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Sample records for elemental chemical analysis

  1. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  2. Advanced chemical analysis service for elements, radionuclides and phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given on the structure, organisation and performance of the chemical analysis service of the Central Department for Chemical Analysis at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH. The research and development programs together with the infrastructure of the Centre afford to analyse almost all stable elements of the periodical table in almost any material. The corresponding chemical analysis service has been organized according to a new modular system of analytical steps. According to this, the most complicated and, therefore, most general case of an analytical scheme for element and radionuclide analysis in any type of material can be differentiated into about 14 different steps, the modules. They are more or less independent of the special problem. The laboratory is designed and organized according to these steps. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  4. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Desenvolvimento de Processos; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Gerencia de Descomissionamento

    2011-07-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  5. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone; Kelecom, Alphonse; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser

    2011-01-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  6. Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.; Demortier, G.; Bodart, F.

    The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

  7. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  8. Mass spectrographic analysis of selected chemical elements by microbial leaching of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.; Bullmann, M.; Iske, U.

    1986-01-01

    Spark source mass spectrometry is a useful method for chemical element analysis of geological and biological samples. This sensitive technique (detection limit down to the ppb-range) is used to analyze leaching processes by means of several microorganisms. The problem of microbial leaching of chemical resistent materials was tested under laboratory conditions with regard to possible analytical and technical applications. Leaching of metals with chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic, organic acids producing microorganisms has been investigated with zircon from the Baltic Shield containing 0.7% rare earth elements and 1.67% hafnium. When zircon is leached with strains of thiobacillus ferrooxidans about 80% of the rare earth elements, Hf, Th and U can be recovered. (orig.) [de

  9. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  10. Multielement analysis of reagents used in chemical identification of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    For more than 40 years, chemical identification of transuranic elements has been used at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Join Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, as a secondary method of identification. Chlorination of transuranic elements obtained by nuclear reactions is an important step of the procedure in order to obtain volatile compounds able to pass through a thermo chromatographic process. To access the quality of the reagents TiCl 4 and SOCl 2 multielement analysis was carried out using both X-rays fluorescence and gamma activation. It was followed the simplest procedure for reagents samples pretreatment, so further interferences from other chemical products were avoided. X-rays fluorescence analysis was performed in a spectrometer with Si(Li) detector with a resolution for Fe (K?) of 190 eV. Both Cd-109 and Am-241 were used as isotopic sources of excitation. Gamma activation analysis was carried out using the compact electron accelerator MT-25, where gamma rays are produced in a stopping target. Among the parameters of the MT-25 are the following: energy range-10-25 MeV, gamma-ray flux-10 14 photon/s, power consumption-20 kw. Measurements of the induced activity were performed with the help of a HPGe detector, thin and coaxial Ge(Li) detectors. There were identified two elements in SOCl 2 -Nickel (3*10 -6 g/g) and Antimony (2*10 -7 g/g), while there were identified three elements in TiCl 4 - Zirconium (8*10 -7 g/g), Arsenic (9*10 -7 g/g) and Antimony (5*10 -7 g/g). Only five elements were detected in trace concentrations in the two analyzed reagents, that is for more than 57 elements capable of being detected using gamma activation analysis with the MT-25 only 5 had concentrations above the detection limits of the method. Not being chemical analogs of the synthesized transuranic elements (Z-104 and 106) and not being able to alpha or fission disintegrations there is not expected any interference from them in the chemical

  11. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  13. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR 2 O 3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO 4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  14. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  15. Finite Element Analysis Modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    concentrations. This is the method by which species adsorb to the surface of the substrate. The movement resulting from diffusion is governed by...itself. This can be treacherous, however. The mesh is what the entire finite element method is built upon. If the movement of the backbone has... Brownian Motion Algorithm for Tow Scale Modeling of Chemical Vapor Infiltration. Computational Materials Science, 1871-1878. !178 23. Wang, C. & D

  16. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  17. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko

    2013-01-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO 3 solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in replicate. A

  18. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO 3 solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in replicate. A

  19. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: thalitapsanches@usp.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  20. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  1. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis applied to the study of chemical element accumulation in organs of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva Neto, Luiz J. da; Santos, Robson A. dos; Silva, Karolayne E.M.; França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Monitoração Ambiental

    2017-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a multielementar technique with high sensitivity, and can be applied to study small samples. Therefore, this research proposes using the INAA for quantifying the accumulation of chemical elements in organs of anuran amphibians Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894). Male individuals were collected on areas with anthropogenic influence close to water resources on the campus of ESALQ/USP in 2009. The animals were sacrificed in a cold chamber and dissected to separate their kidneys, livers, lungs and skins. After cleaning, the organs were lyophilized and pulverized. Samples weighing from 200 to 500 mg were placed in polyethylene capsules to be irradiated. The INAA technique, based on the bombardment of samples with neutrons for the production of radionuclides, was applied using the Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute. Portions of certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. The mass fractions were quantified by the k0 method, and the results indicated differences among the As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sc, Se and Zn concentrations in the analyzed organs. Therefore, it was possible to calculate the bioaccumulation indexes relative to these chemical elements for the species. In addition, it was possible to infer the contamination pathways: As, Br, Co, Cr and Se by ingestion and Co, Fe, Hg, Sc and Zn by contact, which corroborated the usage of R. schneideri anuran as a biomonitor of chemical elements. (author)

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19≤Z≤38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL -1 for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 μg.mL -1 for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 μg. mL -1 for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 μg.mL -1 for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  4. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis applied to the study of chemical element accumulation in organs of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva Neto, Luiz J. da; Santos, Robson A. dos; Silva, Karolayne E.M.; França, Elvis J. de

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a multielementar technique with high sensitivity, and can be applied to study small samples. Therefore, this research proposes using the INAA for quantifying the accumulation of chemical elements in organs of anuran amphibians Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894). Male individuals were collected on areas with anthropogenic influence close to water resources on the campus of ESALQ/USP in 2009. The animals were sacrificed in a cold chamber and dissected to separate their kidneys, livers, lungs and skins. After cleaning, the organs were lyophilized and pulverized. Samples weighing from 200 to 500 mg were placed in polyethylene capsules to be irradiated. The INAA technique, based on the bombardment of samples with neutrons for the production of radionuclides, was applied using the Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute. Portions of certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. The mass fractions were quantified by the k0 method, and the results indicated differences among the As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sc, Se and Zn concentrations in the analyzed organs. Therefore, it was possible to calculate the bioaccumulation indexes relative to these chemical elements for the species. In addition, it was possible to infer the contamination pathways: As, Br, Co, Cr and Se by ingestion and Co, Fe, Hg, Sc and Zn by contact, which corroborated the usage of R. schneideri anuran as a biomonitor of chemical elements. (author)

  5. PIXE and ICP analysis of chemical elements in the downer cow syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dima, G.; Stihi, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Badica, T.; Olariu, A.; Petre, M.; Jianu, E. D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was the microelemental analysis of blood serum samples collected from healthy and ill cows (downer cow syndrome DCS). The origin of this syndrome is uncertain but the clinical experience denotes that the DCS is advanced by the hypocalcaemic paresis of parturition. The diminution of some nutritive elements from food can be a cause of DCS. The cows are more sensitive to the diminution of P in food in comparison with the diminution of Ca. Another interesting aspect about the origin of DCS is the ratio Ca/P in food. The samples were collected from cows at some animal farms: 20 healthy cows and 12 DCS cows breeds on the same conditions. Concentrations of P, Cl, K, Ca and Fe elements were obtained by using particle induced X - ray emission (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The mineral concentrations in the serum have values in normal limits for healthy cows even during the winter, when the mineral content of dry food is very poor. On the other hand, we can observe important decreases under the normal limits of the amount of Ca, P and Mg in the blood serum of DCS cows. It is easy to see the tendency of the DCS animals to have hypocalcemia and hypophosphataemia. Those perturbations can be the causes of the installations of the ill cows in the lypostatic and decubital attitudes. (authors)

  6. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  7. Chemical analysis of the elements in UZrNb alloy at CDTN: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Palmieri, Helena Eugenia L.; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Souza, Adalberto Leles de

    2012-01-01

    The complete determination of major, minor, and impurity element contents in nuclear fuel is essential for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels. The control over all the stages of the development of nuclear fuel involves a combination of different analytical methods such as spectrometric methods. The goal of our investigation is to develop and evaluate procedures for the determination of main elements and carbon impurity present in some uranium alloys. In this paper the element contents in U2.5Zr7.5Nb, U3Zr9Nb alloys and U6Nb, in weight percent, were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), wavelength dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (XRF/WDS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The total carbon was determined using a carbon analyzer in which the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (IR absorption). It was observed a satisfactory correlation between the results obtained by employed methods. (author)

  8. Protein energetic conformational analysis from NMR chemical shifts (PECAN) and its use in determining secondary structural elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Wang Liya; Bahrami, Arash [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Assadi, Amir [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mathematics Department (United States); Markley, John L. [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)], E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu

    2005-05-15

    We present an energy model that combines information from the amino acid sequence of a protein and available NMR chemical shifts for the purposes of identifying low energy conformations and determining elements of secondary structure. The model ('PECAN', Protein Energetic Conformational Analysis from NMR chemical shifts) optimizes a combination of sequence information and residue-specific statistical energy function to yield energetic descriptions most favorable to predicting secondary structure. Compared to prior methods for secondary structure determination, PECAN provides increased accuracy and range, particularly in regions of extended structure. Moreover, PECAN uses the energetics to identify residues located at the boundaries between regions of predicted secondary structure that may not fit the stringent secondary structure class definitions. The energy model offers insights into the local energetic patterns that underlie conformational preferences. For example, it shows that the information content for defining secondary structure is localized about a residue and reaches a maximum when two residues on either side are considered. The current release of the PECAN software determines the well-defined regions of secondary structure in novel proteins with assigned chemical shifts with an overall accuracy of 90%, which is close to the practical limit of achievable accuracy in classifying the states.

  9. Protein energetic conformational analysis from NMR chemical shifts (PECAN) and its use in determining secondary structural elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Wang Liya; Bahrami, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Markley, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We present an energy model that combines information from the amino acid sequence of a protein and available NMR chemical shifts for the purposes of identifying low energy conformations and determining elements of secondary structure. The model ('PECAN', Protein Energetic Conformational Analysis from NMR chemical shifts) optimizes a combination of sequence information and residue-specific statistical energy function to yield energetic descriptions most favorable to predicting secondary structure. Compared to prior methods for secondary structure determination, PECAN provides increased accuracy and range, particularly in regions of extended structure. Moreover, PECAN uses the energetics to identify residues located at the boundaries between regions of predicted secondary structure that may not fit the stringent secondary structure class definitions. The energy model offers insights into the local energetic patterns that underlie conformational preferences. For example, it shows that the information content for defining secondary structure is localized about a residue and reaches a maximum when two residues on either side are considered. The current release of the PECAN software determines the well-defined regions of secondary structure in novel proteins with assigned chemical shifts with an overall accuracy of 90%, which is close to the practical limit of achievable accuracy in classifying the states

  10. On-stream chemical element monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, O.R.; Dorsch, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method for on-stream chemical element monitoring are described wherein a multiplicity of sample streams are flowed continuously through individual analytical cells and fluorescence analyses are performed on the sample streams in sequence, together with a method of controlling the time duration of each analysis as a function of the concomitant radiation exposure of a preselected perforate reference material interposed in the sample-radiation source path

  11. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis and the practical aspects of neutron activation analysis are outlined. The limits which are set to accuracy and precision are defined. The description of the evaporation process is summarised in terms of the half-volume. This quantity is then used to define the resolving power. The formulation is checked by radiotracer experiments. Dried animal blood is used as the testing material. The pretreatment of the samples and (the development of) the destruction-evaporation apparatus is described. Four successive devices were built and tested. The development of the successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 is presented. Seven groups of about 25 elements in total can be determined this way. The results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized and compared with literature data. (Auth.)

  12. Group theoretical classification of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, V.M.; Kulakov, V.I.; Rumer, Y.B.; Fet, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The method of classification of chemical elements, based on group symmetry principles, is compared with element properties. Elements are considered to be states of a single quantum system, the atomic structure being ignored. Elements treated as states of the system, break down into successively diminishing subsystems, big and small multiplets. The theory, being a group classification, does not describe in detail any of element properties, but leads to a unified qualitative description of all of them simultaneously

  13. Trace-element analysis of Antarctic H chondrites: Chemical weathering and comparisons with their non-Antarctic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of meteorites have been discovered in Antarctica over the last decade (7000 fragments probably representing over 1200 separate events). They are important for their numbers and for their complement of unique or rare specimens; they also have long terrestrial ages (up to 1,000,000 years) compared to non-Antarctic falls (usually < 200 years). We report compositional data for mobile/volatile trace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Ti, U, and Zn in a suite of Antarctic H chondrites. Our data show that heavily oxidized H chondrites are leached of a portion of their trace elements and, therefore, have been chemically compromised by their stay in Antarctica. The less oxidized specimens seem to have retained their chemical integrity. We suggest possibilities for using chemical data to measure the degree of a chondrite's chemical weathering. We compare our data to that obtained previously for non-Antarctic H chondrites (Linger et al., 1986), by petrologic type (H4, H5, H6, H4-6) and shock-loading (moderately shocked facies a-c, heavily shocked facies d-f). Many statistically significant differences are found between non-Antarctic and Victoria Land, Antarctica H chondrites of each petrologic type and of shock facies d-f

  14. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre

    1984-11-08

    An account is first given of the observed chemical composition of objects in the Universe (Sun, Solar System, stars, gas clouds) and of important variations of composition from object to object. The initial composition is then discussed in terms of the Hot Big Bang cosmological theory, and the different types of nuclear reaction which are believed to have occurred in stars and to have modified this composition are considered. Finally, an account is given of the interpretation of the present observations in terms of the initial chemical composition and of galactic and stellar formation and evolution.

  15. A simple chemical method for the separation of phosphorus interfering the trace element determinations by neutron activation analysis in high doped silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagler, H.; Flachowsky, J.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most available method for the determination of trace elements, but in the case of P-doped silicon wafers the 32 P-activity interferes the gamma spectrometry. It is not possible to determine the trace elements without chemical manipulations. On the other hand, time consuming chemical separations should be avoided. Therefore, a simple and rapid P-separation method has to be developed, in which the following twelve trace elements should be taken into consideration: Ag, As, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Na, Sb, W, and Zn. After acid oxidative dissolution of the activated sample, P is present as phosphate ion. The phosphate ion is removed by precipitation as BiPO 4 . (author)

  16. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  17. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  18. The origin of the chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process). (U.K.)

  19. Chemical element abundance in K giant atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, N.S.; Shcherbak, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    With the help of modified method of differential curves of growth studied are physical parameters of atmospheres of giant stars of KO111 spectral class of the NGC 752, M25 and UMa cluster. Observations have been made on reflector of Crimea astrophysical observatory of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the period from February to May, 1978. Spectograms are obtained for the wave length range from 5000-5500 A. It is shown that the change of chemical content in the wide range in heavy element composition does not influence the star atmosphere structUre. It follows from the results of the investigation that the abundance of chemical elements in stars of various scattered clusters, is the same in the range of errors of measurements and is similar to the abundance of chemical elements in the Sun atmosphere

  20. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  1. Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods using Simulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Charles J.; Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround

  2. Sampling strategy and analysis of trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on medieval human bones--the concept of chemical life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund

    2013-07-30

    Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The use of neutron activation analysis for particle size fractionation and chemical characterization of trace elements in urban air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, E.; Bergamaschi, G.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of more than 25 trace elements have been determined in total air particulate matter and in the size segregated fractions from the urban area of Pavia (North Italy). The PM10 fraction was also collected and analyzed. A study of the solubility in water and in physiological solution of the trace elements contained in the PM10 was also carried out. The resulting solutions were further submitted to column chromatography using Chelex 100 to perform a preliminary chemical characterization. INAA was used as the main analytical technique. ET-AAS was used for all Pb and Cd measurements and, in some cases, for the analysis of V, Mn, Cu and Ni. (author)

  4. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  5. Chemical elements dynamic in the fermentation process of ethanol producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides useful information about the dynamics of chemical elements analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and, found in the various segments of the fermentation process of producing ethanol from sugar cane. For this, a mass balance of Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, and Th, terrigenous elements, as well as Br, K, Rb, and Zn, sugar cane plant elements, has been demonstrated for the fermentation vats in industrial conditions of ethanol production. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Atlantic Forest. A natural reservoir of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Franca, E.J.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Elias, C.

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of chemical elements in biological compartments is one of the strategies of tropical species to adapt to a low-nutrient soil. This study focuses on the Atlantic Forest because of its eco-environmental importance as a natural reservoir of chemical elements. About 20 elements were determined by INAA in leaf, soil, litter and epiphyte compartments. There was no seasonality for chemical element concentrations in leaves, which probably indicated the maintenance of chemical elements in this compartment. Considering the estimated quantities, past deforestation events could have released large amounts of chemical elements to the environment. (author)

  7. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of μg g -1 . (author)

  8. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  9. A finite element analysis of the effects of geometrical shape on the elastic properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuma Abdisa Denu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of geometrical shape of diamond nanowire on its mechanical properties. Finite element modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to simulate various diamond nanowire with circular, square, rectangular, hexagonal and triangular cross-sections. A bending test under concentrated load applied at one of the free ends is simulated using FEM. The force response of the nanowire under different loading is studied for the various cross-sections. The dimensions of each cross-section is chosen so that material properties such as Young’s modulus can be kept constant for comparison in all the cross-sections. It is found out that the bending capability of a triangular nanowire is higher compared to other cross-sections due to its lowest second moment. Circular and hexagonal cross-section show highest stiffness. The study of mechanical property of diamond nanowires is useful for optimal nanomechanical designs where the effect of cross-section has to be taken into account.

  10. Application of INAA for chemical quality control analysis of C-C composite and high purity graphite by determining trace elemental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Venugopalan, Ramani

    2015-01-01

    Carbon based materials like graphite and C-C composites are used for various scientific and technological applications. Owing to its low neutron capture cross section and good moderating properties, graphite is used as a moderator or reflector in nuclear reactors. For high temperature reactors like CHTR, graphite and C-C composites are proposed as structural materials. Studies are in progress to use C-C composites as prospective candidate instead of graphite due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The advantage of carbon-carbon composite is that the microstructure and the properties can be tailor made. Impurities like rare earth elements and neutron poisons which have high neutron absorption cross section and elements whose activation products of have longer half-lives like 60 Co (5.27 y), 65 Zn (244.3 d) and 59 Fe (44.5 d) are not desired in structural materials. For chemical quality control (CQC) it is necessary to evaluate accurately the impurity concentrations using a suitable non-destructive analytical technique. In the present work, two carbon/carbon composite samples and two high purity graphite samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high-flux reactor neutrons. Samples, sealed in Al foil, were irradiated in tray-rod position of Dhruva reactor, BARC at a neutron flux of ∼ 5 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 . Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using 40% HPGe detector

  11. Chemical analysis report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbouzidi, Saliha; Elyahyaoui, Adil; Ghassan, Acil; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report highlights the results of chemical analyzes related to Major elements, traces and heavy metals carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 120 samples. The report presents the analytical techniques used (parameters and methods), a legend and the results tables.

  12. Some Chemical Group Separations of Radioactive Trace Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1962-06-15

    As a pretreatment for gamma spectrometric analysis methods have been developed for the chemical separation of traces of P, Sc, Ge, As, Se, Br, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Au and Hg into 9 different groups. By combining the present methods with already existing chemical group separation methods for traces of Na, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, In, Fe, Cs, Ba, L.a, the rare earths, W and Ir, a complete separation scheme comprising 15 groups of elements has been worked out. The chemical 15-group separation method has been advantageously used in gamma spectrometric routine analysis of biological materials.

  13. Some Chemical Group Separations of Radioactive Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1962-06-01

    As a pretreatment for gamma spectrometric analysis methods have been developed for the chemical separation of traces of P, Sc, Ge, As, Se, Br, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Au and Hg into 9 different groups. By combining the present methods with already existing chemical group separation methods for traces of Na, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, In, Fe, Cs, Ba, L.a, the rare earths, W and Ir, a complete separation scheme comprising 15 groups of elements has been worked out. The chemical 15-group separation method has been advantageously used in gamma spectrometric routine analysis of biological materials

  14. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  15. Utilization of chemical derivatives in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Derivative activation analysis (DAA) is a method to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear activation analysis for the more elusive elements. It may also allow a degree of chemical speciation for the element of interest. DAA uses a preirradiation chemical reaction on the sample to initiate the formation of, or an exchange with, a chemical complex which contains a surrogate element, M. As a result, the amount of the element or the chemical species to be determined, X, is now represented by measurement of the amount of the surrogate element, M, that is made part of, or released by the complex species. The surrogate element is selected for its superior properties for nuclear activation analysis and the absence of interference reaction in its final determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) after some preconcentration or separation chemistry. Published DAA studies have been limited to neutron activation analysis. DAA can offer the analyst some important advantages. It can determine elements, functional groups, or chemical species which cannot be determined directly by INAA, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA), prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), or charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) procedures. When compared with conventional RNAA, there are fewer precautions with respect to handling of intensely radioactive samples, since the chemistry is done before the irradiation. The preirradiation chemistry may also eliminate many interferences that might occur in INAA and, through use of an appropriate surrogate element, can place the analytical gamma-ray line in an interference-free region of the gamma-ray spectrum

  16. Advances in chemical investigations of the heaviest elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türler Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although somewhat in the shadow of the discoveries of new elements, experimental chemical investigations of the heaviest elements have made tremendous progress in the last decades. Indeed, it was possible to experimentally determine thermochemical properties of heavy transactinide elements such as copernicium or flerovium. But will it be possible to chemically study all currently known elements of the periodic table up to element 118? While it is experimentally feasible to work with single atoms, the short half-lives of even the longest currently known isotopes of elements 115 through 118 call for new experimental approaches.

  17. Electronic Transmutation (ET): Chemically Turning One Element into Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Lundell, Katie A; Olson, Jared K; Bowen, Kit H; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2018-03-08

    The concept of electronic transmutation (ET) depicts the processes that by acquiring an extra electron, an element with the atomic number Z begins to have properties that were known to only belong to its neighboring element with the atomic number Z+1. Based on ET, signature compounds and chemical bonds that are composed of certain elements can now be designed and formed by other electronically transmutated elements. This Minireview summarizes the recent developments and applications of ET on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. Examples on the ET of Group 13 elements into Group 14 elements, Group 14 elements into Group 15 elements, and Group 15 elements into Group 16 elements are discussed. Compounds and chemical bonding composed of carbon, silicon, germanium, phosphorous, oxygen and sulfur now have analogues using transmutated boron, aluminum, gallium, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Correlation study of chemical elements in phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braganca, Maura Julia Camara da Silva

    1999-07-01

    Geological phenomena, 1) endogenous (volcanism, magmatic flow, metasomatism); 2) metamorphic (resultant of action of high temperature and pressure) and; 3) exogenous (intemperism, contamination) can modify the chemical composition of rocks soils. Thus, chemical elements with little mobility can be used as indicators of the previous geological situation before the occurrence of these phenomena and can sign the chemical composition of the initial formation. The elements with great mobility can already be used as indicators of the characteristic and intensity of the changes, can point out the influence factors and its space and time conditions. In this work the results of the study of phosphated samples ores coming from two alkaline-carbonatitic chimneys (Araxa and Catalao) and from a meta sedimentary rock (Patos de Minas), located phosphate rock deposit, are presented. The results were obtained using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-AES techniques. A comparison of the three types of samples ores, using chemical, crystallographic and statistical methods, shows that the Araxa and Catalao present some geochemical similarities and they are distinguished of Patos de Minas, despite its geographic proximity. (author)

  19. PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)

  20. Chemical identification and properties of element 112

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yakushev, AB.; Zvára, Ivo; Oganessian, YT.; Belozerov, AV.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Eichler, B.; Hubener, S.; Sokol, EA.; Turler, A.; Yeremin, AV.; Buklanov, GV.; Chelnokov, ML.; Chepigin, VI.; Gorshkov, VA.; Gulyaev, AV.; Lebedev, VY.; Malyshev, ON.; Popeko, AG.; Soverna, S.; Szeglowski, Z.; Timokhin, SN.; Tretyakova, SP.; Vasko, VM.; Itkis, MG.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 8 (2003), s. 433-439 ISSN 0033-8230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : element 112 * superheavy elements * transactinoids Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2003

  1. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  2. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  3. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  4. Transuranium elements in organic chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    1987-01-01

    It is very important to achive an understanding what role organic matter plays in the behavior of transuranium elements in the environment. This paper reports the studies on characteristics of fallout Pu and Am in soil closely related to soil organic matter, and interaction of humic acid and Am (III) in aqueous solution. From the results obtained, it was suggested that the humic acids had strong interaction with transuranium elements, but such soluble complexes were removed soon from the solution by coagulation and sorption on soil. (author)

  5. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with

  6. First attempt to chemically identify element 112

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yakushev, AB.; Buklanov, GV.; Chelnokov, ML.; Chepigin, VI.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gorshkov, VA.; Hubener, S.; Malyshev, ON.; Oganessian, YT.; Popeko, AG.; Sokol, EA.; Timokhin, SN.; Turler, A.; Vasko, VM.; Yeremin, AV.; Zvára, Ivo

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 89, 11/12 (2001), s. 743-745 ISSN 0033-8230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : superheavy elements * actionoid * transactinoids Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2001

  7. Exploring the Everyday Context of Chemical Elements: Discovering the Elements of Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project about the chemical elements made by 15-year-old Spanish high school students of Chemistry. It focuses on context-based teaching combined with the advantages of creating a large mural which subsequently is exposed in the school. The project consisted of researching the chemical elements in the different materials that…

  8. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  9. A study on monitoring methodology for trace elements in the environment through chemical analysis of hair. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear methods in health-related monitoring of trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, I.

    1981-06-01

    An attempt was made to monitor community exposure to environmental As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and Se using hair analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Hair samples were collected from male and female subjects from six Japanese localities. Samples from each locality were respectively mixed and analysed for elements of interest. The results indicated that this approach was effective in revealing geographical differences of hair elemental levels. The method is suitable for a routine monitoring programme of community exposure to environmental metal pollutants

  10. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  11. An Alternate Graphical Representation of Periodic table of Chemical Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr, Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Periodic table of chemical elements symbolizes an elegant graphical representation of symmetry at atomic level and provides an overview on arrangement of electrons. It started merely as tabular representation of chemical elements, later got strengthened with quantum mechanical description of atomic structure and recent studies have revealed that periodic table can be formulated using SO(4,2)* SU(2) group. IUPAC, the governing body in Chemistry, doesn't approve any periodic table as a standard...

  12. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. B...

  13. I. Forensic data analysis by pattern recognition. Categorization of white bond papers by elemental composition. II. Source identification of oil spills by pattern recognition analysis of natural elemental composition. III. Improving the reliability of factor analysis of chemical measured analytical data by utilizing the measured analytical uncertainity. IV. Elucidating the structure of some clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duewer, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques are applied to the analysis of white bond papers and the problem of determining the source of an oil spill. In each case, an elemental analysis by neutron activation is employed. For the determination of source of oil spills, the field sample was weathered prior to activation analysis. A procedure for including measured analytical uncertainty into data analysis methodology is discussed, with particular reference to factor analysis. The suitability of various dispersion matrices and matrix rank determination criteria for data having analytical uncertainty is investigated. A criterion useful for judging the number of factors insensitive to analytical uncertainty is presented. A model data structure for investigating the behavior of factor analysis techniques in a known, controlled manner is described and analyzed. A chemically interesting test data base having analytical uncertainty is analyzed and compared with the model data. The data structure of 22 blood constituents in three categories of liver disease (viral or toxic hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases and obstructive processes) is studied using various statistical and pattern recognition techniques. Comparison of classification results on the original data, in combination with principal component analysis, suggests a possible underlying structure for the data. This model structure is tested by the application of two simple data transformations. Analysis of the transformed data appears to confirm that some basic understanding of the studied data has been achieved

  14. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  15. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0 -INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  16. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  17. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  18. Reconstruction of the diet of a pre hispanic population sector of Cuauhnahuac, Morelos by means of the chemical elements analysis in skeletal rests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, L.; Garza, I.; Banos, L.; Chaire, F.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was diet reconstruction of 25 pre hispanic residents of Cuauhnahuac, tributary town of the mexicas, during the Late Pos classic period (1350-1521 a.C.). The analysis included human skull samples proceeding from human femur, tibia and fibula. The applied technique was X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) to know the mineral concentrations, which are closely related with the quality and quantity of the consumed food. The main indicative elements are strontium (Sr), that denotes the consumption of vegetables, zinc (Zn), that shows the consumption of animal proteins, and magnesium (Mg), associated with Meso american food resources. The results indicate the existence of differences in the diet among the same population's individuals, probably because social stratification determined the power resources acquisition. (Author) 28 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  19. k{sub 0}-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@usp.b [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Antunes, Alexsander Z. [IF, Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Rua do Horto 931, Horto Florestal 02377-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-11

    The k{sub 0}-method instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k{sub 0}-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg{sup -1}), Co (max=0.47 mg kg{sup -1}), Cr (max=68 mg kg{sup -1}), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg{sup -1}), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg{sup -1}), Se (max=1.3 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (max=192 mg kg{sup -1}) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k{sub 0}-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  20. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining; Analise de agrupamento na avaliacao do comportamento de elementos quimicos estaveis e parametros fisico-quimicos em efluente de mineracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dores, Luis A. de C.B.; Campelo, Emanuele L.C.; Morais, Gustavo F. de; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.br, E-mail: kclecom@uol.com.br [lndustrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR{sub 2}O{sub 3} (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO{sub 4} was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  1. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY, “specific technophility” (TYN “regional conditional technophility” (TYR, “specific regional technophility” (TN, and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS. TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan, to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria, or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt

  2. An Educational Card Game for Learning Families of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin Franco; Martinez, Jose Maria Oliva; Marquez, Serafin Bernal

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an educational card game designed to help high school students (grade 10, 15-16 years old) "understand," as opposed to memorize, the periodic table. The game may also be used to identify different chemical elements found in daily life objects. As an additional value, students learn the names and symbols of the displayed…

  3. The periodic system of chemical elements: old and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1987-09-01

    Some historical facts about the construction of a periodic system of chemical elements are reviewed. The Madelung rule is used to generate an unusual format for the periodic table. Following the work of Byakov, Kulakov, Rumer and Fet, such a format is further refined on the basis of a chain of groups starting with SU(2)xS0(4.2)

  4. Content of Chemical Elements in Wood-Destroying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strapáč I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21 chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus from Lemešany (Slovakia had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

  5. Chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems is governed by a variety of geochemical reactions, such as dissolution reaction (solubility), hydrolysis, complexation with inorganics or organics, redox reaction, colloid formation, geochemical interaction with surfaces of various minerals, coprecipitation, mineralisation etc. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on some of these particular reactions. The emphasis is placed on how the individual reactions can be appraised for the long-term prediction of the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment. Of the various reactions, the primary thermodynamic processes of dissolution of transuranic compounds in aquatic solution, complexation with important anions present in groundwater and colloid generation are discussed with notable examples. Various laser spectroscopy in use for the chemical speciation are mentioned briefly as for their spectroscopic capability as well as applicability. The present review discussion is primarily directed to a better understanding of the migration behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems. (author) 100 refs

  6. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  7. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  8. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1992-01-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  9. CHEMENGL/CHIMISTE, Chemical and Physical Properties of Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levart, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Description of program or function: Data Base on basic chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of the elements in the Mendeleev Table (118 elements, 4435 nuclides comprising isotopes and isomers). Example: density electric and thermal conductivity, masses of isotopes and isomers, ionisation potential, etc. from H to Ei (Z=118). Both French and English versions are available. In addition, the French version (513 pages) contains other general information about the elements such as mineralogy, industrial applications, toxicity, historical information on discovery of the elements, etc. The latest version contains updates of atomic masses, the names of symbols of transuranium elements have been updated in accordance with the IUPAC recommendations. The values of the abundance of elements in the sun have been corrected according to Grevesse et al. The price of the different elements have been updated, some minor errors have been corrected and the presentation of the cover page has been improved. Several pages have been added to the last chapter of the French version (CHIMISTE), this chapter is not available in the English version (CHEMENGL)

  10. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  11. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig

  12. Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciations and fractionation of elements : definitions, structural aspects, and methodological approaches (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Templeton, D.M.; Ariese, F.; Cornelis, R.; Danielsson, L.G.; Muntau, H.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lobínski, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of concepts related to speciation of elements, more particularly speciation analysis and chemical species. Fractionation is distinguished from speciation analysis, and a general outline of fractionation procedures is given. We propose a categorization of species

  13. Behaviors of chemical elements in the atmosphere, Kawasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, K.; Kikawada, Y.; Oi, T.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 19 elements in the samples of atmospheric deposition collected in Kawasaki, Japan, were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICPAES and flame photometry. The amounts of soil dust depositions were larger in springs and those of Sb and Zn depositions were larger in summers than in the other seasons. The values of the enrichment factors were higher for Sb and Zn than for the other elements determined throughout the sampling period. A factor analysis showed that the two elements were characterized as industrial components. Rubber products like tires that contain noncombustibles and rubber accelerators were a possible origin of high concentrations of Sb and Zn in the present samples. (author)

  14. Chemical and nuclear properties of lawrencium (element 103) and hahnium (element 105)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical and nuclear properties of Lr and Ha have been studied, using 3-minute 260 Lr and 35-second 262 Ha. The crystal ionic radius of Lr 3+ was determined by comparing its elution position from a cation-exchange resin column with those of lanthanide elements having known ionic radii. Comparisons are made to the ionic radii of the heavy actinides, Am 3+ through Es 3+ , obtained by x-ray diffraction methods, and to Md 3+ and Fm 3+ which were determined in the same manner as Lr 3+ . The hydration enthalpy of -3622 kJ/mol was calculated from the crystal ionic radius using an empirical form of the Born equation. Comparisons to the spacings between the ionic radii of the heaviest members of the lanthanide series show that the 2Z spacing between Lr 3+ and Md 3+ is anomalously small, as the ionic radius of Lr 3+ of 0.0886 nm is significantly smaller than had been expected. The chemical properties of Ha were determined relative to the lighter homologs in group 5, Nb and Ta. Group 4 and group 5 tracer activities, as well as Ha, were absorbed onto glass surfaces as a first step toward the determination of the chemical properties of Ha. Ha was found to adsorb on surfaces, a chemical property unique to the group 5 elements, and as such demonstrates that Ha has the chemical properties of a group 5 element. A solvent extraction procedure was adapted for use as a micro-scale chemical procedure to examine whether or not Ha displays eka-Ta-like chemical under conditions where Ta will be extracted into the organic phase and Nb will not. Under the conditions of this experiment Ha did not extract, and does not show eka-Ta-like chemical properties

  15. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  16. Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.

  17. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  18. Chemical analysis report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights the results of chemical analyzes of fluorides, bromides, lithium and boron carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 120 samples. The report presents the analytical techniques used (parameters and methods), a legend and the results tables.

  19. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  20. Some chemical elements in gamma irradiated adults of the mediterranean fruit fly , Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-akhdar, E.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical analysis of the elemental compositions of both males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), was conducted on adult flies irradiated in the full grown pupae with 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gray at different ages (newly emerged, 7 and 15 days old). The data revealed the presence of ten elements, three of which are major (Na, K and N), four are moderate (P, Ca, Fe and Mg) and three are minors (Zn, Mn and Cu). Their quantities, however, varied according to adult sex, age and radiation dose. In all cases, the major elements remained major, the moderate elements remained moderate and the minor elements remained minor although the elements of each group differed in their arrangement according to changes in their quantities

  1. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  2. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  3. Soil-leaf transfer of chemical elements for the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joacir De Franca, E.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Soil analysis could improve environmental studies since soil is the main source of chemical elements for plants. In this study, soil samples collected at 0-10 cm depth under tree crown projection were analyzed by INAA. Using the chemical composition of the leaf previously determined, the leaf-soil transfer factors of chemical elements could be estimated for the Atlantic Forest. Despite the variability of the intra-species, the transfer factors were specific for some plant species due to their element accumulation in the leaves. Similar Br-Zn combined transfer factors were obtained for the species grouped according to habitats in relation to their position (understory or dominant species) in the forest canopy. (author)

  4. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  6. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Perez, J.-J.

    1979-01-01

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry [fr

  7. Method for separating the isotopes of a chemical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    A beam of positive or negative primary ions of at least one compound of a chemical element is accelerated in order to pass through collision boxes placed in series. As a result of inelastic collisions of the ions with the molecules of a neutral target gas within each collision box, a given percentage of primary ions is dissociated into at least two fragments, one of which is a secondary ion in the form of at least two isotopic species. The collision boxes are brought to a potential V 2 so as to trap preferentially one isotopic species which is condensed within each box. 15 claims, 4 figures

  8. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.

  9. The uses of synchrotron radiation sources for elemental and chemical microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Jones, K.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources offer important features for the analysis of a material. Among these features is the ability to determine both the elemental composition of the material and the chemical state of its elements. For microscopic analysis synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes now offer spatial resolutions of 10μm with minimum detection limits in the 1--10 ppM range depending on the nature of the sample and the synchrotron source used. This paper describes the properties of synchrotron radiation and their importance for elemental analysis, existing synchrotron facilities and those under construction that are optimum for SXRF microanalysis, and a number of applications including the high energy excitation of the K lines of heavy elements, microtomography, and XANES and EXAFS spectroscopies. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. The uses of synchrotron radiation sources for elemental and chemical microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Jones, K.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources offer important features for the analysis of a material. Among these features is the ability to determine both the elemental composition of the material and the chemical state of its elements. For microscopic analysis synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes now offer spatial resolutions of 10 ??m with minimum detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range depending on the nature of the sample and the synchrotron source used. This paper describes the properties of synchrotron radiation and their importance for elemental analysis, existing synchrotron facilities and those under construction that are optimum for SXRF microanalysis, and a number of applications including the high energy excitation of the K lines of heavy elements, microtomography, and XANES and EXAFS spectroscopies. ?? 1990.

  11. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  12. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  13. Trace Chemical Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    147 65 Modified DR/2 spectrophotometer face ........... ... 150 66 Colorimetric oil analysis field test kit ......... .. 152 67 Pictorial step...Assisted Pattern Recognitio Perhaps the most promising application of pattern recogntiontechniques for this research effort is the elucidation ".f the...large compartment on the spectrophotomer face . The screwdriver is used to adjust the zero adjust and light ad- just knobs, and the stainless steel

  14. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  15. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr∼Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d 5/2 shell and a stabilization of the 7p l/2 shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr∼Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr∼Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce 263 Rf (a) via the 248 Cm( 22 Ne, α3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the 249 Bk( 18 O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to 256 Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the 248 Cm( 22 Ne, α3n) 263 Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A

  16. A study of essential elements in ancient Thai fighting swords by chemical and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janposri, K.

    1980-01-01

    Four ancient Thai fighting swords from the Bangkok National Museum and iron ore from Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi were studied by neutron activation analysis, metallography and chemical analysis. The results of these scientific studies show that all of these four swords are made of plain carbon steel, containing trace elements which have no effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the steel. The trace elements which were found in the iron ore are quite similar to those found in one of these swords. This means that the iron in one of the swords may have come from ore found at Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi

  17. HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR DISCOVERERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    What do we mean by a chemical element? A chemical element is matter, all of whose atoms are alike in having the same positive charge on the nucleus and the same number of extra-nuclear electrons. As we shall see in the following elemental review, the origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having an origin in antiquity, other elements having been discovered within the past few hundred years and still others have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements since these other elements are unstable and radioactive and do not exist in nature

  18. HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR DISCOVERIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    What do we mean by a chemical element? A chemical element is matter, all of whose atoms are alike in having the same positive charge on the nucleus and the same number of extra-nuclear electrons. As we shall see in the following elemental review, the origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having an origin in antiquity, other elements having been discovered within the past few hundred years and still others have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements since these other elements are unstable and radioactive and do not exist in nature.

  19. Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Ben H

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.

  20. Features of adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Dikiy, N.P.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Lyashko, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 in the forced-exhaust ventilation at the nuclear power plant. The ?-activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU-1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU-1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung gamma-quantum producing by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127 I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT-3, in the AU-1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  1. The distinction between chondroma and chondrosarcoma using chemical element mass fractions in tumors determined by neutron activation analysis as diagnostic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P content and Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/Na, Cl/Ca, and Cl/Na ratios in tissue of intact bone, chondroma and chondrosarcoma were investigated by neutron activation analysis. It was shown that higher mass fraction of Cl and Na and also Cl/Na mass fraction ratio as well as lower Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios are typical of the chondrosarcoma tissue compared to chondroma. Finally, it was proposed to use the estimation of such parameters as the Cl mass fraction and the Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios as an additional test for differential diagnosis between chondroma and chondrosarcoma. (author)

  2. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P.; Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The 222 Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  3. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shuichiro

    2006-08-01

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, Σν i μ i =0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and Σν i μ i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ν i and μ i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  4. Elements of stock market analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a starting point in the presentation of the two types of stock/market analysis: the fundamental analysis and the technical analysis. The fundamental analysis consist in the assessment of the financial and economic status of the company together with the context and macroeconomic environment where it activates. The technical analysis deals with the demand and supply of securities and the evolution of their trend on the market, using a range of graphics and charts to illustrate the market tendencies for the quick identification of the best moments to buy or sell.

  5. HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR DISCOVERIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having their origin in antiquity. Still other elements have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements, because these other elements are unstable and radioactive and do not exist in nature. The names of the elements come from many sources including mythological concepts or characters; places, areas or countries; properties of the element or its compounds, such as color, smell or its inability to combine; and the names of scientists. There are also some miscellaneous names as well as some obscure names for particular elements. The claim of discovery of an element has varied over the centuries. Many claims, e.g., the discovery of certain rare earth elements of the lanthanide series, involved the discovery of a mineral ore from which an element was later extracted. The honor of discovery has often been accorded not to the person who first isolated the element but to the person who discovered the original mineral itself, even when the ore was impure and contained many elements. The reason for this is that in the case of these rare earth elements, the ''earth'' now refers to oxides of a metal not to the metal itself. This fact was not realized at the time of their discovery, until the English chemist Humphry Davy showed that earths were compounds of oxygen and metals in 1808. In the early discoveries, the atomic weight of an element and spectral analysis of the element were not available. Later both of these elemental properties would be required before discovery of the element would be accepted. In general, the requirements for discovery claims have tightened through the years and claims that were previously accepted would no longer meet the minimum constraints now imposed. There are cases where the honor of discovery is not given to the first person to actually discover the element but to the first person to claim the discovery in print. If a

  6. HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR DISCOVERIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    The origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having their origin in antiquity. Still other elements have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements, because these other elements are unstable and radioactive and do not exist in nature. The names of the elements come from many sources including mythological concepts or characters; places, areas or countries; properties of the element or its compounds, such as color, smell or its inability to combine; and the names of scientists. There are also some miscellaneous names as well as some obscure names for particular elements. The claim of discovery of an element has varied over the centuries. Many claims, e.g., the discovery of certain rare earth elements of the lanthanide series, involved the discovery of a mineral ore from which an element was later extracted. The honor of discovery has often been accorded not to the person who first isolated the element but to the person who discovered the original mineral itself, even when the ore was impure and contained many elements. The reason for this is that in the case of these rare earth elements, the ''earth'' now refers to oxides of a metal not to the metal itself. This fact was not realized at the time of their discovery, until the English chemist Humphry Davy showed that earths were compounds of oxygen and metals in 1808. In the early discoveries, the atomic weight of an element and spectral analysis of the element were not available. Later both of these elemental properties would be required before discovery of the element would be accepted. In general, the requirements for discovery claims have tightened through the years and claims that were previously accepted would no longer meet the minimum constraints now imposed. There are cases where the honor of discovery is not given to the first person to actually discover the element but to the first person to claim the

  7. Calibrating Detailed Chemical Analysis of M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyette, Mark; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Mann, Andrew; Brewer, John; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The ability to perform detailed chemical analysis of Sun-like F-, G-, and K-type stars is a powerful tool with many applications including studying the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, assessing membership in stellar kinematic groups, and constraining planet formation theories. Unfortunately, complications in modeling cooler stellar atmospheres has hindered similar analysis of M-dwarf stars. Large surveys of FGK abundances play an important role in developing methods to measure the compositions of M dwarfs by providing benchmark FGK stars that have widely-separated M dwarf companions. These systems allow us to empirically calibrate metallicity-sensitive features in M dwarf spectra. However, current methods to measure metallicity in M dwarfs from moderate-resolution spectra are limited to measuring overall metallicity and largely rely on astrophysical abundance correlations in stellar populations. In this talk, I will discuss how large, homogeneous catalogs of precise FGK abundances are crucial to advancing chemical analysis of M dwarfs beyond overall metallicity to direct measurements of individual elemental abundances. I will present a new method to analyze high-resolution, NIR spectra of M dwarfs that employs an empirical calibration of synthetic M dwarf spectra to infer effective temperature, Fe abundance, and Ti abundance. This work is a step toward detailed chemical analysis of M dwarfs at a similar precision achieved for FGK stars.

  8. Finite element application to global reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is described as a Coarse Mesh Method with general basis and trial functions. Various consequences concerning programming and application of Finite Element Methods in reactor physics are drawn. One of the conclusions is that the Finite Element Method is a valuable tool in solving global reactor analysis problems. However, problems which can be described by rectangular boxes still can be solved with special coarse mesh programs more efficiently. (orig.) [de

  9. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacher, Christian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-30

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr≈Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d5/2 shell and a stabilization of the 7pI/2 shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr≈Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr≈Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce 263Rf (a) via the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the 249Bk(18O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to 256Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n)263Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A].

  10. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...

  11. A historical approach to teaching the concept of the chemical element

    OpenAIRE

    Cachapuz, António; Paixão, Fátima

    2005-01-01

    A novel teaching strategy is described, which was developed to introduce the key notion of chemical elements to 15-year-old Portuguese chemistry pupils. The strategy started from the analysis of the so-called ‘Lavoisier law ’and explored the relationships between macro and micro level chemistry in an innovative way. The key idea was first to explore the macro level (mass conservation) to help pupils consider the existence of indestructible units (elements, micro level) as a logical necessity ...

  12. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E n Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  13. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  14. A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es

  15. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ground water samples from Patiala city have been analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis and for seven chemical parameters using standard techniques. It was found that alkali and alkaline earth metals have high concentrations in all samples whereas the concentrations of toxic metals are low in the majority of samples. However, chromium and cadmium concentrations are higher in ground water taken from the industrial belt of the city. This indicates that the overall level of pollution is low, but that some measures are still needed to inhibit various industries from polluting the ground water. (author)

  16. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  17. Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)

  18. Use of chemical elements of 1A family by tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Andrius M.J.; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Hazin, Clovis A.; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the distribution of K, Rb and Cs in leaves of trees of the Atlantic Forest through studies of correlation between the chemical elements. For this, we used the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for the quantification of the chemical elements. The concentration ranges found were 6700-24000 mg / kg for K, 16 to 72mg / kg for Rb and 0.08 to 0,92mg / kg for Cs. As Rb has chemical similarity to K, is easily absorbed by plants, leading to a high value (0.9) of the Pearson correlation. For the correlation between K and Cs, no significant values were detected except for some species of the Myrtaceae family. However, average correlations (0.6 < r <0.8) between Rb-Cs were obtained for seven plant species of different families. The absence of a specific pattern using of K, Rb and Cs by plants showed great complexity in the distribution of chemical elements in the ecosystem

  19. Chemical analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the analytical methodology used in geochemical exploration has been based on molecular absorption, atomic absorption, and ICP-AES, ICPMAS etc. Detection limit and precision are factors in the choice of methodology in search of metallic ores and are related to the accuracy of data. A brief outline of the various chemical analysis techniques explaining essentially the basics of measurement principles and instrumentation is discussed

  20. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  1. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  2. Deciphering open space in urban contexts: Geophysical survey, soil multi-element chemical analysis, and artifact distributions at the 15th–16th-century AD Swahili settlement of Songo Mnara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Sulas, Federica

    2015-01-01

    to map artifact and geochemical distributions across these areas. These data provided a means to distinguish a ‘public space’ at the site: correlations were found between anomalies, daub, certain chemical elements (Fe, P, K, Mn) while areas without anomalies—the ‘public space’—correlated with more...... at this Swahili site contained defined and protected public areas where small-scale production may have occurred....

  3. ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...

  4. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  5. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  6. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  7. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Goro; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce 2 O 3 by titration, ThO 2 by colorimetry, and La 2 O 3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na 2 O and K 2 O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO 2 and P 2 O 5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  8. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  9. Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)

  10. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  11. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, P.; Kuchhal, N. K.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble prot...

  12. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartrell, M.J.; Craun, J.C.; Podrebarac, D.S.; Gunderson, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated into a number of food groups, each of which is analyzed as a composite. This report summarizes the results for adult Total Diet samples collected in 20 cities between October 1979 and September 1980. The average concentration, range of concentrations, and calculated average daily intake of each chemical found are presented by food group. The average daily intakes of the chemicals are similar to those found in the several preceding years and are within acceptable limits. The results for samples collected during the same period that represent the diets of infants and toddlers are reported separately

  13. Chemical analysis as production guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzigues, H.; Fontaine, A.; Patigny, P.

    1975-01-01

    All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations [fr

  14. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  15. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  16. Analysis of light elements by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, D. K.; Woo, H. J.; Kim, N. B.; Park, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission) method was applied for the measurement of light elements Li - K. A test measurement has been performed for geological, biological, environmental and material samples by using a standard sample for each element. The measurement was performed for the two proton energies of 2.4 and 3.4 MeV, and 3.4MeV was found to yield better result for multielemental analysis. The result shows a fair agreement within 15% for all elements with standard values. The detection limits of Li, B, F and Na are less than 100 ppm, while those of the other elements are from a few hundred ppm to a few percents. (author)

  17. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  18. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Thong, P.S.P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS)

  19. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  20. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system.

  1. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The variation with age of the mass fraction of 37 chemical elements in intact nonhyperplastic prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short- and long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fractions (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis) of the chemical elements studied were: Ag—0.055±0.007, Br—33.2±3.3, Ca—2150±118, Cl—13014±703, Co—0.038±0.003, Cr—0.47±0.05, Fe—99.3±6.1, Hg—0.044±0.006, K—11896±356, Mg—1149±68, Mn—1.41±0.07, Na—10886±339, Rb—12.3±0.6, Sb—0.049±0.005, Sc—0.021±0.003, Se—0.65±0.03, and Zn—795±71. The mass fraction of other chemical elements measured in this study were lower than the corresponding detection limits (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis): As<0.1, Au<0.01, Ba<100, Cd<2, Ce<0.1, Cs<0.05, Eu<0.001, Gd<0.02, Hf<0.2, La<0.5, Lu<0.003, Nd<0.1, Sm<0.01, Sr<3, Ta<0.01, Tb<0.03, Th<0.05, U<0.07, Yb<0.03, and Zr<0.3. This work revealed that there is a significant trend for increase with age in mass fractions of Co (p<0.0085), Fe (p<0.037), Hg (p<0.035), Sc (p<0.015), and Zn (p<0.0014) and for a decrease in the mass fraction of Mn (p<0.018) in prostates, obtained from young adult up to about 60 years, with age. In the nonhyperplastic prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of mass fractions of all chemical element were maintained at near constant levels. Our finding of correlation between the prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great variation of chemical element relationships with age. - Highlights: • 37 trace elements were determined in prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males by NAA. • Co, Fe, Hg, Sc, and Zn contents significantly increase with age. • Mn content significantly decreases with age. • All elemental contents in the sixth to ninth decades are near constant level. • There is a great disturbance of chemical element

  2. Electronic structure and chemical properties of superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershina, V [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Gmbh (Germany)

    2009-12-31

    Relativistic electronic structure calculations of superheavy elements (Z>=104) are analyzed. Preference is given to those related to experimental research. The role of relativistic effects is discussed.

  3. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  4. Chemical elements in egg shell of a commercial strain of domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical elements of the egg shell of exotic commercial pullets (Lohmann) in their first laying year. A total of 160 eggs from eighty pullets were randomly selected at three-monthly intervals during the production year for the ddermination of chemical elements or the eggshell.

  5. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process

  6. Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)

  7. Isogeometric finite element analysis of poroelasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzal, F.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Borst, de R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach for predicting the behaviour of a deformable fluid-saturated porous medium. The conventional finite element technology is replaced by isogeometric analysis that uses non-uniform rational B-splines. The ability of these functions to provide higher-order

  8. Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the details on the aspects of Coal quality such as proximate, ultimate, calorific value and trace element concentration and its impact on human health. Trace elements are present in very low percentage in coal but their concentration increases manifold after coal combustion and utilization.

  9. Upstand Finite Element Analysis of Slab Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Keogh, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    For slab bridge decks with wide transverse edge cantilevers, the plane grillage analogy is shown to be an inaccurate method of linear elastic analysis due to variations in the vertical position of the neutral axis. The upstand grillage analogy is also shown to give inaccurate results, this time due to inappropriate modelling of in-plane distortions. An alternative method, known as upstand finite element analysis, is proposed which is sufficiently simple to be used on an everyday basis in the ...

  10. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre determinacao de elementos quimicos em unhas humanas pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro

    2012-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  11. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.L.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  12. Determination of the concentration profile of chemical elements in superheater pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.; Aspiazu F, J.

    1986-05-01

    This work has for object to determine the profile of concentration of chemical elements at trace level in a superheater pipe of Thermoelectric Plants using the X-ray emission spectroscopy technique induced by protons coming from the Accelerator of the Nuclear Center. In the X-ray detection, a Si Li detector was used. The technique was chosen because it allows a multielemental analysis, of high sensitivity and precision. The results can help to understand the problems that are had in the change of flexibility or of corrosion. This will be from utility to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). (Author)

  13. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  14. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  15. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references

  16. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  17. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbikowski, Radoslaw; Szefer, Piotr; Latala, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

  18. Neutron activation analysis of high-purity iron in comparison with chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinomura, Atsushi; Horino, Yuji; Takaki, Seiichi; Abiko, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of iron samples of three different purity levels has been performed and compared with chemical analysis for 30 metallic and metalloid impurity elements. The concentration of As, Cl, Cu, Sb and V detected by neutron activation analysis was mostly in agreement with that obtained by chemical analysis. The sensitivity limits of neutron activation analysis of three kinds of iron samples were calculated and found to be reasonable compared with measured values or detection limits of chemical analysis; however, most of them were above the detection limits of chemical analysis. Graphite-shielded irradiation to suppress fast neutron reactions was effective for Mn analysis without decreasing sensitivity to the other impurity elements. (author)

  19. Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer

  20. PHARMACOPOEIA METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of quality assurance of medicinal products, namely the determination of elemental impurity concentration compared to permitted daily exposures for and the correct choice analytical methods that are adequate to the formulated tasks. The paper goal is to compare characteristics of four analytical methods recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of various countries to control the content of elemental impurities in medicines, including medicinal plant raw materials and herbal medicines. Both advantages and disadvantages were described for atomic absorption spectroscopy with various atomising techniques, as well as atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The choice of the most rational analysis method depends on a research task and is reasoned from the viewpoint of analytical objectives, possible complications, performance attributes, and economic considerations. The methods of ICP-MS and GFAAS were shown to provide the greatest potential for determining the low and ultra-low concentrations of chemical elements in medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products. The other two methods, FAAS and ICP-AES, are limited to the analysis of the main essential elements and the largest impurities. The ICP-MS is the most efficient method for determining ultra-low concentrations. However, the interference of mass peaks is typical for ICP-MS. It is formed not only by impurities but also by polyatomic ions with the participation of argon, as well as atoms of gases from the air (C, N and O or matrices (O, N, H, P, S and Cl. Therefore, a correct sample preparation, which guarantees minimisation of impurity contamination and loss of analytes becomes the most crucial stage of analytical applications of ICP-MS. The detections limits for some chemical elements, which content is regulated in modern Pharmacopoeia, were estimated for each method and analysis conditions of medicinal plant raw

  1. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Gugiu, M.; Moldovan, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Dental composites, made by particles of glass, ceramics and quartz embedded in an organic polymer, develop at a high rate. However, commercial composites are expensive and recently the 'Restacril' biomaterials company became prepared to offer a low-cost alternative. The durability of dental fillings depends not only on biomaterial's gross chemical composition, but also on impurities. These may influence the chemical, mechanical and surface properties of the inorganic particles and modify the composites' clinical behavior. Thus elemental analysis is necessary to improve the biomaterials' quality. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection, and we previously analyzed some commercial composites by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Here we applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of six new Romanian biomaterials, aiming to compare their nominal and detected composition and paying attention to the impurities. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normal to the beam and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer. Solid samples of composites with a flat surface were fixed at 45 angle, absorber foil of Al 30 mm thick was used, and integration of beam current was done. In all composites PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 19 down to trace levels. All major nominal elements with Z > 20 - Ca, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Yb - were detected by PIXE. In addition, many minor and trace elements absent from the nominal formulations were seen, including K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Hf, and As/Pb. Such impurities may come from rough materials and preparative technologies. The impurities in Romanian composites are comparable to those in some commercial biomaterials but higher than in other ones. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in Romanian composites, even qualitative, appears useful for quality control and improvement. (authors)

  2. Initial chemical transport of reducing elements and chemical reactions in oxide cathode base metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Dufour, P.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the formation of compounds associated to the diffusion of reducing elements (Mg and Al) to the nickel surface of a one-piece oxide cathode has been studied. Those compounds have been evidenced after the annealing steps at high temperature performed on cathode base metal prior to the emitting coating deposition. Therefore, they form the ''initial'' interface between the nickel and the coating, in other words, the interface existing at the beginning of cathode life. Extensive analysis to characterize the nickel base prior to coating deposition has been performed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). TEM and AES analysis have allowed to identify for the first time a spinel compound of MgAl 2 O 4 . The preferential distribution of the different compounds on the nickel surface has been studied by EDX mapping. Experimental profiles of diffusion of the reducing elements in the nickel have been obtained over the entire thickness of the material by GDOES. The mechanism of formation of these compounds together with a related diffusion model are proposed

  3. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design

  4. Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: ·         Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems ·         Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory ·    ...

  5. Activation analysis. A basis for chemical similarity and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeck, J OP de [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Instituut voor Kernwetenschappen

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that activation analysis is especially suited to serve as a basis for determining the chemical similarity between samples defined by their trace-element concentration patterns. The general problem of classification and identification is discussed. The nature of possible classification structures and their appropriate clustering strategies is considered. A practical computer method is suggested and its application as well as the graphical representation of classification results are given. The possibility for classification using information theory is mentioned. Classification of chemical elements is discussed and practically realized after Hadamard transformation of the concentration variation patterns in a series of samples.

  6. Finite element analysis of nonlinear creeping flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1988-12-01

    Steady-state creep problems with monotone constitutive laws are studied. Finite element approximations are constructed based on mixed Petrov-Galerkin formulations for constrained problems. Stability, convergence and a priori error estimates are proved for equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations. Numerical results are presented confirming the rates of convergence predicted in the analysis and the good performance of this formulation. (author) [pt

  7. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  8. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  9. Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.

    1989-01-01

    To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)

  10. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity demonstrated by this

  11. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  12. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  13. Network application of PIXE trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.

    2003-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)

  14. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  15. An assessment study in the determination of chemical elements in sediments and fish in the Zarka River and King Talal Dam, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsabbagh, A.; Khalayleh, L.; Dbissi, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were detected in the sediments at King Talal Dam and at different locations along the Zarka River, Jordan. Chemical elements were also detected in the edible part of common fish types existing at the dam. Elemental concentrations were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results showed that the concentration of chemical elements in the sediments decreases as one moves away from the Khirbet Al Samra waste water treatment plant. The results also revealed that most of the elements had higher concentrations in Tilapia fish compared to the Catfish. (author)

  16. Clustering of samples and elements based on multi-variable chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op de Beeck, J.

    1984-01-01

    Clustering and classification are defined in the context of multivariable chemical analysis data. Classical multi-variate techniques, commonly used to interpret such data, are shown to be based on probabilistic and geometrical principles which are not justified for analytical data, since in that case one assumes or expects a system of more or less systematically related objects (samples) as defined by measurements on more or less systematically interdependent variables (elements). For the specific analytical problem of data set concerning a large number of trace elements determined in a large number of samples, a deterministic cluster analysis can be used to develop the underlying classification structure. Three main steps can be distinguished: diagnostic evaluation and preprocessing of the raw input data; computation of a symmetric matrix with pairwise standardized dissimilarity values between all possible pairs of samples and/or elements; and ultrametric clustering strategy to produce the final classification as a dendrogram. The software packages designed to perform these tasks are discussed and final results are given. Conclusions are formulated concerning the dangers of using multivariate, clustering and classification software packages as a black-box

  17. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  18. Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.

  19. Investigation of chemical forms of elements in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshal, G.M.; Velyukhanova, T.K.; Koshcheeva, I.Ya.; Dorofeeva, V.A.; Buachidze, N.S.; Kasimova, O.G.; Makharadze, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The main trends in the research of the state of elements in natural waters are examined. The hydrolysis of CU(2), Hg(2), Au(3), Sb(3), Ru(4) over a pH range, specific for natural waters, has been studied by solubility and paper electrophoresis technnques and by filtration through cellulose ionites. The regions of predominating different forms of hydroxo complexes have been found and the thermodynamic constants of hydrolysis equilibria have been calculated. Solubility, filtration through sephadexes and cellulose ionites, paper electrophoresis techniques were used to study the complexation of Cu(2), Hg(2), Au(3), Sb(3), Ru(4) with fulvic acids. Some data have been obtained on the composition, stability and molecular-mass distribution of fulvate complexes of ten elements in different oxidation states. High-molecular anionic fulvate complexes are among main forms of most easily hydrolysed elments in solution. The possibility has been shown of prediction of the ratio of coexisting forms of trace elements in solution by theoretical calculations and experimentally Using fractionation on cellulose ionites and sephadexes

  20. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  1. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Jiang, Xin; Huo, Yongzhong; Li, Lin an

    2008-03-01

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  2. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Shurong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: dsr1971@163.com; Jiang Xin [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Li Linan [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  3. Multi-element analysis for environmental characterization and its future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Before starting to characterize the environment by its elemental composition, it may be useful to ask about the objective of these efforts. This includes questions about the scope of environmental protection, the definition of the environment and the limitations of its characterization by elemental composition alone. In the second part of this lecture, examples are given of the elemental composition of well analysed samples from the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. The third part introduces the principle of multi-element analysis and the fourth part gives examples. Finally, future aspects of modern chemical analysis are outlined with respect to the multi-element principle. (orig.)

  4. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  5. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  6. Selected elements and organic chemicals in streambed sediment in the Salem area, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.

    2002-09-13

    Analysis of streambed sediments in the Salem, Oregon, area showed anomalously large concentrations of some elements and organic chemicals, indicating contamination from anthropogenic and/or geologic sources. The streambed sediment sample from Clark Creek, an urban basin, had large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hyrdocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines, cadmium, lead, and zinc. The sample from the East Fork of Pringle Creek, which is a mostly urban basin, had the highest concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDT compounds. Aldrin was detected in streambed sediment at only one site, the East Fork of Pringle Creek. Ten of the 14 sites sampled had exceedances of the sediment quality guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and 8 sites had exceedances of guidelines from the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Program.

  7. Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.

    1986-10-01

    If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)

  8. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  9. The use of synchrotron radiation for trace element analysis and element mapping by scanning X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation excited X-Ray Fluorescence is a potentially powerful tool for the routine quantitative chemical analysis of materials, with minimum detection limits typically of the order of a tenth of a ppm, and with the added advantages of simultaneous multi-element detection capability, spatial resolution on a micron scale, large signal to noise ratios and short analysis times. This paper presents a brief review of the use of Synchrotron Radiation in Trace Element Analysis and discusses the requirements for a microprobe for chemical analysis utilising SR. Data obtained at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory include XRF spectra of standard reference materials and an application of the technique to the study of ion implanted layers in semiconductors is outlined. (author)

  10. Model Experiments on Chemical Properties of Superheavy Elements in Aqueous Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Szeglowski, Z

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of model experiments on investigation of chemical properties of transactinide elements, ranging from 104 to 116. The possibilities of isolation of the nuclei of these elements from nuclear reaction products, using the ion-exchange method, are also considered.

  11. Chemical elements contamination of snow cover in region of coal production 'Karazhyra'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlampieva, E.P.; Panin, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of space distribution of chemical elements in hardphase and water-soluble falls of snow cover in region of coal deposit 'Karazhyra' are investigated. The maximal, minimal and background areas of elements accumulation in the snow of this region and distribution of their cumulative rates are determined. The main pollutants of snow cover unto background level are revealed.

  12. Fast XRF analysis of mineral elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Constantinescu, B.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Dental composites, made of particles of glass, ceramics or quartz embedded in an organic polymer matrix, extensively replaced silver amalgam in tooth fillings and enabled new applications for restorative dentistry. Long-term alteration of dental fillings together with market pressure motivates the development of composites at a high rate, largely by progress of materials forming their mineral phase. Therefore, dental composites constantly bring at the interface with enamel and dentine new elements foreign to the organism, whose biological action has not been studied. Atomic and nuclear methods for surface multielemental analysis have been used in dental research but not for composites. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is suited for the fast microanalytical screening of the elements and of their changes at the biomaterial's surface. The potential of radioisotope-excited XRF for the analysis of dental composites has been examined. Flat disk-shaped samples of composites have been prepared and polymerized chemically or by irradiation with intense 420-500 nm light. The measurements were performed with a spectrometric chain containing a 30 mCi source of 241 Am, a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer. The spectra were built up for 2000-6000 sec. The characteristic X lines were integrated and normalized to source lines. The following Z ≥ 20 elements were detected in the studied composites: Ba only in Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer); Zr, Ba, Yb in Tetric Ceram, and Ca, Ba, Yb together with traces of possibly Ti and Fe in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Zr, Hf in Valux Plus (3M Dental); and Sr, Ba together with some trace element, seemingly Cu, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental) and with other trace elements like Ca, Fe in Surefil (Dentsply). Among older materials, Concise (3M Dental) contained only light (Z 3 that releases F for protection of enamel and dentine. Yb, Zr, Ba, Hf improve the radiological opacity of the materials. Some elements may accompany others as

  13. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibilashvili, Yu K; Nekrasova, G A; Sukhanov, G I

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified.

  14. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Nekrasova, G.A.; Sukhanov, G.I.

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified

  15. Stellar alchemy: The origin of the chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    What makes the stars shine? This question puzzled human beings for thousands of years. Early in this century, chemists and physicists discovered radioactivity; and the nuclear model of the atom was developed. Once nuclear reactions were produced in the laboratory, it did not take long before their role in stellar energy generation was realized. The theory that nuclear fusion is the source of stellar energy was initially developed in the 1930's and was elaborated in detail in the 1950's. Only within the last ten years, however, have astronomical observations provided direct confirmation of these theoretical ideas. In this paper, I describe the sequences of nuclear reactions that are believed to be responsible for the power generation in stars. The ashes of these reactions are the heavy elements that we find on earth and throughout the universe. The evolution and final fates of stars are examined. The key astronomical observations that provide support for these theoretical ideas are presented

  16. The Detailed Chemical Properties of M31 Star Clusters. I. Fe, Alpha and Light Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-12-01

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R M31 < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ~ - 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. THE DETAILED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF M31 STAR CLUSTERS. I. Fe, ALPHA AND LIGHT ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: jcolucci@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 105-24, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc < R {sub M31} < 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H] ∼ – 1.6 for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive GC in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The α-element ratios are generally similar to the Milky Way GC and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the GCs in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain GC self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope.

  18. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  19. EDXRF for determination of chemical elements in the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Cunha, Franklin M. da; Zacarias, Vyvyane L.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry has been widely employed for chemical element determination of biological matrices, including insects. The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus is a major problem in poultry production, thereby infesting poultry litter and stored grains. Up to now, little is known about the behavior, physiology and environmental interactions of this insect. In this paper, EDXRF was applied to quantify the main chemical elements in A. diaperinus. For the quality of the analytical protocol, certified reference materials produced by National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were analyzed together with the samples. The technique was able to quantify Cl, P, S and Zn in this insect, presenting no significant variation at the 95% confidence level among the repetitions (n = 4). A different pattern of chemical element accumulation in this beetle was noticed compared to other Coleoptera species, in which the concentration of the chemical elements were markedly lower in A. diaperinus, probably associated to the restricted availability of chemical elements in food. Since no result has been found in the literature before, A. diaperinus was firstly chemically characterized in this paper. (author)

  20. EDXRF for determination of chemical elements in the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R. de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Cunha, Franklin M. da; Zacarias, Vyvyane L., E-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vyvyanebiologicas@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry has been widely employed for chemical element determination of biological matrices, including insects. The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus is a major problem in poultry production, thereby infesting poultry litter and stored grains. Up to now, little is known about the behavior, physiology and environmental interactions of this insect. In this paper, EDXRF was applied to quantify the main chemical elements in A. diaperinus. For the quality of the analytical protocol, certified reference materials produced by National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were analyzed together with the samples. The technique was able to quantify Cl, P, S and Zn in this insect, presenting no significant variation at the 95% confidence level among the repetitions (n = 4). A different pattern of chemical element accumulation in this beetle was noticed compared to other Coleoptera species, in which the concentration of the chemical elements were markedly lower in A. diaperinus, probably associated to the restricted availability of chemical elements in food. Since no result has been found in the literature before, A. diaperinus was firstly chemically characterized in this paper. (author)

  1. Recent studies of nuclear and chemical properties of elements 103, 104 and 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Information obtained since 1983 on the nuclear and chemical properties of element 103, the last on the actinide series, and elements 104 and 105, at the beginning of the transactinide series, is reviewed. Their chemical properties are compared with their lanthanide and lighter group 4 and 5 homologs and evidence for possible relativistic effects is discussed. The current knowledge of the nuclear properties of these elements and how these affect of the study of chemical properties is discussed. Some of the challenges involved in the study of short-lived isotopes which can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' at an appropriate accelerator and the prognosis for future studies of these and still heavier elements are considered. 40 refs., 4 figs

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis); Fluorescencia de raios-X por reflexao total aplicada a analise de elementos quimicos em cha de erva-mate (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19{<=}Z{<=}38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL{sup -1} for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 {mu}g. mL{sup -1} for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  3. Chemical analogy in the case of hydrolysis species of F-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotake Moriyama; Hajimu Yamana; Kenso Fujiwara

    2001-01-01

    In spite of much importance, some of the thermodynamic data of actinide elements are still lacking, and the chemical behaviour of these elements is often predicted by considering chemical analogy, that is by taking the known data of the same and similar group elements. It is thus quite important to establish the basis and conditions for applying the chemical analogy. In the present study, some topics are discussed which are related with the chemical analogy for the hydrolysis behaviour of actinide ions. Systematic trends of the thermodynamic data of actinide ions, namely the solubility products and hydrolysis constants, are discussed by considering the results of recent measurements and by considering possible contributions of non-electrostatic interactions of actinide ions in addition to those of ordinary electrostatic ones. (authors)

  4. On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Friedrich; Slocombe, Daniel R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    The classification of a chemical element as either 'metal' or 'non-metal' continues to form the basis of an instantly recognizable, universal representation of the periodic table (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23; Poliakoff M. & Tang S. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373: , 20140211). Here, we review major, pre-quantum-mechanical innovations (Goldhammer DA. 1913 Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes; Herzfeld KF. 1927 Phys. Rev. 29: , 701-705) that allow an understanding of the metallic or non-metallic status of the chemical elements under both ambient and extreme conditions. A special emphasis will be placed on recent experimental advances that investigate how the electronic properties of chemical elements vary with temperature and density, and how this invariably relates to a changing status of the chemical elements. Thus, the prototypical non-metals, hydrogen and helium, becomes metallic at high densities; and the acknowledged metals, mercury, rubidium and caesium, transform into their non-metallic forms at low elemental densities. This reflects the fundamental fact that, at temperatures above the absolute zero of temperature, there is therefore no clear dividing line between metals and non-metals. Our conventional demarcation of chemical elements as metals or non-metals within the periodic table is of course governed by our experience of the nature of the elements under ambient conditions. Examination of these other situations helps us to examine the exact divisions of the chemical elements into metals and non-metals (Mendeleeff D. 1905 The principles of chemistry, vol. II, p. 23). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical elemental distribution and soil DNA fingerprints provide the critical evidence in murder case investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Concheri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES approaches, and b amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA. CONCLUSIONS: Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic sources of chemical elements in sediment profiles from the Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Silva, C.R.A.; Franca, E.J.; Mahiques, M.M.; Bicego, M.C.; Montone, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Antarctic Continent and its surrounding Southern Ocean are the least known regions of the world, mainly due to the most unfavorable climatic conditions, in which sampling for environmental studies are quite difficult to be carried out. Admiralty Bay on the King George Island (Antarctica) hosts three research stations, Arctowski, Ferraz and Macchu Picchu, which are operate by Poland, Brazil and Peru, respectively. Therefore, human activities in this region require the use of fossil fuel as an energy source, which is also considered the main source of pollutants in the area. This work investigated the natural and anthropogenic inputs of chemical elements in sediment samples collected close to Ferraz Station, during the 25 th Brazilian Antarctica Expedition in the 2006/2007 austral summer. Total concentrations of As, Zn and Sc were determined in sediment profiles by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical technique employed to determine the major elements such as Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and Ti was X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. For estimating the sedimentation rate, High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectrometry was applied to determine 137 Cs, after 30 days, to achieve secular equilibrium. According to the enrichment factor and the geochronology analysis, the most relevant enrichment was observed for As in the sediment samples, suggesting the increasing of its content due to the Brazilian activities in the Admiralty Bay. Despite some evidences of anthropogenic contribution, the study indicated low level of environmental risk for this region. (author)

  7. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  8. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  9. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-01-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H 2 SO 4 -HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na 2 O 2 . Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  10. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Chugunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  11. Chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The methods cover the chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium having chemical compositions within specified limits. The following analytical procedures are discussed along with apparatus, reagents, photometric practice, safety precautions, sampling, and rounding calculated values: nitrogen, by distillation (photometric) method; molybdenum and tungsten by the dithiol (photometric) method; iron by the 1,10-phenanthroline (photometric) method

  12. Chemical portioning and speciation of some trace elements in soil and street dust from Khartoum state, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Amel Yousif

    2000-09-01

    In this study, surface soil and street dust samples were collected from Khartoum State, from areas exposed to industrial and traffic emission and from areas expected to be free from elemental emission to serve as control. Samples were digested using wet digestion method to determine the total concentration of Na, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (Aas), X-Ray fluorescence and flame photometer. Also samples were chemically fractionated using chemical specification method, and the solutions analyzed using Aas to determine the chemical form of the elements. Quality assurance of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference material. The range of the total concentration for Na, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are 400-5175, 220-4690, 0.07-315.25, 20-250, 2050.8-46000, 0.5-2305, 4.5-280, 9.5-6200 mg/kg respectively. results obtained agree with expected emission profile as inferred from the emitting source locations. Distribution of elements from emitting source locations and control samples in different chemical fractions was carried out, and the findings reinforced by enrichment factors calculations as well by the results obtained by statistical multi-variate analysis methods such as principle compared with previous literature.(Author)

  13. Cumulative and competitive effects of chemical elements on nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This work takes place in the context of the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses under repository conditions. The main objective is to identify, understand and compare the effects of some chemical elements present in the glass composition and/or in the repository media (Zn, Mg, Ni, Co, Fe, Ca, Gd, Ce, K, Cs, Cr and Ag) on the processes involved in glass alteration by water. The cumulative or competitive nature of the effects of these chemical elements was determined. To reach this goal, a 6 oxides simple glass (ISG) has been altered for more than 500 days in a solution containing one or more of the chemical elements of interest. The results indicate that Zn, Mg, Ni, Co and Fe elements increase glass alteration forming secondary phases with the same structure and stoichiometry (tri-octahedral smectites). To form, these silicates consume chemical elements (Si, Al) from the environment and induce a pH decrease until a limiting value of pH. Beyond this pH the precipitation of secondary phases is inhibited and these chemical elements can be integrated into the gel, replacing Ca whose solubility increases at lower pH. As long as they form secondary phases, the effects of these elements are cumulative. Rare earths Gd and Ce also increase glass alteration forming secondary phases but their effects are lower as they contain less silicon. These elements are not integrated in the gel. Chromium increases glass alteration by precipitating with Ca and leading to a less protective gel, depleted in Ca. Silver precipitates as AgCl and has no effect on the alteration of the glass. The chemical elements K, Cs and Ca limit glass alteration by integrating into the gel and slowing down the transport phenomena therein. This integration is competitive: the order of integration (quantity and effectiveness glass alteration limitation) is the following Ca≥≥Cs≥K. Thus, the increase of glass alteration may be proportional to the quantity of elements promoting the precipitation of

  14. Purposeful synthesis of chemical elements and ecologically pure mobile sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivitsky, V. A.; Gareev, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known [1] that the natural geo-transmutation of chemical elements occurs in the atmosphere and earth in the regions of a strong change in geo-, bio-, acoustic-, and electromagnetic fields. The mineral row materials contain the same accompanying chemical combinations which are independent of mineral deposit [2]. This means that the formation of chemical elements occurs in the same physical and chemical conditions. These conditions were simulated on the fundamental cooperative resonance synchronization principle [1]. The experimental facility was constructed on the basis of our model which provided with the calculated final chemical elements. These experimental results indicate new possibilities for, simulating, inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by low energy external fields. The borrowing from the geo-transmutation mechanisms of chemical elements creates the fundamental directions in low energy nuclear reaction researches for construction of new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent of oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006. [2] V.A. Krivzskii, Transmutazija ximicheskix elementov v evolyuzii Semli (in Russian), Moscow 2003

  15. Optical MEMS for chemical analysis and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis and brings together current trends and highlights topics representing the most exciting progress in recent years in the field.

  16. Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.; Reidy, J.J.; Springer, K.; Daniel, H.; Knowles, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.) [de

  17. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures loaded in the short-term up until failure. A profound discussion of constitutive modelling on concrete is performed; a model, applicable for general stress states, is described and its predictions are compared with experimental data. This model is implemented in the AXIPLANE-program applicable for axisymmetrick and plane structures. The theoretical basis for this program is given. Using the AXIPLANE-program various concrete structures are analysed up until failure and compared with experimental evidence. These analyses include panels pressure vessel, beams failing in shear and finally a specific pull-out test, the Lok-Test, is considered. In these analyses, the influence of different failure criteria, aggregate interlock, dowel action, secondary cracking, magnitude of compressive strenght, magnitude of tensile strenght and of different post-failure behaviours of the concrete are evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable analysis of the theoretical data results in a clear insight into the physical behaviour of the considered structures. Finally, it is demonstrated that the AXISPLANE-program for widely different structures exhibiting very delicate structural aspects gives predictions that are in close agreement with experimental evidence. (author)

  18. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Zenisova, Z.; Seman, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  19. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  20. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking water from shallow aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most of the Indian cities drinking water is drawn from shallow aqiufers with the help of hand pumps. These shallow aquifers get easilyl polluted. In the present work we have measured 20 trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and 8 chemical parameters using standard chemical methods of drinking water drawn from Rajpura city. It was found that almost all water samples are highly polluted. We attribute this to unplaned disposal of industrial and domestic waste over a period of many decades. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  1. Physical--chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized for the period April 1, 1976, through March 31, 1977. Implementation of data reduction programs and acquisition of a CRT time-sharing graphics terminal/stand-alone computer have advanced significantly the handling capabilities of single-beam spectral data obtained by our microscope spectrophotometer. EsCl 3 , EsBr 3 , and EsI 3 have been well characterized spectroscopically, and limited X-ray diffraction data have been obtained from EsBr 3 and EsI 3 . The reduction of mixed Es-lanthanide trihalides has produced what might be Es(II). Dimorphism in BkCl 3 , CfCl 3 , and BkBr 3 has been studied spectrophotometrically and the results confirmed by X-ray analysis. Our solution microcalorimeter was improved by reducing the system-generated electrical noise and developing a novel sample container. The operating sensitivity was determined to be within the desired 0.1 percent precision requirement. The necessary hardware was obtained and software development was initiated for the capability to acquire, store, and analyze the heat of solution data automatically. A very sensitive apparatus (SQUID) for the determination of magnetic susceptibility has been constructed and is being evaluated. Our device should greatly facilitate the study of microgram-sized samples of transuranium elements and compounds

  2. The chemical behavior of the transuranic elements and the barrier function in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In a geological repository for long-lived radioactive wastes, such as actinides and certain fission products, most of the stored radionuclides remain immobile in the particular geological formation. If any of these could possibly become mobile, only trace concentrations of a few radionuclides would result. Nevertheless, with an inventory in the repository of many tonnes of transuranic elements, the amounts that could disperse cannot be neglected. A critical assessment of the chemical behavior of these nuclides, especially their migration properties in the aquifer system around the repository site, is mandatory for analysis of the long-term safety. The chemistry requited for this includes many geochemical multicomponent reactions that are so far only partially understood and hich therefore can be quantified only incompletely. A few of these reactions have been discussed in this paper based on present knowledge. If a comprehensive discussion of the subject is impossible because of this ack of information then an attempt to emphasize the importance of the predominant geochemical reactions of the transuranic elements in various aquifer systems should be made

  3. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  4. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  5. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  6. Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The distributions of chemical elements and Caesium-137 in the Northern-Crimean canal ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G.

    1998-01-01

    The distributions in 1992-1995 of some chemical elements and 137 Cs concentrations in components of the Northern-Crimean Canal (NCC) ecosystem and agricultural fields of the Kherson District and the Northern Crimea irrigated by the Dnieper River water are presented in the work. Five main sampling were selected between the Kakhovka Reservior (at the beginning of the NCC) and the Karkinitsky Bay along the 150 km of the main Canal. Two additional stations were selected in discharge canals to study of the role of irrigated agricultural fields in the accumulation of 137 Cs and chemical elements from water. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  9. Finite element analysis of plastic recycling machine designed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... design was evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA) tool in Solid Works Computer ... Also, a minimum factor of safety value of 5.3 was obtained for shredder shaft ... Machine; Design; Recycling; Sustainability; Finite Element; Simulation ...

  10. Stability analysis of artificial synthetic overweight elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jian

    1990-01-01

    Stability of artificial synthetic overweight elements has been analysed theoretically using a diagram of nuclear stability. It is indicated that overweight nucleus can be synthesized only when a certain amount of neutrons participate simultaneously in the synthesis. The maximum number of protons in overweight elements is 1002. The proton number of 'extreme overweight' elements of which the neutron star is possibly composed is in the range from 326 to 1002. It is expected that the mass number of the stable overweight elements with proton number 114 is in the range from 299 to 315

  11. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  12. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  13. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Martens, Kylee; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2016-12-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high-resolution (R ˜ 60,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio ( ˜ 100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope and the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤slant 0.06 dex (σ = 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 and W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only iron but with other elements analyzed in this study, suggesting the proposed connection between these two stars may be real.

  14. Analysis of TRU waste for RCRA-listed elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, C.; Gerth, D.; Yoshida, T.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical methods for RCRA listed elements on Portland cement type waste have been employed using both microwave and open hot plate digestions with subsequent analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption and fluorescence (CVAA/CVAFS). Four different digestion procedures were evaluated including an open hot plate nitric acid digestion, EPA SW-846 Method 3051, and 2 methods using modifications to Method 3051. The open hot plate and the modified Method 3051, which used aqua regia for dissolution, were the only methods which resulted in acceptable data quality for all 14 RCRA-listed elements. Results for the nitric acid open hot plate digestion were used to qualify the analytical methods for TRU waste characterization, and resulted in a 99% passing score. Direct chemical analysis of TRU waste is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in an attempt to circumvent the problems associated with strong acid digestion methods. Technology development includes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), dc arc CID atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-AES), and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Analytical methods using the Portland cement matrix are currently being developed for each of the listed techniques. Upon completion of the development stage, blind samples will be distributed to each of the technology developers for RCRA metals characterization

  15. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  16. Origin of major element chemical trends in DSDP Leg 37 basalts, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, G.R.; Wright, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the major element chemical variation for basalts from the Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 37 and relate it to stratigraphic position in each of five drilling sites. Least-squares techniques are successfully used to quantify the nature and extent of alteration in these basalts, and to correct the major element analysis back to a magmatic, or alteration-free, composition on the assumption that alteration takes place in two ways: (1) secondary minerals are introduced into veins and vesicles, and (2) CO2 and H2O react with components in the rock to form a simple alteration assemblage. A chemical stratigraphy is defined for these basalts by grouping lavas whose chemistries are related by low-pressure phenocryst-liquid differentiation as identified by least-squares calculation. Major chemical-stratigraphic units are as much as 200 m thick; correlations of these units can be made between the holes at site 332 (about 100 m apart), but not between the other sites. Compositions of parental magmas are calculated by extrapolating low-pressure variations to a constant value of 9% MgO. The differences in these extrapolated compositions reflect high-pressure processes, and suggest that clinopyroxene may be an important phase in either intermediate-level fractionation of basaltic liquids, or as a residual phase during the partial melting which produces these basaltic liquids. Several of the basaltic liquids calculated as parental to the Leg 37 basalts have CaO contents greater than 14% and indicate that the oceanic mantle is richer in CaO and Al2O3 than values used in pyrolite models for the upper mantle. A model for magma generation and eruption beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge embodies the following characteristics: 1. (1) Separate magma batches are generated in the mantle. 2. (2) Each of these may be erupted directly or stored at shallow depth where significant fractionation takes place. Common fractionation processes are inferred to be gravitative

  17. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH - , CO -- 3 ) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states

  18. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  19. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  20. Chemical form of transuranic elements in underground environment and its effect on adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tomo

    1990-01-01

    Many of the transuranic elements such as Np, Pu and Am contained in high-level radioactive wastes are highly dangerous to humans and have extremely long lives. Therefore, safety evaluation of them is highly important after their disposal into the ground. Particularly important processes include the migration of these transuranic elements in near and far fields. The migration of a nuclide depends largely on its chemical form in the underground environment. The present report first describes various chemical forms of transuranic elements in underground environments and outlines their migration behaviors. Techniques that have recently become available for determining their chemical forms include photo-acoustic spectroscopy, thermal lensing spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence, photo-acoustic detection of light scattering, auto-correlation photon spectroscopy, and laser-induced time-resolved spectrofluorometry. Chemical forms of these elements are then discussed focusing on underground environmental conditions, pH-Eh diagram, deposition/dissolution, formation of complex, formation of colloid, and organic complexes. Migration is discussed in relation to ions, insoluble matters, and colloids. (N.K.)

  1. Elemental Analysis and Biological Activities of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapotaceae) Leaves. ... The plant material could be used as a source of important elements required for the body. In suitable form, the plant could be used in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, oxidative damage, obesity and cancer.

  2. Versatile protein recognition by the encoded display of multiple chemical elements on a constant macrocyclic scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhou; De Luca, Roberto; Cazzamalli, Samuele; Pretto, Francesca; Bajic, Davor; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2018-03-01

    In nature, specific antibodies can be generated as a result of an adaptive selection and expansion of lymphocytes with suitable protein binding properties. We attempted to mimic antibody-antigen recognition by displaying multiple chemical diversity elements on a defined macrocyclic scaffold. Encoding of the displayed combinations was achieved using distinctive DNA tags, resulting in a library size of 35,393,112. Specific binders could be isolated against a variety of proteins, including carbonic anhydrase IX, horseradish peroxidase, tankyrase 1, human serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, calmodulin, prostate-specific antigen and tumour necrosis factor. Similar to antibodies, the encoded display of multiple chemical elements on a constant scaffold enabled practical applications, such as fluorescence microscopy procedures or the selective in vivo delivery of payloads to tumours. Furthermore, the versatile structure of the scaffold facilitated the generation of protein-specific chemical probes, as illustrated by photo-crosslinking.

  3. Chemical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction in light water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature on the mechanical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) in light water reactor fuel elements, the chemical features of this phenomenon are so poorly understood that there is still disagreement concerning the chemical agent responsible. Since the earliest work by Rosenbaum, Davies and Pon, laboratory and in-reactor experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of PCI fuel rod failures have concentrated almost exclusively on iodine. The assumption that this is the reponsible chemical agent is contained in models of PCI which have been constructed for incorporation into fuel performance codes. The evidence implicating iodine is circumstantial, being based primarily upon the volatility and significant fission yield of this element and on the microstructural similarity of the failed Zircaloy specimens exposed to iodine in laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests to cladding failures by PCI

  4. An investigation of changes in element distribution and chemical states during differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Ide-Ektessabi, A.; Ishihara, R.; Tanigaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallic elements and their organic compounds have dynamic regulatory functions in cells. In this study, we implemented a new approach to investigate the mechanism of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, by measuring and analyzing the change in distribution and chemical states of intracellular trace elements. We anticipate that trace metal elements and metalloproteins play important roles in the direction of differentiation, both as active centers, and as factors in the death of neural cells in neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution and chemical states of trace elements during the process of differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, and to understand how these factors relate to the differentiation process. Using the experimental results, some previously unexplained points are considered, namely (1) how the intracellular elements change during the process of neuronal differentiation, and (2) what the optimal conditions of such elements are for neuronal differentiation. The information obtained during this study is relevant to nervous system development and evolution

  5. An investigation of changes in element distribution and chemical states during differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, T.; Ide-Ektessabi, A. E-mail: h51167@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishihara, R.; Tanigaki, M

    2004-07-01

    Metallic elements and their organic compounds have dynamic regulatory functions in cells. In this study, we implemented a new approach to investigate the mechanism of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, by measuring and analyzing the change in distribution and chemical states of intracellular trace elements. We anticipate that trace metal elements and metalloproteins play important roles in the direction of differentiation, both as active centers, and as factors in the death of neural cells in neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study is to analyze the distribution and chemical states of trace elements during the process of differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, and to understand how these factors relate to the differentiation process. Using the experimental results, some previously unexplained points are considered, namely (1) how the intracellular elements change during the process of neuronal differentiation, and (2) what the optimal conditions of such elements are for neuronal differentiation. The information obtained during this study is relevant to nervous system development and evolution.

  6. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  8. Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Moaveni, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    For courses in Finite Element Analysis, offered in departments of Mechanical or Civil and Environmental Engineering. While many good textbooks cover the theory of finite element modeling, Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Application with ANSYS is the only text available that incorporates ANSYS as an integral part of its content. Moaveni presents the theory of finite element analysis, explores its application as a design/modeling tool, and explains in detail how to use ANSYS intelligently and effectively. Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: *Present the Theory of Finite Element Analysis: The presentation of theoretical aspects of finite element analysis is carefully designed not to overwhelm students. *Explain How to Use ANSYS Effectively: ANSYS is incorporated as an integral part of the content throughout the book. *Explore How to Use FEA as a Design/Modeling Tool: Open-ended design problems help stude...

  9. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Ki Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Jee, Kwang Yong; Jung, Woo Sik; Sohn, Se Chul; Yeo, In Heong; Han, Sun Ho

    1988-12-01

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  10. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  11. On the Necessity of Using Element No.155 in the Chemical Physical Calculations: Again on the Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how the properties of different elements of the Periodic System of Elements can be obtained using the properties of the theoretically predicted heaviest element No.155 (it draws the upper principal limit of the Table, behind which stable elements cannot exist. It is suggested how the properties of element No.155 can be used in the synthesis of superheavy elements. An analysis of nuclear reactions is also produced on the same basis.

  12. PIXE-quantified AXSIA: Elemental mapping by multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Kotula, P.G.; Antolak, A.J.; Ryan, C.G.; Campbell, J.L.; Barrett, K.

    2006-01-01

    Automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis techniques are useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of chemical components (spectra and images) that are needed to describe the measurement. We report the first use of the multivariate spectral analysis program AXSIA (Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to quantitatively analyze micro-PIXE data maps. AXSIA implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that reduces the spectral image data sets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (including both spectra and images). We show that the principal component spectra can be further analyzed using conventional PIXE programs to convert the weighting images into quantitative concentration maps. A common elemental data set has been analyzed using three different PIXE analysis codes and the results compared to the cases when each of these codes is used to separately analyze the associated AXSIA principal component spectral data. We find that these comparisons are in good quantitative agreement with each other

  13. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1998-01-01

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  14. Development of a SISAK extraction system for chemical studies of element 108, hassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadani, F.; Alstad, J.; Bjoernstad, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Omtvedt, J.P. [Oslo Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction system suitable for studies of chemical properties of Hs (element 108), in the form of HsO{sub 4}, was developed using {gamma}-emitting isotopes of its homologue Os. The system is targeted for the fast on-line extraction system SISAK, which operates in a continuous manner and is suitable for liquid-phase studies of transactinide elements. The distribution of OsO{sub 4} between various dilute NaOH solutions and toluene was studied. Both batch and SISAK on-line experiments were performed to develop an appropriate system. From analysis of the extraction curves equilibrium constants for the formation of the presumed complexes, Na[OsO{sub 4}(OH)] and Na{sub 2}[OsO{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}], were obtained: K{sub 1} = (1 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 4} and K{sub 2} = 12 {+-} 8, respectively. The SISAK system includes a liquid-scintillation detection system for {alpha} measurements. Due to quenching effects it is not possible to perform direct measurement of the aqueous phase {alpha}'s. Therefore, a two-stage extraction method that provides an indirect measurement of the activity in the aqueous phase was developed as part of the proposed system for Hs: Acidification of the raffinate from the first stage result in recovery of OsO{sub 4}, which is highly extractable into toluene. The yield of extraction in the second step, from 0.01 M NaOH solution after acidification with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, was (90 {+-} 3)%. (orig.)

  15. Development of a SISAK extraction system for chemical studies of element 108, hassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, F.; Alstad, J.; Bjoernstad, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Omtvedt, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction system suitable for studies of chemical properties of Hs (element 108), in the form of HsO 4 , was developed using γ-emitting isotopes of its homologue Os. The system is targeted for the fast on-line extraction system SISAK, which operates in a continuous manner and is suitable for liquid-phase studies of transactinide elements. The distribution of OsO 4 between various dilute NaOH solutions and toluene was studied. Both batch and SISAK on-line experiments were performed to develop an appropriate system. From analysis of the extraction curves equilibrium constants for the formation of the presumed complexes, Na[OsO 4 (OH)] and Na 2 [OsO 4 (OH) 2 ], were obtained: K 1 = (1 ± 0.5) x 10 4 and K 2 = 12 ± 8, respectively. The SISAK system includes a liquid-scintillation detection system for α measurements. Due to quenching effects it is not possible to perform direct measurement of the aqueous phase α's. Therefore, a two-stage extraction method that provides an indirect measurement of the activity in the aqueous phase was developed as part of the proposed system for Hs: Acidification of the raffinate from the first stage result in recovery of OsO 4 , which is highly extractable into toluene. The yield of extraction in the second step, from 0.01 M NaOH solution after acidification with H 2 SO 4 solution, was (90 ± 3)%. (orig.)

  16. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  17. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, P; Kuchhal, N K; Garg, P; Pundir, C S

    2007-09-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble proteins, sodium potassium, magnesium, copper, oxalate and chlorides of biliary calculi (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment) retrieved from surgical operation of 200 patients from Haryana state was carried out. Total cholesterol as the major component and total bilirubin, phospholipids, triglycerides, bile acids, fatty acids (esterified), soluble protein, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, potassium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate and chloride as minor components were found in all types of calculi. The cholesterol stones had higher content of total cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids (esterified), inorganic phosphate and copper compared to mixed and pigment stones. The mixed stones had higher content of iron and triglycerides than to cholesterol and pigment stones. The pigment stones were richer in total bilirubin, bile acids, calcium, oxalate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and soluble protein compared to cholesterol and mixed stones. Although total cholesterol was a major component of cholesterol, mixed and pigment gall stone in Haryana, the content of most of the other lipids, cations and anions was different in different gall stones indicating their different mechanism of formation.

  18. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  19. Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2005-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures

  1. Finite-element analysis of dynamic fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; King, W. W.

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the finite element method to the two dimensional elastodynamics of cracked structures are presented. Stress intensity factors are computed for two problems involving stationary cracks. The first serves as a vehicle for discussing lumped-mass and consistent-mass characterizations of inertia. In the second problem, the behavior of a photoelastic dynamic tear test specimen is determined for the time prior to crack propagation. Some results of a finite element simulation of rapid crack propagation in an infinite body are discussed.

  2. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  3. Elemental analysis of samples of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, R.A.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P.; Lugo L, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the PIXE technique (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) it was analyzed the purity of the samples that will be used to measure the production section of X rays with Li and B beams. It is not necessary to determine the concentrations of the pollutant elements. (Author)

  4. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    amount more than 90% were copper, lead, nickel and gold. Key words: Atmospheric particles, elements, ... Selebi-Phikwe area, gold and nickel in Francis town and soda ash in Sowa. Gaborone is the capital of ... a stub three times a week with an exposure time of four hours. The exposed stubs were collected and kept ...

  5. Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper. Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.

  6. Analysis on 9 Elements in English Pragmatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    College Students may have no troubles to compose grammatically correct sentences to express themselves,but sometimes the sentences just seem not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending the 9 Elements in English Pragmatics to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant for English learners,special to one who intends to use English as a communicating medium.

  7. Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.

  8. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torri, Silvana, E-mail: torri@agro.uba.ar [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina); Lavado, Raul [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina)

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  9. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, Silvana; Lavado, Raul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  10. Failure analysis on a chemical waste pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A failure analysis of a chemical waste pipe illustrates how nuclear technology can spin off metallurgical consultant services. The pipe, made of zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, UNS 60705), had cracked in several places, all at butt welds. A combination of fractography and metallography indicated delayed hydride cracking

  11. Chemical properties of some elements in a molten lithium chloride, potassium chloride eutectic (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, R.

    1961-12-01

    The increasing use of molten media especially in chemical preparations and for certain technological applications, has made it more necessary to have a knowledge of the chemical properties of elements in these solvents. Structural studies on molten solutions show the existence of certain species such as ions and complexes known to exist in aqueous solutions. This fact, together with certain experiments on chemical reactions in molten media has led us to establish a comparison between these media and aqueous solutions. We wish to show that the same fundamental phenomena occur in these media as are found in the chemistry of aqueous solutions and that this makes it possible to predict certain reactions. We have taken as examples the chemical properties of vanadium, uranium and sulphur in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melted at 480 deg. C. The first problem is to identify the various degrees of oxidation of these elements existing in the solvent chosen. We have tried to resolve it by comparing the absorption spectra obtained in aqueous solution and in the molten eutectic. We consider the possibilities of this method in a chapter on absorption spectrophotometry in the LiCl-KCl eutectic. During the study of the chemical properties we stress the various methods of displacing the equilibria: complex formation, variation of the oxidation-reduction properties with complex formation. The complexes of the O 2- ion are considered in particular. The study of the exchange of this particle is facilitated by the use of a classification of some of its complexes which we call the pO 2- scale by analogy with the pH scale; the value pO 2- is defined by the relationship: pO 2- = log O 2- Similarly, the use of apparent potential diagrams pO 2- makes it possible to predict and to interpret reactions involving the simultaneous exchange of electrons and O 2- ions between the various degrees of oxidation of the same element. It is possible, by studying some reactions of this type between two elements

  12. Search for chemical separations of the element 106 homologues in HF and HF-HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubert, D.; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Hussonnois, M.; Brillard, L.; Le Naour, C.; Constantinescu, O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the chemical properties of element 263 106 in aqueous media, fast, efficient and reproducible chromatographic separations were tested on its assumed homologous: Mo, W and U. Corroborative static and dynamic off-line experiments have shown that after fixation of these three elements on anion-exchange resin in HF medium, selective elution could be achieved by using suitable concentration of HCl - HF and HCl solutions. Separations of short-lived W isotopes, produced through heavy ion irradiation were also performed on-line. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Pipe T-Joint

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Gedkar; Dr. D.V. Bhope

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports stress analysis of two pressurized cylindrical intersection using finite element method. The different combinations of dimensions of run pipe and the branch pipe are used to investigate thestresses in pipe at the intersection. In this study the stress analysis is accomplished by finite element package ANSYS.

  14. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  15. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  16. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  17. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  18. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 6: elemental determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Andonie, O.; Gras, N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter from some locations in the city of Santiago, Chile. The following elements were determined: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V y Zn. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was evaluated using a standard reference material. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Finite element reliability analysis of fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, H.H.; Belytschko, T.; Liu, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue reliability is addressed by the first-order reliability method combined with a finite element method. Two-dimensional finite element models of components with cracks in mode I are considered with crack growth treated by the Paris law. Probability density functions of the variables affecting fatigue are proposed to reflect a setting where nondestructive evaluation is used, and the Rosenblatt transformation is employed to treat non-Gaussian random variables. Comparisons of the first-order reliability results and Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the accuracy of the first-order reliability method is quite good in this setting. Results show that the upper portion of the initial crack length probability density function is crucial to reliability, which suggests that if nondestructive evaluation is used, the probability of detection curve plays a key role in reliability. (orig.)

  20. Finite element analysis of human joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.

  1. Finite element analysis of human joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described

  2. Elemental analysis: Reduction to SI units; Rueckfuehrung in der Elementanalytik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienitz, O.; Jaehrling, R.; Schiel, D. [PTB-Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Anorganische Analytik' ' , Braunschweig (Germany); Matschat, R.; Kipphardt, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Gernand, W.; Oeter, D. [MercK KGaA (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    In a joint project, PTB, BAM and Merck KGaA worked on a metrological reduction system for all elements relevant to analysis. The BAM certified primary pure substances with a relative error of U{sub rel} {<=} 0.01% for the mass of the main element. This was achieved by measuring the mass components of all potential impurities, i.e. practically all elements of the periodic system except the main element. These pure substances are the national reference standards of elemental analysis. From them, PTB produces primary elementa solutions and transfer solutions which are passed on as reference standards. The industrial partner constructed the DKD calibration laboratory, which certifies commercial secondary calibration solutions on the basis of the reference standard solutions produced by PTB. With this final product, measurements in elemental analysis can be reduced to the SI units system as a routine procedure. (orig.)

  3. A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.

  4. Probabilistic risk analysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, F.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis in the chemical industry, recognising potential risks is considered more important than assessing their quantitative extent. Even in assessing risks, emphasis is not on the probability involved but on the possible extent. Qualitative assessment has proved valuable here. Probabilistic methods are used in individual cases where the wide implications make it essential to be able to assess the reliability of safety precautions. In this case, assessment therefore centres on the reliability of technical systems and not on the extent of a chemical risk. 7 figs

  5. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRYE-MASON, GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER, EDWIN J.; HIETALA, VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE, RICHARD; LEWIS, PATRICK R.; MANGINELL, RONALD P.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; WONG, CHUNGNIN C.

    1999-01-01

    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ((micro)ChemLab(trademark)) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described

  6. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

    1968-10-04

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper).

  7. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Eugenio Boscaro; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; Cofani dos Santos, S.N.S.; Sandra Mara Martins-Franchetti

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  8. Three-dimensionality of space in the structure of the periodic table of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veremeichik, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dimension of the 3D homogeneous and isotropic Euclidean space, and the electron spin on the self-organization of the electron systems of atoms of chemical elements is considered. It is shown that the finite dimension of space creates the possibility of periodicity in the structure of an electron cloud, while the value of the dimension determines the number of stable systems of electrons at different levels of the periodic table of chemical elements and some characteristics of the systems. The conditions for the stability of systems of electrons and the electron system of an atom as a whole are considered. On the basis of the results obtained, comparison with other hierarchical systems (nanostructures and biological structures) is performed

  9. Chemical Abundances of Hydrostatic and Explosive Alpha-elements in Sagittarius Stream Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sheffield, Allyson A.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze chemical abundances of stars in the Sagittarius (Sgr) tidal stream using high-resolution Gemini+GRACES spectra of 42 members of the highest surface-brightness portions of both the trailing and leading arms. Targets were chosen using a 2MASS+WISE color–color selection, combined with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) radial velocities. In this Letter, we analyze [Fe/H] and α-elements produced by both hydrostatic (O, Mg) and explosive (Si, Ca, Ti) nucleosynthetic processes. The average [Fe/H] for our Sgr stream stars is lower than that for stars in the Sgr core, and stars in the trailing and leading arms show systematic differences in [Fe/H]. Both hydrostatic and explosive elements are depleted relative to Milky Way (MW) disk and halo stars, with a larger gap between the MW trend and Sgr stars for the hydrostatic elements. Chemical abundances of Sgr stream stars show similar patterns to those measured in the core of the Sgr dSph. We explore the ratio of hydrostatic to explosive α-elements [α h/ex] (which we refer to as the “HEx ratio”). Our observed HEx ratio trends for Sgr debris are deficient relative to MW stars. Via simple chemical evolution modeling, we show that these HEx ratio patterns are consistent with a Sgr IMF that lacks the most massive stars. This study provides a link between the chemical properties in the intact Sgr core and the significant portion of the Sgr system’s luminosity that is estimated to currently reside in the streams.

  10. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  11. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  12. Genetic interpretations of elemental and chemical differences in a soil chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Soils developed on fluvial terraces in central California have similar parent materials, climatic settings, vegetation cover and slopes but range in age from 40,000 to 3,000,000 years. The soils have chemical compositions that change systematically with increasing age. Such chemical differentiation is most likely the result of long-term weathering and mineralogical transformations that occurred since deposition of terrace fills and stabilization of the geomorphic surfaces. The changes in composition with time closely mimic other studies on mineral weathering, in which alkali and alkali-earth elements are lost more rapidly than transitional elements. The relative rates of element loss were determined by changes in element ratios over time. Net losses and gains of elements in different size fractions were monitored by their concentrations relative to Zr, the most stable constituent. Both sand and finer size fractions have lost considerable amounts of Ca, Mg, Na and K. Aluminum appears to have been lost from the sand fraction and gained in the fine fraction over a 3-million-year-time-span. Although there is no evidence for losses of Fe and Ti from sands, there is a net influx of Fe and Ti into finer fractions, probably gained from undetectable yet significant weathering of sand grains. Etching of sand grains, clay mineralogy, and microprobe analyses also indicate that the soils have undergone these chemical transformations during their formation. Mineralogical analyses also mimic other studies on mineral weathering, in which the pyroxenes weather more rapidly than hornblende, which weathers more rapidly than sphene or zircon. ?? 1988.

  13. Determination of the elemental composition of copper and bronze objects by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for the elemental analysis of copper and bronze objects is described. Na, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Ir and Au are determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mg, Al, V, Ti and Mn are determined after chemical separation using anionic exchange. The detection limits for a number of other elements are also given. Results for NBS standard reference materials are presented and the results are compared with the recommended values. The agreement is good. The results of the analysis of five ancient bronze and two copper objects are also presented. (author) 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Determination of the elemental composition of copper and bronze objects by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the elemental analysis of copper and bronze objects is described. Na, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Ir and Au are determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mg, Al, V, Ti and Mn are determined after chemical separation using anionic exchange. The detection limits for a number of other elements are also given. Results for NBS standard reference materials are presented and the results compared with the recommended values. The agreement is good. The results of the analysis of five ancient bronze and two copper objects are presented. (author)

  15. Mechanism and degree of chemical elements effect on atmosphere corrosion resistance of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Din' Vuj

    1991-01-01

    It follows from the proposed regression equations that falourable effect of chemical elements on steel resistance to atmospheric corrosion is determined by their ability to increase interatom bond stability in iron crystal lattice and form corrosion products with high protection properties. Element positive influence on steel corrosion resistance decreases in the following order: S, P, Si, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, C in semiurban tropical atmosphere and S, Mn, Sr, Cu, Ni, Cr in coastal atmosphere. In the latter case C increases corrosion in a greater degree as compared to P. Small ammounts of Mo decrease steel resistance in semiurban atmosphere and almost do not influence it in the coastal one. Possible mechanisms of individual element influence on steel corrosion resistance are considered

  16. On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique; Analise do comportamento de elementos quimicos em folhas infectadas com fumagina atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  18. 18 Sco: A solar twin rich in refractory and neutron-capture elements. Implications for chemical tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meléndez, Jorge; Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Tucci Maia, Marcelo; Freitas, Fabrício C. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramírez, Iván [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Karakas, Amanda I.; Yong, David; Asplund, Martin [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bergemann, Maria [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Do Nascimento, José-Dias Jr.; Castro, Matthieu [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bazot, Michael [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Alves-Brito, Alan, E-mail: jorge.melendez@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    We study with unprecedented detail the chemical composition and stellar parameters of the solar twin 18 Sco in a strictly differential sense relative to the Sun. Our study is mainly based on high-resolution (R ∼ 110,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (800-1,000) Very Large Telescope UVES spectra, which allow us to achieve a precision of about 0.005 dex in differential abundances. The effective temperature and surface gravity of 18 Sco are T{sub eff} = 5823 ± 6 K and log g = 4.45 ± 0.02 dex, i.e., 18 Sco is 46 ± 6 K hotter than the Sun and log g is 0.01 ± 0.02 dex higher. Its metallicity is [Fe/H] = 0.054 ± 0.005 dex, and its microturbulence velocity is +0.02 ± 0.01 km s{sup –1} higher than solar. Our precise stellar parameters and differential isochrone analysis show that 18 Sco has a mass of 1.04 ± 0.02 M{sub ☉} and that it is ∼1.6 Gyr younger than the Sun. We use precise High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) radial velocities to search for planets, but none are detected. The chemical abundance pattern of 18 Sco displays a clear trend with condensation temperature, thus showing higher abundances of refractories in 18 Sco than in the Sun. Intriguingly, there are enhancements in the neutron-capture elements relative to the Sun. Despite the small element-to-element abundance differences among nearby n-capture elements (∼0.02 dex), we successfully reproduce the r-process pattern in the Solar System. This is independent evidence for the universality of the r process. Our results have important implications for chemical tagging in our Galaxy and nucleosynthesis in general.

  19. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  1. Alphavirus replicon approach to promoterless analysis of IRES elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrud, K I; Custer, M; Dudek, J M; Owens, G; Alterson, K D; Lee, J S; Groebner, J L; Smith, J F

    2007-04-10

    Here we describe a system for promoterless analysis of putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements using an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) replicon vector. The system uses the alphavirus subgenomic promoter to produce transcripts that, when modified to contain a spacer region upstream of an IRES element, allow analysis of cap-independent translation of genes of interest (GOI). If the IRES element is removed, translation of the subgenomic transcript can be reduced >95% compared to the same transcript containing a functional IRES element. Alphavirus replicons, used in this manner, offer an alternative to standard dicistronic DNA vectors or in vitro translation systems currently used to analyze putative IRES elements. In addition, protein expression levels varied depending on the spacer element located upstream of each IRES. The ability to modulate the level of expression from alphavirus vectors should extend the utility of these vectors in vaccine development.

  2. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  3. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  4. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  5. 2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs

  6. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  7. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  8. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Eric M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  10. Simultaneous speciation of trace elements using chemical separation and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    2003-01-01

    Speciation neutron activation analysis (SNAA) is a sophisticated analytical technique which can be developed for studying the simultaneous speciation of a number of elements in a variety of matrices. The advantages of SNAA are demonstrated with typical examples such as (i) arsenic speciation in sea foods and water, and simultaneous speciation of (ii) arsenic, antimony and selenium in water, (iii) chlorine, bromine and iodine in fish, (iv) lanthanides in simulated vitrified waste, and (v) trace elements bound to proteins. (author)

  11. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This document discusses the chemical analysis quality assurance program at the ICPP which involves records management, analytical methods quality control, analysis procedures and training and qualification. Since 1979, the major portion of the quality assurance program has been implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the system are storage, retrieval, and search capabilities over all general request and sample analysis information, automatic method selection for all process streams, automation of all method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at all analysis levels, with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of all process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre- established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of all analysis data plus all statistical testing to the Production Department

  12. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  14. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  15. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  16. Mineralogy and chemical composition and distribution of rare earth elements of clay-rich sediments, Central Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyakairu, G.W.A.

    2001-02-01

    In Uganda, Precambrian rocks are extensively weathered to sediments, which are locally altered to form considerable clay deposits. Clay-rich sediment samples were collected from the Kajjansi, Kitiko, Kitetika, and Ntawo valleys (central Uganda), all of which are currently used for traditional brick, tile, and pottery manufacture. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, and source rocks of these clay-rich sediments is not well understood. A study using modern analytical techniques, such as XRD, to obtain the bulk mineralogical composition, and XRF and INAA analyses for whole rock major and trace element abundances was performed. The results show that the sediments are dominated by kaolinite and quartz, and minor phases include smectite, chlorite, and illite/muscovite. Whole rock chemistry shows that sediment samples rich in SiO2 have low Al, Fe, Sc and Cr contents. The high chemical index of alteration (CIA) values (87 to 96), chemical index of weathering (CIW) values around 98 and low contents of the alkali and alkali earth elements of the clay-rich sediments suggest a relatively more intense weathering source area. The clay-rich sediments as raw materials for industry were classified as silty clays from grain size analysis. The chemical and mineralogical composition results show that, taken as a whole, the clay-rich sediments possess characteristics satisfactory for brick production. The chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns of the clay-rich sediments show LREE enrichments and a negative Eu anomaly. The high chondrite-normalized La/Yb ratios, and Gd/Yb ratios lower than 2.0, confirm that the sediments are enriched in the LREEs. The mineralogical composition, REE contents, and elemental ratios in these sediments suggest a provenance from mainly felsic rocks, with only minor contributions from basic sources. The basic sediments were most likely derived from metasedimentary rocks, such as muscovite-biotite schists, which are characteristic

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses and Micro Elements on Some Physical, Chemical and Crop Parameters of Vigna sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, L.O.S.; Saleh, O.I.; Abdullah, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present work aim to expose Vigna sinensis L. (cowpea) seeds to gamma rays at dose levels 40, 80 and 120 Gy and to spray the growing plants with micro elements; boron (B) and zinc (Zn) after one month of planting; until harvest date, for increasing crop quality and quantity. Some physical parameters, some chemical analysis, the yield and net percentage of the produced crop were evaluated. The result obtained refer that, the 40 Gy dose enhanced most of physical, chemical and yield parameters of cowpea crop. Moreover, the harvested crop was increased and improved in case of those produced from plants sprayed with different concentrations of B or Zn plus 40 Gy dose as compared with the other treatments used followed by the dose of 80 Gy. Meanwhile, the dose of 120 Gy gave the least enhancement on the quality and quantity of the aforementioned treatments in cowpea crop

  18. Dynamics of chemical elements in the fermentation process of ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil has become the largest producer of biomass ethanol derived from sugar cane. The industrial production is based on the fermentation of sugar cane juice by yeast, inside of large volume vats, in a fed-batch process that recycles yeast cells. To study the dynamics of chemical elements in each operating cycle, five stages of the fermentation process were considered: must, yeast suspension, wine, non-yeast wine and yeast cream. For this, a mass balance of the terrigenous elements, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Sc, Sm, and Th, and the sugar cane plant elements, Br, K, Rb, and Zn, were established in fermentation vats of an industrial scale unit, with sampling undertaken during different climatic conditions (dry and rainy periods). A similar distribution of the sugar cane characteristics elements was found for the stages analysed, while for the terrigenous elements a trend of accumulation in the yeast cream was observed. Preferential absorption of Br, K, Rb, and Zn by yeast cells was indicated by the smaller concentrations observed in yeast suspension than in yeast cream. (author)

  19. Finite element stress analysis of brick-mortar masonry under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress analysis of a brick-mortar couplet as a substitute for brick wall structure has been performed by finite element method, and algorithm for determining the element stiffness matrix for a plane stress problem using the displacement approach was developed. The nodal displacements were derived for the stress in each ...

  20. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Chemical analysis of refractories by plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrometry has been, since the last two or three decades, the traditional procedure for the chemical analysis of refractories, due to its high degree of accuracy and speed to produce analytical results. An interesting alternative to X-ray fluorescence is provided by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry technique, for those laboratories where wet chemistry facilities are already available or process control is not required at high speed, or investiment costs have to be low. This paper presents results obtained by plasma spectroscopy for the analysis of silico - aluminous refractories, showing calibration curves, precion and detection limits. Considerations and comparisons with X-ray fluorescence are also made. (author) [pt

  2. Introduction to finite element analysis using MATLAB and Abaqus

    CERN Document Server

    Khennane, Amar

    2013-01-01

    There are some books that target the theory of the finite element, while others focus on the programming side of things. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB(R) and Abaqus accomplishes both. This book teaches the first principles of the finite element method. It presents the theory of the finite element method while maintaining a balance between its mathematical formulation, programming implementation, and application using commercial software. The computer implementation is carried out using MATLAB, while the practical applications are carried out in both MATLAB and Abaqus. MA

  3. Shakedown analysis by finite element incremental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, A.; Kleiber, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is a common occurence in many practical problems that external loads are variable and the exact time-dependent history of loading is unknown. Instead of it load is characterized by a given loading domain: a convex polyhedron in the n-dimensional space of load parameters. The problem is then to check whether a structure shakes down, i.e. responds elastically after a few elasto-plastic cycles, or not to a variable loading as defined above. Such check can be performed by an incremental procedure. One should reproduce incrementally a simple cyclic process which consists of proportional load paths that connect the origin of the load space with the corners of the loading domain. It was proved that if a structure shakes down to such loading history then it is able to adopt itself to an arbitrary load path contained in the loading domain. The main advantage of such approach is the possibility to use existing incremental finite-element computer codes. (orig.)

  4. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis based multi-elemental analysis of high purity gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Gallium is one of the widely used materials in semiconductor and optoelectronics industry. Gallium is used to produce infrared detectors, piezoelectric sensors, high- and low-temperature transistors for space and defense technology. One of the most important requirements for semiconductor materials of gallium compounds is an excessive high purity for layers and films. Information on impurities (type of an impurity, concentration, character of distribution) is important as for better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place in formed semiconductor structures and for the 'know-how' of devices on their basis. The object of this work is to develop radiochemical neutron activation technique for analysis of high purity gallium. Irradiation of 0.1 g of gallium sample in neutron flux of 5·10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 5 hours will result in induced activity of more than 10 8 Bq, due to 72 Ga radionuclide, half-life of which is 14.1 hours. Therefore to perform instrumental NAA of gallium long period (10 day) cooling is required, and high sensitive determination of elements producing short- and long-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 72 Ga. We have studied the behavior of gallium in extraction-chromatographic system 'TBP-HCl'. The experiments have shown that higher factor of distribution (D) and capacity on gallium can be achieved when 'TBP-4M HCl' system is used. However more than 10 trace elements have high D and thus they cannot be separated from 72 Ga. To resolve the problem and increase the number of separated trace elements we have used preliminary satisfaction of chromatographic column with tellurium, which has D higher than the most of elements in 'TBP-4M HCl' system and thus suppresses extraction of elements. Distribution profile of gallium along the column and elution curve of 25 trace elements have been measured. Chemical yields of separated elements measured by using radiotracers are more than 93%. On the basis of the carried out researches

  5. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  6. Rare Earth and other Chemical Elements Accumulation in Vines of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Dias, Maria Isabel; Franco, Dulce

    2017-04-01

    The Fogo Island is the fourth bigger island of the Cape Verde (central Atlantic Ocean). This archipelago is located 570 kilometres off the coast of West Africa, and is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The volcanic soils of the caldera of this island, with an active volcanism during historical times, have been used for viticulture. The study of uptake of chemical elements by vines - absorption and translocation to grapes - grown in soils developed on alkaline pyroclasts is the main goal of this work. The concentrations of 27 chemical elements in bark, leafs and grapes of two vines, as well as in the corresponding soils ( 50). The bioavailable fraction of Cr and As in these soils may be due to the low percentage of iron oxides (particularly in the form of nanoparticles), which play an important role in the retention of these elements. The factors responsible for the phytoavailability of Sb in soils and its uptake by plants it's still poorly known. Although the Sb concentrations in earth's crust are low, higher concentrations of this element in soils may be related with hydrothermal and volcanic processes. Also, the temperature may influence the accumulation of Sb in plants, with an increase of the Sb uptake by plants at higher temperatures, due to an increased desorption rate of Sb from soil particles. Concerning U, its mobility and dispersion in soils is controlled by its oxidation state, its adsorption capacity in clay minerals or iron oxides, and the ability to form more or less soluble complexes. Although U concentrations in these volcanic soils are low, there is a fraction available for absorption and accumulation by grapes. Concerning the rare earth elements (REE), it should be noted that the light REE are not enriched in any part of the vines studied, and only the heavy REE are enriched in grapes (EF = 20-50); this can be explained by the preferential uptake of the heavy REE, after primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds

  7. Optical strain measurements and its finite element analysis of cold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Online video images of square grid were recorded during the deformation ... Finite element software ANSYS has been applied for the analysis of the upset forming process.

  8. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification

  9. Finite element analysis of thermal stress distribution in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 1. Abstract ... Key words: Amalgam, finite element method, glass ionomer cement, resin composite, thermal stress ... applications for force analysis and assessment of different.

  10. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, R.S.; Gonzales, D.; Mniszewski, S.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  11. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.

  12. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel

  13. Multi-element neutron activation analysis and solution of classification problems using multidimensional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, P.A.; Kol'tsov, A.A.; Kulikov, V.D.; Mejer, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis of samples of mountain rocks (sandstones, aleurolites and shales of one of gold deposits) is performed. The spectra of irradiated samples are measured by Ge(Li) detector of the volume of 35 mm 3 . The content of 22 chemical elements is determined in each sample. The results of analysis serve as reliable basis for multi-dimensional statistic information processing, they constitute the basis for the generalized characteristics of rocks which brings about the solution of classification problem for rocks of different deposits

  14. Neutron activation analysis of rare earths and some other elements in material of geochemical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunfelt, A.O.

    1975-01-01

    ngle-element methods for the determination by neutron activation analysis of antimony, chromium, phosphorus, selenium and silver in international geochemical standard rocks, and the determination of rare earth elements i in standard rocks and apatites are described and discussed in twelve previously published papers, and in an eighteen page summary. Chemical separationtechniques are also discussed and the results are compared with previously obtained results with the same standard rocks. The accuracy of neutron activation analysis is discussed in comparison with isotope dilution mass spectroscopy, atomic absorption, gas chromatography and spark source mass spectrometry. (JIW)

  15. Global and local approaches to population analysis: Bonding patterns in superheavy element compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynichenko, Alexander; Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Romanov, Stepan; Skripnikov, Leonid V.; Titov, Anatoly V.

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic effective atomic configurations of superheavy elements Cn, Nh and Fl and their lighter homologues (Hg, Tl and Pb) in their simple compounds with fluorine and oxygen are determined using the analysis of local properties of molecular Kohn-Sham density matrices in the vicinity of heavy nuclei. The difference in populations of atomic spinors with the same orbital angular momentum and different total angular momenta is demonstrated to be essential for understanding the peculiarities of chemical bonding in superheavy element compounds. The results are fully compatible with those obtained by the relativistic iterative version of conventional projection analysis of global density matrices.

  16. Non destructive SXRF analysis of heavy elements in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.T.; Figueiredo, M.O.; Pereira da Silva, T.; Basto, M.J.; Chevallier, P.

    2000-01-01

    Various species incrusting granitic and calcareous rocks were collected at different places covering a large span of atmospheric conditions. They were chemically studied by synchrotron- induced X-ray fluorescence (SXRF), a nondestructive technique of outmost importance in the field, allowing for a future use of the same lichen fragments in further tests. This study proved that lichens - at least the saxicolous species - concentrate heavy elements recognized as strong pollutants, like lead and bromine, irrespective the environmental availability of these elements, either in the atmosphere or in the rock substrate, partially frustrating the use of saxicolous lichens as pollution monitors. (author)

  17. Analysis and design of lumped element Marchand baluns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel design procedure for lumped element Marchand baluns is proposed. An analysis is performed on the balun structure in order to determine the conditions for ideal balun performance in terms of the lumped element values. The analysis is verified by two broadband designs centered...... around 22.75 GHz and differing only in terms of their impedance transformation ratio. EM simulation results on our proposed lumped element Marchand balun structure predicts an insertion loss of 4 dB and return loss of 40 dB at the design frequency of 22.75 GHz. The amplitude and phase imbalance...

  18. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  19. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Çileroğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits

  1. Results of the experiment on chemical identification of Db as a decay product of element 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Utenkov, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the 243 Am( 48 Ca, 3n) 288 115 reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The 243 Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of 3.4 · 10 18 48 Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 . The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50X8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1 M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 μm thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by 3 He neutron counters for measurement of α particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment, we observed 15 spontaneous fission events with T 1/2 = 32 -7 +11 h which we attribute to 268 Db. The production cross section for the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction was 4.2 -1.2 + 1 .6 pb. These results agree with the original element 115 synthesis experiment where 268 Db was first observed as the terminal isotope following the five consecutive α decays from the 288 115 parent nucleus at the Dubna gas-filled separator. The data from the present experiment give independent evidence for the synthesis of element 115 as well as element 113 via the 243 Am + 48 Ca reaction

  2. The General Laws of Chemical Elements Composition Dynamics in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Vyacheslav D.

    2013-04-01

    The key point of investigation of the specificity of the biosphere elemental composition formation is determination of patterns of redistribution of elemental average concentrations among various phases, like solid - liquid ( the lithosphere - the hydrosphere), which occurs as a result of a global continuous processing of inert matter by living substances. Our task here is to investigate this process in the system "lithosphere - hydrosphere" in view of the integrated involvement of living material in it. This process is most active in biogeochemical barriers, i.e. in places of "the life condensation" and runs under a nonlinear regularity that has been unknown before. It is established that this process results in a general relative increase in concentrations of chemical elements in the solid phase in proportion as their prevalence in the environment is reduced. This process running in various natural systems has practically the same parameter of nonlinearity (v) approximately equal to 0.7. For proto-lithosphere -"living material" - soil v = 0.75. For river - "living material" - ocean v = 0.67. For the contemporary factual awareness level these estimations of nonlinearity indices are practically negligible. Hence, it is for the first time that the existence of a universal constant of nonlinearity of elemental composition evolution in the biosphere has been proved and its quantitative evaluation has been made. REFERENCES 1. Korzh V.D. 1974. Some general laws governing the turnover of substance within the ocean-atmosphere-continent-ocean cycle. // Journal de Recherches Atmospheriques. Vol. 8. P. 653-660. 2. Korzh V.D. 2008. The general laws in the formation of the elemental composition of the Hydrosphere and Biosphere.// J. Ecologica, Vol. XV, P. 13-21. 3. Korzh V.D. 2012. Determination of general laws of elemental composition in Hydrosphere // Water: chemistry & ecology, Journal of water science and its practical application. # 1, P.56-62.

  3. Disposal of flow-level radioactive waste in Belgium: A safety analysis for inorganic chemotoxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste often contains large quantities of inorganic chemical substances. Due attention should therefore be given to the safety implications of both the radiological and chemical substances in the waste. Our study develops the safety assessment methodology for surface disposal with emphasis on the potential effects of inorganic nonradiological elements on human health. Contamination of groundwater was considered as the major exposure pathway. The applied methodology first screens all elements on the basis of five criteria. Conservative screening calculations were used to screen out the elements that do not pose danger to humans, and to select those that could have a negative impact and thus require further analysis. The latter was done by first calculating the elemental mass fluxes out of the repository and into the aquifer followed by the calculation of groundwater concentrations. The results showed that on the basis of the screening calculations, 75% of all elements could be classified as non-hazardous. The detailed calculations showed that the majority of the remaining elements had groundwater concentrations below the drinking water or groundwater standards. The results further showed that for a few elements the maximum groundwater concentration was above the standard, but below the background concentrations. (author)

  4. Ion exchange separation of minor elements from iron for the analysis of S/G sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Kyun; Choi, Kwang Soon; Kim, Jong Goo

    2005-01-01

    The chemical data of minor elements in steam generator sludge could give information about the contamination sources such as a system corrosion, an intrusion of chemicals, etc. The major component of sludge is iron. Iron of a high concentration in a measuring solution worsens the determination limit of the minor elements in a spectroscopic atom analysis. Moreover, iron has so many absorption or emission bands in a wide wavelength range that it has a spectroscopic interference on the atomic spectroscopy of various minor elements such as B, Pb, etc. Thus, the quantitative separation of minor elements from the iron matrix is essential for their determination. Gas sublimation, co-precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are used for this separation. Ion exchange chromatography is applied to the separation of specific minor elements. Ion exchange method has an advantage from the point of experimental space, waste production, and number of elements when applyed to radioactive samples. This presentation describes the results of a separation of some minor elements(Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Gd, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr) from synthetic iron samples by anionic and cationic exchange methods for the purpose of analyzing them in the S/G sludge from a power plant

  5. Atom-scale depth localization of biologically important chemical elements in molecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Scoppola, Ernesto; Drnec, Jakub; Mocuta, Cristian; Felici, Roberto; Novikov, Dmitri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean

    2016-08-23

    In nature, biomolecules are often organized as functional thin layers in interfacial architectures, the most prominent examples being biological membranes. Biomolecular layers play also important roles in context with biotechnological surfaces, for instance, when they are the result of adsorption processes. For the understanding of many biological or biotechnologically relevant phenomena, detailed structural insight into the involved biomolecular layers is required. Here, we use standing-wave X-ray fluorescence (SWXF) to localize chemical elements in solid-supported lipid and protein layers with near-Ångstrom precision. The technique complements traditional specular reflectometry experiments that merely yield the layers' global density profiles. While earlier work mostly focused on relatively heavy elements, typically metal ions, we show that it is also possible to determine the position of the comparatively light elements S and P, which are found in the most abundant classes of biomolecules and are therefore particularly important. With that, we overcome the need of artificial heavy atom labels, the main obstacle to a broader application of high-resolution SWXF in the fields of biology and soft matter. This work may thus constitute the basis for the label-free, element-specific structural investigation of complex biomolecular layers and biological surfaces.

  6. A class of chemical pinning centers including two elements foreign to HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad

    2003-01-01

    Very small deposits are formed when two foreign elements, A and B, are added to textured (RE)BCO. These deposits increase the J{sub c} of samples and hence the maximum trapped field. Deposit sizes are generally in the range 200-400 nm. Their chemical composition is (A{sub x},B{sub y})(RE)Ba{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x+y=1 and x=y{+-}0.1. Their structure is double perovskite. The deposits produce two types of pinning, one by refinement (e.g., of the Y211 phase) and the other due to the double perovskite deposits themselves. In those cases tested, the refinement increases J{sub c} by factors exceeding 1.33, and the deposits increase J{sub c} by factors exceeding 2, for a total increase by a factor exceeding 2.66. Element A can be U, W or Mo. Element B can be Pt or Zr. We speculate on possible additional elements in classes A and B.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Circular Plate using SolidWorks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeo Jin; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2011-01-01

    Circular plates are used extensively in mechanical engineering for nuclear reactor internal components. The examples in the reactor vessel internals are upper guide structure support plate, fuel alignment plate, lower support plate etc. To verify the structural integrity of these plates, the finite element analyses are performed, which require the development of the finite element model. Sometimes it is very costly and time consuming to make the model especially for the beginners who start their engineering job for the structural analysis, necessitating a simple method to develop the finite element model for the pursuing structural analysis. Therefore in this study, the input decks are generated for the finite element analysis of a circular plate as shown in Fig. 1, which can be used for the structural analysis such as modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, stress analysis, etc using the commercial program Solid Works. The example problems are solved and the results are included for analysts to perform easily the finite element analysis of the mechanical plate components due to various loadings. The various results presented in this study would be helpful not only for the benchmark calculations and results comparisons but also as a part of the knowledge management for the future generation of young designers, scientists and computer analysts

  8. Method to determine trace elements in water samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, G.; Erdtmann, G.

    1981-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in water by neutron activation analysis irradiation porcedures and chemical separation procedures have been developed. Irradiation in melted quarz glass ampoules in the presence of a platinum wire (for recombination of the oxyhydrogen gas produced by radiolysis) proved successfull with different variants of the irradiation methods, as long irradiation periods without pressure build-up could be achieved. Possible falsifications of the analysis results were investigated in detail (losses by absorption on vessel walls etc.). The irradiated samples can be measured directly with a gamma ray spectrometer and from the radionuclides found the trace element contents may be calculated. More sensitive determinations are possible if the radionuclides are chemically separated. Procedures for removing the matrix activities, for the separation of the radionuclides in groups of elements and for the isolation of single elements have been developed. For especially sensitive determination of some elements selective separation procedures for antimony, cadmium, selenium, mercury and uranium have been developed. The analytical procedures described have been applied to trace element determinations in river water, glacier ice and water solutions from technical processes. (orig./RB) [de

  9. Adaptive Finite Element Method Assisted by Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L.; Vejchodský , Tomá š; Erban, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often analyzed by solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation, which is a drift-diffusion partial differential equation for the probability distribution function. Efficient numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation requires adaptive mesh refinements. In this paper, we present a mesh refinement approach which makes use of a stochastic simulation of the underlying chemical system. By observing the stochastic trajectory for a relatively short amount of time, the areas of the state space with nonnegligible probability density are identified. By refining the finite element mesh in these areas, and coarsening elsewhere, a suitable mesh is constructed and used for the computation of the stationary probability density. Numerical examples demonstrate that the presented method is competitive with existing a posteriori methods. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  10. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.W.; Bacon, M.P.; Sachs, P.L.; Fleer, A.P.; Shafer, D.K.; Belastock, R.A.; Hammer, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range goal of our research is to understand the processes that control the distribution and fate of chemical elements in the ocean, with emphasis on the rates at which the governing processes operate. Such an understanding is essential in predicting the fate of substances such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are released to the environment as a consequence of energy-producing activities. In pursuit of this goal we have, during the present contract period, devoted all of our effort to participation in the Shelf-Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program. Initial results from SEEP-1 are consistent with our hypothesis of enhanced scavenging of reactive chemical substances in upper slope sediments. During the next year we will complete our analytical work for SEEP-1 and carry out quantitative interpretations of our data with mathematical models to assess the importance of boundary uptake in this region of the continental margin. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  11. A mathematical model for chemical reactions with actinide elements in the aqueous nitric acid solution: REACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi

    1990-02-01

    A mathematical model of chemical reactions with actinide elements: REACT code, was developed to simulate change of valency states of U, Pu and Np in the aqueous nitric acid solution. Twenty seven rate equations for the redox reactions involving some reductants, disproportionation reactions, and radiolytic growth and decay reaction of nitrous acid were programmed in the code . Eight numerical solution methods such as Porsing method to solve the rate equations were incorporated parallel as options depending on the characteristics of the reaction systems. The present report gives a description of the REACT code, e.g., chemical reactions and their rate equations, numerical solution methods, and some examples of the calculation results. A manual and a source file of the program was attached to the appendix. (author)

  12. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author) [pt

  13. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  14. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  15. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  16. Correct use of Membrane Elements in Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothman Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of consumer electronic devices such as phones and tablets involves Finite Element Analysis (FEA. Dynamic loading conditions such as device dropping and bending dictate accurate FEA models to reduce design risk in many areas. The solid elements typically used in structural analysis do not have integration points on the surface. The outer surface is of most interest because that is where the cracks start. Analysts employ a post processing trick through using membranes to bring accurate stress/strain results to the surface. This paper explains numerical issues with implementation of membranes and recommends a methodology for accurate structural analysis.

  17. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  18. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  19. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  20. Elements of stochastic calculus and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    2018-01-01

    This book gives a somewhat unconventional introduction to stochastic analysis. Although most of the material covered here has appeared in other places, this book attempts to explain the core ideas on which that material is based. As a consequence, the presentation is more an extended mathematical essay than a ``definition, lemma, theorem'' text. In addition, it includes several topics that are not usually treated elsewhere. For example, Wiener's theory of homogeneous chaos is discussed, Stratovich integration is given a novel development and applied to derive Wong and Zakai's approximation theorem, and examples are given of the application of Malliavin's calculus to partial differential equations. Each chapter concludes with several exercises, some of which are quite challenging. The book is intended for use by advanced graduate students and research mathematicians who may be familiar with many of the topics but want to broaden their understanding of them.

  1. The development of chemical speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Santana, J.L.; Lima, L.; De La Rosa, D.; Melchor, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of many metals species on the environmental, its bioaccumulation, quantification and its effect in human body has been studied by a wide researchers groups in the last two decades. The development of speciation analysis has an vertiginous advance close to the developing of novel analytical techniques. Separation and quantification at low level is a problem that's has been afford by a coupling of high resolution chromatographic techniques like HPLC and HRGC with a specific method of detection (ICP-MS or CV-AAS). This methodological approach make possible the success in chemical speciation nowadays

  2. Laser chemical analysis: the recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchien, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview and describes the principles of the main laser-based techniques for physical and chemical analysis, and of their recent developments. Analytical techniques using laser radiations were actually developed at the end of the 1970's. The recent evolutions concern the 3 principal techniques of laser spectroscopy currently used: Raman, fluorescence (atomic and molecular) and ablation (ICP laser ablation-plasma coupling, optical emission spectroscopy on laser-induced plasma). The description of these different techniques is illustrated with some examples of applications. (J.S.)

  3. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  4. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  5. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  6. Evaluation of chemical elements migration from food packaging plastics into food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Adriana M.; Fulfaro, Roberto; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    This work presents results of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn obtained in the analysis of plastics from food packing materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radiometric method was also applied to evaluate the migration of Co and Sb from the plastic into the food simulant. The possible sources of the toxic elements in plastic materials and the advantages of radiometric method in the migration evaluation are discussed. (author)

  7. Investigation of Chemical and Physical Changes to Bioapatite During Fossilization Using Trace Element Geochemistry, Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Bioapatite in the form of vertebrate bone can be used for a wide variety of paleo-proxies, from determination of ancient diet to the isotopic composition of meteoric water. Bioapatite alteration during diagenesis is a constant barrier to the use of fossil bone as a paleo-proxy. To elucidate the physical and chemical alteration of bone apatite during fossilization, we analyzed an assortment of fossil bones of different ages for trace elements, using LA-ICP-MS, stable isotopes, and reflected IR spectroscopy. One set of fossil bones from the Pleistocene of Idaho show a diffusion recrystallization profile, however, rare earth element (REE) profiles indicate diffusion adsorption. This suggests that REE diffusion is controlled by changing (namely decreasing) boundary conditions (i.e. decreasing concentration of REE in surrounding pore fluids). Reflected IR analysis along this concentration profile reveal that areas high in U have lost type A carbonate from the crystal structure in addition to water and organics. Stable isotopic analysis of carbon and oxygen will determine what, if any, change in the isotopic composition of the carbonate component of apatite has occurred do to the diffusion and recrystallization process. Analysis of much older bone from the Cretaceous of China reveal shallow REE and U concentration profiles and very uniform reflected IR spectra with a significant loss of type A carbonate throughout the entire bone cortex. Analysis of stable isotopes through the bone cortex will be compared to the stable isotopes collected from the Pleistocene of Idaho.

  8. Multi-element analysis of lubricant oil by WDXRF technique using thin-film sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Salvador, V. L. R.; Lopes, C. D.; Sato, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of the chemical elements in matrices like oils or gels represents a challenge for the analytical chemists. The classics methods or instrumental techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) need chemical treatments, mainly sample dissolution and degradation processes. X-ray fluorescence technique allows a direct and multi-element analysis without previous sample treatments. In this work, a sensible method for the determination of elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ba and Pb in lubricating oil is presented. The x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) technique using linear regression method and thin film sample preparation was used. The validation of the methodology (repeatability and accuracy) was obtained by the analysis of the standard reference materials SRM Alpha AESAR lot 703527D, applying the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests. The method presents a relative standard deviation lower than 10% for all the elements, except for Pb determination (RSD Pb 15%). The Z-score values for all the elements were in the range -2 < Z < 2, indicating a very good accuracy.(Full text)

  9. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Baldwin, D.L.; Keough, R.F.; Van der Cook, B.P.

    1985-04-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  10. High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Shiro; Nomachi, Ichiro; Kitajima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10 17 atoms/cm 3 for H, of 3 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for C and of 2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it

  11. High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com; Nomachi, Ichiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan); Kitajima, Hideo [Nanotechnos Corp., 5-4-30 Nishihashimoto, Sagamihara 229-1131 (Japan)

    2006-07-30

    We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 3} for H, of 3 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for C and of 2 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it.

  12. Thermomechanical analysis of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez L, H.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents development of a code to obtain the thermomechanical analysis of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies inserted in the core of BWR reactors. The code uses experimental correlations developed in several laboratories. The development of the code is divided in two parts: a) the thermal part and b) the mechanical part, extending both the fuel and the cladding materials. The thermal part consists of finding the radial distribution of temperatures in the pellet, from the fuel centerline up to the coolant, along the total active length, considering one and two phase flow in the coolant, as a result of the pressure drop in the system. The mechanical part analyzes the effects of temperature gradients, pressure and irradiation, to which the fuel rod is subjected. The strains produced by swelling, creep and thermal stress in the fuel material are analyzed. In the same way the strains in the cladding are analyzed, considering the effects produced by the pressure exerted on the cladding by pellet swelling, by the pressure caused by fission gas release toward the cavities, and by the strain produced on the cladding by the pressure changes of the system. (Author)

  13. Perspectives on clinical possibility: elements of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2016-08-01

    Possibility is one of the most common modalities in reasoning and argumentation. Various kinds of modal concepts have been identified in philosophical and logical discussion of the metaphysics of modality. We focus here on the concept of clinical possibility. A critical analysis of what is intended as clinical possibility has not yet received sufficient examination, although the concept is extensively used in clinical reasoning. We present arguments to emphasize some desirable features associated with the concept of clinical possibility. We argue that almost all clinical possibilities are potentialities, that is, possibilities that may be actualized by effective, appropriate and feasible interventions. However, in some limited cases, even mere possibilities - which may or may not be actualized, since we do not have the required knowledge - may be involved in clinical reasoning, and we present some examples in this paper. We then introduce some basic views on the nature of possibility showing their validity and limitations when applied to the concept of clinical possibility. Lastly, we conjecture that clinical possibility is a normative modality that can be formalized in a multimodal system with epistemic and deontic logical operators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  15. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  16. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions

  18. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  19. A finite-element for the analysis of shell intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koves, W.J.; Nair, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of discontinuity stresses at shell intersections is a problem of great importance in several major industries. Some of the major areas of interest are pressure-containing equipment, such as reactors and piping, in the nuclear and fossil power industry; pressure vessels and heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry; bracing in offshore oil platforms; and aerospace structures. A specialized shell-intersection finite element, which is compatible with adjoining shell elements, has been developed that has the capability of physically representing the complex three-dimensional geometry and stress state at shell intersections. The element geometry is a contoured shape that matches a wide variety of practical nozzle configurations used in ASME Code pressure vessel construction, and allows computational rigor. A closed-form theory of elasticity solution was used to compute the stress state and strain energy in the element. The concept of an energy-equivalent nodal displacement and force vector set was then developed to allow complete compatibility with adjoining shell elements and retain the analytical rigor within the element. This methodology provides a powerful and robust computation scheme that maintains the computational efficiency of shell element solutions. The shell-intersection element was then applied to the cylinder-sphere and cylinder-cylinder intersection problems

  20. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  1. Element analysis of Japanese traditional papers by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yasuda, Keisuke; Tani, Teruhiro

    2000-01-01

    The Japanese papers, 'washi', are made from the bast fibers of the plants. Since washi have the informations of the raw material plants, there is potentiality of the identification of the production place by the element analysis of the washi. Three kinds of washi made of kozo, which have different habitats, were prepared. The elements in their washi were measured by the PIXE. It was confirmed that the amount of elements included in the washi depend on the habitats of their raw material plants. (author)

  2. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de

  4. a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  6. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Physical--chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized for the period April 1, 1977, through March 31, 1978. CfCl 2 , EsCl 2 , EsBr 2 , and EsI 2 were synthesized and characterized spectrophotometrically, as were several mixed-valence lanthanide-actinide halides (e.g., GdCf 4 Cl 11 ) and CmF 4 , CfF 4 , and EsF 3 . All samples not containing einsteinium were also examined by X rays. Studies of the chemical consequences of the radioactive decay series 253 Es alpha decaying to 249 Bk beta decaying to 249 Cf have continued and expanded. Elemental Cm-248 has been prepared on the one-half milligram scale and used to synthesize CmP and CmSb. Single crystals of AmTe 2 and AmSe 2 have been grown from a Te melt and by iodine transport, respectively. Our SQUID magnetometer was tested successfully in a preliminary configuration, and the expected sensitivity of the device was confirmed. A new design for the flux sensing coils was incorporated prior to an apparatus calibration experiment with lead. A porous vitreous carbon material was found to make a useful optically transparent electrode for simultaneous electrochemical and absorption spectroscopic investigations. Cyclic voltammograms of UO 2 2+ were obtained prior to a spectroelectrochemical study of the radiation of UO 2 2+ . The major obstacle in our solution microcalorimetry program was overcome by the realization of a leak-free sample container. Calorimeter performance now warrants experiments with transuranium element samples. The electrochemical reductions of Cf(III) and Es(III) have been studied by polarography and/or cyclic voltammetry. The results suggest that both are reduced to the divalent state before being reduced to the amalgam

  8. Results of the Experiment on Chemical Identification of Db as a Decay Product of Element 115

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Utyonkov, V K; Shishkin, S V; Eremin, A V; Lobanov, Yu V; Tsyganov, Yu S; Chepigin, V I; Sokol, E A; Vostokin, G K; Aksenov, N V; Hussonnois, M; Itkis, M G; Aggeler, H W; Schumann, D; Bruchertseifer, H; Eichler, R; Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the $^{243}{\\text{Am}}(^{48}{\\text{Ca}},3n)^{288}115$ reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The $^{243}$Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of $3.4\\cdot 10^{18}$ $^{48}$Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO$_3$. The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50$\\times$8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 $\\mu$m thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by $^3$He neutron counters for measurement of $\\alpha$ particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment...

  9. Integral finite element analysis of turntable bearing with flexible rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biao; Liu, Yunfei; Guo, Yuan; Tang, Shengjin; Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng; Wang, Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper suggests a method to calculate the internal load distribution and contact stress of the thrust angular contact ball turntable bearing by FEA. The influence of the stiffness of the bearing structure and the plastic deformation of contact area on the internal load distribution and contact stress of the bearing is considered. In this method, the load-deformation relationship of the rolling elements is determined by the finite element contact analysis of a single rolling element and the raceway. Based on this, the nonlinear contact between the rolling elements and the inner and outer ring raceways is same as a nonlinear compression spring and bearing integral finite element analysis model including support structure was established. The effects of structural deformation and plastic deformation on the built-in stress distribution of slewing bearing are investigated on basis of comparing the consequences of load distribution, inner and outer ring stress, contact stress and other finite element analysis results with the traditional bearing theory, which has guiding function for improving the design of slewing bearing.

  10. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit | Binega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common ...

  11. Activation analysis in a multitechnique study of trace element imbalances in age-related neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Ding, X.X.; Khare, S.S.; Lovell, M.A.; Ni, B.F.; Tandon, L.; Vance, D.E.; Wenstrup, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that several age-related neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be related to environmental toxins. Bulk sample multielemental analyses by INAA alone are not adequate to define the role of trace elements in these diseases. A multitechnique approach has been developed that incorporates 14 MeV, instrumental reactor, radiochemical, and pre-irradiation chemical neutron activation analysis, together with laser microprobe mass spectrometry. The analytical scheme is able to provide bulk or protein normalized elemental concentrations, as well as microstructural, cellular, and subcellular localization information. (author) 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Provenance determination of pottery by trace element analysis. Problems, solutions and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Provenance determinations of pottery by chemical analysis is reviewed and shown to work well. Since pottery is produced from a well homogenized clay paste according to a certain recipe, sharp elemental patterns are expected for a series of products having the same origin. To obtain such patterns when forming compositional groups of pottery, a consideration of experimental errors, a correction for dilution and a choice of only stable elements is necessary. The patterns thus obtained will have low probability of overlap with groups of different origin. Examples for well defined groups of German stonewares and of Mycenaean wares from the Peloponnese are recorded. (author)

  13. Some comments on misuse of terms related to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Complet text of publication follows. I have been involved in scientific studies involving chemical analysis for more than 49 years. Over this period I have observed an increasing tendency to incorrect use of terms 'analysis' and 'determination' and the corresponding verbum forms. According to correct terminology in English, samples are analyzed, analytes (e.g., trace elements) are determined. However, too often expressions such as 'analysis of copper in blood' are seen in the literature, especially in papers written by non-chemists. The reason why I am raising this point at the present time in that I observed the problem in several recent titles of papers published over the last few years in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry: Preconcentration and neutron activation analysis of thorium and uranium in natural waters. Use of activated carbon as pre-separation agent in NAA of selenium, cobalt and iodine. Recent developments in the analysis of transuranics (Np, Pu, Am) in sea water. Automated radiochemical analysis of total 99 Tc in aged nuclear waste processing streams. Photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11 C. Preconcentration neutron activation analysis of lanthanides by cloudpoint extraction using PAN. Analysis of the chemical elements in leaves infected by fumagina by X-ray fluorescence technique. Rapid method for 226 Ra and 228 Ra analysis in water samples. The above list is far from exhaustive. I believe that this incorrect use of terminology should be avoided at least in the titles of scientific papers, in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry as well as in other scientific journals. In some of the above cases replacing 'of' with 'for the determination of', or just with 'for', would have solved the problem. In other cases it would be preferable to reverse the order of words in the sentence, such as e.g., 'Determination of selenium, cobalt and

  14. Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively

  15. Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.

  16. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  17. Ring-element analysis of layered orthotropic bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, O.

    1993-01-01

    For the analysis of arbitrarily laminated circular bodies, a displacement-based ring-element is presented. The analysis is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system. The method of analysis requires the boundary conditions as well as the external forces to be pi-periodic. The element formulation...... accounts for a desired degree of approximation of the displacement field in the direction of the circumference. This is done by a truncated Fourier expansion of the angular dependence of the displacements in terms of trigonometric functions. Thus the Fourier expansion coefficients are the unknowns...... to that of solutions obtained by traditional 3D elements. A scheme for analytical integration of the angular dependence of the stiffness matrix is given....

  18. Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments in Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Projects with the objective of introducing Finite Element Analysis (FEA) into the early phases of the design process have previously been carried out at the Department of Machine Design, see e.g. the Doctoral thesis by Burman [13]. These works clearly highlight the usefulness of introducing design analysis early in the design process. According to Bjärnemo and Burman [10] the most significant advantage of applying design analysis early in the design process was the shift from verification to ...

  19. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  20. Effects of chemical elements in the trophic levels of natural salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Piotr; Barczak, Tadeusz; Bennewicz, Janina; Jerzak, Leszek; Bogdzińska, Maria; Aleksandrowicz, Oleg; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Woźniak, Alina

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The

  1. Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastowski, Arci Dirceu; Rosa, Genesio Mario da; Cherubin, Mauricio Roberto; Rigon, Joao Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agroforestry (SAF), T2 - native field (CN), T3 - native forest (NM), T4 - tillage forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - system tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm. (author)

  2. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  3. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  5. Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.

  6. TAPIR, Thermal Analysis of HTGR with Graphite Sleeve Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weicht, U.; Mueller, W.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Thermal analysis of a reactor core containing internally and/or externally gas cooled prismatic fuel elements of various geometries, rating, power distribution, and material properties. 2 - Method of solution: A fuel element in this programme is regarded as a sector of a fuelled annulus with graphite sleeves of any shape on either side and optional annular gaps between fuel and graphite and/or within the graphite. It may have any centre angle and the fuelled annulus may become a solid cylindrical rod. Heat generation in the fuel is assumed to be uniform over the cross section and peripheral heat flux into adjacent sectors is ignored. Fuel elements and coolant channels are treated separately, then linked together to fit a specified pattern. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 50 fuel elements; 50 cooled channels; 25 fuel geometries; 25 coolant channel geometries; 10 axial power distributions; 10 graphite conductivities

  7. Computational Chemical Synthesis Analysis and Pathway Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Feng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the idea of retrosynthetic analysis, which was raised in the 1960s, chemical synthesis analysis and pathway design have been transformed from a complex problem to a regular process of structural simplification. This review aims to summarize the developments of computer-assisted synthetic analysis and design in recent years, and how machine-learning algorithms contributed to them. LHASA system started the pioneering work of designing semi-empirical reaction modes in computers, with its following rule-based and network-searching work not only expanding the databases, but also building new approaches to indicating reaction rules. Programs like ARChem Route Designer replaced hand-coded reaction modes with automatically-extracted rules, and programs like Chematica changed traditional designing into network searching. Afterward, with the help of machine learning, two-step models which combine reaction rules and statistical methods became the main stream. Recently, fully data-driven learning methods using deep neural networks which even do not require any prior knowledge, were applied into this field. Up to now, however, these methods still cannot replace experienced human organic chemists due to their relatively low accuracies. Future new algorithms with the aid of powerful computational hardware will make this topic promising and with good prospects.

  8. Method and multichannel equipment for chemical analysis by X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacso, J.; Horkay, Gy.; Kalinka, G.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kiss Varga, M.; Lakatos, T.; Mathe, Gy.; Paal, A.; Sulik, B.

    1978-01-01

    In the patent a simple method and an apparatus are described for chemical analysis based on X-ray emission generated by irradiation. The concentrations of pre-selected elements can be determined easily by this method using an equipment containing microprocessor. The number of channels and the elements to be determined can be modified by a simple change in the program. (Sz.J.)

  9. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  10. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  11. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Spyrou, N.

    2008-01-01

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  13. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  14. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  15. Chemical analysis of carbonates and carbonate rocks by atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardon, S

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates methods of determining chemical composition of rocks surrounding black coal seams. Carbonate rock samples were collected in the Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Sampling methods are described. Determination of the following elements and compounds in carbonate rocks is discussed: calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, barium, silicon, aluminium, titanium, sodium, potassium, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, water and carbon dioxide. Proportion of compounds insoluble in water in the investigated rocks is also determined. Most of the elements are determined by means of atomic absorption analysis. Phosphorus is also determined by atomic absorption analysis. Other compounds are determined gravimetrically. The described procedure permits weight of a rock sample to be reduced to 0.5 g without reducing analysis accuracy. The results of determining carbonate rock components by X-ray analysis and by chemical analysis are compared. Equipment used for atomic absorption analysis is characterized (the 503 Perkin-Elmer and the CF-4 Optica-Milano spectrophotometers). The analyzed method for determining carbonate rock permits more accurate classification of rocks surrounding coal seams and rock impurities in run-of-mine coal. (22 refs.) (In Czech)

  16. Consideration on thermodynamic data for predicting solubility and chemical species of elements in groundwater. Part 1: Tc, U, Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Takeda, Seiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-01-01

    The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Complexations of radionuclides by ligands in groundwater affect the interaction between radionuclides and geologic media, thus affect their migration behavior. Thermodynamic data for Tc, Am and U were reviewed and compiled to be used for predicting the solubility and chemical species in groundwater. Thermodynamic data were reviewed with emphasis on the hydrolysis and carbonate complexation that can dominate the speciation in typical groundwater. Thermodynamic data for other species were selected based on existing database. Thermodynamic data for other important elements are under investigation, thus shown in an appendix for temporary use. (author)

  17. Consideration on thermodynamic data for predicting solubility and chemical species of elements in groundwater. Part 2: Np, Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji

    2000-11-01

    The solubility determines the release of a radionuclide from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Complexations of the radionuclide by ligands in groundwater affect the interaction between radionuclides and geologic media, thus affect their migration behavior. It is essential to estimate the solubility and to predict the chemical species for the radionuclide based on thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic data of aqueous species and compounds were reviewed and compiled for Np and Pu. Thermodynamic data were reviewed with emphasis on the hydrolysis and carbonate complexation that can dominate the speciation in groundwater. Thermodynamic data for other species were selected based on existing databases. Thermodynamic data for other important elements are under investigation, thus shown in an appendix for temporary use. (author)

  18. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some phytopharmaceutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Harangus, Livia; Gugiu, M; Iordan, Andreea; Ciortea, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of phytopharmaceutic drugs are being developed, due to positive effects in various diseases and to high tolerance by the organism. While their medicinally active compounds have been identified, little attention has been paid to their mineral micro- and trace elements. The mineral elements in the drug may have therapeutic or toxic effects which should be properly assessed. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection and we previously performed nuclear activation analysis of some Romanian drugs made by plants. Despite this method's high sensitivity, its use is limited by the availability of a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) provides an alternative, and here we examined its potential for the analysis of mineral elements in three commercial phytopharmaceutical preparations, namely, Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normally oriented and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer; the drug pills were fixed at 45 angle with respect to the beam. In all drugs PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 16 down to trace levels. Major elements included K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn, and minor/trace amounts of S, Cl, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Hg, and As/Pb were detected. Some differences were seen between the three drugs. Although at trace levels Ga, As, Hg and Pb are not toxic, one should consider that their accumulation might be harmful and caution seems recommendable on long-term cure. Most of the other elements are known to exert a positive biological role, and both in major and trace levels they may contribute to the therapeutic action. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in phytopharmaceutic drugs, even qualitative, is useful for evaluating the benefits and risks in the therapy. (authors)

  19. Finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures - Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This workshop is related to the finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures. It is composed of three sessions. The first session (which title is: the use of finite element analysis in safety assessments) comprises six papers which titles are: Historical Development of Concrete Finite Element Modeling for Safety Evaluation of Accident-Challenged and Aging Concrete Structures; Experience with Finite Element Methods for Safety Assessments in Switzerland; Stress State Analysis of the Ignalina NPP Confinement System; Prestressed Containment: Behaviour when Concrete Cracking is Modelled; Application of FEA for Design and Support of NPP Containment in Russia; Verification Problems of Nuclear Installations Safety Software of Strength Analysis (NISS SA). The second session (title: concrete containment structures under accident loads) comprises seven papers which titles are: Two Application Examples of Concrete Containment Structures under Accident Load Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis; What Kind of Prediction for Leak rates for Nuclear Power Plant Containments in Accidental Conditions; Influence of Different Hypotheses Used in Numerical Models for Concrete At Elevated Temperatures on the Predicted Behaviour of NPP Core Catchers Under Severe Accident Conditions; Observations on the Constitutive Modeling of Concrete Under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperatures; Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage; Program of Containment Concrete Control During Operation for the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant; Static Limit Load of a Deteriorated Hyperbolic Cooling Tower. The third session (concrete structures under extreme environmental load) comprised five papers which titles are: Shear Transfer Mechanism of RC Plates After Cracking; Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland; Seismic Behaviour of Slightly Reinforced Shear Wall Structures; FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete

  20. On the enrichment of low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements by gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, V.D.; Morozov, O.E.; Zaozerskiy, Yu.P.; Shmelev, G.M.; Shipilov, Yu.D.

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the main areas for the application of the isotopes 15 N and 13 C is made. Separation of the nitrogen isotopes in a single gas centrifuge in the form of pure nitrogen, ammonia, and trifluoride of nitrogen as well as the carbon isotopes in the form of carbon dioxide has been studied by means of numerical simulation. The parameters of the centrifugal machine investigated were close to the parameters of the Iguassu machine. The dependence of the efficiency criterion versus the basic parameters of the separation process has been explored in the computational experiments. Comparisons of the calculated results with the experimental data have shown good agreement. The results obtained have demonstrated the possibility of using gas centrifuge technology to enrich successfully the low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements

  1. Transformation processes influencing physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and trace elements in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Riise, G.; Oughton, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides and trace elements introduced to aquatic systems, knowledge on source terms, key factors and key processes influencing the speciation is essential. The mobility, bioavailability and subsequent transfer into food chains depend on the physico-chemical forms on radionuclides and trace metals. In addition, transformation processes and especially the interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) influences the distribution pattern. Furthermore, the prevailing climate conditions, e.g. episodic events and temperature are vital for fluxes and for the kinetics of the transformation processes. In the present work processes in catchments and processes associated with acidification, episodic events, climate conditions (temperature) and mixing zone phenomena influencing the speciation of radionuclides and trace metals are highlighted. These processes should be highly relevant for assessing far field consequences of radionuclides potentially released from disposal sites. (authors). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Analysis of tracer elements in human hair using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jing; Gao Deyu; Zhao Li; Li Hong

    2004-01-01

    Using chemical addition method to calibrate absorption effect, trace element in human hair are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Based on practical samples of human hair, the relative matrix absorption efficienty is determined, and the relation ship between which and the most important componet Ca is fitted. The contents of Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn in the human hair are analyzed using the calibrated constants. A group of standard human hair samples are analyzed and the results are compared with the recommended value of the National Standard. The measured values show a good coincidence with the recommended values. Comparing to the GB, the deviations are Ca 0.28%, Fe 0.99%, Cu 2.6%, Zn 0; the relative errors are Ca 2.2%, Fe 1.7%, Cu 2.2%, Zn 1.1%, and the sensitivity is ≤2.2%. This method may be used to determine the tracing elements in human hair. (authors)

  3. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  4. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  5. Adaptive finite-element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamouz, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive finite-element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current (HVDC) transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch's assumption. A new iterative finite-element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity. Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built. It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis

  6. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  7. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  8. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu

    2017-01-01

    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  9. Contribution to the analysis of light elements using x fluorescence excited by radio-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, A.

    1964-01-01

    In order to study the possibilities of using radioactive sources for the X-fluorescence analysis of light elements, the principle is given, after a brief description of X-fluorescence, of the excitation of this phenomenon by X, β and α emission from radio-elements. The operation and use of the proportional gas counter for X-ray detection is described. A device has been studied for analysing the elements of the 2. and 3. periods of the Mendeleev table. It makes it possible to excite the fluorescence with a radioactive source emitting X-rays or a particles; the X-ray fluorescence penetrates into a window-less proportional counter, this being made possible by the use of an auxiliary electric field in the neighbourhood of the sample. The gas detection pressure leading to the maximum detection yield is given. The spectra are given for the K α lines of 3. period elements excited by 55 Fe, 3 H/Zr and 210 Po sources; for the 2. period the K α spectra of carbon and of fluorine excited by the α particles of 210 Po. (author) [fr

  10. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  11. Determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite samples, by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing activation analysis with thermal neutron was developed for the determination of minor and trace elements in magnesite samples from the states of Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. A qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. The experimental part includes a non-destructive analysis of manganese and analysis with chemical separation of the other elements, individually or in groups, after sample dissolution, The dissolutions were made with concentrated HCl and the further separations were carried out in 8 N HCl medium. Iron was separated by means of an extraction of HFeCl 4 with isopropyl ether. Scandium and calcium were determined by retention of scandium with di-(2-ehylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The activities of 46 Sc and 47 Sc (a 47 Ca descendant) were employed for the analysis of scandium and calcium in the sample. In the effluent of the kieselguhr column copper and cobalt were determined, after retention in an anionic resin of the CuCl - 3 and CoCl - 3 complexes. Finally, in the effluent of the resin, the lanthanide group was separated by oxalate precipitation. In the gamma-ray spectrum of this precipitate the elements europium, cerium, samarium and lanthanum were determined. A detailed study of the possible interferences in the neutron activation analysis of the elements analysed was also made. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Electronic Structure and Chemical Bond of Ti3SiC2 and Adding Al Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Xinmin; LU Ning; MEI Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    The relation among electronic structure, chemical bond and property of Ti3SiC2 and Al-doped was studied by density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method. When Al element is added into Ti3SiC2, there is a less difference of ionic bond, which does not play a leading role to influent the properties. After adding Al, the covalent bond of Al and the near Ti becomes somewhat weaker, but the covalent bond of Al and the Si in the same layer is obviously stronger than that of Si and Si before adding. Therefore, in preparation of Ti3SiC2, adding a proper quantity of Al can promote the formation of Ti3SiC2. The density of state shows that there is a mixed conductor character in both of Ti3SiC2 and adding Al element. Ti3SiC2 is with more tendencies to form a semiconductor. The total density of state near Fermi lever after adding Al is larger than that before adding, so the electric conductivity may increase after adding Al.

  13. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k 0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.; Ventura, M.G.; Dionisio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Evora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k 0 -INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements-namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine-could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Evora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars

  14. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  15. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  16. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  17. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Christopher M.; Nascarella, Marc A.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  18. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  19. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  20. Neutron activation analysis as an element of sculpture provenance establishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.; Nalepa, B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation was carried out on the subject named ''Madonna Jackowa'' (XV cent.). The investigation object was to answer whether ''Madonna Jackowa'' was made of a native alabaster. Alabaster derived from five carious mines situated at the Cracow - Lvov line and ''Madonna Jackowa'' were analysed and the trace elements contents were compared. Instrumental neutron activation method was used for analysis of the trace. (author)

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  2. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  3. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  4. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...

  5. GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations

  6. Chemical Hand Warmer Packet Ingestion: A Case of Elemental Iron Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Jessica L; Sherrow, Leighanne K; Jayant, Deepak A; Katz, Kenneth D

    2017-09-01

    For individuals who work outdoors in the winter or play winter sports, chemical hand warmers are becoming increasingly more commonplace because of their convenience and effectiveness. A 32-year-old woman with a history of chronic pain and bipolar disorder presented to the emergency department complaining of a "warm sensation" in her mouth and epigastrium after reportedly ingesting the partial contents of a chemical hand warmer packet containing between 5 and 8 g of elemental iron. She had been complaining of abdominal pain for approximately 1 month and was prescribed unknown antibiotics the previous day. The patient denied ingestion of any other product or medication other than what was prescribed. A serum iron level obtained approximately 6 hours after ingestion measured 235 micrograms/dL (reference range 40-180 micrograms/dL). As the patient demonstrated no new abdominal complaints and no evidence of systemic iron toxicity, she was discharged uneventfully after education. However, the potential for significant iron toxicity exists depending on the extent of exposure to this or similar products. Treatment for severe iron toxicity may include fluid resuscitation, whole bowel irrigation, and iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Physicians should become aware of the toxicity associated with ingestion of commercially available hand warmers. Consultation with a medical toxicologist is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stand-Off Chemical Detection Using Photoacoustic Sensing Techniques—From Single Element to Phase Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that can detect harmful chemicals, such as explosive devices, harmful gas leaks, airborne chemicals or/and biological agents, are heavily invested in by the government to prevent any possible catastrophic consequences. Some key features of such technology are, but not limited to, effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the detected signal and extended distance between the detector and target. In this work, we describe the development of photoacoustic sensing techniques from simple to more complex systems. These techniques include passive and active noise filters, parabolic sound reflectors, a lock-in amplifier, and beam-forming with an array of microphones; using these techniques, we increased detection distance from a few cm in an indoor setting to over 41 feet in an outdoor setting. We also establish a theoretical mathematical model that explains the underlying principle of how SNR can be improved with an increasing number of microphone elements in the phase array. We validate this model with computational simulations as well as experimental results.

  8. Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.

  9. Biological reference materials and analysis of toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R; Sukumar, A

    1988-12-01

    Biological monitoring of toxic metal pollution in the environment requires quality control analysis with use of standard reference materials. A variety of biological tissues are increasingly used for analysis of element bioaccumulation, but the available Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are insufficient. An attempt is made to review the studies made using biological reference materials for animal and human tissues. The need to have inter-laboratory studies and CRM in the field of biological monitoring of toxic metals is also discussed.

  10. Study on the dynamics of halogen elements in the agro-environment and these element`s deficiency, toxicity and environmental hazards by the application of the neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuita, Kouichi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is an accurate and highly sensitive method for analyzing halogen elements (iodine, bromine and chlorine) except fluorine. It is unsubstitutable and valuable method especially for iodine (including radioactive {sup 129}I) and bromine which are present at lower levels. Halogen elements have high chemical and physiological activities and move widely in the environment. As a result, deficiency and an excess of halogen elements in plants and animals have occurred and artificial halogen compounds have caused environmental pollution in wide areas. We efficiently utilized the neutron activation analysis method and an activable tracer method to obtain valuable findings which contribute to the clarification of and measures against these actual problems and which are also concerned with the occurrence, distribution and migration of halogen elements in the environment, especially agricultural and forestry ecosystems in space and in time. (author)

  11. Piezoelectric Analysis of Saw Sensor Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír KUTIŠ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution modeling and simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW sensor using finite element method will be presented. SAW sensor is made from piezoelectric GaN layer and SiC substrate. Two different analysis types are investigated - modal and transient. Both analyses are only 2D. The goal of modal analysis, is to determine the eigenfrequency of SAW, which is used in following transient analysis. In transient analysis, wave propagation in SAW sensor is investigated. Both analyses were performed using FEM code ANSYS.

  12. Solubilization of advanced ceramic materials controlled by chemical analysis by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarante Junior, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper purpose is to show the techniques used in chemical analysis laboratory at Escola SENAI Mario Amato in the ceramic nucleus for opening and solubilization of Advanced Ceramic materials, where the elements in its majority are determined for atomic absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  13. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  14. Mechanical properties investigation on single-wall ZrO2 nanotubes: A finite element method with equivalent Poisson's ratio for chemical bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Li, Huijian; Hu, Minzheng; Liu, Zeliang; Wärnå, John; Cao, Yuying; Ahuja, Rajeev; Luo, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A method to obtain the equivalent Poisson's ratio in chemical bonds as classical beams with finite element method was proposed from experimental data. The UFF (Universal Force Field) method was employed to calculate the elastic force constants of Zrsbnd O bonds. By applying the equivalent Poisson's ratio, the mechanical properties of single-wall ZrNTs (ZrO2 nanotubes) were investigated by finite element analysis. The nanotubes' Young's modulus (Y), Poisson's ratio (ν) of ZrNTs as function of diameters, length and chirality have been discussed, respectively. We found that the Young's modulus of single-wall ZrNTs is calculated to be between 350 and 420 GPa.

  15. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  16. Analytical and statistical analysis of elemental composition of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo, S.; Baccala, N.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.A.; Riberio Guevara, S.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental composition of lichens from remote southern South America regions has been studied with analytical and statistical techniques to determine if the values obtained reflect species, growth forms or habitat characteristics. The enrichment factors are calculated discriminated by species and collection site and compared with data available in the literature. The elemental concentrations are standardized and compared for different species. The information was statistically processed, a cluster analysis was performed using the three first principal axes of the PCA; the three groups formed are presented. Their relationship with the species, collection sites and the lichen growth forms are interpreted. (author)

  17. Finite elements for non-linear analysis of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, A.C.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1982-01-01

    The application of a three-dimensional lagrangian formulation for the great dislocations analysis and great rotation of pipelines systems is studied. This formulation is derived from the soil mechanics and take into account the shear stress effects. Two finite element models are implemented. The first, of right axis, uses as interpolation functions the conventional gantry functions, defined in relation to mobile coordinates. The second, of curve axis and variable cross sections, is obtained from the degeneration of the three-dimensional isoparametric element, and uses as interpolation functions third degree polynomials. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  19. Analysis of Piezoelectric Solids using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammed; Nagarajan, Praveen; Remanan, Mini

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are extensively used in smart structures as sensors and actuators. In this paper, static analysis of three piezoelectric solids is done using general-purpose finite element software, Abaqus. The simulation results from Abaqus are compared with the results obtained using numerical methods like Boundary Element Method (BEM) and meshless point collocation method (PCM). The BEM and PCM are cumbersome for complex shape and complicated boundary conditions. This paper shows that the software Abaqus can be used to solve the governing equations of piezoelectric solids in a much simpler and faster way than the BEM and PCM.

  20. Stress analysis of heated concrete using finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Gupta, A.; Marchertas, A.

    1994-01-01

    Described is a finite element analysis of concrete, which is subjected to rapid heating. Using thermal mass transport calculation, the moisture content, temperature and pore pressure distribution over space and time is obtained first. From these effects, stress at various points of the concrete are computed using the finite element method. Contribution to the stress formulation comes from three components, namely the thermal expansion, pore pressure, and the shrinkage of concrete due to moisture loss (from dehydration). The material properties of concrete are assumed to be homogeneous, elastic, and cracking is not taken into consideration. (orig.)

  1. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  2. Elemental analysis of Oum er Rbia Moroccan river-water using TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; El Hamdaoui, A.; Labraimi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The x-ray fluorescence analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 17 elements has been performed utilizing the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and total reflection excitation. SPM samples were dissolved in nitric acid. For all samples direct measurements are feasible by spiking a few ml of the sample with Ga as internal standard element, and drying an aliquot of 20 μl on a quartz glass carrier. The detection limits of 10 to 20 ppb are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for accuracy by the analysis of the 15474 ICP multi-elemental standard I. Some results were also compared with AAS and ICP-AES. The results for most of the elements obtained by TXRF were accurate to about 2-15 %. The objectives of the analysis were to determine the geo-chemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanism of sediment transport and to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 36 samples had been collected along the river between its source in Middle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. (author)

  3. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2010-01-01

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  4. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Chi, K.Y.; Choi, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl - on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl - and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  5. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  6. Chemical Elements in Mulch and Litterfall of Beech Ecosystems and Their Total Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana I. Lyubenovа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The beech communities on the territory of Bulgaria had been objects of regional, local as well as large scale national investigations aiming their classification, determination of their ecological characteristics, conservation status, habitats etc. They are included as objects of the intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria also. The investigations of chemical content of the litter – fall in these forests were conducted until now. The novelty of the present research is investigation of these elements in the mulch and the ratio between the established quantities calculation. The main goal is the biological turnover special features characterization of the investigated elements which give us a chance to define the investigated ecosystems state and functioning. The indexes as litter – mulch and acropetal coefficients were used for this aim. The content of macroelements as N, Ca and K and microelements as Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in soils, mulch and in different litter fall fractions have been calculated. The investigation was carried out on three sample plots. During the investigation was established that the soils are characterized with acid reaction, high content of Fe, N and Mn and low content of Ca and K. The concentration of Zn and Pb are high also. The calculated average store of investigated elements in litter – fall is 81.312 kg.ha1 and in the mulch 314 kg.ha1. According to the acropetal coefficient N is accumulated mainly in the acorns, K – in the annual phytomass fractions and Ca – in the perennial fractions. The leaves and the acorns fraction accumulate Mn, and cupolas Fe. The litter – mulch coefficient vary from 1,6 (Mn to 4,2 (Pb. The tendencies of Zn and Ca turnovers acceleration are discovered, while the turnover of more investigated elements is inhibited. The litter – mulch coefficient for Zn and Ca is 0,8 and 1,4 accordingly, i.е. corresponding to the intensive type of turnovers which is not typical for the

  7. Chemical speciation of trace transition elements and iodine in freshwater at Rokkasho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of radioactive and related materials, such as lanthanide, actinide and transition metals in environmental samples, were developed to elucidate behavior of radioactive materials in the environment. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) was combined with a high-performance liquid chromatographer with a size exclusion (SEC) column or capillary electrophoresis apparatus (CE). Analytical methods using SEC-ICP-MS and CE-ICP-MS were developed for speciation of transition elements and iodine in environmental water samples in fiscal year 2004. The methods were applied to freshwater samples in Rokkasho; the results are reported here. Freshwater samples were collected from two lakes and three rivers surrounding the large-scale spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho. After samples were filtered with a membrane filter with 0.45 μm of pore size, large organic molecules were concentrated 200 times using an ultrafilter with a 10 kDa cutoff size. The concentrated solution was used for molecular size analyses using the SEC-ICP-MS technique. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks of UV absorptions and concentrations of all transition elements analyzed: 30 kDa and >700 kDa peaks. Ratios of the transition element concentration in 30 kDa peak to that in both peaks varied greatly depending on the element and season of sample collection. Two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , were determined separately using the CE-ICP-MS system with a standard capillary column (150 μm inner φ, 75 cm length) with 30 kV as the extraction voltage. Buffer solution of 5 mM TRIS-HNO 3 (pH 3.0) was used for mobile phase. The method was applied to lake and river water samples collected at Rokkasho. Results indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi-ko in the Juni

  8. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  9. The role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds used in balneology: data from double-blind randomized clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morer, Carla; Roques, Christian-François; Françon, Alain; Forestier, Romain; Maraver, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic literature review on balneotherapy about the specific therapeutic role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds of mineral waters and derivate peloids/muds and to discuss the study methods used to evaluate it (in musculoskeletal conditions). We searched Medline by PubMed using the following key words: "spa therapy" "balneotherapy" "mud" "peloid" "mud pack Therapy" in combination with "randomized controlled trial" "double blind trial." We also reviewed the reference list of articles retrieved by the Medline search. We selected the double-blind randomized clinical trials that assessed the effects of mineral water or mud treatments compared to tap water, attenuated peloid/mud therapy or similar treatments without the specific minerals or chemical compounds of the treatment group ("non-mineral"). We evaluated the internal validity and the quality of the statistical analysis of these trials. The final selection comprised 27 double-blind randomized clinical trials, 20 related to rheumatology. A total of 1118 patients with rheumatological and other musculoskeletal diseases were evaluated in these studies: 552 of knee osteoarthritis, 47 of hand osteoarthritis, 147 chronic low back pain, 308 of reumathoid arthritis, and 64 of osteoporosis; 293 of these participants were assigned to the experimental groups of knee osteoarthritis, 24 in hand osteoarthritis, 82 of low back pain, 152 with reumathoid arthritis, and 32 with osteoporosis. They were treated with mineral water baths and/or mud/peloid (with or without other forms of treatment, like physical therapy, exercise…). The rest were allocated to the control groups; they received mainly tap water and/or "non-mineral" mud/peloid treatments. Mineral water or mud treatments had better and longer improvements in pain, function, quality of life, clinical parameters, and others in some rheumatologic diseases (knee and hand osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain

  10. Contents of chemical elements in tissues of European badger (Meles meles affected by ovarian tumour – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Bukovjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentrations of chemical elements in animal tissues may be associated with tumours and may explain cancerogenity. In this study, selected chemical elements were measured in the liver, kidneys, muscles and tissues affected by tumour in a dead female European badger (Meles meles with a metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for the assessment of concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. AMA 254 analyser was used for the assessment of mercury concentration. Concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and total Hg amounted to 0.031, 0.16, 7.74, 44.54, 0.67, 0.67, and 0.36 mg·kg-1 in the tumour tissue. This is the first detection of ovarian tumour in a European badger (Meles meles which was systematically examined for the presence of chemical elements.

  11. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  12. OXYGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios KOSMARAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Arlt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storages and heat pump units represent an important part of high efficient renewable energy systems. By using thermally driven, reversible chemical reactions a combination of thermal energy storage and heat pump can be realized. The influences of thermophysical properties of the involved components on the efficiency of a heat pump cycle is analysed and the relevance of the thermodynamic driving force is worked out. In general, the behaviour of energetic and exergetic efficiency is contrary. In a real cycle, higher enthalpies of reaction decrease the energetic efficiency but increase the exergetic efficiency. Higher enthalpies of reaction allow for lower offsets from equilibrium state for a default thermodynamic driving force of the reaction. - Highlights: • A comprehensive efficiency analysis of gas-solid heat pumps is proposed. • Link between thermodynamic driving force and equilibrium drop is shown. • Calculation of the equilibrium drop based on thermochemical properties. • Reaction equilibria of the decomposition reaction of salt hydrates. • Contrary behavior of energetic and exergetic efficiency

  14. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  15. Probabilistic finite elements for fracture and fatigue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lawrence, M.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The fusion of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) and reliability analysis for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is presented. A comprehensive method for determining the probability of fatigue failure for curved crack growth was developed. The criterion for failure or performance function is stated as: the fatigue life of a component must exceed the service life of the component; otherwise failure will occur. An enriched element that has the near-crack-tip singular strain field embedded in the element is used to formulate the equilibrium equation and solve for the stress intensity factors at the crack-tip. Performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a classical mode 1 fatigue problem.

  16. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  17. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations of the interaction between radioactive elements and imidazolium based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V. Sai; Abishek, B.; Anantharaj, R.

    2018-04-01

    The fundamental natures of the molecular level interaction and charge transfer between specific radioactive elements and ionic liquids of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([BMIM]+[NTf2]-), 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([BMIM]+[ES]-) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]+[BF4]-) were investigated utilising HF theory and B3LYP hybrid DFT. The ambiguity in reaction mechanism of the interacting species dictates to employ Effective Core Potential (ECP) basis sets such as UGBS, SDD, and SDDAll to account for the relativistic effects of deep core electrons in the system involving potential, heavy and hazardous radioactive elements present in nuclear waste. The SCF energy convergence of each system validates the characterisation of the molecular orbitals as a linear combination of atomic orbitals utilising fixed MO coefficients and the optimized geometry of each system is visualised based on which Mulliken partial charge analysis is carried out to account for the polarising behaviour of the radioactive element and charge transfer between the IL phase by comparison with the bare IL species.

  18. Distribution of 35 Elements in Peat Cores from Ombrotrophic Bogs Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2004-01-01

    In ombrotrophic bogs the surface peat layer is supplied with chemical substances only from the atmosphere. Peat cores from these bogs therefore can be used to study temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. In this work epithermal neutron activation analysis was applied for the first time to study the distribution of 35 elements in peat profiles from ombrotrophic bogs. The selected examples were from Finnmark county in northern Norway: one pristine site far from any local pollution source, and another strongly affected by long-term operation of Russian copper-nickel smelters located close to the border. The elements are classified with respect to their behavior in the uppermost 40 cm of the peat, and similarities and differences between the two profiles are discussed. As compared with other more commonly used analytical techniques based on acid decomposition of the sample ENAA has the advantage of providing the total concentrations of the elements.

  19. Elemental concentration and chemical parameters of drinking water of Patiala City, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Singh, B.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence techniques have been used to determine 28 major and trace element concentrations in drinking water. Conductivity, pH, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides and sulphates were also measured. The majority of the concentrations are well below the ISI/WHO recommended values. However cadmium, mercury, total dissolved solids (TDS) conductivity and alkalinity were found to be higher in about half the cases compared to ISI/WHO recommended values, whereas sodium was found to be higher in almost all the cases. A linear relationship was observed between TDS and conductivity. (author)

  20. Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.