninsula. The building of continental margins through hazardous processes; Inestabilidades sedimentarias submarinas alrededor de la Peninsula Iberica. Construccion de margenes a traves de procesos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, D.; Casalbore, D.; Yenes, M.; Urgeles, R.

    2015-07-01

    Submarine mass movements, such as those which occur in all environments in every ocean of the world, are widely distributed across the Iberian continental margins. A lack of consistent data from various areas around the Iberian Peninsula makes it difficult to precisely understand their role in the sedimentary record. However, all the studies carried out over the past two decades reveal that they are a recurrent and widespread sedi- mentary process that may represent a significant geohazard. The majority of submarine mass movements observed in both the Mediterranean and Atlantic margins of the Iberian Peninsula have been generically identified as Mass Transport Deposits, but debris flows, slides, slumps and turbidites are common. Only a few remarkable examples involve huge volumes of sediment covering large areas (such as ∼500 km{sup 3} and ∼6x10{sup 4} km{sup 2}), but more moderate deposits (<200 km{sup 2}) are frequently found on the seafloor or embedded in the sedi- mentary sequences, building margins and basins. (Author)

  18. Membrane Assisted Simultaneous Extraction and Derivatization with Triphenylphosphine of Elemental Sulfur in Arabian Crude Samples by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of trace level elemental sulfur from crude oil samples is a tedious task. Recently, several gas chromatographic methods were reported in which selective triphenylphosphine derivatization of sulfur was used to form triphenylphosphine sulfide. Direct quantitation of elemental sulfur from crude oil requires an efficient sample preparation method. This paper describes how simultaneous extraction derivatization of elemental sulfur was performed for the first time using porous hollow fiber membrane. A thick (0.25 um pore size; 1550 μm wall thickness; and 5500 μm inner diameter hollow fiber membrane filled with triphenylphosphine (dissolved N-methylpyrrolidone is used as a solvent bar. The solvent bar is tumbled freely in the crude oil sample; the elemental sulfur was extracted and derivatized. Finally, the derivatized sulfur was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Various experimental conditions of solvent bar microextraction (SBME were optimized to achieve higher extraction. The linear range was established between 1 and 50 μg/mL, while a squared regression coefficient was found to be 0.9959 μg/mL. Relative standard deviation (RSD was below 10%. Relative recoveries were calculated for SBME in crude oil samples and were in the range between 98.2% and 101.2%.

  19. Determination of minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by micro-wave assisted digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Jamila, Nargis; Habte, Girum; Hong, Joon Ho; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Kyong Su

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the concentrations of 23 minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after wet digestion by microwave system. The analytical method was validated by linearity, detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments, obtaining satisfactory values in all cases. Results indicated the presence of variable amounts of both minor and trace elements in the selected aromatic spices. Manganese was high in cinnamon (879.8 μg/g) followed by cardamom (758.1 μg/g) and clove (649.9 μg/g), strontium and zinc were high in ajwain (489.9 μg/g and 84.95 μg/g, respectively), while copper was high in mango powder (77.68 μg/g). On the whole some of the minor and essential trace elements were found to have good nutritional contribution in accordance to RDA. The levels of toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, and Pb were very low and did not found to pose any threat to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found.

  1. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in 1.96 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collisions Using a Novel Matrix Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass in t$\\bar{t}$ → l + jets candidate events, obtained from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector, is presented. The measurement approach is that of a matrix element method. For each candidate event, a two dimensional likelihood is calculated in the top pole mass and a constant scale factor, 'JES', where JES multiplies the input particle jet momenta and is designed to account for the systematic uncertainty of the jet momentum reconstruction. As with all matrix element techniques, the method involves an integration using the Standard Model matrix element for t$\\bar{t}$ production and decay. However, the technique presented is unique in that the matrix element is modified to compensate for kinematic assumptions which are made to reduce computation time. Background events are dealt with through use of an event observable which distinguishes signal from background, as well as through a cut on the value of an event's maximum likelihood. Results are based on a 955 pb-1 data sample, using events with a high-pT lepton and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark; 149 events pass all the selection requirements. They find Mmeas = 169.8 ± 2.3(stat.) ± 1.4(syst.) GeV/c2.

  2. Mass loads of dissolved and particulate mercury and other trace elements in the Mt. Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Costagliola, P.; Gray, J.E.; Lattanzi, P.; Nannucci, M.; Paolieri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2014-01-01

    Total dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) mass loads were estimated in different seasons (March and September 2011 and March 2012) in the Paglia River basin (PRB) (central Italy). The Paglia River drains the Mt. Amiata Hg district, one of the largest Hg-rich regions worldwide. Quantification of Hg, As, and Sb mass loads in this watershed allowed (1) identification of the contamination sources, (2) evaluation of the effects of Hg on the environment, and (3) determination of processes affecting Hg transport. The dominant source of Hg in the Paglia River is runoff from Hg mines in the Mt. Amiata region. The maximum Hg mass load was found to be related to runoff from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore Mine (ASSM), and up to 30 g day−1 of Hg, dominantly in the particulate form, was transported both in high and low flow conditions in 2011. In addition, enrichment factors (EFs) calculated for suspended particulate matter (SPM) were similar in different seasons indicating that water discharge controls the quantities of Hg transported in the PRB, and considerable Hg was transported in all seasons studied. Overall, as much as 11 kg of Hg are discharged annually in the PRB and this Hg is transported downstream to the Tiber River, and eventually to the Mediterranean Sea. Similar to Hg, maximum mass loads for As and Sb were found in March 2011, when as much as 190 g day−1 each of As and Sb were measured from sites downstream from the ASSM. Therefore, the Paglia River represents a significant source of Hg, Sb, and As to the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  4. Progress on the development of a new fuel management code to simulate the movement of pebble and block type fuel elements in a very high temperature reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhonneux, Andre, E-mail: a.xhonneux@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Kasselmann, Stefan; Rütten, Hans-Jochem [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Becker, Kai [Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH-Aachen, 52064 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    The history of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor prototypes in Germany is closely related to Forschungszentrum Jülich and its “Institute of Nuclear Waste Disposal and Reactor Safety (IEK-6)”. A variety of computer codes have been developed, validated and optimized to simulate the different safety and operational aspects of V/HTR. In order to overcome the present limitations of these codes and to exploit the advantages of modern computer clusters, a project has been initiated to integrate these individual programs into a consistent V/HTR code package (VHCP) applying state-of-the-art programming techniques and standards. One important aspect in the simulation of a V/HTR is the modeling of a continuous moving pebble bed or the periodic rearrangement of prismatic block type fuel. Present models are either too coarse to take special issues (e.g. pebble piles) into account or are too detailed and therefore too time consuming to be applicable in the HCP. The new Software for Handling Universal Fuel Elements (SHUFLE) recently being developed is well suited to close this gap. Although at first the code has been designed for pebble bed reactors, it can in principal be applied to all other types of nuclear fuel. The granularity of the mesh grid meets the requirements to consider these special issues while keeping the used computing power within reasonable limits. New features are for example the possibility to consider azimuthally differing flow velocities in the case of a pebble bed reactor or individual void factors to simulate effects to seismic events. The general idea behind this new approach to the simulation of pebble bed reactors is the following: In the preprocessing step, experimental flow lines or flow lines simulated by more detailed codes serve as an input. For each radial mesh column a representative flow line is then determined by interpolation. These representative flow lines are finally mapped to a user defined rectangular grid forming chains of meshes

  5. Progress on the development of a new fuel management code to simulate the movement of pebble and block type fuel elements in a very high temperature reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhonneux, Andre; Kasselmann, Stefan; Rütten, Hans-Jochem; Becker, Kai; Allelein, Hans-Josef

    2014-01-01

    The history of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor prototypes in Germany is closely related to Forschungszentrum Jülich and its “Institute of Nuclear Waste Disposal and Reactor Safety (IEK-6)”. A variety of computer codes have been developed, validated and optimized to simulate the different safety and operational aspects of V/HTR. In order to overcome the present limitations of these codes and to exploit the advantages of modern computer clusters, a project has been initiated to integrate these individual programs into a consistent V/HTR code package (VHCP) applying state-of-the-art programming techniques and standards. One important aspect in the simulation of a V/HTR is the modeling of a continuous moving pebble bed or the periodic rearrangement of prismatic block type fuel. Present models are either too coarse to take special issues (e.g. pebble piles) into account or are too detailed and therefore too time consuming to be applicable in the HCP. The new Software for Handling Universal Fuel Elements (SHUFLE) recently being developed is well suited to close this gap. Although at first the code has been designed for pebble bed reactors, it can in principal be applied to all other types of nuclear fuel. The granularity of the mesh grid meets the requirements to consider these special issues while keeping the used computing power within reasonable limits. New features are for example the possibility to consider azimuthally differing flow velocities in the case of a pebble bed reactor or individual void factors to simulate effects to seismic events. The general idea behind this new approach to the simulation of pebble bed reactors is the following: In the preprocessing step, experimental flow lines or flow lines simulated by more detailed codes serve as an input. For each radial mesh column a representative flow line is then determined by interpolation. These representative flow lines are finally mapped to a user defined rectangular grid forming chains of meshes

  6. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  7. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  8. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  9. Approaching the CDF Top Quark Mass Legacy Measurement in the Lepton+Jets channel with the Matrix Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosciri, Cecilia [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the bottom quark in 1977 at the Tevatron Collider triggered the search for its partner in the third fermion isospin doublet, the top quark, which was discovered 18 years later in 1995 by the CDF and D=0 experiments during the Tevatron Run I. By 1990, intensive efforts by many groups at several accelerators had lifted to over 90 GeV=c2 the lower mass limit, such that since then the Tevatron became the only accelerator with high-enough energy to possibly discover this amazingly massive quark. After its discovery, the determination of top quark properties has been one of the main goals of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, and more recently also of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Since the mass value plays an important role in a large number of theoretical calculations on fundamental processes, improving the accuracy of its measurement has been at any time a goal of utmost importance. The present thesis describes in detail the contributions given by the candidate to the massive preparation work needed to make the new analysis possible, during her 8 months long stay at Fermilab.

  10. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Tacito Dantas F.; Escalfoni, Rainerio; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. da; Miekeley, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant (registered) technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  11. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in turbulent channel flow using the spectral-element method: effect of spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhenkov, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Vinuesa, R.; Mullyadzhanov, R.

    2016-10-01

    We use the open-source code nek5000 to assess the accuracy of high-order spectral element large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent channel flow depending on the spatial resolution compared to the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Reynolds number Re = 6800 is considered based on the bulk velocity and half-width of the channel. The filtered governing equations are closed with the dynamic Smagorinsky model for subgrid stresses and heat flux. The results show very good agreement between LES and DNS for time-averaged velocity and temperature profiles and their fluctuations. Even the coarse LES grid which contains around 30 times less points than the DNS one provided predictions of the friction velocity within 2.0% accuracy interval.

  12. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  13. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter by instrumental neutron activation analysis and induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad; Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Rukihati; Sutisna

    1999-01-01

    Airborne particulate were collected using Gent sampler for PM 10 and using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP). PM 10 sampling was carried out in Bandung during period of January to December 1997. Whereas TSP samples were collected at Serpong (rural area) and Jakarta (urban area) during period of May and July 1995. The concentration of the PM 10 in the air is independent to the level of the rainfall. The levels of the PM 10 and the PM 2.5 are lower than the maximum permissible levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. The element detected using short lived radioactivity measurement in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were Al, Na, V, Mn, Br and Cl. Bromine concentration in both coarse and fine fractions was high, and the enrichment factor for bromine in these fraction was found between 2,000 - 10,000. The elemental concentrations of particulate matter obtained by ICP-MS was found that the Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, In, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn in samples from Serpong area, were lower than those in samples taken from Jakarta area. The level of Pb concentrations in TSP samples from Serpong and Jakarta area were lower than Pb concentration proposed Indonesian standard of 2 μg/m 3 . The data obtained by INAA no significant different to those obtained by ICP-MS. Therefore comparative data can be obtained by these techniques. (author)

  14. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of

  15. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid rocks (45% rock analysis

  16. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultra-sensitive quantification of lysozyme based on element chelate labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, MingWei; Wu, WeiHua; Ruan, YaJuan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Cai, Yong; Fu, FengFu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An ultra-sensitive method for the determination of lysozyme was developed based on the Gd 3+ chelate labeling and CE–ICP–MS. The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole and has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva sample, showing excellent reliability. The success of the present method provides a new possibility for biological assays and clinical diagnoses. -- Highlights: •An ultra-sensitive method for detecting lysozyme based on CE–ICP–MS was described. •The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole. •It can be used to detect trace lysozyme in saliva sample with a satisfied recovery. •The method provides a new potential for sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins. -- Abstract: In this study, an ultra-sensitive method for the quantification of lysozyme based on the Gd 3+ diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE–ICP–MS) was described. The Gd 3+ -tagged lysozyme was effectively separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and sensitively determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Based on the gadolinium-tagging and CE–ICP–MS, the lysozyme was determined within 12 min with an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole (3.89 × 10 −11 mol L −1 for 100 nL of sample injection) and a RSD < 6% (n = 5). The proposed method has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva samples with a recovery of 91–106%, suggesting that our method is sensitive and reliable. The success of the present method provides a new potential for the biological assays and sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins

  18. On the problem of heat and mass exchange between liquid metal surface and structural elements in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineisky, A.A.; Sorokin, A.P.; Yatsenko, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    For the development of means ensuring normal operating conditions of the fast reactor vessel some design procedures for calculating temperature conditions of its structural elements over the liquid metal surface are required. The radiative heat transfer from the liquid metal surface playing an important part at working temperatures (550 deg. C), the effect of experimentally detected fog formation process (not taken into account before) upon the radiative heat exchange has been considered. A simplified heat transfer model based upon separation of thin thermal boundary layers and of the main volume at a constant temperature has been proposed. Calculation relationships for the heat flux from the reactor vessel roof have been obtained by solving a one-dimensional equation of radiation transfer within the boundary layer and a three-dimensional one in the bulk volume at an approximation of moments with Marshak boundary conditions. Evaluations performed have shown a possibility of a considerable decrease of the vessel roof temperature due to fog formation. The observed asymmetry of the temperature distribution in the cover gas is explained in this case greater fog density near the evaporation surface and by a possibility of some radiative energy loss due to evaporation from the droplets surface. (author)

  19. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  20. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry for the multi-element analysis of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Garcia-Ruiz, E.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the potential of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of polymers has been explored. Different real-life samples (polyethylene shopping bags, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material and various plastic bricks) as well as several reference materials (VDA 001 to 004, Cd in polyethylene) have been selected for the study. Two polyethylene reference materials (ERM-EC 680 and 681), for which a reference or indicative value for the most relevant metals is available, have proved their suitability as standards for calibration. Special attention has been paid to the difficulties expected for the determination of Cr at the μg g -1 level in this kind of materials, due to the interference of ArC + ions on the most abundant isotopes of Cr. The use of ammonia as a reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell is shown to alleviate this problem, resulting in a limit of detection of 0.15 μg g -1 for this element, while limiting only modestly the possibilities of the technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis. In this regard, As is the analyte most seriously affected by the use of ammonia, and its determination has to be carried out in vented mode, at the expense of measuring time. In all cases studied, accurate results could be obtained for elements ranging in content from the sub-μg g -1 level to tens of thousands of μg g -1 . However, the use of an element of known concentration as internal standard may be needed for materials with a matrix significantly different from that of the standard (polyethylene in this work). Precision ranged between 5% and 10% RSD for elements found at the 10 μg g -1 level or higher, while this value could deteriorate to 20% for analytes found at the sub-μg g -1 level. Overall, the technique evaluated presents many advantages for the fast and accurate multi-element analysis of these materials, avoiding laborious digestion procedures and minimizing the risk of analyte losses due to the

  1. VISCOT: a two-dimensional and axisymmetric nonlinear transient thermoviscoelastic and thermoviscoplastic finite-element code for modeling time-dependent viscous mechanical behavior of a rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    VISCOT is a non-linear, transient, thermal-stress finite-element code designed to determine the viscoelastic, fiscoplastic, or elastoplastic deformation of a rock mass due to mechanical and thermal loading. The numerical solution of the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations within VISCOT is performed by using an explicit Euler time-stepping scheme. The rock mass may be modeled as a viscoplastic or viscoelastic material. The viscoplastic material model can be described by a Tresca, von Mises, Drucker-Prager or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria (with or without strain hardening) with an associated flow rule which can be a power or an exponential law. The viscoelastic material model within VISCOT is a temperature- and stress-dependent law which has been developed specifically for salt rock masses by Pfeifle, Mellegard and Senseny in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). Site specific parameters for this creep law at the Richton, Permian, Paradox and Vacherie salt sites have been calculated and are given in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). A major application of VISCOT (in conjunction with a SCEPTER heat transfer code such as DOT) is the thermomechanical analysis of a rock mass such as salt in which significant time-dependent nonlinear deformations are expected to occur. Such problems include room- and canister-scale studies during the excavation, operation, and long-term post-closure stages in a salt repository. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  2. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ 13 C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ 13 C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ 13 C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ 13 C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ 13 C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the major trajectories of air mass from 2006 to 2009 originated from the southwest direction of the receptor, but in 2005, the air mass appeared to be locally

  4. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  5. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Movements and dive patterns of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) released from a mass stranding in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S.; Fougeres, Erin M.; Cooper, Arthur G.; Stevens, Robert O.; Brodsky, Micah; Lingenfelser, Robert; Dold, Chris; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) are among the most common cetaceans to engage in mass strandings in the southeastern United States. Because these are primarily pelagic, continental shelf-edge animals, much of what is known about this species has derived from mass stranding events. Post-release monitoring via satellite-linked telemetry was conducted with two adult males determined on-site to be healthy, and released directly from a mass stranding of 23 pilot whales in May 2011, near Cudjoe Key, Florida. Tracking provided an opportunity to evaluate the decision for immediate release vs rehabilitation, and to learn more about the lives of members of this difficult-to-study species in the wild. The two pilot whales remained together for at least 16 d before transmissions from one pilot whale (Y-404) ceased. Dive patterns and travel rates suggested that Y-404’s condition deteriorated prior to signal loss. Pilot Whale Y-400 was tracked for another 51 d, moving from the Blake Plateau to the Greater Antilles, remaining in the Windward Passage east of Cuba for the last 17 d of tracking. Once he reached the Antilles, Y-400 remained in high-relief habitat appropriate for the species and made dives within or exceeding the reported range for depth and duration for this species, following expected diel patterns, presumably reflecting continued good health. Telemetry data indicate that he made at least one dive to 1,000 to 1,500 m, and several dives lasted more than 40 min. Although the fates of the two released pilot whales may have been different, the concept of evaluating health and releasing individuals determined to be healthy at the time of stranding appears to have merit as an alternative to bringing all members of mass-stranded pilot whale groups into rehabilitation.

  7. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  8. Analysis of humic colloid borne trace elements by flow field-flow fractionation, gel permeation chromatography and icp-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Manh Thang; Beck, H.P; Geckeis, H.; Kim, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater samples containing aquatic humic substances are analyzed by flow field- flow fractionation (FFFF) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Natural concentrations of U, Th and rare earth elements (REE) in a size-fractionated groundwater sample are analyzed by on-line coupling of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to either FFFF or GPC. The uranium, thorium, and REE are found to be quantitatively attached to colloidal species in the investigated groundwater sample. Their distribution in different colloid size fractions, however, is quite heterogeneous. Both, FFFF and GPC reveal that Th and REE are preferentially located in the size fraction > 50 kDalton. U is also attached to low molecular weight humic acid, similar to Fe and Al. This finding could be qualitatively reproduced by sequential ultrafiltration. The results are interpreted in terms of different binding mechanisms for the individual elements in the heterogeneous humic macromolecules. The inclusion of actinides into larger aggregates of aquatic humic acid might explain the considerable kinetic hindrance of actinide-humic acid dissociation reactions described in the literature. (authors)

  9. Upconversion nanoparticle as elemental tag for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein in human serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengru; Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-12-19

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have received increasing attention due to their unique optical properties. Recognizing that UCNPs are lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, we incorporated UCNPs into an immunoassay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection for the determination of specific proteins, e.g., alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The sensitivity of the assay was enhanced because of the ICP-MS detection of UCNPs that contained large numbers of lanthanide elemental tags. Conjugates of UCNPs and antibodies were prepared and the morphology of the conjugates was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the AFP was determined by the ICP-MS analysis of UCNPs. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.31 ng mL -1 based on 89 Y signal and 0.22 ng mL -1 based on 174 Yb signal was obtained for AFP, with a dynamic range of 0.5-35 ng mL -1 and a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (c = 5 ng mL -1 , n = 9). The developed method was applied to the determination of AFP in human serum and the recovery for the spiked sample was in the range of 98.6-123%. The proposed method is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive, and has a good tolerance for the complex biological matrix, indicating great potential for the application of UCNP in biological research as an elemental tag.

  10. Spatially and time-resolved element-specific in situ corrosion investigations with an online hyphenated microcapillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homazava, N.; Ulrich, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for in situ spatial, time-resolved element-specific investigations of corrosion processes is developed. The technique is based on an online hyphenation of a specially designed microflow-capillary set-up to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using flow injection sample introduction. Detailed aspects of the method development, optimization of the sample microflow introduction and flow injection characteristics for the localized corrosion analysis are described. Moreover, specific challenges of the ICP-MS analysis as applied to the analysis of corrosion sample probes, e.g. high matrix load and limited sample volume, are discussed. The efficiency of the developed technique is proved by corrosion susceptibility analysis of a commercial Al alloy. Results of the corrosion experiments of the aluminum alloy AA 6111 are presented to demonstrate the influence of various factors such as exposure time and pH value of the corrosive medium on the element-specific dissolution rates of the alloy. This novel technique provides new aspects in corrosion science and sheds new light on corrosion mechanisms

  11. Direct trace-elemental analysis of urine samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample deposition on clinical filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendía, Maite; Rello, Luis; Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martín

    2012-10-16

    Collection of biological fluids on clinical filter papers shows important advantages from a logistic point of view, although analysis of these specimens is far from straightforward. Concerning urine analysis, and particularly when direct trace elemental analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is aimed at, several problems arise, such as lack of sensitivity or different distribution of the analytes on the filter paper, rendering obtaining reliable quantitative results quite difficult. In this paper, a novel approach for urine collection is proposed, which circumvents many of these problems. This methodology consists on the use of precut filter paper discs where large amounts of sample can be retained upon a single deposition. This provides higher amounts of the target analytes and, thus, sufficient sensitivity, and allows addition of an adequate internal standard at the clinical lab prior to analysis, therefore making it suitable for a strategy based on unsupervised sample collection and ulterior analysis at referral centers. On the basis of this sampling methodology, an analytical method was developed for the direct determination of several elements in urine (Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, Pb, and V) at the low μg L(-1) level by means of LA-ICPMS. The method developed provides good results in terms of accuracy and LODs (≤1 μg L(-1) for most of the analytes tested), with a precision in the range of 15%, fit-for-purpose for clinical control analysis.

  12. Elemental bioimaging of nanosilver-coated prostheses using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaske, Franziska; Reifschneider, Olga; Gosheger, Georg; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Hauschild, Gregor; Höll, Steffen

    2014-01-07

    The distribution of different chemical elements from a nanosilver-coated bone implant was visualized, combining the benefits of two complementary methods for elemental bioimaging, the nondestructive micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Challenges caused by the physically inhomogeneous materials including bone and soft tissues were addressed by polymer embedding. With the use of μ-XRF, fast sample mapping was achieved obtaining titanium and vanadium signals from the metal implant as well as phosphorus and calcium signals representing hard bone tissue and sulfur distribution representing soft tissues. Only by the use of LA-ICP-MS, the required high sensitivity and low detection limits for the determination of silver were obtained. Metal distribution within the part of cancellous bone was revealed for silver as well as for the implant constituents titanium, vanadium, and aluminum. Furthermore, the detection of coinciding high local zirconium and aluminum signals at the implant surface indicates remaining blasting abrasive from preoperative surface treatment of the nanosilver-coated device.

  13. Microwave dissolution of plant tissue and the subsequent determination of trace lanthanide and actinide elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, J.S.; Neal, T.J.; Smith, L.L.; Erickson, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently there has been much concern with the ability of plants to uptake heavy metals from their surroundings. With the development of instrumental techniques with low detection limits such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), attention is shifting toward achieving faster and more elegant ways of oxidizing the organic material inherent in environmental samples. Closed-vessel microwave dissolution was compared with conventional methods for the determination of concentrations of cerium, samarium, europium, terbium, uranium and thorium in a series of samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and from fields in Idaho. The ICP-MS technique exhibited detection limits in parts-per-trillion and linear calibration plots over three orders of magnitude for the elements under study. The results obtained by using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digestion system for the analysis of reference materials showed close agreement with the accepted values. These values were compared with results obtained from dry- and wet-ashing procedures. The findings from an experiment comparing radiometric techniques for the determination of actinide elements to ICP-MS are reported

  14. The elemental geochemistry of Lower Triassic shallow-marine carbonates from central Saudi Arabia: Implications for redox conditions in the immediate aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltom, Hassan A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Babalola, Lamidi O.

    2018-03-01

    The southern margin of the Tethys Ocean was occupied by a broad, shallow continental shelf during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval, with the area of present-day Saudi Arabia located from 10° to 30° south of the paleo-equator. The strata deposited in modern Saudi Arabia in the aftermath of the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME) are dominated by oolitic microbialite limestone (OML), which are overlain by skeletal oolitic limestones (SOL) capped by dolostones and dolomitic limestones (DDL). This succession reflects changes in depositional setting, which can be potentially tied to redox conditions using redox sensitive trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs). Statistical analyses reveals that trace elements and REEs are associated with detrital material, and possibly with diagenetic minerals as well. Proxies such as the Y/Ho, Pr/Pr*, Smn/Ybn, Lan/Smn and Lan/Ybn ratios indicate that REEs do not record a seawater-like pattern, and cannot be used as redox indicator. The presence of a normal marine fauna implies oxic conditions during deposition of the DDL and SOL units. However, the OML unit, which represents the immediate aftermath of LPME, lacks both a normal marine fauna and reliable geochemical signals, making it difficult to infer redox conditions in the depositional environment. Similar to published data from sections that reflect shallow marine condition in the LPME of the Tethys Ocean, chemical index of alteration values are consistently high throughout the study succession, suggesting globally intense chemical weathering in the aftermath of the LPME. As a result, geochemical redox proxies in shallow marine carbonates of the Tethys Ocean are likely to be contaminated by detrital material that have been generated by chemical weathering, and thus, other methods are required to determine depositional redox conditions.

  15. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  16. Early Holocene (8.6 ka) rock avalanche deposits, Obernberg valley (Eastern Alps): Landform interpretation and kinematics of rapid mass movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Rockenschaub, Manfred; Römer, Alexander

    2012-10-15

    In the Obernberg valley, the Eastern Alps, landforms recently interpreted as moraines are re-interpreted as rock avalanche deposits. The catastrophic slope failure involved an initial rock volume of about 45 million m³, with a runout of 7.2 km over a total vertical distance of 1330 m (fahrböschung 10°). 36 Cl surface-exposure dating of boulders of the avalanche mass indicates an event age of 8.6 ± 0.6 ka. A 14 C age of 7785 ± 190 cal yr BP of a palaeosoil within an alluvial fan downlapping the rock avalanche is consistent with the event age. The distal 2 km of the rock-avalanche deposit is characterized by a highly regular array of transverse ridges that were previously interpreted as terminal moraines of Late-Glacial. 'Jigsaw-puzzle structure' of gravel to boulder-size clasts in the ridges and a matrix of cataclastic gouge indicate a rock avalanche origin. For a wide altitude range the avalanche deposit is preserved, and the event age of mass-wasting precludes both runout over glacial ice and subsequent glacial overprint. The regularly arrayed transverse ridges thus were formed during freezing of the rock avalanche deposits.

  17. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  18. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borràs, S.; Kaufmann, A.; Companyó, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2004-01-01

    on the mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem...

  20. Effects of hypocaloric diet, low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement, or both on aortic hemodynamics and muscle mass in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Wong, Alexei; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos Angel; Simonavice, Emily; Daggy, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to examine the independent and combined impact of hypocaloric diet and low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) on aortic hemodynamics and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) in obese postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 54 [1] y) were randomly assigned to LIRET (n = 13), diet (n = 14), or diet + LIRET (n = 14). Body weight, waist circumference, aortic systolic blood pressure, aortic pulse pressure, augmentation index, subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR; myocardial perfusion), and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after 12 weeks. ASM was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body weight (P diet and diet + LIRET compared with no changes after LIRET. ASM did not change after diet + LIRET, and the decrease observed after diet (P diet (P diet + LIRET (P diet and diet + LIRET, but not after LIRET. SEVR (P diet groups, whereas HR (P diet. Changes in SEVR (P diet were different compared with LIRET. The augmentation index did not change in any group. Our findings suggest that diet-induced weight loss may reduce cardiovascular risk by improving SEVR via HR and aortic pulse pressure reductions in obese postmenopausal women. LIRET prevents ASM loss associated with hypocaloric diet but has no additive effects on aortic hemodynamics.

  1. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Batista, Bruno; Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Andrade Nunes, Juliana; Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina de; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 μL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 μL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 μg L -1 of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for 75 As, 114 Cd, 59 Co, 51 Cr, 63 Cu 55 Mn, 208 Pb, 82 Se, 205 Tl, 51 V, and 64 Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L -1 , respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  2. Method validation for high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of the emerging contaminants in the open ocean: Rare earth elements as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Irena; Vassileva, Emilia

    2017-02-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of fourteen rare earth elements (REEs) in the seawater samples has been developed and validated. The elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) at ultra-trace level were measured by high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-SFMS) after off-line analytes pre-concentration and matrix separation. The sample pre-treatment was carried out by commercially available automated system seaFAST-pico™, which is a low-pressure ion chromatography technique, based on solid phase extraction principles. Efficient elimination of seawater matrix and up to 50-fold pre-concentration of REEs enabled their accurate and precise quantification at ng L- 1 level. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines were followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range, linearity, recovery (from 92% to 102%), repeatability (1%-4%), intermediate precision (2%-6%), limits of detection (0.001-0.08 ng L- 1) were systematically assessed. The total uncertainty associated to each result was estimated and the main sources of uncertainty sorted out. All major contributions to the combined uncertainty of the obtained results were identified and propagated together, following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at range from 10.4% to 11.6% (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results was also presented. Due to the low limits of detection, this method enables the determination of ultra-low levels of REEs in the open seawater as well as small variations in their concentrations. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on combination of seaFAST-pico™ for sample preparation and HR ICP-SFMS, was demonstrated by direct analysis of seawater form different regions of the world.

  3. High-resolution high-sensitivity elemental imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry: from traditional 2D and 3D imaging to correlative microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, T; Philipp, P; Audinot, J-N; Dowsett, D; Eswara, S

    2015-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) constitutes an extremely sensitive technique for imaging surfaces in 2D and 3D. Apart from its excellent sensitivity and high lateral resolution (50 nm on state-of-the-art SIMS instruments), advantages of SIMS include high dynamic range and the ability to differentiate between isotopes. This paper first reviews the underlying principles of SIMS as well as the performance and applications of 2D and 3D SIMS elemental imaging. The prospects for further improving the capabilities of SIMS imaging are discussed. The lateral resolution in SIMS imaging when using the microprobe mode is limited by (i) the ion probe size, which is dependent on the brightness of the primary ion source, the quality of the optics of the primary ion column and the electric fields in the near sample region used to extract secondary ions; (ii) the sensitivity of the analysis as a reasonable secondary ion signal, which must be detected from very tiny voxel sizes and thus from a very limited number of sputtered atoms; and (iii) the physical dimensions of the collision cascade determining the origin of the sputtered ions with respect to the impact site of the incident primary ion probe. One interesting prospect is the use of SIMS-based correlative microscopy. In this approach SIMS is combined with various high-resolution microscopy techniques, so that elemental/chemical information at the highest sensitivity can be obtained with SIMS, while excellent spatial resolution is provided by overlaying the SIMS images with high-resolution images obtained by these microscopy techniques. Examples of this approach are given by presenting in situ combinations of SIMS with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). (paper)

  4. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P; Welch, Kathleen B

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one's personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others' specific movements) and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.

  5. Emotion regulation through movement: Unique sets of movement characteristics are associated with and enhance basic emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eShafir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA, the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one’s personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others’ specific movements and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.

  6. Thermal design and analysis of the HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1977-06-01

    Computer analyses of the thermal design for the proposed HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace were performed to verify its capability and to determine the required power input and distribution. Although the furnace is designed for continuous operation, steady-state temperature distributions were obtained by assuming internal heat generation in the fuel elements to simulate their mass movement. The furnace thermal design, the analysis methods, and the results are discussed herein

  7. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia.

  8. Preliminary elements of the low mass ratio and moderate fill-out factor VSX J045718.3+405643 (GSC 02898-02901)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, F.; Martignoni, M.; Barani, C.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the geometrical parameters of the W UMa-type binary system VSX J045718.3+405643 (short name VSX J0457) based on new CCD B, V and Ic light curves. Our observations were carried out during six nights in November and December 2016 using the 0.25 m telescope of the Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse in Magnago, Northern Italy. Six new times of minima and light elements have been determined and the observed light curves were analysed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The output model reveals that the system is a contact binary of A-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems with a mass ratio of q ∼ 0.26 and a degree of contact factor f ∼ 32%. The primary component is hotter than the secondary by 95 K, this suggests us that the system is under thermal contact. The high orbital inclination (i = 82°.2) implies that VSX J0457 is a total eclipsing binary system and the photometric parameters here obtained are quite reliable. The absolute physical parameters of the two components in VSX J0457 are estimated. Based on these estimated parameters the evolutionary state of the system components is investigated and discussed. Combining our photometric solution with the 3-D correlation obtained for contact binaries by Gazeas (2009) we derive the masses and radii of the components of this eclipsing system as M1 = 1.44M⊙, M2 = 0.38M⊙, R1 = 1.55R⊙ and R2 = 0.87R⊙. The distance to VSX J0457 was calculated as 147 pc from this analysis, taking into account interstellar extinction.

  9. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 4.Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to the Study of Environmental Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples were summarized. In order to predict the long-term behavior of the radionuclides, related stable elements were also determined. Compared with radioactivity measurements, the ICP-MS method has advantages in terms of its simple analytical procedures, prompt measurement time, and capability of determining the isotope ratio such as240Pu/239Pu, which can not be separated by radiation. Concentration of U and Th in Japanese surface soils were determined in order to determine the background level of the natural radionuclides. The 235U/238U ratio was successfully used to detect the release of enriched U from reconversion facilities to the environment and to understand the source term. The 240Pu/239Pu ratios in environmental samples varied widely depending on the Pu sources. Applications of ICP-MS to the measurement of I and Tc isotopes were also described. The ratio between radiocesium and stable Cs is useful for judging the equilibrium of deposited radiocesium in a forest ecosystem.

  11. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of pyrolysis curves for volatile elements in aqueous standards and carbon-containing matrices in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, DelftChemTech, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.t.c.deloos-vollebregt@tudelft.nl

    2008-07-15

    Pyrolysis curves in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) have been compared for As, Se and Pb in lobster hepatopancreas certified reference material using Pd/Mg as the modifier. The ET AAS pyrolysis curves confirm that the analytes are not lost from the graphite furnace up to a pyrolysis temperature of 800 deg. C. Nevertheless, a downward slope of the pyrolysis curve was observed for these elements in the biological material using ETV-ICP-MS. This could be related to a gain of sensitivity at low pyrolysis temperatures due to the matrix, which can act as carrier and/or promote changes in the plasma ionization equilibrium. Experiments with the addition of ascorbic acid to the aqueous standards confirmed that the higher intensities obtained in ETV-ICP-MS are related to the presence of organic compounds in the slurry. Pyrolysis curves for As, Se and Pb in coal and coal fly ash were also investigated using the same Pd/Mg modifier. Carbon intensities were measured in all samples using different pyrolysis temperatures. It was observed that pyrolysis curves for the three analytes in all slurry samples were similar to the corresponding graphs that show the carbon intensity for the same slurries for pyrolysis temperatures from 200 deg. C up to 1000 deg. C.

  13. K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os ( Z = 76) derived from new mass attenuation coefficient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Necati; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydın, Gökhan; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

    2007-08-01

    The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.

  14. K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in elements between Tm (Z = 69) and Os (Z = 76) derived from new mass attenuation coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Necati; Tirasoglu, Engin; Apaydin, Goekhan; Aylikci, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

    2007-01-01

    The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2 O 3 , Yb 2 O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57 Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time

  15. Mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol® HX photopolymer film in a roll-to-roll copy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept and discuss the mechanical construction of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we treat aspects like master design, effects of vibration and suppression of noise gratings. Furthermore, digital vHOEs are introduced as master holograms. They enable new ways of optical design and paths to large scale vHOEs.

  16. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Petroleum Refining Catalysts and Ambient Fine Aerosols Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of a certified reference material, a robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High temperature (200 C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO3, HF, and H3BO3) with 20 minute dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst, and PM2.5. This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu, and Dy in ambient PM2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX.

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of rare earth elements from petroleum refining catalysts and ambient fine aerosols prior to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2007-01-01

    A robust microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to quantify rare earth elements (REEs) in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). High temperature (200 deg. C), high pressure (200 psig), acid digestion (HNO 3 , HF and H 3 BO 3 ) with 20 min dwell time effectively solubilized REEs from six fresh catalysts, a spent catalyst and PM 2.5 . This method was also employed to measure 27 non-REEs including Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U. Complete extraction of several REEs (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Er) required HF indicating that they were closely associated with the aluminosilicate structure of the zeolite FCC catalysts. Internal standardization using 115 In quantitatively corrected non-spectral interferences in the catalyst digestate matrix. Inter-laboratory comparison using ICP-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) demonstrated the applicability of the newly developed analytical method for accurate analysis of REEs in FCC catalysts. The method developed for FCC catalysts was also successfully implemented to measure trace to ultra-trace concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Eu and Dy in ambient PM 2.5 in an industrial area of Houston, TX

  18. High-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma water deuterium and 18-oxygen enrichment using a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, M; Darimont, C; Piguet-Welsch, C; Fay, L B

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of deuterium and oxygen-18 (18O) enrichment of water samples isolated from blood. This analytical method enables rapid and simple determination of these enrichments of microgram quantities of water. Water is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases by the use of a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC-EA), that are then transferred on-line into the isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Accuracy determined with the standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) and Greenland ice sheet precipitation (GISP) is reliable for deuterium and 18O enrichments. The range of linearity is from 0 up to 0.09 atom percent excess (APE, i.e. -78 up to 5725 delta per mil (dpm)) for deuterium enrichment and from 0 up to 0.17 APE (-11 up to 890 dpm) for 18O enrichment. Memory effects do exist but can be avoided by analyzing the biological samples in quintuplet. This method allows the determination of 1440 samples per week, i.e. 288 biological samples per week. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Simultaneous determination of platinum group elements and rhenium in rock samples using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cation exchange separation followed by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotsuka, Kazunori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    A simple and precise determination method for platinum group elements (PGEs) and Re in rock samples was developed using isotope dilution coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Cation exchange separation was employed for simplicity, because it is applicable to group separation and simultaneous isotopic measurement in contrast with the widely used anion exchange separation which entails separate elution. However, its application to ID-ICP-MS has been limited due to spectral interferences from impurities retained in the PGE fraction even after ion chromatography. To overcome this limitation, solvent extraction using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform was successfully applied for further purification. After the examination of optimum experimental parameters in cation exchange separation and solvent extraction using synthetic PGE solution, the established procedure was applied to the determination of PGEs and Re in some geochemical reference materials. The obtained results agreed well with the literature data determined using the different digestion methods (NiS fire assay and the use of a high-pressure asher) within the analytical uncertainties of each other. Significant difference in reproducibility between Ru, Ir, Pt and Os group, and Pd and Re group was observed in the results for BHVO-2 and JA-2. By considering the error factors affecting analytical reproducibility, we concluded that the difference is ascribed to the sample heterogeneity of minor minerals enriched in Ru, Ir, Pt and Os

  20. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  1. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  2. Development of evaluation methods for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures. Analysis of behavior of collapsed rock masses using 3-D distinct element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Masato; Shirai, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, importance of evaluation for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures is increasing in order to evaluate seismic stability of the slope, in addition to evaluating the possibilities of slope failure. In this study, we presented an examination flow chart to evaluate the impact on structures after slope failure. In the examination flow chart, we assumed the following four considerations; (1) evaluation of the collapse region of the slope, (2) evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, (3) evaluation of the impact on the structures, (4) examination of the countermeasures. And, for the purpose of using three dimensional distinct element method (DEM) for evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, we firstly confirmed applicability of DEM to behavior of a mass hurtling down the slope by means of comparing with the model test results. Moreover, we clarified influence of initial position or restitution coefficient of rock masses on final traveling distance of collapsed rock masses. (author)

  3. Determination of rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with off-line column preconcentration using 2,6-diacetylpyridine functionalized Amberlite XAD-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadas, Cennet [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Kara, Derya, E-mail: dkara@balikesir.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Art and Science Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Fisher, Andrew [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-18

    An off-line column preconcentration technique using a micro-column of 2,6 diacetylpyridine functionalized Amberlite XAD-4 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as a means of detection has been developed. The aim of the method was to determine rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) in seawater. Sample solutions (2-10 mL) were passed through the column which was then washed with ultra-pure water to remove residual matrix. The adsorbed cations on the resin were eluted by using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} containing 10 ng mL{sup -1} indium as an internal standard. The eluent was analyzed for the metal concentrations using ICP-MS. Sample pH as well as the sample and eluent flow rates were optimized. The sorption capacity of resin was determined by the batch process, by equilibrating 0.05 g of the resin with solutions of 50 mL of 25 mg L{sup -1} of individual metal ions for 4 h at pH 6.0 at 26 deg. C. The sorption capacities for the resin were found to range between 47.3 {mu}mol g{sup -1} (for Lu) and 136.7 {mu}mol g{sup -1} (for Gd). Limits of detection (3{sigma}), without any preconcentration, ranged from 2 ng L{sup -1} to 10.3 ng L{sup -1} (for Tm and Lu respectively). The proposed method was applied to the determination of REEs in seawater and tap water samples.

  4. Laban Movement Analysis Approach to Classical Ballet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Cadence

    2006-01-01

    As a Certified Laban Movement Analyst and a classically trained ballet dancer, I consistently weave the Laban Movement Analysis/Bartenieff Fundamentals (LMA/BF) theories and philosophies into the ballet class. This integration assists in: (1) Identifying the qualitative movement elements both in the art of ballet and in the students' dancing…

  5. Development of filter element from nanocomposites of ultra high molar mass polyethylene having silver nanoparticles; Desenvolvimento de elemento filtrante a partir de nanocompositos de polietileno de ultra-alta massa molar contendo nanoparticulas de prata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzo, Maurizio A.; Wang, S. Hui, E-mail: mbizzo@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    The production of polymer based filter elements for water is widespread in the market but has an undesirable characteristic, they are not always efficient and capable of retaining or eliminating microorganisms. This paper proposes the production of filters with biocidal activity, comprised by nanocomposites of ultra-high molar mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) containing silver nanoparticles. The polymer is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filter element and the Ag nanoparticles for its biocidal action. The filter elements were produced from two kinds of UHMMPE particles with different particle size distributions, one in the range of 150 to 200μm and the other of 300 to 400μm. Samples were collected from the obtained filter elements and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. The results indicated the formation of nanocomposite containing silver nanoparticles. (author)

  6. Top quark mass measurement in the electron-muon channel with the matrix element method applied to the 8 TeV data of the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, S.

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis lies within the scope of the measurement of the top quark mass in the decay channel electron-muon. This experimental measurement is achieved by the use of the matrix element method with collisions produced at LHC at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV and collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012. After introducing the theoretical context of the Standard Model and the physics of the top quark, a detailed description of the ATLAS detector design and of both the event simulation and reconstruction is given. The first analysis presented was done during the beginning of the thesis and focuses on the impact of the insertion of an innermost new pixel layer in the ATLAS detector on the b-tagging performance during the data taking starting in 2015 with a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the top quark mass measurement. After reviewing the selection procedure to which the analysis is linked, the calibration of the matrix element method is presented. The top quark mass is measured as : m(top) = [172.40 ± 0.35 (stat.) ± 1.12 (syst.)] GeV. This measurement is obtained with a precision of 0.64% and is compatible with both the World combination of the top quark mass and with recent measurements published by the ATLAS collaboration. (author)

  7. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  8. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes

  9. Measuring oxygen yields of a thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer for organic and inorganic materials through injection of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xijie; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    The thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (TC/EA-IRMS) is widely used to measure the δ(18) O value of various substances. A premise for accurate δ(18) O measurement is that the oxygen in the sample can be converted into carbon monoxide (CO) quantitatively or at least proportionally. Therefore, a precise method to determine the oxygen yield of TC/EA-IRMS measurements is needed. Most studies have used the CO peak area obtained from a known amount of a solid reference material (for example, benzoic acid) to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. Although it was assumed that the oxygen yield of the solid reference material is 100%, no direct evidence has been provided. As CO is the analyte gas for δ(18) O measurement by IRMS, in this study, we use a six-port valve to inject CO gas into the TC/EA. The CO is carried to the IRMS by the He carrier gas and the CO peak area is measured by the IRMS. The CO peak area thus obtained from a known amount of the injected CO is used to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. The oxygen yields of commonly used organic and inorganic reference materials such as benzoic acid (C6 H5 COOH), silver phosphate (Ag3 PO4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) and silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) are investigated at different reactor temperatures and sample sizes. We obtained excellent linear correlation between the peak area for the injected CO and its oxygen atom amount. C6 H5 COOH has the highest oxygen yield, followed by Ag3 PO4 , CaCO3 and SiO2 . The oxygen yields of TC/EA-IRMS are less than 100% for both organic and inorganic substances, but the yields are relatively stable at the specified reactor temperature and for a given quantity of sample. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Water mass circulation and weathering inputs in the Labrador Sea based on coupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Alexandra; Frank, Martin; Kienast, Markus; Rickli, Jörg; Hathorne, Ed; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Pahnke, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the key areas for deep water formation driving the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and thus plays an important role in Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. In order to better constrain the overturning processes and the origins of the distinct water masses, combined dissolved Hf-Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns were obtained from four water depth profiles along a section across the Labrador Sea. These were complemented by one surface sample off the southern tip of Greenland, three shallow water samples off the coast of Newfoundland, and two deep water samples off Nova Scotia. Although light REEs are markedly enriched in the surface waters off the coast of Newfoundland compared to north Atlantic waters, the REE concentration profiles are essentially invariant throughout the water column across the Labrador Sea. The hafnium concentrations of surface waters exhibit a narrow range between 0.6 and 1 pmol/kg but are not significantly higher than at depth. Neodymium isotope signatures (ɛNd) vary from unradiogenic values between -16.8 and -14.9 at the surface to more radiogenic values near -11.0 at the bottom of the Labrador Sea mainly reflecting the advection of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and North East Atlantic Deep Water, the signatures of which are influenced by weathering contributions from Icelandic basalts. Unlike Nd, water column radiogenic Hf isotope signatures (ɛHf) are more variable representing diverse weathering inputs from the surrounding landmasses. The least radiogenic seawater ɛHf signatures (up to -11.7) are found in surface waters close to Greenland and near the Canadian margin. This reflects the influence of recirculating Irminger Current Waters, which are affected by highly unradiogenic inputs from Greenland. A three to four ɛHf unit difference is observed between Denmark Strait Overflow Water (ɛHf ∼ -4) and North East Atlantic Deep Water (ɛHf ∼ -0

  11. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  12. Numeric simulations of en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yukio; Fukui, Hisao

    2010-12-01

    En-masse sliding mechanics have been typically used for space closure. Because of friction created at the bracket-wire interface, the force system during tooth movement has not been clarified. Long-term tooth movements in en-masse sliding mechanics were simulated with the finite element method. Tipping of the anterior teeth occurred immediately after application of retraction forces. The force system then changed so that the teeth moved almost bodily, and friction occurred at the bracket-wire interface. Net force transferred to the anterior teeth was approximately one fourth of the applied force. The amount of the mesial force acting on the posterior teeth was the same as that acting on the anterior teeth. Irrespective of the amount of friction, the ratio of movement distances between the posterior and anterior teeth was almost the same. By increasing the applied force or decreasing the frictional coefficient, the teeth moved rapidly, but the tipping angle of the anterior teeth increased because of the elastic deflection of the archwire. Finite element simulation clarified the tooth movement and the force system in en-masse sliding mechanics. Long-term tooth movement could not be predicted from the initial force system. The friction was not detrimental to the anchorage. Increasing the applied force or decreasing the friction for rapid tooth movement might result in tipping of the teeth. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multielement determination of trace elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after tandem preconcentration with cooperation of chelating resin adsorption and lanthanum coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Chiba, Koichi; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A tandem preconcentration method, in which chelating resin adsorption and La coprecipitation were cooperatively employed for preconcentration, was developed as a pretreatment method for simultaneous multielement determination of trace elements in seawater by ICP-MS. First, the seawater sample (250 ml) was treated with a chelating resin for preconcentration of trace elements, and then trace elements with good recoveries were determined by ICP-MS. Trace elements with the chemical properties of oxoanion- and hydride-formation, which were poorly recovered in the chelating resin preconcentration, were further subjected to preconcentration by La coprecipitation. As a result, more than 30 elements could be determined in the concentration range from 9.6 μg L -1 for Mo to 0.00018 μg L -1 for Tm, when the present tandem method was applied to the analysis of open seawater standard reference material (NASS-4). Furthermore, the analytical results for open seawater reference materials were compared with those for coastal seawater reference material as well as for coastal seawater collected in the Ise Bay. It was found that the multielement data for trace elements in these seawater samples clearly showed different elemental distributions, reflecting the different marine environments. (author)

  14. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, M., E-mail: marnel@sun.ac.za [Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Botha, A., E-mail: abo@sun.ac.za [Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Thornton, M., E-mail: meredith@sharkwatchsa.com [Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, c/o Iziko South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J., E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybyłowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  15. Mass separation of rare-earth elements by a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled with a He-jet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Y.; Okano, K.; Aoki, K.

    1987-01-01

    By using a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled to a He-jet system, neutron-rich isotopes of rare-earth elements such as cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and promethium produced by the thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U were ionized and successfully separated. The temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been measured and found to be explained qualitatively by the vapour pressure of the relevant elements. The characteristic temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been utilized for Z-identification of several isobars of rare-earth elements. The heaviest isotopes of neodymium and promethium, /sup 155/Nd and /sup 156/Pm, have recently been identified

  16. The distinction between chondroma and chondrosarcoma using chemical element mass fractions in tumors determined by neutron activation analysis as diagnostic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P content and Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/Na, Cl/Ca, and Cl/Na ratios in tissue of intact bone, chondroma and chondrosarcoma were investigated by neutron activation analysis. It was shown that higher mass fraction of Cl and Na and also Cl/Na mass fraction ratio as well as lower Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios are typical of the chondrosarcoma tissue compared to chondroma. Finally, it was proposed to use the estimation of such parameters as the Cl mass fraction and the Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios as an additional test for differential diagnosis between chondroma and chondrosarcoma. (author)

  17. Study of quantitative analysis of rare earth elements (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in soil samples by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Duc Toan; Nguyen Giang; Vo Tran Quang Thai; Do Tam Nhan; Nguyen Le Anh; Nguyen Viet Duc; Luong Thi Tham; Truong Thi Phuong Mai

    2015-01-01

    Method for the determination of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in soil samples without separating by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been studied at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. The optimal conditions for ICP-MS NexION 300X with three modes: Standard, Collision (KED), and Reaction (DRC) have been studied on the Montana II soil reference material. The result analysis shows that: DRC mode only gives good analysis result for Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, and Lu; Standard mode exhibits good analysis results for all elements with error from 1.2 - 29.0% and KED mode is the best one with error less than 15%. The concentrations of elements in the soil samples of Cau Dat, Bao Loc, and Da Lat were determined, which concentrations of REEs in soil samples of Cau Dat are higher than that of the other areas in Lam Dong Province. (author)

  18. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  19. Cytosolic distributions of highly toxic metals Cd and Tl and several essential elements in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) analyzed by size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Kolar, Nicol; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana

    2018-05-15

    Cytosolic distributions of nonessential metals Cd and Tl and seven essential elements among compounds of different molecular masses were studied in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the karstic Krka River in Croatia. Analyses were done by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Common feature of Cd and Tl, as highly toxic elements, was their distribution within only two narrow peaks. The increase of cytosolic Cd concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Cd elution within low molecular mass peak (maximum at ∼15 kDa), presumably containing metallothioneins (MTs), which indicated successful Cd detoxification in brown trout liver under studied exposure conditions. Contrary, the increase of cytosolic Tl concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Tl elution within high molecular mass peak (maximum at 140 kDa), which probably indicated incomplete Tl detoxification. Common feature of the majority of studied essential elements was their distribution within more peaks, often broad and not well resolved, which is consistent with their numerous physiological functions. Among observed associations of essential metals/nonmetal to proteins, the following could be singled out: Cu and Zn association to MTs, Fe association to storage protein ferritin, and Se association to compounds of very low molecular masses (<5 kDa). The obtained results present the first step towards identification of metal-binding compounds in hepatic cytosol of brown trout, and thus a significant contribution to better understanding of metal fate in the liver of that important bioindicator species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrothermal vaporisation ICP-mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for the determination and speciation of trace elements in solid samples - A review of real-life applications from the author's lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martin; Moens, Luc [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2002-09-01

    The use of electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) from a graphite furnace as a means of sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) permits the direct analysis of solid samples. A multi-step furnace temperature programme is used to separate the vaporisation of the target element(s) and of the matrix components from one another. Sometimes, a chemical modifier is used to enable a higher thermal pre-treatment temperature, by avoiding premature analyte losses (stabilisation) or promoting the selective volatilisation of matrix components. In almost all instances, accurate results can be obtained via external calibration or single standard addition using an aqueous standard solution. Absolute limits of detection are typically 1 pg, which corresponds to 1 ng/g for a typical sample mass of 1 mg. Real-life applications carried out in the author's lab are used to illustrate the utility of this approach. These applications aim at trace element determination in industrial and environmental materials. The industrial materials analysed include different types of plastics - Carilon, polyethylene, poly(ethyleneterephtalate) and polyamide - and photo- and thermographic materials. As samples from environmental origin, plant material, animal tissue and sediments were investigated. Some applications aimed at a multi-element determination, while in other, the content of a single, but often challenging, element (e.g., Si or S) had to be measured. ETV-ICP-MS was also used in elemental speciation studies. Separation of Se-containing proteins was accomplished using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Subsequent quantification of the Se content in the protein spots was carried out using ETV-ICP-MS. As the volatilisation of methylmercury and inorganic mercury could be separated from one another with respect to time, no chromatographic or electrophoretic separation procedure was required, but ETV-ICP-MS as such sufficed for Hg speciation in fish tissue

  1. Schottky mass measurements of heavy neutron-rich nuclides in the element range $70\\leq Z\\leq 79$ at the ESR

    CERN Document Server

    Shubina, D; Litvinov, Yu A; Blaum, K; Brandau, C; Bosch, F; Carroll, J J; Casten, R F; Cullen, D M; Cullen, I J; Deo, A Y; Detwiler, B; Dimopoulou, C; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Haettner, E; Heil, M; Kempley, R S; Kozhuharov, C; Knobel, R; Kurcewicz, J; Kuzminchuk, N; Litvinov, S A; Liu, Z; Mao, R; Nociforo, C; Nolden, F; Patyk, Z; Plass, W R; Prochazka, A; Reed, M W; Sanjari, M S; Scheidenberger, C; Steck, M; Stohlker, Th; Sun, B; Swan, T P D; Trees, G; Walker, P M; Weick, H; Winckler, N; Winkler, M; Woods, P J; Yamaguchi, T; Zhou, C

    2013-01-01

    Storage-ring mass spectrometry was applied to neutron-rich $^{197}$Au projectile fragments. Masses of $^{181,183}$Lu, $^{185,186}$Hf, $^{187,188}$Ta, $^{191}$W, and $^{192,193}$Re nuclei were measured for the first time. The uncertainty of previously known masses of $^{189,190}$W and $^{195}$Os nuclei was improved. Observed irregularities on the smooth two-neutron separation energies for Hf and W isotopes are linked to the collectivity phenomena in the corresponding nuclei.

  2. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  3. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  4. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  5. Study of areas susceptible to mass movements in the Highway RS 486, Route of the Sun Estudo de áreas suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na Rodovia RS-486 – Rota do Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Monguilhott

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The development of new urban areas and the necessity of disposing of goods production and increased movement of people requires the intervention of man in areas previously not inhabited or preserved of the human interference. Infrastructural work sites have direct effects on ecosystems and RS/486 causes, beyond the visual impact on the landscape, a strong fragmentation in Atlantic forest. The removal of vegetation around the highway can facilitate the occurrence of natural disasters related to changes in geomorphology and weathering processes may result erosion and soil accommodation. To study the vulnerability and susceptibility the mass movements of the sub-watershed Três Forquilhas river along the highway RS 486 were employed techniques of GIS and remote sensing to produce maps of environmental vulnerability from employment of such variables as land use, geomorphology, geology, digital elevation model (DEM, slope and normalized digital vegetation index (NDVI by applying analytic hierarchy process method (AHP to support decision. The resulting maps matchie the purpose of defining priority areas for action of the Rio Grande do Sul State Civil Defense.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.61

    O desenvolvimento de novos aglomerados urbanos, bem como a necessidade de escoamento da produção de bens e a maior circulação de pessoas, exige a intervenção do homem em espaços antes não habitados ou preservados da interferência humana. Obras de infraestrutura têm efeito direto sobre os ecossistemas e a RS 486 provoca, além do impacto visual na paisagem, uma forte fragmentação no bioma Mata Atlântica. A retirada da vegetação no entorno da rodovia pode facilitar a ocorrência de desastres naturais relacionados com mudanças na geomorfologia e nos processos intempéricos, resultando em erosão e acomodação do solo. Com o objetivo de mapear áreas vulneráveis e suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na sub-bacia hidrográfica do Rio Tr

  6. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  7. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  8. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  9. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Nonell, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Tiang, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248 Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios in the 248 Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  10. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  11. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hyphenated system allows unequivocal identification of nanoparticle populations. • AF4 separation permitted detection of unexpected nanosized species in a sample. • ICP-QQQ provides elemental ratios with adequate accuracy in every nanoparticle. • Purity and chemical composition of different quantum dot samples were assessed. - Abstract: Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches

  12. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  13. Chaplygin sleigh with periodically oscillating internal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizyaev, Ivan A.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the movement of Chaplygin sleigh on a plane that is a solid body with imposed nonholonomic constraint, which excludes the possibility of motions transversal to the constraint element (“knife-edge”), and complement the model with an attached mass, periodically oscillating relatively to the main platform of the sleigh. Numerical simulations indicate the occurrence of either unrestricted acceleration of the sleigh, or motions with bounded velocities and momenta, depending on parameters. We note the presence of phenomena characteristic to nonholonomic systems with complex dynamics; in particular, attractors occur responsible for chaotic motions. In addition, quasiperiodic regimes take place similar to those observed in conservative nonlinear dynamics.

  14. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  15. Concentration and measuring Platinum Group Elements (PGE) Transfer Factor in soil and vegetations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibah Sakinah Oyub

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and to measure platinum group elements (PGE) transfer factor in environmental samples of roadside soil and vegetation. The use of vehicle catalytic converter has released platinum group elements (PGE) and other gases into the environment. Thus, roadside soil and plants were exposed to this element and has become the medium for the movement of this elements. Samples of roadside soil and vegetation were taken at various locations in UKM Bangi Toll and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) is determined using mass spectrometry-inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Overall, the concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE), which is the element platinum (Pt) in soil was 0.016 ± 0.036 μgg -1 . While the concentration of the elements palladium (Pd) was 0.079 ± 0.019 μgg -1 and element rhodium (Rh) is at a concentration of 0.013 ± 0.020 μgg -1 . Overall, the transfer factor for the element platinum (Pt) is 1. While the transfer factor of the element palladium (Pd) is 0.96 and the element rhodium (Rh) is 1.11. In conclusion, the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in soils have increased. (author)

  16. Determination of rare earth, major and trace elements in authigenic fraction of Andaman Sea (Northeastern Indian Ocean) sediments by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; You, C.-F.; Nath, B.N.; SijinKumar, A.V.

    Downcore variation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxides of a sediment core (covering a record of last approx. 40 kyr) from the Andaman Sea, a part of the Indian Ocean shows distinctive positive Ce and Eu anomalies...

  17. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  18. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy

    2017-05-05

    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution factor...

  20. Simultaneous determination of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples by fusion-dissolution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madinabeitia, S. Garcia de [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lorda, M.E. Sanchez [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Departamento de Mineralogia-Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Ibarguchi, J.I. Gil [Servicio de Geocronologia y Geoquimica Isotopica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa (Spain)], E-mail: josei.gil@ehu.es

    2008-09-12

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples using quadrupole ICP-MS techniques. The sample preparation involves fusion with LiBO{sub 2} and dilution in HNO{sub 3}-HF which allows complete decomposition of refractory minerals and quantification of the elements of interest. The effects of high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Li in the solution are minimized using a matrix-tolerant interface and conditioning the instrument with LiBO{sub 2} solution. The signal drift is moreover controlled using conventional internal standards and specific Drift Correction Standards (DCS). A key issue of the technique is the external calibration using selected Certified Reference Materials (CRM). Depending on the sample type and analytes of interest three optimized programmable modes are used sequentially: Standard, Collision Cell (CCT) and Kinetic Energy Discrimination (KED) mode. The method allows to quantify more than 40 elements in concentrations from tens-of-percent to <0.1 ppm levels during a single experiment. The method has been validated through the analysis of different CRMs with recovery factors of ca. 100% and typical 2{sigma} errors of <10%.

  1. Simultaneous determination of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples by fusion-dissolution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madinabeitia, S. Garcia de; Lorda, M.E. Sanchez; Ibarguchi, J.I. Gil

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of major to ultratrace elements in geological samples using quadrupole ICP-MS techniques. The sample preparation involves fusion with LiBO 2 and dilution in HNO 3 -HF which allows complete decomposition of refractory minerals and quantification of the elements of interest. The effects of high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Li in the solution are minimized using a matrix-tolerant interface and conditioning the instrument with LiBO 2 solution. The signal drift is moreover controlled using conventional internal standards and specific Drift Correction Standards (DCS). A key issue of the technique is the external calibration using selected Certified Reference Materials (CRM). Depending on the sample type and analytes of interest three optimized programmable modes are used sequentially: Standard, Collision Cell (CCT) and Kinetic Energy Discrimination (KED) mode. The method allows to quantify more than 40 elements in concentrations from tens-of-percent to <0.1 ppm levels during a single experiment. The method has been validated through the analysis of different CRMs with recovery factors of ca. 100% and typical 2σ errors of <10%

  2. Study of the interactions between the transuranic elements and some environmental ligands by the hyphenated technique capillary electrophoresis: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topin, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, the capabilities of the hyphenated Capillary Electrophoresis-ICP-MS technique are used to improve the knowledge on the transuranic element speciation in the environment (nuclear waste management) and in the framework of spent fuel reprocessing. Essential thermodynamical data have been determined for the first time for the interactions of the plutonium at the (5+) oxidation state (main soluble species of Pu of the surface water) in inorganic media (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate). This study enables to correct the existing model, based on the thermodynamical data of the neptunium at the (5+) oxidation state (analogue of the pentavalent plutonium). Furthermore, the hyphenated CE-ICP-MS technique has also been applied to study the interactions between DTPA, widely used in the nuclear industry, and the elements at the (3+) oxidation state (Pu, Am, Cm, Cf) and at the (4+) oxidation state (Pu, Np, Th). The results show for the first time the formation of mixed An(IV)/DTPA/OH complexes likely to play a key role on the actinide behavior in the field of the waste management. The study on the trivalent elements confirms the selectivity of DTPA versus the actinide in the framework of the actinide/lanthanide separation but proves that the covalency, responsible of the selectivity, are less important than the ionicity in the binding. (author)

  3. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  4. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-08-11

    Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Determination of low concentrations of iron, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other trace elements in natural samples using an octopole collision/reaction cell equipped quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Angela R; Misra, Sambuddha; Landing, William M

    2015-04-30

    Accurate determination of trace metals has many applications in environmental and life sciences, such as constraining the cycling of essential micronutrients in biological production and employing trace metals as tracers for anthropogenic pollution. Analysis of elements such as Fe, As, Se, and Cd is challenged by the formation of polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, which are overcome in this study. We utilized an Octopole Collision/Reaction Cell (CRC)-equipped Quadrupole-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for the rapid analysis of small volume samples (~250 μL) in a variety of matrices containing HNO3 and/or HCl. Efficient elimination of polyatomic interferences was demonstrated by the use of the CRC in Reaction Mode (RM; H2 gas) and in Collision-Reaction Mode (CRM; H2 and He gas), in addition to hot plasma (RF power 1500 W) and cool plasma (600 W) conditions. It was found that cool plasma conditions with RM achieved the greatest signal sensitivity while maintaining low detection limits (i.e. (56) Fe in 0.44 M HNO3 has a sensitivity of 160,000 counts per second (cps)-per-1 µg L(-1) and a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.86 ng L(-1) ). The average external precision was ≤ ~10% for minor (≤10 µg L(-1) ) elements measured in a 1:100 dilution of NIST 1643e and for iron in rainwater samples under all instrumental operating conditions. An improved method has been demonstrated for the rapid multi-element analysis of trace metals that are challenged by polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, with a focus on (56) Fe, (75) As, (78) Se and (111) Cd. This method can contribute to aqueous environmental geochemistry and chemical oceanography, as well as other fields such as forensic chemistry, agriculture, food chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  7. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  8. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  9. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  10. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  12. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  13. Multi-elemental characterization of tunnel and road dusts in Houston, Texas using dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry: Evidence for the release of platinum group and anthropogenic metals from motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, Nicholas; Bozlaker, Ayse; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical method for PGEs, main group, transition and rare earth metals developed. ► Comprehensive characterization of road and tunnel dust samples was accomplished. ► PGEs in dusts arise from autocatalyst attrition. ► Mobile sources also contributed to Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, W and Pb. ► All other elements, including rare earths arose from crustal sources. - Abstract: Platinum group elements (PGEs) including Rh, Pd, and Pt are important tracers for vehicular emissions, though their measurement is often challenging and difficult to replicate in environmental campaigns. These challenges arise from sample preparation steps required for PGE quantitation, which often cause severe isobaric interferences and spectral overlaps from polyatomic species of other anthropogenically emitted metals. Consequently, most previous road dust studies have either only quantified PGEs or included a small number of anthropogenic elements. Therefore a novel analytical method was developed to simultaneously measure PGEs, lanthanoids, transition and main group elements to comprehensively characterize the elemental composition of urban road and tunnel dusts. Dust samples collected from the vicinity of high-traffic roadways and a busy underwater tunnel restricted to single-axle (predominantly gasoline-driven) vehicles in Houston, TX were analyzed for 45 metals with the newly developed method using dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (DRC-q-ICP–MS). Average Rh, Pd and Pt concentrations were 152 ± 52, 770 ± 208 and 529 ± 130 ng g −1 respectively in tunnel dusts while they varied between 6 and 8 ng g −1 , 10 and 88 ng g −1 and 35 and 131 ng g −1 in surface road dusts. Elemental ratios and enrichment factors demonstrated that PGEs in dusts originated from autocatalyst attrition/abrasion. Strong evidence is also presented for mobile source emissions of Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, W and Pb. However

  14. Metrological system for y-ray spectrometry measurement of the specific activity and mass fraction of natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaikovich, I.M.; Fominykh, V.I.; Kirisyuk, E.M.; Belyachkov, Y.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years a great deal of attention has been devoted to the study of the radiation conditions, which in some regions change markedly as a result of intense human activity. One reason for radioactive contamination of an area is dissemination during extraction and processing of radioactive ores or other minerals of natural radioactive elements with a high content of potassium, uranium (radium), and thorium. Estimation of the level of radioactive contamination is one of the main problems of ecological monitoring, and the quality of the measurements sometimes plays a deciding role in the fate of the object being investigated. This also pertains to, in particular, estimation of radioactive contamination of minerals employed for building homes and factories and other industrial structures. In order to draw unequivocal and well-founded conclusions from measurements of the content of natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples, collected at the object being investigated, a great deal of attention must be devoted during the organization of the measurements to the metrological system

  15. Validation of a dilute and shoot method for quantification of 12 elements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry in human milk and in cow milk preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubascoux, Stéphane; Andrey, Daniel; Vigo, Mario; Kastenmayer, Peter; Poitevin, Eric

    2018-09-01

    Nutritional information about human milk is essential as early human growth and development have been closely linked to the status and requirements of several macro- and micro-elements. However, methods addressing whole mineral profiling in human milk have been scarce due in part to their technical complexities to accurately and simultaneously measure the concentration of micro- and macro-trace elements in low volume of human milk. In the present study, a single laboratory validation has been performed using a "dilute and shoot" approach for the quantification of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and iodine (I), in both human milk and milk preparations. Performances in terms of limits of detection and quantification, of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness have been assessed and verified using various reference or certified materials. For certified human milk sample (NIST 1953), recoveries obtained for reference or spiked values are ranged from 93% to 108% (except for Mn at 151%). This robust method using new technology ICP-MS/MS without high pressure digestion is adapted to both routinely and rapidly analyze human milk micro-sample (i.e. less than 250 μL) in the frame of clinical trials but also to be extended to the mineral profiling of milk preparations like infant formula and adult nutritionals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  17. Tracer investigations of natural and polluted sea sediment movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszak, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Results of tracer investigations and bottom sediment movement analysis (natural and polluted) performed world-wide have been shown. Polish investigations have been compared to these results. A critical estimation and analysis of particular elements of sediment movement: thickness of the drag layer and various characteristics of bottom transport evaluated in different time-space scales has been performed. 14 refs, 9 figs

  18. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle…

  19. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  20. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  1. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  2. A new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber for improved determination of trace elements and Pb isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Michael; Rausch, Nicole; Feuerbacher, Helmut; Klemens, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The use of a new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber arrangement consisting of a cyclonic spray chamber and a Scott-type spray chamber made from PFA and PEEK provides a straightforward approach for improving the performance of inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The characteristics of the tandem spray chamber were critically evaluated against a PEEK cyclonic and a PFA Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Sensitivity across the entire mass range was increased by about three times compared to the conventional setup utilizing only one spray chamber. Precision of the results, especially at low signal intensities, improved by 160% and 31% compared to the cyclonic and Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Using the tandem spray chamber, the oxide formation rate was lowered by about 50%. Signals as low as 30 counts could be determined under routine measurement conditions with a RSD of 2.4% thus allowing to precisely quantify small concentration differences at the ng l -1 concentration level. The excellent precision (0.02-0.07%) of 206 Pb / 207 Pb and 206 Pb / 208 Pb ratios determined in pore water samples was rather limited by the instrumental capabilities of the single collector ICP-MS instrument than by the performance of the tandem spray chamber

  3. A finite element model of the LHC dipole cold mass with hysteretic, non-linear behavior and single turn description: towards the interpretation of magnet quenches

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067087

    In one of its acceptation, the word quench is synonym of destruction. And this is even more consistent with reality in the case of the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets, whose magnetic field and stored energy are unprecedented: the uncontrolled transition from the superconducting to the resistive state can be the origin of dramatic events. This is why the protection of magnets is so important, and why so many studies and investigations have been carried out on quench origin. The production, cold testing and installation of the 1232 arc dipole magnets is completed. They have fulfilled all the requirements and the operation reliability of these magnets has already been partially confirmed. From an academic standpoint, nevertheless, the anomalous mechanical behaviour, which was sometimes observed during power tests, has not yet been given a clear explanation. The work presented in this thesis aims at providing an instrument to better understand the reasons for such anomalies, by means of finite element modell...

  4. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  5. Appendicular and whole body lean mass outcomes are associated with finite element analysis-derived bone strength at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Giangregorio, Lora M; Wong, Andy K O; Josse, Robert G; Cheung, Angela M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), and whole body lean (LMI) and fat mass indices (FMI) associate with estimated bone strength outcomes at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40 years and older. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed to determine body composition, including whole body lean and fat mass, and appendicular lean mass. ALMI (appendicular lean mass/height 2 ), LMI (lean tissue mass/height 2 ) and FMI (fat mass/height 2 ) were calculated. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) scans were performed to assess bone structural properties at the distal radius and tibia. Using finite element analysis, failure load (N), stiffness (N/mm), ultimate stress (MPa), and cortical-to-trabecular load ratio were estimated from HRpQCT scans. The associations between body composition (ALMI, LMI, FMI) and estimated bone strength were examined using bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding variables. In 197 participants (127 women; mean±SD, age: 69.5±10.3y, body mass index: 27.95±4.95kg/m 2 , ALMI: 7.31±1.31kg/m 2 ), ALMI and LMI were significantly associated with failure load at the distal radius and tibia (explained 39%-48% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables and multiple testing (R 2 =0.586-0.645, p<0.001). ALMI, LMI, and FMI did not have significant associations with ultimate stress in our multivariable models. FMI was significantly associated with cortical-to-trabecular load ratio at the distal radius and tibia (explained 6%-12% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (R 2 =0.208-0.243, p<0.001). FMI was no longer significantly associated with failure load after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that ALMI and LMI are important determinants of estimated bone strength

  6. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, W. R.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; da Silva Queiroz, C. A.; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I. A.; Abrão, A.

    2003-02-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL-1. The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences.

  7. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I.A.; Abrao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL -1 . The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  8. Compound-specific isotope analysis of light elements using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and its application to geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Keita; Matsumoto, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi

    1997-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has been developed recently using gas chromatography/combustion/mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). This paper summarizes principles and progress of GC/C/IRMS, and reviews recent some important works using this new method. GC/C/IRMS is a novel tool for (1) biomarker analysis in sediments and living matter, (2) paleoenvironment analysis including reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes, (3) geochemical cycle study of organic compounds in a terrestrial-marine system, (4) evaluation of maturity and diagenesis of organic matter including petroleum formation, (5) ecological analysis, (6) evaluation of anthropologenic pollution in environment, (7) detection of extraterrestrial organic compounds and the formation mechanism study, (8) tracer studies in environment. (author)

  9. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 5.Speciation of Arsenic Compounds in Biological Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaise, Toshikazu

    Arsenic originating from the lithosphere is widely distributed in the environment. Many arsenicals in the environment are in organic and methylated species. These arsenic compounds in drinking water or food products of marine origin are absorbed in human digestive tracts, metabolized in the human body, and excreted viatheurine. Because arsenic shows varying biological a spects depending on its chemical species, the biological characteristics of arsenic must be determined. It is thought that some metabolic pathways for arsenic and some arsenic circulation exist in aqueous ecosystems. In this paper, the current status of the speciation analysis of arsenic by HPLC/ICP-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry) in environmental and biological samples is summarized using recent data.

  10. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...

  11. White Paper: Movement System Diagnoses in Neurologic Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Lois D; Quinn, Lori; Gill-Body, Kathleen; Brown, David A; Quiben, Myla; Riley, Nora; Scheets, Patricia L

    2018-04-01

    The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems. We propose that, going forward, diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated. The Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy's Movement System Task Force was convened to address these issues with respect to management of movement system problems in patients with neurologic conditions. The purpose of this article is to report on the work and recommendations of the Task Force. The Task Force identified 4 essential elements necessary to develop and implement movement system diagnoses for patients with primarily neurologic involvement from existing movement system classifications. The Task Force considered the potential impact of using movement system diagnoses on clinical practice, education and, research. Recommendations were developed and provided recommendations for potential next steps to broaden this discussion and foster the development of movement system diagnostic classifications. The Task Force proposes that diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated with the long-range goal to reach consensus on and adoption of a movement system diagnostic framework for clients with neurologic injury or disease states.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A198).

  12. Principles of a new type of great acceptance mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, A.; Ricaud, C.; Bru, B.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of a new method for performing selection of given charge/mass ratio ions among a stream of contaminating ions with very close charge/mass ratios, are presented. The mass spectrometer is basically composed of a series of three element sets carrying out the following functions: in a first section, a mass defect is transformed in a phase shift; a HF cavity (de-buncher) then transforms the phase shift in an energy variation; and an energy analysis magnetic system which transforms the energy difference in a radial separation. The transverse movement of the beam is thus controlled all along the course, and an excellent longitudinal capture of the ions is obtained thus ensuring a good global transmission

  13. Solid phase extraction for analysis of biogenic carbonates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS): an investigation of rare earth element signatures in otolith microchemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Zikri; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of trace elements into fish otoliths is governed by several factors such as life histories and environment in addition to stock and species differences. In an attempt to elucidate the elemental signatures of rare earth elements (REEs) in otoliths, a solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol was used in combination with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) as a sample introduction procedure for the determinations by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of various parameters, such as carrier gas flow rate, atomization temperature and chemical modification, were examined for optimization of the conditions by ETV-ICP-MS. Atomization was achieved at 2800 deg. C. Lower temperatures (i.e. 2600 deg. C) resulted in severe memory problems due to incomplete atomization. Palladium was used as a chemical modifier. It was found that an increase in Pd concentration up to 0.5 μg in the injection volume (70 μl) led up to four-fold enhancement in the integrated signals. This phenomenon is attributed to the carrier effect of Pd rather than the stabilization since no significant losses were observed for high temperature drying around 700 deg. C even in the absence of Pd. Preconcentration was performed on-line at pH 5 by using a mini-column of Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650M chelating resin, which also eliminated the calcium matrix of otolith solutions. After preconcentration of 6.4 ml of solution, the concentrate was collected in 0.65 ml of 0.5% (v/v) HNO 3 in autosampler cups, and then analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS. The method was validated with the analysis of a fish otolith certified reference material (CRM) of emperor snapper, and then applied to samples. Results obtained from otoliths of fish captured in the same habitat indicated that otolith rare earth element concentrations are more dependent on environmental conditions of the habitat than on species differences

  14. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  15. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  16. Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%

  17. Elemental analysis of soils using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with multivariate discrimination: tape mounting as an alternative to pellets for small forensic transfer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2014-01-01

    Elemental analysis of soil is a useful application of both laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in geological, agricultural, environmental, archeological, planetary, and forensic sciences. In forensic science, the question to be answered is often whether soil specimens found on objects (e.g., shoes, tires, or tools) originated from the crime scene or other location of interest. Elemental analysis of the soil from the object and the locations of interest results in a characteristic elemental profile of each specimen, consisting of the amount of each element present. Because multiple elements are measured, multivariate statistics can be used to compare the elemental profiles in order to determine whether the specimen from the object is similar to one of the locations of interest. Previous work involved milling and pressing 0.5 g of soil into pellets before analysis using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. However, forensic examiners prefer techniques that require smaller samples, are less time consuming, and are less destructive, allowing for future analysis by other techniques. An alternative sample introduction method was developed to meet these needs while still providing quan