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Sample records for element-free coprecipitation cefc

  1. Application of Carrier Element-Free Co-precipitation Method for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Ions Determination in Water Samples Using Chrysin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layth Imad Abd Ali; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Azli Sulaiman; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2015-01-01

    A co-precipitation method was developed to separate and pre-concentrate Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions using an organic co precipitant, chrysin without adding any carrier element termed as carrier element-free co-precipitation (CEFC). Analytes were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influence of analytical conditions, such as pH of the solution, quantity of co-precipitant, standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume, and interference of concomitant ions were investigated over the recovery yields of the trace metals. The limit of detection, the limit of quantification and linearity range obtained from the FAAS measurements were found to be in the range of 0.64 to 0.86 μg L -1 , 2.13 to 2.86 μg L -1 and 0.9972 to 0.9989 for Ni(II), Cu(III) and Zn(II) ions, respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained after analyzing a series of 10 replicates, was between 2.6 % to 3.9 % for the trace metal ions. The proposed procedure was applied and validated by analyzing river water reference material for trace metals (SLRS-5) and spiking trace metal ions in some water samples. The recoveries of the analyte metal ions were between 94.7-101.2 %. (author)

  2. Continuum damage growth analysis using element free Galerkin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an elasto-plastic element free Galerkin formulation based on Newton–Raphson algorithm for damage growth analysis. Isotropic ductile damage evolution law is used. A study has been carried out in this paper using the proposed element free Galerkin method to understand the effect of initial damage ...

  3. Continuum damage growth analysis using element free Galerkin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using the proposed element free Galerkin method to understand the effect of initial damage and its growth on structural ... Effect of material discontinuity on damage growth analysis is also presented. Keywords. Damage ... 1996), Lagrange multiplier technique (Dolbow & Belytschko 1998), penalty method (Liu. 2002), full ...

  4. Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Kwon [US Naval Postgraduate School, New York (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented.

  5. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Selangor, Bestari Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  6. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  7. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  8. Hexaferrite particles by coprecipitation and lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, A.; Tijero, E.; Martínez, B.; Piñol, S.; Sandiumenge, F.; Obradors, X.

    1999-05-01

    Fine strontium hexaferrite particles were prepared by lyophilization (known as freeze-drying) and coprecipitation of nitrates and chloride salts, respectively. The resulting powders were calcined at different temperatures between 700°C and 1100°C. As concluded from the measured hysteresis loops at 300 K, the freeze-dried hexaferrite showed good magnetic characteristics, the coercivity being as high as 5690 Oe. However, coprecipitated hexaferrite displayed poor coercivity values, around 1300 Oe at best.

  9. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors with different Yb3+ doping concentration have been prepared by coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the properties of ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors. Different phases of ZrO2 can be ...

  10. Enriched Element-Free Galerkin Method for Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wei Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using the enriched element-free Galerkin method (EEFGM to model functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs with cracks was presented. To improve the solution accuracy, extended terms were introduced into the approximation function of the conventional element-free Galerkin method (EFGM to describe the displacement and electric fields near the crack. Compared with the conventional EFGM, the new approach requires smaller domain to describe the crack-tip singular field. Additionally, the domain of the nodes was not affected by the crack. Therefore, the visibility method and the diffraction method were no longer needed. The mechanical response of FGPM was discussed, when its material parameters changed exponentially in a certain direction. The modified J-integrals for FGPM were deduced, whose results were compared with the results of the conventional EFGM and the analytical solution. Numerical example results illustrated that this method is feasible and precise.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Stokes Flow in a Circular Cavity by Variational Multiscale Element Free Galerkin Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The variational multiscale element free Galerkin method is extended to simulate the Stokes flow problems in a circular cavity as an irregular geometry. The method is combined with Hughes’s variational multiscale formulation and element free Galerkin method; thus it inherits the advantages of variational multiscale and meshless methods. Meanwhile, a simple technique is adopted to impose the essential boundary conditions which makes it easy to solve problems with complex area. Finally, two examples are solved and good results are obtained as compared with solutions of analytical and numerical methods, which demonstrates that the proposed method is an attractive approach for solving incompressible fluid flow problems in terms of accuracy and stability, even for complex irregular boundaries.

  12. Coprecipitation of Arsenate and Arsenite with Green Rust Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extent and nature of arsenic co-precipitation with green rusts and to examine the influence of arsenic incorporation on the mineralogy of formed solid phases. Stoichiometric green rusts were obtained by coprecipitation of fe...

  13. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  14. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Imposition of Dirichlet Boundary Conditions in Element Free Galerkin Method through an Object-Oriented Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hosseini

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main drawbacks of Element Free Galerkin (EFG method is its dependence on moving least square shape functions which don’t satisfy the Kronecker Delta property, so in this method it’s not possible to apply Dirichlet boundary conditions directly. The aim of the present paper is to discuss different aspects of three widely used methods of applying Dirichlet boundary conditions in EFG method, called Lagrange multipliers, penalty method, and coupling with finite element method. Numerical simulations are presented to compare the results of these methods form the perspective of accuracy, convergence and computational expense. These methods have been implemented in an object oriented programing environment, called INSANE, and the results are presented and compared with the analytical solutions.

  16. An element-free Galerkin (EFG) method for generalized Fisher equations (GFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ting-Yu; Ge Hong-Xia; Cheng Rong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A generalized Fisher equation (GFE) relates the time derivative of the average of the intrinsic rate of growth to its variance. The exact mathematical result of the GFE has been widely used in population dynamics and genetics, where it originated. Many researchers have studied the numerical solutions of the GFE, up to now. In this paper, we introduce an element-free Galerkin (EFG) method based on the moving least-square approximation to approximate positive solutions of the GFE from population dynamics. Compared with other numerical methods, the EFG method for the GFE needs only scattered nodes instead of meshing the domain of the problem. The Galerkin weak form is used to obtain the discrete equations, and the essential boundary conditions are enforced by the penalty method. In comparison with the traditional method, numerical solutions show that the new method has higher accuracy and better convergence. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method

  17. Hydrothermal treatment of coprecipitated YSZ powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo; Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia stabilized with 8.5 mol% yttria (YSZ) were synthesized by coprecipitation and resulting gels were hydrothermally treated at 200°C and 220 PSI for 4, 8 and 16 hours. Products were oven dried at 70°C for 24 hours, uniaxially pressed as pellets and sintered at 1500 °C for 1 hour. Powders were characterized for surface area with N 2 gas adsorption, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction granulometric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Density of ceramics was measured by an immersion method based on the Archimedes principle. Results showed that powders dried at 70°C are amorphous and after treatment has tetragonal/cubic symmetry. Surface area of powders presented a significant reduction after hydrothermal treatment. Ceramics prepared from hydrothermally treated powders have higher green density but sintered pellets are less dense when compared to that made with powders calcined at 800°C for 1 hour due to the agglomerate state of powders. Solvothermal treatment is a promising procedure to enhance density. (author)

  18. Coprecipitated nickel-alumina methanation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruissink, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years there has been a renewed interest in the methanation reaction CO+3H 2 =CH 4 +H 2 O. The investigations described in this thesis were performed in relation to the application of this reaction, within the framework of the so-called 'NFE' project, also called 'ADAM' and 'EVA' project. This project, which has been under investigation in West Germany for some years, aims at the investigation of the feasibility of transporting heat from a nuclear high temperature reactor by means of a chemical cycle. A promising possibility to realize such a cycle exists in applying the combination of the endothermic steam reforming of methane and the exothermic methanation reaction. This thesis describes the investigations into a certain type of methanation catalyst, viz. a coprecipitated nickel-alumina catalyst, with the aim to give more insight into the interrelationship between the preparation conditions on the one hand and catalyst properties such as activity and stability on the other hand. (Auth.)

  19. The coprecipitation of strontium with hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu

    1975-01-01

    The distribution behavior of the strontium ion between hydroxyapatite and the parent solution was investigated. The hydroxyapatite was formed by the extremely slow addition of diammonium hydrogenphosphate to solutions of calcium and strontium nitrate buffered with ethylenediamine at 80 0 C. The precipitate yielded a typical X-ray diffraction pattern of hydroxyapatite and had a composition in which the Ca/P molar ratio was 1.67 at pH 6.80. The strontium ion was coprecipitated in the apatite, obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithnmic distribution law. The distribution coefficient was scarcely affected by the strontium concentration on the pH value in the parent solution, and had a value of 0.26+-0.02 at 80 0 C. On the other hand, the apparent distribution coefficient was a little affected by such organic anions as acetate, citrate, lactate, glycinate, and glutamate ions. The lattice constants of the precipitates prepared in the research were measured in order to confirm the formation of the solid solutions. (auth.)

  20. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the suspending properties of the co-precipitate from Irvingia gabonensis gum variety Excelsa (Fam: Irvingiaceae) and gelatin. Methods: The gum from Irvingia gabonensis was extracted and co-precipitated with gelatin in gum/gelatin ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:0 and 0:1. The suspending ability of the ...

  1. The dimension split element-free Galerkin method for three-dimensional potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z. J.; Cheng, H.; Ma, L. D.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the dimension split element-free Galerkin (DSEFG) method for three-dimensional potential problems, and the corresponding formulae are obtained. The main idea of the DSEFG method is that a three-dimensional potential problem can be transformed into a series of two-dimensional problems. For these two-dimensional problems, the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation is applied to construct the shape function, which uses an orthogonal function system with a weight function as the basis functions. The Galerkin weak form is applied to obtain a discretized system equation, and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary condition. The finite difference method is selected in the splitting direction. For the purposes of demonstration, some selected numerical examples are solved using the DSEFG method. The convergence study and error analysis of the DSEFG method are presented. The numerical examples show that the DSEFG method has greater computational precision and computational efficiency than the IEFG method.

  2. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  3. Sorption mechanisms of chromate with coprecipitated ferrihydrite in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al, E-mail: mamun@toki.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Morita, Masao, E-mail: masao.swimer@akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Matsuoka, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-matsuoka@aoni.waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tokoro, Chiharu, E-mail: tokoro@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Coprecipitation showed twice the sorption density of simple adsorption at pH 5. • Mechanism shift from outer- to inner-sphere surface complexation at high Cr/Fe. • In coprecipitation the mechanism shift occurs at lower Cr/Fe ratios than adsorption. • Higher-molar-ratio bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds; yielded ferrihydrite expansion. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) attracted researchers’ interest for its toxicity, natural availability and removal difficulty. Nevertheless, its sorption mechanism is not clearly understood yet. In this work, we elucidated the sorption mechanism of the co-precipitation of chromates with ferrihydrite through quantitative analysis. The influence of Cr/Fe molar ratio on sorption was investigated by zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray adsorption fine-structure analysis (XAFS). Coprecipitation at pH 5 showed almost twice the sorption density of adsorption at pH 5. In co-precipitation, a shift of the XRD peak due to inner-sphere sorption of chromate was observed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.5. For adsorption, the same peak shift was confirmed at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1. Zeta potential at pH 5 suggested that the sorption mechanism changed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.25 for coprecipitation and at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1 for adsorption. Fitting of Cr and Fe K-edge extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure suggested that ferrihydrite immobilized Cr(VI) via outer sphere surface complexation for lower Cr/Fe ratios and via inner-sphere surface complexation for higher molar ratios. At higher molar ratios, bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds were well established, thus resulting in the expansion of the ferrihydrite structure.

  4. Synthetic Coprecipitates of Exopolysaccharides and Ferrihydrite. Part I: Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikutta,C.; Mikutta, R.; Bonneville, S.; Wagner, F.; Voegelin, A.; Christl, I.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Iron(III) (hydr)oxides formed at extracellular biosurfaces or in the presence of exopolymeric substances of microbes and plants may significantly differ in their structural and physical properties from their inorganic counterparts. We synthesized ferrihydrite (Fh) in solutions containing acid polysaccharides [polygalacturonic acid (PGA), alginate, xanthan] and compared its properties with that of an abiotic reference by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, gas adsorption (N2, CO2), X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility measurements. The coprecipitates formed contained up to 37 wt% polymer. Two-line Fh was the dominant mineral phase in all precipitates. The efficacy of polymers to precipitate Fh at neutral pH was higher for polymers with more carboxyl C (PGA {approx} alginate > xanthan). Pure Fh had a specific surface area of 300 m2/g; coprecipitation of Fh with polymers reduced the detectable mineral surface area by up to 87%. Likewise, mineral micro- (<2 nm) and mesoporosity (2-10 nm) decreased by up to 85% with respect to pure Fh, indicative of a strong aggregation of Fh particles by polymers in freeze-dried state. C-1s STXM images showed the embedding of Fh particles in polymer matrices on the micrometer scale. Iron EXAFS spectroscopy revealed no significant changes in the local coordination of Fe(III) between pure Fh and Fh contained in PGA coprecipitates. 57Fe Moessbauer spectra of coprecipitates confirmed Fh as dominant mineral phase with a slightly reduced particle size and crystallinity of coprecipitate-Fh compared to pure Fh and/or a limited magnetic super-exchange between Fh particles in the coprecipitates due to magnetic dilution by the polysaccharides. The pHiep of pure Fh in 0.01 M NaClO4 was 7.1. In contrast, coprecipitates of PGA and alginate had a pHiep < 2. Considering the differences in specific surface area, porosity, and net charge between the coprecipitates and pure Fh

  5. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerafi, Rania; Swanepoel, Andri; Crampon, Christelle; Kalombo, Lonji; Labuschagne, Philip; Badens, Elisabeth; Masmoudi, Yasmine

    2017-05-01

    Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were used as solvents for both drug and polymeric excipient. When ethyl acetate was used, rifampicin was crystallized separately without being embedded within the ethyl cellulose matrix while by using the ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture, reduced crystallinity of the active ingredient was observed and a simultaneous precipitation of ethyl cellulose and drug was achieved. The effect of solvent/CO 2 molar ratio and polymer/drug mass ratio on the co-precipitates morphology and drug loading was investigated. Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose/rifampicin ratio. Results show that the solvent nature and the initial drug concentrations affect morphology and drug precipitation yield of the formulations. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that the release profile of rifampicin was sustained when co-precipitation was carried out with the solvent mixture. It was demonstrated that the drug to polymer ratio influenced amorphous content of the SAS co-precipitates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and infrared spectra revealed that there is neither interaction between rifampicin and the polymer nor degradation of rifampicin during co-precipitation. In addition, stability stress tests on SAS co-precipitates were carried out at 75% relative humidity and room temperature in order to evaluate their physical stability. SAS co-precipitates were X-ray amorphous and remained stable after 6months of storage. The SAS co-precipitation process using a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide demonstrates that this strategy can

  6. GPU-accelerated Modeling and Element-free Reverse-time Migration with Gauss Points Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Z.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Element-free method (EFM) has been applied to seismic modeling and migration. Compared with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), it is much cheaper and more flexible because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the study area are required in computation. In the EFM, the number of Gauss points should be consistent with the number of model nodes; otherwise the accuracy of the intermediate coefficient matrices would be harmed. Thus when we increase the nodes of velocity model in order to obtain higher resolution, we find that the size of the computer's memory will be a bottleneck. The original EFM can deal with at most 81×81 nodes in the case of 2G memory, as tested by Jia and Hu (2006). In order to solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition (GPP), and utilize the GPUs to improve the computation efficiency. Considering the characteristics of the Gaussian points, the GPP method doesn't influence the propagation of seismic wave in the velocity model. To overcome the time-consuming computation of the stiffness matrix (K) and the mass matrix (M), we also use the GPUs in our computation program. We employ the compressed sparse row (CSR) format to compress the intermediate sparse matrices and try to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with the CULA Sparse's Conjugate Gradient (CG) solver instead of the linear sparse solver 'PARDISO'. It is observed that our strategy can significantly reduce the computational time of K and Mcompared with the algorithm based on CPU. The model tested is Marmousi model. The length of the model is 7425m and the depth is 2990m. We discretize the model with 595x298 nodes, 300x300 Gauss cells and 3x3 Gauss points in each cell. In contrast to the computational time of the conventional EFM, the GPUs-GPP approach can substantially improve the efficiency. The speedup ratio of time consumption of computing K, M is 120 and the

  7. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djerafi, R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available -precipitation was carried out with the solvent mixture. It was demonstrated that the drug to polymer ratio influenced amorphous content of the SAS co-precipitates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and infrared spectra revealed that there is neither interaction...

  8. Coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, D.R.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting successful coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid media were studied. Variables considered in this work were H/sup +/ concentration, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, duration of contact, and rate of feed solution addition. In all experiments, stock solutions of Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ were fed at a controlled rate into H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solutions with constant stirring. Samples were taken as a function of time to follow the H/sup +/ concentration of the solution, uranium precipitation, thorium precipitation, precipitant weight/volume of solution, and crystalline structure and growth. The optimum conditions for maximum coprecipitation are low H/sup +/ concentration, high H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, and extended contact time between the solutions.

  9. Element-Free Galerkin Method Based on Block-Pulse Wavelets Integration for Solving Fourth-Order Obstacle Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce improved element-free Galerkin method based on block pulse wavelet integration for numerical approximations to the solution of a system of fourth-order boundary-value problems associated with obstacle, unilateral, and contact problems. Moving least squares (MLS approach is used to construct shape functions with optimized weight functions and basis. Numerical results for test problems are presented in this article to elaborate the pertinent features for the proposed technique. Comparison with existing techniques shows that our proposed method based on integration technique provides better approximation at reduced computational cost.

  10. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Wet milling versus co-precipitation in magnetite ferrofluid preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almásy László

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various uses of ferrofluids for technical applications continuously raise the interest in improvement and optimization of preparation methods. This paper deals with preparation of finely granulated magnetite particles coated with oleic acid in hydrocarbon suspensions following either chemical co-precipitation from iron salt precursors or wet milling of micron size magnetite powder with the goal to compare the benefits and disadvantages of each method. Microstructural measurements showed that both methods gave similar magnetite particle size of 10-15 nm. Higher saturation magnetization was achieved for the wet-milled magnetite suspension compared to relatively rapid co-precipitation synthesis. Different efficacies of ferrophase incorporation into kerosene could be related to the different mechanisms of oleic acid bonding to nanoparticle surface. The comparative data show that wet milling represents a practicable alternative to the traditional co-precipitation since despite of longer processing time, chemicals impact on environment can be avoided as well as the remnant water in the final product.

  12. Silicate Removal in Aluminum Hydroxide Co-Precipitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiharu Tokoro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal mechanisms of silicate using an aluminum hydroxide co-precipitation process was investigated and compared with an adsorption process, in order to establish an effective and validated method for silicate removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms, XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that silicate uptake occurred by adsorption to boehmite for initial Si/Al molar ratios smaller than two, but by precipitation of poorly crystalline kaolinite for the ratios larger than two, in both co-precipitation and adsorption processes. Silicate was removed by two steps: (i an initial rapid uptake in a few seconds; and (ii a slow uptake over several hours in both processes. The uptake rate in the first step was higher in the co-precipitation process than in adsorption process, presumably due to increased silicate adsorption to boehmite and rapid precipitation of kaolinite. These results suggest that silicate removal using aluminum salts could be effectively achieved if the pH adjustment and aluminum concentration are strictly controlled.

  13. Law of mass action for co-precipitation; Loi d'action de masse de la co-precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorge, P

    2008-07-01

    Coprecipitation is often understood as the incorporation of elements at trace concentrations into -initially pure- solid compounds. Coprecipitation has typically been used to identify radioactive isotopes. Coprecipitation can result in lowering solubility as compared to the solubility, when controlled by pure compounds. For this reason it is also important for geochemistry, waste management and de-pollution studies. The solid obtained with coprecipitation is a new homogeneous solid phase called solid solution. The 2 formula needed to calculate the aqueous solubility when controlled by the ideal AB{sub b(1-x)}C{sub cx} solid solutions are K{sub s,B}{sup 1-x}*K{sub s,C}{sup x} equals [A{sup z{sub A}}]*[B{sup z{sub B}}]{sup b(1-x)}*[C{sup z{sub C}}]{sup cx}/((1-x){sup b(1-x)}x{sup cx}) and K{sub s,C}/K{sub s,B} equals (1-x){sup b}*[C{sup z{sub C}}]{sup c}/[B{sup z{sub B}}]{sup b}*x{sup c}), where K{sub s,B} and K{sub s,C} are the classical constant solubility products of the AB{sub b} and AC{sub c} end-members, the b and c values are calculated from the (z{sub i}) charges of the ions and from charge balance. This report is essentially written to provide a thermodynamic demonstration of the law of mass action in attempts to confirm scientific bases for solubility calculations in geosciences (as typically retention of radio-nuclides by co-precipitation), and to facilitate such calculations. Note that the law of mass action is here a set of 2 equations (not only 1) for the ideal or near ideal systems. Since they are consistent with the phase rule, no extra formula (beside mass balance) is needed to calculate the concentrations of all the species in both phases, namely: [A{sup z{sub A}}], [B{sup z{sub B}}], [C{sup z{sub C}}] and specially x.

  14. Coprecipitation of cadmium with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate from homogeneous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kozen, Terumi; Ueki, Yasuyo; Ishida, Hiromi

    1976-01-01

    The coprecipitation of copper and cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolates from homogeneous solution was conducted from the viewpoint of crystal and analytical chemistry. To the mixed solution containing copper and cadmium ions an 8-acetoxyquinoline solution was added by keeping the pH of the solution at 9 and the resulted solution was stirred at 25 0 C. The precipitate formed at each stage of the reaction was analyzed. The precipitates in an initial stage were composed of needle crystals which characterizes copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, and were associated with a slight amount of cadmium. The first half of the coprecipitation curve for the needle crystal formation resembles the logarithmic distribution curve of lambda equal to about 0.01. The precipitation of most of the copper ions was followed by the precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate crystal in the plate form. The needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate started to dissolve and transformed to plate crystals. In the second half of the coprecipitation, both crystals, owing to the identical crystal structure, precipitated simultaneously and form a solid solution. When cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate was precipitated by the PFHS method (precipitation from homogeneous solution) in the presence of the needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, the above mentioned phenomenon was observed. The precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate in the plate form is due to the seeding effect of the plate crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, which were scantily transformed from the needle crystals. The plate crystals of cadmium compound acts as a seed to transform the needle crystals of copper compound to plate crystals. (auth.)

  15. Topology optimization using bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization based on the element-free Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Vahid

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method based on the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented for topology optimization of continuum structures. The mathematical formulation of the topology optimization is developed considering the nodal strain energy as the design variable and the minimization of compliance as the objective function. The EFG method is used to derive the shape functions using the moving least squares approximation. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by the method of Lagrange multipliers. Several topology optimization problems are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Many issues related to topology optimization of continuum structures, such as chequerboard patterns and mesh dependency, are studied in the examples.

  16. Coprecipitation-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of PLZT hollow nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Renqiang; Zhu, Kongjun; Qiu, Jinhao; Bai, Lin; Ji, Hongli

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate Pb 1-x La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 (PLZT) hollow nanospheres have been successfully prepared via a template-free hydrothermal method using the well-mixed coprecipitated precursors and the KOH mineralizer. The structure, composition, and morphology of the PLZT hollow nanospheres were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), ICP (inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectra), TG/DTA (thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and SEAD (selected area diffraction). The results show that the composition and the morphology control of the PLZT products are determined by the KOH concentration. The PLZT hollow nanospheres with uniform size of about 4 nm were synthesized in the presence of 5 M KOH. The crystalline nanoparticles can be prepared at dilute KOH, in contrast to the amorphous powders prepared at concentrated KOH. Formation mechanisms of the PLZT hollow nanospheres are also discussed.

  17. Synthesis of nickel zinc iron nanoparticles by coprecipitation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Velmurugan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles nickel ferrite of size 6 - 8 nm, synthesized by the coprecipitation method with x varying from 0 to 1.0. The powder samples were characterized by XRD, VSM and FTIR. The average crystallite sizes of the particles were determined from X-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis showed that the samples were cubic spinel. The lattice constant (a o increased with the increase in zinc substitution. The specific saturation magnetization (M S of the particles was measured at room temperature. The magnetic parameter of M S, was found to decrease with the increase in zinc substitution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra of the Ni1-xZn xFe2O4 with x = 0, 0.5, 1 in the range 400 - 4000 cm-1 were reported. The spinel structure and the crystalline water adsorption of Ni1-xZn xFe2O4 nanoparticles were studied by using FTIR.

  18. Studying the influence of hydrogel injections into the infarcted left ventricle using the element-free Galerkin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legner, D; Skatulla, S; MBewu, J; Rama, R R; Reddy, B D; Sansour, C; Davies, N H; Franz, T

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction is an increasing health problem worldwide. Because of an under-supply of blood, the cardiomyocytes in the affected region permanently lose their ability to contract. This in turn gradually weakens the overall heart function. A new therapeutic approach based on the injection of a gel into the infarcted area aims to support the healing and to inhibit adverse remodelling that can lead to heart failure. A computational model is the basis for obtaining a better understanding of the heart mechanics, in particular, how myocardial infarction and gel injections affect its pumping performance. A strain invariant-based stored energy function is proposed to account for the passive mechanical behaviour of the model, which also makes provision for active contraction. To incorporate injections an additive homogenization approach is introduced. The numerical framework is developed using an in-house code based on the element-free Galerkin method. The main focus of this contribution is to investigate the influence of gel injections on the mechanics of the left ventricle during the diastolic filling and systolic isovolumetric (isochoric) contraction phases. It is found that gel injections are able to reduce the elevated fibre stresses caused by an infarct. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Technetium (VII) Co-precipitation with Framework Aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsh, James B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Dickson, Johnbull Otah [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bargar, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Technetium-99 (99Tc), a long-lived radionuclide, is one of the most widespread contaminants within the Hanford subsurface. At some depths, it is only extractable with strong acids, suggesting incorporation into a solid phase. We hypothesized that Tc may have coprecipitated with feldspathoid aluminosilicates under waste tanks that had leaked caustic solutions into the vadose zone. Our objectives were to determine if Tc could be incorporated into the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite and under what conditions coprecipitation could occur. Our hypothesis was that sodalite was more likely to incorporate and retain Tc. Our approach was to use known methods of feldspathoid formation in solutions resembling those in Hanford waste tanks contacting sediments in terms of major ion (Na, NO3, OH, Al(OH)4, and Si(OH)4 concentrations. In some cases, Al and Si were supplied from zeolite. We used perrhenate (ReO4) as a surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4) to avoid the radioactivity. The major findings of this study were 1) ReO4 could be incorporated into either sodalite or cancrinite but the concentration in the solid was < 1% of the competing ion Cl, NO3, or NO2. 2) The small amount of ReO4 incorporated was not exchangeable with NO3 or NO2. 3) In sodalite, NO3 was highly preferred over ReO4 but significant Re-sodalite was formed when the mole fraction in solution (Re/Re+N) exceeded 0.8. 4) A nonlinear relation between the unit cell parameter and amount of Re incorporated suggested that a separate Re-sodalite phase was formed rather than a solid solution. 5) We determined that sodalite preference for sodalite in the presence of different anions increased with the ionic size of the competing anion: Cl < CO3 < NO3 < SO4 < MnO4 < WO4 and significant incorporation did not occur unless the difference in anion radii was less than 12%. 6) Re(VII) was not significantly reduced to Re(IV) under the conditions of this experiment and Re appeared to be a good surrogate for Tc under oxidizing

  20. A Study of Simple α Source Preparation Using a Micro-coprecipitation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Taehong; Song, Byung Chul; Park, Jong Ho; Song, Kyuseok

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a rapid and simple α source preparation method for a radioactive waste sample. The recovery of 239 Pu, 232 U and 243 Am using a micro-coprecipitation method was over 95%. The α-peak resolution of Pu and Am isotopes through the micro-coprecipitation method is enough to discriminate the Pu and Am isotopes from other Pu and Am isotopes. The determination of the Pu and Am isotopes using the micro-coprecipitation method was applied to the radioactive waste sample, so that the activity concentrations of the Pu and Am isotopes using the micro-coprecipitation method in the radioactive waste sample were similar to those using the electrodeposition method

  1. Effect of organic complexing compounds and surfactants on coprecipitation of cesium radionuclides with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, V.V.; Gelis, V.M.; Ershov, B.G.; Seliverstov, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on the coprecipitation of Cs trace amounts with the nickel ferrocyanide precipitate. The presence of the oxalate- and ethylenediamin-tetraacetate-ions in the solutions is shown to result in the abrupt reduction of Cs coprecipitation degree. The effect of the various surfactants manifested itself not so explicitly. To reduce the negative effect of the organic compounds on the intimacy of Cs coprecipitation one tried out the procedure of their chemical destruction by ozon. Pre-ozonization of the solutions enabled to prevent the negative effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on Cs coprecipitation with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate [ru

  2. Study of the hydration of coprecipitated in the preparation of PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegazzo, B.A.; Eiras, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Coprecipitated PZT 53/47 was prepared through simultaneous precipitation of the cations (Pb +2 , Zr +4 and Ti + 4), in a solution of chloridric acid, using ammonium hidroxide. Two methods were tested ''to dehydrate'' the coprecipitated material: conventional calcination and using a satured solution of sodium hidroxide followed by conventional calcination. The second method possibilitate to obtain PZT 53/47 with only the rhombohedral phase. (author) [pt

  3. Concentration of 99Tc in seawater by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Eto, Ichiro; Muhammad Sayad; Takashima, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    A method for accumulation of 99 Tc in seawater has been developed. Technetium tracer in +VII oxidation state was added to the seawater together with reducing agent, potassium pyrosulfite, and coprecipitation agent, ferric chloride. After reduction of Tc(VII) at pH 4, Tc(IV) was coprecipitated as iron hydroxide by addition of sodium hydroxide to pH 9. The reduction and coprecipitation was quantitative and overall recovery of Tc was more than 98%. The green color of iron precipitate formed at pH 9 suggested that Tc(VII) as well as ferric ion was reduced under this condition. Adsorption of Tc(IV), however, was poor for iron hydroxide which was prepared in advance indicating active surface of freshly precipitated iron hydroxide is necessary for quantitative recovery of Tc(IV). A repeating coprecipitation technique was examined for enrichment of Tc in seawater that the same iron was used repeatedly as coprecipitater. After separation of iron hydroxide with Tc(IV) from supernatant, the precipitate was dissolved by addition of acid and then new seawater which contained reducing agent and Tc(VII) was added. Reduction and coprecipitation was again carried out. Good recovery was attained for 7 repeats. The proposed repeating coprecipitation technique was applicable to a large amount of seawater without increasing the amount of iron hydroxide which is subjected to radiochemical analysis. (author)

  4. Comparative study of the coprecipitation methods for the preparation of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepaldi Eduardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Coprecipitation is the method most frequently applied to prepare Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs. Two variations of this method can be used, depending on the pH control conditions during the precipitation step. In one case the pH values are allowed to vary while in the other they are kept constant throughout coprecipitation. Although research groups have their preferences, no systematic comparison of the two variations of the coprecipitation method is available in the literature. On this basis, the objective of the present study was to compare the properties of LDHs prepared using the two forms of pH control in the coprecipitation method. The results showed that even though coprecipitation is easier to perform under conditions of variable pH values, materials with more interesting properties, from the point of view of technological applications, are obtained at constant pH. Higher crystallinity, smaller particle size, higher specific surface area and higher average pore diameter were found for materials obtained by coprecipitation at constant pH, when compared to the materials obtained at variable pH.

  5. CALCIUM REMOVAL FROM PAPER MACHINE EFFLUENT BY PRECIPITATION/COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Leandro de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In integrates pulp and paper mills, the effluent generated by the paper machine can be considered as a sector effluent, called white water, due to the high concentration of calcium. In this work, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of the effluent in different pH values and to develop removal methods of calcium from the white water, aiming the reuse of water and the calcium recovery. Potentiometric titrations were carried out with HCl 0.022 mol L-1 and NaOH 0.025 mol L-1 standards, after adjusting the effluent pH at 12.0 and 2.0; respectively, which indicated inflection points for the carbonate, bicarbonate and kaolin, components capable of interaction with the soluble calcium. The methods for calcium removal consisted of coprecipitation/adsorption with iron (III and aluminum hydroxides, and precipitation in the presence of sodium oxalate. The results indicated that at low concentrations of ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate, the removal of calcium is low. In the adsorption assays in the presence of Fe(OH3 and Al(OH3, the increased of the ferric sulfate concentration enabled a slight increase in the calcium removal (16.5 to 31.0 %, reaching 65.0% in the adsorption more precipitation process in pH 10.0. In case of aluminum sulfate, the removal percentages were indifferent (close to 10.0%. In the precipitation of Ca2+ in the oxalate presence, the possibility of satisfactory percentages of removal was observed (75 to 87%, keeping the effluent with the conductivity and pH unchanged, it’s very important, because the increase of effluent conductivity to reuse cause break of paper made. The calcium oxalate recuperated can be heated excessively and changed and calcium carbonate and to be reused. Tests in the highest scale have to be realized to approve the reuse of water and calcium of paper machine.

  6. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  7. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-04-20

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates.

  8. Signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation and its biomedical application as a functional coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiupeng; Ito, Atsuo; Li Xia; Sogo, Yu; Oyane, Ayako

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the current knowledge of signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation and its biomedical application as a functional coating are described. Although signal molecules regulate a variety of cellular processes, it is difficult to sustain the regulation activity for a long term when the signal molecules are only injected in a free form. The signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation on a substrate surface is a very promising process to achieve sustained regulation activity of the signal molecules by controlled and localized delivery of the signal molecules to specific body sites (implantation sites). However, the significance of immobilizing signal molecules with calcium phosphate coatings and their biomedical application are not systematically illustrated. For this purpose, the presently existing coprecipitation methods and strategies on biomedical application are summarized and discussed. (topical review)

  9. A coprecipitation technique to prepare Sr0⋅5Ba0⋅5Nb2O6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    vity and hence low sintering temperatures. Here we give a simple coprecipitation procedure to prepare Sr0⋅5Ba0⋅5Nb2O6. (SBN) ceramics at low temperatures. Coprecipitation is one of the more successful techniques for synthesizing ultrafine ceramic powders having narrow particle size distribution (Dhage et al 2003).

  10. Solid-state 29Si NMR and FTIR analyses of lignin-silica coprecipitates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Cabrera, Andrés; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2016-01-01

    investigated by characterizing lignin and silica coprecipitates by FTIR and solid state NMR. Silica particles were coprecipitated with three different lignins, three lignin model compounds, and two silanes representing silica-in-lignin model compounds. Comparison of 29Si SP/MAS NMR spectra revealed differences...

  11. Coprecipitation of rare earths in systems of three heterovalent ions with sulfates of alkali and alkaline-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Co-precipitation of rare earth elements (REE) in milligram amounts (3x10 -3 -3x10 -1 M) with alkali earth (AEE) sulfates in presence of alkali metal ions has been studied, the AEE:REE ratios between the co-precipitator and a REE (up to 50:1) the latter can be co-precipitated quantitatively in presence of corresponding alkali metals linked with the AEE in the Periodic table by a diagonal, i.e. in presence of sodium in co-precipitation with calcium sulfate, potassium with strontium sulfate and rubidium with barium sulfate. Co-precipitation with sulfates of sodium and calcium occurs at temperatures above 85 deg C and presumably involves calcium semihydrate. In presence of an alkali metal REE co-precipitation with AEE becomes isomorphic, i.e. at different AEE:REE ratios the co-precipitation coefficient remains constant. In presence of corresponding alkali metals the decrease in effectiveness of co-precipitation with AEE in the La-Lu series is more pronounced

  12. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders : A comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Dolores R. R.; Bottino, Marco C.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To synthesize 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. Methods.

  13. Uncertainties in the oxygen isotopic composition of barium sulfate induced by coprecipitation of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Kasem, Michelle; Rech, Jason A; Adieu, Sabine; Showers, William S; Genna, Bernie; Thiemens, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Coprecipitation of nitrate and sulfate by barium has probably resulted in significant error in numerous studies dealing with the oxygen isotopic composition of natural sulfates using chemical/thermal conversion of BaSO(4) and analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In solutions where NO(3) (-)/SO(4) (2-) molar ratios are above 2 the amount of nitrate coprecipitated with BaSO(4) reaches a maximum of approximately 7% and decreases roughly linearly as the molar ratio decreases. The fraction of coprecipitated nitrate appears to increase with decreasing pH and is also affected by the nature of the cations in the precipitating solution. The size of the oxygen isotope artifact in sulfate depends both on the amount of coprecipitated nitrate and the delta(18)O and Delta(17)O values of the nitrate, both of which can be highly variable. The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate extracted from atmospheric aerosols or rain waters are probably severely biased because photochemical nitrate is usually also present and it is highly enriched in (18)O (delta(18)O approximately 50-90 per thousand) and has a large mass-independent isotopic composition (Delta(17)O approximately 20-32 per thousand). The sulfate delta(18)O error can be 2-5 per thousand with Delta(17)O artifacts reaching as high as 4.0 per thousand.

  14. Polymer-assisted co-precipitation route for the synthesis of Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polymer-assisted (Pluronic P123 triblock co-polymer) co-precipitation route has been employed to synthesize Al 2 O 3 –TiO 2 nanoparticles. As a surfactant, pluronic P123 polymer exhibits hydrophobic as well as the hydrophilic nature simultaneously which detains the agglomeration and hence the nano size particle have ...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of laurate-intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxide prepared by coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender

    2012-01-01

    Effective utilization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) for industrial applications requires the synthesis of pure and well-defined LDH phases. In the present study, dodecanoate (laurate) anions were intercalated into Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12) by coprecipitation in the presence...

  16. Study of the radioactive liquid waste treatment by coprecipitation: from modelling to design of new processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacary, V.

    2008-01-01

    To decontaminate liquid nuclear wastes, the coprecipitation process is the most commonly used in nuclear field because it can be applied to any type of aqueous effluents whatever their composition may be. This process deals with the in situ precipitation of solid particles to selectively remove one or more radioelements. The aim of this PhD work is to investigate phenomena which take place during the coprecipitation of a trace component. To reach this objective, we have proposed a new modelling of the coprecipitation mechanism. The originality of this new approach lies in the possibility to simulate the phenomenon in non equilibrium conditions and at the reactor scale. This modelling combined with the resolution of the population balance, enable to identify the influence of process parameters (flowrates, stirring speed...) on crystal size and ultimately on decontamination. To test this new modelling, simulations of the coprecipitation of strontium ions with barium sulphate have been performed in continuous and semibatch reactors. Thanks to these simulations, laws of the treatment efficiency variation as a function of several process parameters (mean residence time, stirring speed, BaSO 4 concentration) have been determined and experimentally verified. This study leads to the determination of optimal treatment conditions. Three apparatus (recycling apparatus, fluidized bed and reactor/settling tank) providing these optimal conditions have been successfully tested and offered significant outlooks for the reduction of the volume of sludge produced by the process. Two new processes are patent pending. (author) [fr

  17. COMPARATIVE MAGNETIC AND PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF COPRECIPITATED ZINC FERRITE NANOPARTICLES BEFORE AND AFTER CALCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebrahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of co-precipitation temperature and post calcination on the magnetic properties and photocatalytic activities of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The structure, magnetic and optical properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry and UV–Vis spectrophotometry techniques.  The XRD results showed that the coprecipitated as well as calcined nanoparticles are single phase with partially inverse spinel structures. The magnetization and band gap decreased with the increasing of co-precipitation temperature through the increasing of the crystallite size. However, the post calcination at 500 °C was more effective on the decreasing of magnetization and band gap. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of zinc ferrite nanoparticles was studied by the degradation of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation. Compare with the coprecipitated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with 5% degradation of methyl orange after 5 h UV-light light radiation, the calcined ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited a better photocatalytic activity with 20% degradation.

  18. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb 2 O 6 powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple coprecipitation technique was successfully applied for the preparation of pure ultrafine single phase, ZnNb2O6 (ZN). Ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Zn2+ and Nb5+ cations as hydroxides simultaneously. This precursor on heating at 750°, produced ZN powders. For comparison, ZN powders were ...

  19. Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 2. Kinetics of arsenate adsorption and coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.C.; Dadis, J.A.; Waychunas, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of As(V) adsorption by ferrihydrite was investigated in coprecipitation and postsynthesis adsorption experiments conducted in the pH range 7.5-9.0. In coprecipitation experiments, As(V) was present in solution during the hydrolysis and precipitation of iron. In adsorption experiments, a period of rapid (kinetics of As(V) desorption after an increase in pH were also consistent with diffusion as a rate-limiting process. Aging of pure ferrihydrite prior to As(V) adsorption caused a decrease in adsorption sites on the precipitate owing to crystallite growth. In coprecipitation experiments, the initial As(V) uptake was significantly greater than in post-synthesis adsorption experiments, and the rate of uptake was not diffusion limited because As(V) was coordinated by surface sites before crystallite growth and coagulation processes could proceed. After the initial adsorption, As(V) was slowly released from coprecipitates for at least one month, as crystallite growth caused desorption of As(V). Adsorption densities as high as 0.7 mole As(V) per mole of Fe were measured in coprecipitates, in comparison to 0.25 mole As(V) per mole of Fe in post-synthesis adsorption experiments. Despite the high Concentration of As(V) in the precipitates, EXAFS spectroscopy (Waychunas et al., 1993) showed that neither ferric arsenate nor any other As-bearing surface precipitate or solid solution was formed. The high adsorption densities are possible because the ferrihydrite particles are extremely small, approaching the size of small dioctahedral chains at the highest As(V) adsorption density. The results suggest that the solid solution model proposed by Fox (1989, 1992) for control of arsenate and phosphate concentrations in natural waters may be invalid. ?? 1993.

  20. Synthesis of alumina/YAG 20 vol% composite by co-precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Lach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-precipitation of alumina/YAG precursor from aluminum and yttrium nitrate solution with ammonium carbonate results in dawsonite. Its crystallographic parameters differ from the compound precipitated with no yttrium additive. It suggests that yttrium ions become incorporated into the dawsonite structure. The DSC/TG and X-ray diffraction measurements show decomposition of dawsonite at elevated temperatures resulting in γ-Al2O3 and then δ- and θ-alumina modifications. Full transformation to α-Al2O3 and YAG occurs at temperatures higher than 1230°C. Starting powder for the sintering experiments was prepared using the coprecipitated precursor calcined at 600°C. Seeding of such powder with 5 wt.% α-Al2O3 results in material of 98% density at 1500°C. Much lower densification show compacts of unseeded powder.

  1. Coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium with iron and zirconium dibutyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokhina, L.P.; Rovnyj, S.I.; Goncharuk, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    Neptunium and plutonium coprecipitation with precipitates of dibutyl phosphates of some elements significant for radiochemical technology is studied. By the ability to coprecipitation of actinides with precipitates of dibutyl phosphates the cations may be arranged in the series Fe > Al > La > ≥ Zr ≥ Th. The composition of neptunium and plutonium mixed precipitates on the basis of iron dibutyl phosphates corresponding to the formula (Me(NO 3 ) 2 Al 2 ) n x · FeA 3 , where Me-neptunium or plutonium, A-anion of dibutyl phosphoric acid, n=1-4, is determined. Solubility of mixed precipitations in nitric acid and carbonate solutions is studied. Mixed precipitations on the basis of iron dibutyl phosphates are found to have the least solubility, their solubility being lower than that of individual compounds of dibutyl phoshates. The mechanism of formation of mixed precipitates is suggested and discussed

  2. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste Division on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na+] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na+] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice

  3. Determination of Aluminum in Dialysis Concentrates by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Coprecipitation with Lanthanum Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Emine Kılıçkaya; Şahin, Uğur; Şahan, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminum(III) in dialysis concentrates using atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with lanthanum phosphate. The analytical parameters that influenced the quantitative coprecipitation of analyte including amount of lanthanum, amount of phosfate, pH and duration time were optimized. The % recoveries of the analyte ion were in the range of 95-105 % with limit of detection (3s) of 0.5 µg l -1 . Preconcentration factor was found as 1000 and Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) % value obtained from model solutions was 2.5% for 0.02 mg L -1 . The accuracy of the method was evaluated with standard reference material (CWW-TMD Waste Water). The method was also applied to most concentrated acidic and basic dialysis concentrates with satisfactory results.

  4. Speciation analysis of 129I in seawater using coprecipitation and accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Shan; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2017-01-01

    Speciation analysis of long-lived 129I in seawater can provide useful information on the source of water masses. This paper presents an improved method for speciation analysis of 129I based on coprecipitation of iodide as AgI with Ag2SO3 and AgCl. By adding a small amount of 127I carrier, the sep......Speciation analysis of long-lived 129I in seawater can provide useful information on the source of water masses. This paper presents an improved method for speciation analysis of 129I based on coprecipitation of iodide as AgI with Ag2SO3 and AgCl. By adding a small amount of 127I carrier......, the separation efficiency of iodine species and the accuracy and precision of 129I measurement are remarkably improved. 129I species in depth profiles of seawater from the Antarctic were analyzed for investigation of water circulation in the Antarctic....

  5. Dissolution of ibuprofen enantiomers from coprecipitates and suspensions containing chiral excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjikhel, R K; Adeyeye, C M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the stereospecific interaction of ibuprofen with chiral excipients such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), tartaric acid, sucrose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and a nonchiral excipient, citric acid. Coprecipitates of ibuprofen were prepared in molar ratios ranging between 1:0.5 and 1:10 by a solvent evaporation method and characterized using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dissolution testing. Phase solubility studies of ibuprofen were carried out by adding excess amount of ibuprofen to aqueous excipient solutions of varying concentrations. Interaction was studied in suspensions of ibuprofen with HPMC, MC, and sucrose stored at room temperature and 60 degrees C for 12 weeks. Solubility of ibuprofen in HPCD solutions increased 10-fold, whereas solubility decreased in the tartaric and citric acid solutions, a result of decreased pH with increased amount of the acids in which ibuprofen (pKa 4.8) is less soluble. Phase solubility diagrams of ibuprofen in aqueous HPCD, citric acid, and tartaric acid solutions showed no stereospecific differences in solubility of the two enantiomers. X-ray diffraction studies showed that ibuprofen exists in a crystalline form at low ibuprofen-to-excipient ratios, whereas at the higher ratios, it exists in an amorphous form. FTIR spectroscopy for HPCD coprecipitates showed a shift of the carbonyl stretching band of ibuprofen to a higher wavelength with a markedly decreased intensity, probably because of a breakdown in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding with ibuprofen and restriction of the drug molecule in the HPCD cavity, respectively. Dissolution profiles of the coprecipitates demonstrated higher dissolution rates than those of pure ibuprofen. The presence of chiral excipients did not appear to cause stereoselective release of the drug from the coprecipitates and the suspensions.

  6. Study and modelling of an innovative coprecipitation reactor for radioactive liquid wastes decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouret, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In order to decontaminate radioactive liquid wastes of low and intermediate levels, the coprecipitation is the process industrially used. The aim of this PhD work is to optimize the continuous process of coprecipitation. To do so, an innovative reactor is designed and modelled: the continuous reactor/classifier. Two model systems are studied: the coprecipitation of strontium by barium sulphate and the sorption of cesium by PPFeNi. The simulated effluent contains sodium nitrate in order to consider the high ionic strength of radioactive liquid wastes. First, each model system is studied on its own, and then a simultaneous treatment is performed. The kinetic laws of nucleation and crystal growth of barium sulphate are determined and incorporated into the coprecipitation model. Kinetic studies and sorption isotherms of cesium by PPFeNi are also performed in order to acquire the necessary data for process modelling. The modelling realised enables accurate prediction of the residual strontium and cesium concentrations according to the process used: it is a valuable tool for the optimization of existing units, but also the design of future units. The continuous reactor/classifier presents many advantages compared to the classical continuous process: the decontamination efficiency of strontium and cesium is highly improved while the volume of sludge generated by the process is reduced. A better liquid/solid separation is observed in the reactor/classifier and the global installation is significantly more compact. Thus, the radioactive liquid wastes treatment processes can be intensified by the continuous reactor/classifier, which represents a very promising technology for future industrial application. (author) [fr

  7. Deactivation of a Co-Precipitated Co/Al2O3 Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Meltem; AKIN, Ayşe Nilgün

    2007-01-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, feed ratio, space time, and CO percentage in feed on the deactivation conditions of a co-precipitated 36 wt% Co/Al2O3 catalyst in CO hydrogenation were investigated. Environmental-SEM-EDX and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) studies were performed on used catalysts to investigate the effect of reaction conditions on catalyst deactivation. Intensive coke deposition on the catalyst was observed at a reaction temperature of about 573 K. Increas...

  8. 228Ra and 226Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Martin, Paul; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly-used methods for determination of 226 Ra, particularly in water samples, utilises co-precipitation of Ra with BaSO 4 , followed by microfiltration to produce a source for alpha counting. This paper describes two extensions to BaSO 4 co-precipitation methods which enable determination of 228 Ra using the same source. The adaptations presented here do not introduce any contaminants that will affect the separation of radium or alpha counting for 226 Ra, and can be used for re-analysis of already existing sources prepared by BaSO 4 co-precipitation. The first adaptation uses detection of 228 Ac on the source by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency is high, allowing analysis of water samples at sufficiently low activity to be suitable in testing for compliance with drinking water quality standards. As 228 Ac grows in quickly, taking less than 2 days to reach equilibrium with the 228 Ra parent, this can also be useful in radiological emergency response situations. The second adaptation incorporates a method for the digestion of BaSO 4 sources, allowing separation of thorium and subsequent determination of 228 Th activity. Although ingrowth periods for 228 Th can be lengthy, very low detection limits for 228 Ra can be achieved with this technique. - Highlights: • We developed two methods for 228 Ra measurement on Ba(Ra)SO 4 co-precipitation sources. • Measurement by gamma spectrometry using the daughter 228 Ac is rapid. • Detection limits are suitable for assessment of drinking water quality. • The second approach uses alpha spectrometry on a separated Th fraction. • This is more sensitive than gamma spectrometry after an ingrowth period greater than about 1 month

  9. Coprecipitation synthesis of zinc ferrit (FE 2 O 3 /ZNO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc ferrite (Fe2O3/ZnO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by simple co-precipitation method via iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) and zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) as precursor in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. The samples were characterized by ...

  10. Liberation of Adsorbed and Co-Precipitated Arsenic from Jarosite, Schwertmannite, Ferrihydrite, and Goethite in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alarcón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is able to change the geochemical conditions in coastal systems. In these environments, transport of contaminants can be controlled by the stability and adsorption capacity of iron oxides. The behavior of adsorbed and co-precipitated arsenic in jarosite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, and goethite in sea water (common secondary minerals in coastal tailings was investigated. The aim of the investigation was to establish As retention and transport under a marine flood scenario, which may occur due to climate change. Natural and synthetic minerals with co-precipitated and adsorbed As were contacted with seawater for 25 days. During this period As, Fe, Cl, SO4, and pH levels were constantly measured. The larger retention capability of samples with co-precipitated As, in relation with adsorbed As samples, reflects the different kinetics between diffusion, dissolution, and surface exchange processes. Ferrihydrite and schwertmannite showed good results in retaining arsenic, although schwertmannite holding capacity was enhanced due its buffering capacity, which prevented reductive dissolution throughout the experiment. Arsenic desorption from goethite could be understood in terms of ion exchange between oxides and electrolytes, due to the charge difference generated by a low point-of-zero-charge and the change in stability of surface complexes between synthesis conditions and natural media.

  11. Influence of coprecipitation and mechanical mixture methods on the characteristics of nickel oxide-alumina composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, G.L.; Yoshito, W.K.; Ussui, V.; Lima, N.B. de; Lazar, D.R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Alumina-supported nickel catalysts are currently used in the reforming process due to low cost and high activity for hydrogen production from alcohols. In this work, the effect of preparation methods on nickel oxide-alumina based materials has been investigated. Nickel content was fixed at 15 wt%. Ceramic powders were obtained by coprecipitation in ammonia medium and mechanical mixture. Coprecipitated materials were calcined in air at 750 deg C to obtain the corresponding oxides. Materials obtained by mechanical mixture were prepared by wet milling of nickel oxide and alumina powders, both synthesized by precipitation and calcination in air at 450 and 750 deg C, respectively. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption by applying the BET method, laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoretic mobility measurements for zeta potential determination and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that coprecipitation method allowed the production of mixed oxides with high surface area (232,7 ± 3,2 m 2 .g -1 ) and normal granulometric distribution while mechanical mixture led to the formation of materials constituted by gamma alumina and nickel oxide phases, with low surface area (136,2 ± 0,5 m 2 .g -1 ) and bimodal granulometric distribution. (author)

  12. Formation of Silica-Lysozyme Composites Through Co-Precipitation and Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. van den Heuvel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between silica and proteins are crucial for the formation of biosilica and the production of novel functional hybrid materials for a range of industrial applications. The proteins control both precipitation pathway and the properties of the resulting silica–organic composites. Here, we present data on the formation of silica–lysozyme composites through two different synthesis approaches (co-precipitation vs. adsorption and show that the chemical and structural properties of these composites, when analyzed using a combination of synchrotron-based scattering (total scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, spectroscopic, electron microscopy, and potentiometric methods vary dramatically. We document that while lysozyme was not incorporated into nor did its presence alter the molecular structure of silica, it strongly enhanced the aggregation of silica particles due to electrostatic and potentially hydrophobic interactions, leading to the formation of composites with characteristics differing from pure silica. The differences increased with increasing lysozyme content for both synthesis approaches. Yet, the absolute changes differ substantially between the two sets of composites, as lysozyme did not just affect aggregation during co-precipitation but also particle growth and likely polymerization during co-precipitation. Our results improve the fundamental understanding of how organic macromolecules interact with dissolved and nanoparticulate silica and how these interactions control the formation pathway of silica–organic composites from sodium silicate solutions, a widely available and cheap starting material.

  13. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecip...

  14. A novel two-step coprecipitation process using Fe(III) and Al(III) for the removal and immobilization of arsenate from acidic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongfeng; Zhang, Danni; Pan, Rongrong; Xu, Liying; Demopoulos, George P

    2012-02-01

    Lime neutralization and coprecipitation of arsenate with iron is widely practiced for the removal and immobilization of arsenic from mineral processing effluents. However, the stability of the generated iron-arsenate coprecipitate is still of concern. In this work, we developed a two-step coprecipitation process involving the use of iron and aluminum and tested the stability of the resultant coprecipitates. The two-step Fe-As-Fe or Fe-As-Al coprecipitation process involved an initial Fe/As = 2 coprecipitation at pH4 to remove arsenic from water down to 0.25 mg/L, followed by introduction of iron or aluminum (Fe/As = 2, Al/As = 1.5 or 2). The two-step coprecipitates showed higher stability than traditional Fe/As = 4 coprecipitate under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Leaching stability was enhanced when aluminum was applied in the second step. The use of aluminum in the second step also inhibited microbial mediated arsenate reduction and arsenic remobilization. The results suggest that the two-step coprecipitation process is superior to conventional coprecipitation methods with respect to the stability of the generated arsenic-bearing solid waste. The use of Al in the second step is better than Fe to enhance the stability. This work may have important implications to the development of new technologies for efficient arsenic removal from hydrometallurgical solutions and safe disposal in both oxic and anoxic environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenate and cadmium co-adsorption and co-precipitation on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lv, Jitao; Luo, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang, Kun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lin, Yongfeng; Hu, Fanbao [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • As enhances Cd adsorption amount on goethite. • Cd fixed through precipitation is more difficult to get released. • As in co-precipitates is easier to release than in its adsorption complexes. -- Abstract: Arsenate (As(V), AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) and cadmium (Cd) are among the toxic elements of most concern. Their sorption behaviors on goethite were studied by batch experiments (pH edges, isotherms and kinetics) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Arsenic coordination environment was explored by X-ray absorbance fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. Sorption isotherms of both As(V) and Cd on goethite could be divided into the adsorption-dominated and precipitation-dominated parts, while their sorption showed different pH-dependency and sorption reversibility. Cadmium adsorption was enhanced in the presence of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, which could be explained by the decrease in the electrostatic potential due to the sorption of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and the formation of a ternary Cd–As(V)–goethite complex. Based on the EXAFS study, AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} adsorbed on goethite mainly formed bidentate–binuclear complex. The high loadings of Cd changed the As(V)–Fe distance and its coordination number. However, Cd did not affect the As(V) adsorption amount in the adsorption-dominated region. When As(V) and Cd formed co-precipitates, their sorption amounts were both increased. The formation of co-precipitates decreased the mobility of Cd but increased the mobility of As(V) because less As(V) was sorbed on goethite through surface complexation. This study will provide better understandings on As(V) and Cd transport and useful information on their remediation strategies.

  16. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  17. An innovative carbonate coprecipitation process for the removal of zinc and manganese from mining impacted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Chambers, M.A.; Deaguero, A.L.; Wildeman, T.R.; Reisman, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters involves pH adjustment, but this often results in excessive sludge formation and removal of nontoxic species such as magnesium and calcium. Theoretical consideration of the stability of metal carbonate species suggests that the target metals could be removed from solution by coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a limestone-based process for remediation of acid mine drainage that increases calcium carbonate saturation. This treatment could then be coupled with carbonate coprecipitation as an innovative method for removal of toxic metals from circumneutral mine drainage waters. The new process was termed the carbonate coprecipitation (CCP) process. The CCP process was tested at the laboratory scale using a synthetic mine water containing 50 mg/L each of Mn and Zn. Best results showed over 95% removal of both Mn and Zn in less than 2 h of contact in a limestone channel. The process was then tested on a sample of water from the Palmerton zinc superfund site, near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, containing over 300 mg/L Zn and 60 mg/L Mn. Treatment of this water resulted in removal of over 95% of the Zn and 40% of the Mn in the limestone channel configuration. Because of the potential economic advantages of the CCP process, further research is recommended for refinement of the process for the Palmerton water and for application to other mining impacted waters as well. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  18. Purification of moderately active wastewater solutions of fission products by co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Pierre; Amavis, Rene; Vaccarezza, Jacques

    1961-01-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at developing a purification treatment for moderately active wastewater solutions of fission products by using co-precipitation. As the considered wastewater solutions are acid, the authors first studied different treatments which do not require an alkaline neutralisation. As results were not satisfying in terms of efficiency, the authors studied the best carryover conditions of strontium 90 by a calcium or strontium phosphate, and then studied the influence of a second precipitation of nickel ferrocyanide on the decontamination of caesium and other beta emitters. The wastewater solutions used is this study come from a plutonium extraction pilot plant in Fontenay-aux-Roses

  19. Mechanical properties of Ce-TZP ceramics obtained from powders prepared by lyophilization of coprecipitated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Nono, M.C. de

    1992-01-01

    In this paper is shown and discussed the influence of freeze-drying process on the physical characteristics of powder as well as on the microstructural, characteristics, on tetragonal-to-monoclinic stress induced transformation and, finally, on some mechanical properties of the Ce-TZP ceramics (bending strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness). Powders containing different Ce O 2 content were prepared by freeze-drying process and conventional drying of Ce and Zr coprecipitated hydroxides from initial chlorides. The powder characteristics show adequate compaction and sintering behavior. (author)

  20. Avrami behavior of magnetite nanoparticles formation in co-precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, magnetite nanoparticles (mean particle size about 20 nm were synthesized via coprecipitation method. In order to investigate the kinetics of nanoparticle formation, variation in the amount of reactants within the process was measured using pH-meter and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS instruments. Results show that nanoparticle formation behavior can be described by Avrami equations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were performed to study the chemical and morphological characterization of nanoparticles. Some simplifying assumptions were employed for estimating the nucleation and growth rate of magnetite nanoparticles.

  1. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanomaterial by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Anh Tien; Hoang Thi Tuyet

    2015-01-01

    CoFe 2 O 4 spinel nanomaterial has been synthesized by coprecipitation method through the hydrolysis of Co(II) and Fe(III) cations in boiling water. The results of DTA/TGA/DrTGA, XRD, TEM methods showed that CoFe 2 O 4 crystals formed after a calcination at 700 °C exhibited structure of cubic with the particles size of 30-50 nm, H c = 1526.89 Oe, M s = 41.703 emu/g, M r = 19.545 emu/g. (author)

  2. Microstructure and hysteresis curves of samarium-holmium-iron garnet synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarena Valeska da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-xHo xFe5O12 (samarium-holmium-iron garnet ferrite, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing, drying and sintering from 1200 to 1450 °C. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases, and that the effect of substituting holmium for samarium in SmIG is entirely different from that provided by replacing yttrium by gadolinium in YIG, which is the most important result of this work. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

  3. Measurement by liquid scintillation of 226 Ra coprecipitated in BaSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J.I.; Badillo A, V.E.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Lugo R, J.F.; Pinedo V, J.L.; Rios M, C.

    2003-01-01

    The 226 Ra is one of the more radio toxic nuclides since when entering to the organism it continues metabolically to the calcium, accumulating mainly in the bone tissue where it becomes in an internal radiation source. For the analysis of radium in water the methods of radon emanation are generally applied and coprecipitation with barium sulfate. This last is quick and efficient, and the radium in the precipitate can be measured by alpha or gamma spectrometry, or liquid scintillation dissolving the precipitate one with EDTA. In this work it is proposed a procedure for the radium measurement in water based on the coprecipitation with barium sulfate and in the detection by liquid scintillation. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO 4 it is carried with water and blended with the liquid scintillator OptiPhase Hi Safe 3, avoiding the dissolution with EDTA. A 92± 1.4% of radium it was recovered and it was reached a minimum activity detectable of 4.2 ± 0.9 mBq -1 . The procedure was essayed with natural mineral water with a knew activity in concentration of 226 Ra. The analytic result it coincided with the reported value with a relative error of 9%. (Author)

  4. X-ray fluorescence analysis of strontium in environmental water by using barium carbonate coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Akio; Maeda, Yoshimichi; Azumi, Takatugu

    1986-01-01

    Determination of strontium in environmental water was studied by a coprecipitation method with barium carbonate and the subsequent X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fifty mg of barium ion and 1 g of sodium carbonate were added to sample water, which was then mixed for one hour by a magnetic stirrer. Precipitate was gathered onto a membrane filter paper to measure its XF intensity. The amount of strontium from 2 to 150 μg could be repeatedly determined by means of the calibration curve method, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.6 μg of strontium. A large amount of calcium and magnesium ions was found to interfere with the coprecipitation of strontium ion. However, this interference could be eliminated by using a small amount of sample water. Strontium in several environmental waters was determined by the above method. The results obtained from the calibration curve method and the standard addition method agreed with each other, and also agreed with those from the atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  5. Characterization of γ- Al2O3 nanopowders synthesized by Co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbara, Ahmed S.; Othaman, Zulkafli; Ati, Ali A.; Saeed, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation technique has been used to synthesize gamma-Al 2 O 3 (γ-Al 2 O 3 ) nanopowders under annealing temperature effect. The crystalline phase and purity for the prepared powder were characterized by different spectroscopy techniques. XRD analysis confirms the gamma phase of alumina nanopowders with particle diameter ranging from 6 to 24 nm, which confirms the quantum dots formation, which is also supported by the BET measurement. The surface area of the prepared nanopowders is in the range of 109–367 m 2 /g. Morphology analysis indicates that γ-Al 2 O 3 nanopowders are consisted of grains almost spherical in shape. Some agglomeration of nanoparticles occurs, which become more regular hexagonal shaped with the increasing annealing temperature. The small nanoparticles size and the high surface area from a simple procedure for preparing γ-Al 2 O 3 may make it more suitable for use as an adsorbent for malachite green. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation technique is used to synthesize gamma- Al 2 O 3 nanopowders. • Pure gamma- Al 2 O 3 phase was obtained having maximum nanoparticle size is 24 nm. • The quantum dots were formed inside powder. • High surface area of nanopowders at the low annealing temperature. • Increasing annealing temperature causes the hexagonal agglomeration shape.

  6. Gadolinium-doped ceria nanopowders synthesized by urea-based homogeneous co-precipitation (UBHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, G., E-mail: d16605@kist.re.kr [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Spiridigliozzi, L. [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, INSTM Research Unit, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Cioffi, R.; Ferone, C. [Department of Engineering, INSTM Research Unit, University Parthenope of Naples, Centro Direzionale, Is. C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy); Di Bartolomeo, E. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Viale della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Yoon, Sung Pil [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Dell’Agli, G. [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, INSTM Research Unit, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    Gadolinium (10%)-doped ceria was successfully synthesized by using an urea-based co-precipitation method (UBHP). A single fluorite phase was obtained after a low temperature (400 °C) calcination treatment. The resulting powders showed grains of nanometric size with some agglomerations and an overall good sinterability. Pellets were sintered at 1300 and 1500 °C for 3 h. The ionic conductivity was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and a correlation between electrical properties and microstructure was revealed. The promising conductivity values showed that the synthesized powders are suitable for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) applications. - Highlights: • Urea-based homogeneous co-precipitation is applied to synthesize nanocrystalline GDC. • Dense GDC samples at different sintering temperatures were characterized. • SEM and TEM revealed a well define microstructure and controlled composition. • Correlation between electrochemical properties by EIS and microstructure was discussed. • UBHP method can be used to prepare high performance GDC electrolytes.

  7. Arsenic speciation in natural water samples by coprecipitation-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-15

    A speciation procedure for As(III) and As(V) ions in environmental samples has been presented. As(V) was quantitatively recovered on aluminum hydroxide precipitate. After oxidation of As(III) by using dilute KMnO(4), the developed coprecipitation was applied to determination of total arsenic. Arsenic(III) was calculated as the difference between the total arsenic content and As(V) content. The determination of arsenic levels was performed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of As(V) including pH, amount of aluminum as carrier element and sample volume, etc. on the presented coprecipitation system were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for As(V) was 0.012 microg L(-1). The satisfactory results for the analysis of arsenic in NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water certified reference materials for the validation of the method was obtained. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including natural waters for arsenic speciation.

  8. On preparation of nanocrystalline chromites by co-precipitation and autocombustion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulkova, Irena [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Holec, Petr [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Department of Materials Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v i., Husinec-Rez 1001, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Pacakova, Barbara; Kubickova, Simona; Mantlikova, Alice [Department of Magnetic Nanosystems, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Plocek, Jiri [Department of Materials Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v i., Husinec-Rez 1001, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Nemec, Ivan; Niznansky, Daniel [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Vejpravova, Jana, E-mail: vejpravo@fzu.cz [Department of Magnetic Nanosystems, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders, A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg were obtained in high yield. • Co-precipitation and autocombustion routes were optimized for single-phase product. • The nanopowders were examined by X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. • Formation of cubic or tetragonal phase in Jahn–Teller NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be controlled. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study on optimization of wet preparation routes yielding well-crystalline spinel chromite, ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg). The auto-combustion and co-precipitation methods in the presence of nitrate or chloride ions and under different atmospheres, followed by annealing of final products at different temperatures were tested. All samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and vibrational spectroscopy in order to evaluate their phase composition, particle size and micro-strain. Selected samples were subjected to investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of the particle crystallinity was estimated by relating the apparent crystallite size obtained from the PXRD analysis to the physical grain size observed by the TEM. Optimal conditions leading to single-phase and highly-crystalline chromite nanoparticles are proposed.

  9. Coprecipitation synthesis and negative thermal expansion of NbVO5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinrui; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2011-04-07

    We develop a coprecipitation synthesis route to prepare NbVO(5) with simple oxide Nb(2)O(5) and NH(4)VO(3) as starting materials. No metal alkoxide or organometallic substance was used in the process. Nano-crystal NbVO(5) was obtained by calcination of the coprecipitates at 550 °C for 2 h. DSC/TG and XRD investigations indicate that the target compound NbVO(5) is completely formed up to 504.5 °C and is thermally stable below 658 °C. Rietveld XRD refinements give an orthorhombic structure with space group Pnma and lattice parameters, a=11.8453(2), b=5.5126(3) and c=6.9212(2) Å, respectively. In particular, HTXRD determinations show a negative thermal expansion in NbVO(5) with a TEC of -6.63 × 10(-6) °C(-1) in the temperature range of RT-600 °C. This fact is ascribed to the tilting of NbO(6) octahedra and VO(4) tetrahedra in the flexible framework structure. The present synthesis route is facile and easy to be extended to prepare analogues such as TaVO(5), etc. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Immobilization of Hg(II) by Coprecipitation in Sulfate-Cement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Uptake and molecular speciation of dissolved Hg during formation of Al- or Fe-ettringite-type and high-pH phases were investigated in coprecipitation and sorption experiments of sulfate-cement treatments used for soil and sediment remediation. Ettringite and minor gypsum were identified by XRD as primary phases in Al systems, whereas gypsum and ferrihydrite were the main products in Hg–Fe precipitates. Characterization of Hg–Al solids by bulk Hg EXAFS, electron microprobe, and microfocused-XRF mapping indicated coordination of Hg by Cl ligands, multiple Hg and Cl backscattering atoms, and concentration of Hg as small particles. Thermodynamic predictions agreed with experimental observations for bulk phases, but Hg speciation indicated lack of equilibration with the final solution. Results suggest physical encapsulation of Hg as a polynuclear chloromercury(II) salt in ettringite as the primary immobilization mechanism. In Hg–Fe solids, structural characterization indicated Hg coordination by O atoms only and Fe backscattering atoms that is consistent with inner-sphere complexation of Hg(OH)20 coprecipitated with ferrihydrite. Precipitation of ferrihydrite removed Hg from solution, but the resulting solid was sufficiently hydrated to allow equilibration of sorbed Hg species with the aqueous solution. Electron microprobe XRF characterization of sorption samples with low Hg concentration reacted with cement and FeSO4 amendment indicated correlation of Hg and Fe, supporting the interpretation of Hg removal by precipitation of an Fe(III) oxide phase. PMID:22594782

  11. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders: a comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Dolores R R; Bottino, Marco C; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H A

    2008-12-01

    (1) To synthesize 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. A coprecipitation route was used to synthesize a 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic processed by uniaxial compaction and pressureless sintering. Commercially available alumina or alumina/zirconia ceramics, namely Procera AllCeram (PA), In-Ceram Zirconia Block (CAZ) and In-Ceram Zirconia (IZ) were chosen for comparison. All specimens (6mmx5mmx5mm) were polished and ultrasonically cleaned. Qualitative phase analysis was performed by XRD and apparent densities were measured on the basis of Archimedes principle. Ceramics were also characterized using SEM, TEM and EDS. The hardness measurements were made employing Vickers hardness test. Fracture toughness (K(IC)) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). ANOVA revealed that the Vickers hardness (p<0.0001) and fracture toughness (p<0.0001) were affected by the ceramic materials composition. It was confirmed that the PA ceramic was constituted of a rhombohedral alumina matrix, so-called alpha-alumina. Both CAZ and IZ ceramics presented tetragonal zirconia and alpha-alumina mixture of phases. The SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum in PA ceramic. In the IZ and CAZ ceramics aluminum, zirconium and cerium in grains involved by a second phase containing aluminum, silicon and lanthanum were identified. PA showed significantly higher mean Vickers hardness values (H(V)) (18.4+/-0.5GPa) compared to vitreous CAZ (10.3+/-0.2GPa) and IZ (10.6+/-0.4GPa) ceramics. Experimental Y-TZP showed significantly lower results than that of the other monophased ceramic (PA) (p<0.05) but it showed significantly higher fracture toughness (6.0+/-0.2MPam(1/2)) values when compared to the

  13. Processing, structure and magnetic properties correlation in co-precipitated Ca-ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasht, Behzad, E-mail: abasht@gmail.com [Space Thruster Research Institute, Iranian Space Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beitollahi, Ali; Mirkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    La-substituted hexagonal calcium ferrite, Ca{sub 1−X}La{sub X}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x varies from 0 to 0.6 with the step of 0.2), was synthesized by applying co-precipitation method, in which the molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/(Ca{sup 2+}+La{sup 2+}) was 11. The ferrite precursors were prepared from aqueous solution of calcium nitrate, ferric nitrate and lanthanum nitrate by co-precipitation of calcium, iron and lanthanum ions by using an aqueous base of sodium hydroxide (1.5 M) at the pH of 14 and at room temperature. These precursors were calcinated with different amount of La at different temperature of 700, 1100 and 1200 °C for constant calcination time of 1 h in a static air atmosphere. Some tests such as simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, crystallographic properties, morphology and magnetic properties of the precursor powders which were calcinated at different temperatures. The powder XRD patterns of samples which consisted of La as dopant and were calcinated at 1200 °C for 1 h, indicates the formation of calcium hexaferrite and also α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} besides Magnetoplumbite-phase (M-phase). However, the results showed that CaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7} and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were formed in the sample with the same condition but without using any dopant. The results of SEM showed that the calcium hexaferrite particle were regular hexagonal platelets with the size range of 1–2 µm. The magnetic properties such as maximum magnetization (M{sub Max}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were measured from the hysteresis loops. Low values of coercive field (16.3 kA m{sup −1}) and maximum magnetization (50.6 A m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) were obtained from calcium hexaferrite particle in optimum amount of La (X=0.4) which calcinated at the temperature of 1200 °C. - Highlights: • In this

  14. Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline lanthanum monoaluminate powders by chemical coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, 1 Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, 1 Section 1, Hsueh-Cheng Road, Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Hung, I-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-J. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: CJShih@kmu.edu.tw; Fung, K.-Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2007-08-16

    Nanocrystalline lanthanum monoaluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) powders were prepared by chemical coprecipitation using 25 vol.% of NH{sub 4}OH, 0.05 M La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O and 0.05 M Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O aqueous solutions as the starting materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, specific surface area (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) were utilized to characterize the LaAlO{sub 3} powders prepared by chemical coprecipitation. The crystallization temperature of the LaAlO{sub 3} precursor gels precipitated at pH 9 is estimated as 810 deg. C by TG/DTA. The XRD pattern of the LaAlO{sub 3} precursor gels precipitated at pH 8-12 and calcined at 700 deg. C for 6 h shows a broad arciform continuum exist between 24{sup o} and 32{sup o} and sharp peaks of LaAlO{sub 3} except the precursor gels precipitated at pH 9. For the LaAlO{sub 3} precursor gels precipitated at pH 9 and calcined at 700 deg. C for 6 h, the formation of the perovskite LaAlO{sub 3} phase occurs and the presence of crystalline impurities is not found. The crystallite size of LaAlO{sub 3} slightly increases from 37.8 to 41.5 nm with calcination temperature increasing from 700 to 900 deg. C for 6 h. The LaAlO{sub 3} powders prepared by chemical coprecipitation have a considerably large specific surface of 30 m{sup 2}/g. The relative density greater than 97% is obtained when these nanocrystalline LaAlO{sub 3} powders are sintered at 1550 deg. C for 2 h.

  15. Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using simple CO-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmandjou, M.; Zarinkamar, M.; Firoozabadi, T. P., E-mail: farahamndjou@iauvaramin.ac.ir [Islamis Azad University, Varamin-Phisva Branch, Department of Physics, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles was studied by new and simple co-precipitation method. The cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using cerium nitrate and potassium carbonate precursors. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD pattern showed the cubic structure of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The average particle size of CeO{sub 2} was around 20 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observations. The surface morphological studies from Sem and Tem depicted spherical particles with formation of clusters. The sharp peaks in Ftir spectrum determined the existence of CeO{sub 2} stretching mode and the absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the bandgap energy of 3.26 eV. (Author)

  16. Separation of valent forms of chromium (3) and chromium (6) by coprecipitation with iron (3) hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirmadov, B.; Khamidov, B.O.; Egorova, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Soption 9.62x10 -5 mol/l of 51 Cr radioactive isotope in oxidation states 3 and 6 by iron(3) hydroxide in 1 mol/l of KNO 3 and KCl depending on pH medium is investigated. The region of practically total concentration of Cr(3) and Cr(6 + ) (pH=3-6.5) is determined. The results of spectrophotometric investigations, calculational data on distribution of hydroxocation forms of chromium (3) and of chromium (6) anions and sorption by iron (3) hydroxide permit to characterize sorption of chromium forms in different stages of oxidation. The methods of chromium (3) and chromium (6) separation by coprecipitation of iron (3) hydroxide and their precipitation from it is developed on the above foundation

  17. Preparation and Heat-Treatment of DWPF Simulants With and Without Co-Precipitated Noble Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, David C.:Eibling, Russel E

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is in the process of investigating factors suspected of impacting catalytic hydrogen generation in the Chemical Process Cell of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation in simulation work constrains the allowable acid addition operating window in DWPF. This constraint potentially impacts washing strategies during sludge batch preparation. It can also influence decisions related to the addition of secondary waste streams to a sludge batch. Noble metals have historically been added as trim chemicals to process simulations. The present study investigated the potential conservatism that might be present from adding the catalytic species as trim chemicals to the final sludge simulant versus co-precipitating the noble metals into the insoluble sludge solids matrix. Parallel preparations of two sludge simulants targeting the composition of Sludge Batch 3 were performed in order to evaluate the impact of the form of noble metals. Identical steps were used except that one simulant had dissolved palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium present during the precipitation of the insoluble solids. Noble metals were trimmed into the other stimulant prior to process tests. Portions of both sludge simulants were held at 97 C for about eight hours to qualitatively simulate the effects of long term storage on particle morphology and speciation. The simulants were used as feeds for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, process simulations. The following conclusions were drawn from the simulant preparation work: (1) The first preparation of a waste slurry simulant with co-precipitated noble metals was successful, based on the data obtained. It appears that 99+% of the noble metals were retained in the simulant. (2) Better control of carbonate, hydroxide, and post-wash trim chemical additions is needed before the new method of simulant preparation will be as reproducible as the old method. (3) The two new

  18. Development of a coprecipitation system for the speciation/preconcentration of chromium in tap waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatepe, Aslihan, E-mail: karatepea@gmail.com [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 50000 Nevsehir (Turkey); Korkmaz, Esra [Bozok University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Yozgat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Elci, Latif [Pamukkale University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 20020 Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    A method for the speciation of chromium(III), chromium(VI) and determination of total chromium based on coprecipitation of chromium(III) with dysprosium hydroxide has been investigated and applied to tap water samples. Chromium(III) was quantitatively recovered by the presented method, while the recovery values for chromium(VI) was below 10%. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), pH, centrifugation speed and sample volume for the quantitative precipitation were examined. No interferic effects were observed from alkali, earth alkali and some transition metals for the analyte ions. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 15) were 0.65 {mu}g/L for chromium(III) and 0.78 {mu}g/L for chromium(VI). The validation of the presented method was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  19. Development of a coprecipitation system for the speciation/preconcentration of chromium in tap waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karatepe, Aslihan; Korkmaz, Esra; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif

    2010-01-01

    A method for the speciation of chromium(III), chromium(VI) and determination of total chromium based on coprecipitation of chromium(III) with dysprosium hydroxide has been investigated and applied to tap water samples. Chromium(III) was quantitatively recovered by the presented method, while the recovery values for chromium(VI) was below 10%. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), pH, centrifugation speed and sample volume for the quantitative precipitation were examined. No interferic effects were observed from alkali, earth alkali and some transition metals for the analyte ions. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 15) were 0.65 μg/L for chromium(III) and 0.78 μg/L for chromium(VI). The validation of the presented method was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  20. Synthesis and crystal kinetics of cerium oxide nanocrystallites prepared by co-precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Hon, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized at a relatively low temperature using cerium nitrate as starting materials in a water solution by a co-precipitation process. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K by XRD analysis. When calcined from 473 to 1273 K, the crystallization of the face-centered cubic phase was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 10.0 to 43.8 nm with calcining temperature increasing from 673 to 1273 K. The activation energy for growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to be 16.0 kJ mol -1 .

  1. Synthesis and crystal kinetics of cerium oxide nanocrystallites prepared by co-precipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hon, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized at a relatively low temperature using cerium nitrate as starting materials in a water solution by a co-precipitation process. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K by XRD analysis. When calcined from 473 to 1273 K, the crystallization of the face-centered cubic phase was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 10.0 to 43.8 nm with calcining temperature increasing from 673 to 1273 K. The activation energy for growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to be 16.0 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  2. Characterization of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Parvaneh; Saeednia, Samira; Nourzpoor, Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    ZnS nanoparticles are prepared by homogeneous chemical co-precipitation method using EDTA as a stabilizer and capping agent. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of as-synthesized nanoparticles are investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a zinc-blended crystal structure at room temperature. The average particle size of the nanoparticles from the scanning electron microscopy image is about 50 nm. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum shows the blue shift in the band gap due to the quantum confinement effect. The photoluminescence spectrum of ZnS nanoparticles shows a blue visible spectrum.

  3. High energy milling of zirconia-titania powders synthesized by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiano M.B.; Marchi, Juliana; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia based ceramics are known by its remarkable mechanical properties as hardness and fracture toughness and in biomedical applications are classified as bioinert. By its turn, titania ceramics has been studied due to its ability to bond directly to bone tissue, but are structurally brittle. Properties of ceramics are strongly dependent of physical and chemical characteristics of its former powders. In the present work, research done for the synthesis of zirconia-titania ceramics by the coprecipitation route are presented, emphasizing the conditioning process through a high energy milling in a atritor mill, classifying of powders in vibratory sieves and forming of cylindrical ceramic samples followed by a sintering process at 1500 deg C for 01 hour. The intermediary samples produced in the various steps of the process were characterized by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption and granulometric analysis. (author)

  4. Removal of nickel and strontium from simulated radioactive wastewater via a pellet coprecipitation-microfiltration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiangdan Jin; Ping Gu; Guanghui Zhang; Xuan Shang; Li'an Hou

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the decontamination factor (DF) and concentration factor (CF) for the treatment of radioactive wastewater, a pellet coprecipitation microfiltration process which aimed at removing the neutron activation product 63 Ni and fission product 90 Sr was studied. In this study average DFs were (4.60 ± 0.42) × 10 3 for nickel and 559 ± 24 for strontium, respectively. When about 1.8 m 3 wastewater was treated, the sludge volume was significantly minimised after 24 h settling and CF reached over 1 × 10 3 . DFs and CF values were improved by 1-2 orders of magnitude in this study compared with those achieved by conventional methods. (author)

  5. Advances on reverse strike co-precipitation method of uranium-plutonium mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghini, Jorge E.; Marchi, Daniel E.; Orosco, Edgardo H.; Greco, Luis

    2000-01-01

    The reverse strike coprecipitation of uranium-plutonium mixed solutions, is an alternative way to obtain MOX fuel pellets. Previous tests, carried out in the Alpha Laboratory, included a stabilization step for transforming 100 % of plutonium into Pu +4 . Therefore, the plutonium precipitated as Pu(OH) 4 . In this second step, the stabilization process was suppressed. In this way, besides Pu(OH) 4 , a part of the precipitated is composed of a mixed salt: AD(U,Pu). Then, a homogeneous solid solution is formed in the early steps of the process. The powders showed higher tap density, better performance during the pressing and lower sinterability than the powders obtained in previous tests. The advantageous and disadvantageous effects of the stabilization step are analyzed in this paper. (author)

  6. TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING OXIDE SYNTHESIS OF ALUMINIUM DOPED ZINC OXIDES BY CHEMICAL COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maioco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium doped zinc oxides (AZO are promising replacements for tin doped indium oxides (ITO but thin films show a wide range of physical properties strongly dependent on deposition process conditions. Submicrometric 1% aluminum doped zinc oxide ceramics (AZO are examined, prepared by coprecipitation, from Zn(NO32 and Al(NO33 aqueous solutions, sintered at 1200°C and subsequently annealed in 10-16 atm controlled oxygen fugacity atmospheres, at 1000°C. Electrical resistivity diminishes by two orders of magnitude after two hours of annealing and the Seebeck coefficient gradually changes from -140 to -50 µV/K within 8 h. It is concluded that increased mobility is dominant over the increased carrier density, induced by changes in metal-oxygen stoichiometry

  7. Tunable Properties of Exfoliated Polyvinylalcohol Nanocomposites by In Situ Coprecipitation of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yuen, Richard K. K.; Hu, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites were prepared by a “one step” method based on the coprecipitation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets in the polymer aqueous solution. The morphology, fire resistance properties, mechanical and optical properties of the PVA/LDH nanocomposites were studied. The LDH nanosheets were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA matrix as indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. Meanwhile, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) were decreased by 58% and 28%, respectively. Storage modulus at 30 °C was increased, and the transmittance of more than 90% at the visible region was obtained upon addition of 5 wt% LDH.

  8. Co-precipitation and solubility studies of cesium, potassium and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results from a study requested by High Level Waste on the co-precipitation and solubility of cesium, potassium, and sodium tetraphenylborate. Co-precipitation of cesium (Cs), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) tetraphenylborate (TPB) helps determine the efficiency of reagent usage in the Small Tank Precipitation Process. This process uses NaTPB to remove cesium from waste by means of precipitation. Previous studies by McCabe suggested that if the sodium ion concentration [Na + ] increased the rate at which cesium tetraphenylborate (CsTPB) precipitates also increases. Serkiz also demonstrated that the precipitation of potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) in the presence of high [Na + ] (∼5M) appears to produce a mixed solid phase composed of NaTPB and KTPB together in the crystal lattice. In the crystallographic structure of these three tetraphenylborate salts (Cs,K,NaTPB), the tetraphenylborate ion dominates the size of the crystals. Also, note that the three crystals have nearly identical structures with the exception of two additional peaks in the cesium pattern. Given these similarities, TPB precipitation in the presence of Na + , Cs + and K + likely produces an impure isomorphic crystalline mixture of CsTPB, KTPB and NaTPB. The authors speculate that the primary crystalline structure resembles that of KTPB with NaTPB and CsTPB mixed throughout the crystal structure. The precipitation of NaTPB makes some of the anticipated excess tetraphenylborate relatively unavailable for precipitation of cesium. Thus, the amount of excess tetraphenylborate required to completely precipitate all of the potassium and cesium may increase significantly

  9. Aluminum coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides: Does isomorphous substitution of Al 3+ for Fe 3+ in goethite occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Archibald, Douglas D.; Aryanpour, Masoud; Kubicki, James D.; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2011-08-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are common in natural environments and typically contain large amounts of impurities, presumably the result of coprecipitation processes. Coprecipitation of Al with Fe (hydr)oxides occurs, for example, during alternating reduction-oxidation cycles that promote dissolution of Fe from Fe-containing phases and its re-precipitation as Fe-Al (hydr)oxides. We used chemical and spectroscopic analyses to study the formation and transformation of Al coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides. In addition, periodic density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to assess the structural and energetic effects of isolated or clustered Al atoms at 8 and 25 mol% Al substitution in the goethite structure. Coprecipitates were synthesized by raising the pH of dilute homogeneous solutions containing a range of Fe and Al concentrations (100% Fe to 100% Al) to 5. The formation of ferrihydrite in initial suspensions with ⩽20 mol% Al, and of ferrihydrite and gibbsite in initial suspensions with ⩾25 mol% Al was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction analyses. While base titrations showed a buffer region that corresponded to the hydrolysis of Fe in initial solutions with ⩽25 mol% Al, all of the Al present in these solutions was retained by the solid phases at pH 5, thus indicating Al coprecipitation with the primary Fe hydroxide precipitate. In contrast, two buffer regions were observed in solutions with ⩾30 mol% Al (at pH ˜2.25 for Fe 3+ and at pH ˜4 for Al 3+), suggesting the formation of Fe and Al (hydr)oxides as two separate phases. The Al content of initial coprecipitates influenced the extent of ferrihydrite transformation and of its transformation products as indicated by the presence of goethite, hematite and/or ferrihydrite in aged suspensions. DFT experiments showed that: (i) optimized unit cell parameters for Al-substituted goethites (8 and 25 mol% Al) in clustered arrangement (i.e., the formation of diaspore

  10. Properties and reactivity of Fe-organic matter associations formed by coprecipitation versus adsorption: Clues from arsenate batch adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Robert; Lorenz, Dennis; Guggenberger, Georg; Haumaier, Ludwig; Freund, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Ferric oxyhydroxides play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of oxyanions such as arsenate and phosphate in soil. Despite this, little is known about the properties and reactivity of Fe(III)-organic matter phases derived from adsorption (reaction of organic matter (OM) to post-synthesis Fe oxide) versus coprecipitation (formation of Fe oxides in presence of OM). Coprecipitates and adsorption complexes were synthesized at pH 4 using two natural organic matter (NOM) types extracted from forest floor layers (Oi and Oa horizon) of a Haplic Podzol. Iron(III) coprecipitates were formed at initial molar metal-to-carbon (M/C) ratios of 1.0 and 0.1 and an aluminum (Al)-to-Fe(III) ratio of 0.2. Sample properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 gas adsorption, dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Arsenic [As(V)] adsorption to Fe-OM phases was studied in batch experiments (168 h, pH 4, 100 μM As). The organic carbon (OC) contents of the coprecipitates (82-339 mg g-1) were higher than those of adsorption complexes (31 and 36 mg g-1), leading to pronounced variations in specific surface area (9-300 m2 g-1), average pore radii (1-9 nm), and total pore volumes (11-374 mm3 g-1) but being independent of the NOM type or the presence of Al. The occlusion of Fe solids by OM (XPS surface concentrations: 60-82 atom% C) caused comparable pHPZC (1.5-2) of adsorption complexes and coprecipitates. The synthesis conditions resulted in different Fe-OM association modes: Fe oxide particles in 'M/C 0.1' coprecipitates covered to a larger extent the outermost aggregate surfaces, for some 'M/C 1.0' coprecipitates OM effectively enveloped the Fe oxides, while OM in the adsorption complexes primarily covered the outer aggregate surfaces. Despite of their larger OC contents, adsorption of As(V) was fastest to coprecipitates formed at low Fe availability (M/C 0.1) and facilitated by desorption of weakly

  11. Heavy metal immobilization via microbially induced carbonate precipitation and co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchnor, E. G.; Stoick, E.

    2017-12-01

    Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has been successfully used in applications such as porous media consolidation and sealing of leakage pathways in the subsurface, and it has the potential to be used for remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminants in surface and groundwater. In this work, MICP is investigated for removal of dissolved heavy metals from contaminated mine discharge water via co-precipitation in CaCO3 or formation of other metal carbonates. The bacterially catalyzed hydrolysis of urea produces inorganic carbon and ammonium and increases pH and the saturation index of carbonate minerals to promote precipitation of CaCO3. Other heavy metal cations can be co-precipitated in CaCO3 as impurities or by replacing Ca2+ in the crystal lattice. We performed laboratory batch experiments of MICP in alkaline mine drainage sampled from an abandoned mine site in Montana and containing a mixture of heavy metals at near neutral pH. Both a model bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, and a ureolytic bacterium isolated from sediments on the mine site were used to promote MICP. Removal of dissolved metals from the aqueous phase was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and resulting precipitates were analyzed via electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Both S. pasteurii and the native ureolytic isolate demonstrated ureolysis, increased the pH and promoted precipitation of CaCO3 in batch tests. MICP by the native bacterium reduced concentrations of the heavy metals zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel and manganese in the water. S. pasteurii was also able to promote MICP, but with less removal of dissolved metals. Analysis of precipitates revealed calcium carbonate and phosphate minerals were likely present. The native isolate is undergoing identification via 16S DNA sequencing. Ongoing work will evaluate biofilm formation and MICP by the isolate in continuous flow, gravel-filled laboratory columns. This research

  12. Improvement of the magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite nanopowders using modified co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, M.M., E-mail: rashad133@yahoo.com [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, I.A. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-08-15

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powders have been synthesized using the modified co-precipitation method. Modification was performed via the ultrasonication of the precipitated precursors at room temperature for 1 h and the additions of the 2% KNO{sub 3}, surface active agents and oxalic acid. The results revealed that single phase magnetic barium hexaferrite was formed at a low annealing temperature of 800 deg. C for 2 h with the Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio 8. The microstructure of the powders appeared as a homogeneous hexagonal platelet-like structure using 2% KNO{sub 3} as the crystal modifier. A saturation magnetization (60.4 emu/g) was achieved for the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} phase formed at 1000 {sup o}C for 2 h with Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio 8 using 5 M NaOH solution at pH 10 in the presence of 2% KNO{sub 3}. Moreover, the saturation magnetization was 52.2 emu/g for the precipitated precursor at Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio 12 in was achieved for the precipitated precursor ultrasonicated for 1 h and then annealed at 1200 {sup o}C for 2 h. Coercivities from 956.9 to 4558 Oe were obtained at different synthesis conditions. - Highlights: > Sonochemical assisted co-precipitation method improved the magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite. > Addition of 2% KNO{sub 3}, 500 ppm CTAB, 500 ppm SDS and oxalic acid led to the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at low annealing temperature of 800 deg. C. > Microstructure of the pure BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} appeared as hexagonal platelet-like structure. > Good saturation magnetization (60.4 emu/g) was achieved for the formed BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} phase at 1000 deg. C for 2h with Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio 12 using NaOH at pH 10 in the presence of 2% KNO{sub 3}. > Wide coercivities (956.9-4558 Oe) were obtained at different synthesis conditions.

  13. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter Properties on Formation and Composition of Mineral-Organic Co-Precipitates at the Nanometer Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Zachman, M.; Lehmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    An important, yet largely overlooked case of soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization through mineral-organic associations is the co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into mineral precipitates as they form. The contribution of co-precipitated DOM to the mineral-stabilized SOC pool is expected to be greatest in soil environments with frequent mineral dissolution and precipitation processes. Compared to surface adsorption, properties of mineral-organic co-precipitates are expected to differ at both the particle scale (e.g., total carbon (C) content and composition) and the molecular scale (e.g., impurities in mineral structure), with potential implications for stability and C turnover; additionally, these properties vary across C sources, amounts, and forms. Consequently, high-resolution visualization and characterization combined with bulk chemical measurements is needed to provide a more complete understanding of co-precipitate formation processes and properties, especially as a function of C co-precipitant characteristics. In this study, we evaluate the effect of model C compound and DOM chemical properties (e.g., iron-binding affinity) on the formation, structure, and chemical properties of ferrihydrite (Fh) (Fe3+3O2 •0.5H2O) co-precipitates. Salicylic acid (SA), sucrose and water-extractable DOM from coniferous or deciduous-dominated organic soils were either adsorbed to pre-formed Fh or co-precipitated with Fh. At a C/Fe ratio 10, the amount of co-precipitated C differed among all organic compounds, and for DOM, was more than 2X greater for co-precipitation than adsorption, suggesting a greater capacity for C retention. To probe the molecular-scale C spatial distribution of Fh-SA particles, we obtained Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) maps at a nanometer-scale spatial pixel resolution. Additionally, we will present chemical characteristics of organic-Fh co-precipitates and adsorption

  14. Cerium and neodymium co-precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, J.F. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SMCS/LEPS, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Renard, C., E-mail: catherine.renard@ensc-lille.fr [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SMCS/LEPS, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Lacquement, J. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC/DIR, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Abraham, F. [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Co-precipitations of cerium (III) and neodymium (III) at 10 wt.% in LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30-70 mol%) molten salt at 705 Degree-Sign C have been achieved using an original way of precipitation, wet argon sparging. Several CeCl{sub 3}/NdCl{sub 3} ratios have been studied, and the isolated powders were analyzed using different characterization methods including XRD investigations. The lanthanides precipitation yields have been determined around 99.9% using ICP-AES analysis. XRD demonstrated that the precipitates mainly contained mixed oxychloride (Ce{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x})OCl and a small amount of the mixed oxide Ce{sub 1-y}Nd{sub y}O{sub 2-0.5y}. Calcination of these precipitates has resulted in the cerium and neodymium mixed oxides. For the precipitation with a Ce/Nd = 50/50 ratio, an hydroxychloride Ln(OH){sub 2}Cl and the oxychloride Ce{sup IV}(Nd{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sup III}O{sub 3}Cl have been identified as unexpected intermediate compounds.

  15. The effect of hydrothermal treatment on samaria and gadolinia doped ceria powders synthesized by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo; Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci

    2009-01-01

    One of the main applications of ceria-based (CeO 2 ) ceramics is the manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells electrolytes. In order to improve ionic conductivity and densification of these materials various powder synthesis routes have been studied. In this work powders with composition Ce 0.8 (SmGd) 0.2 O 1.9h ave been synthesized by coprecipitation and hydrothermal treatment. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO 2 and other containing 51% of Sm 2 O 3 and 30% of Gd 2 O 3 , both prepared from monazite processing, were used as precursor materials. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, agglomerate size distribution by laser scattering and specific surface area by gas adsorption. Ceramic sinterability was evaluated by dilatometry and density measurements by Archimedes method. High specific surface area powders (~100m 2 /g) and cubic fluorite structure were obtained after hydrothermal treatment around 200 deg C. Ceramic densification was improved when compared to the one prepared from powders calcined at 800 deg C. (author)

  16. Magnetic Properties of Co-Precipitated MnZn FERRITE-SiO2 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. U.; Azhar Khan, M.; Ali, Zulfiqar; Niazi, Shahida B.; Ishaque, M.; Abbas, T.

    A series of composite ferrites with chemical formula (1-x)[Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4]·x[SiO2] (x = 0.0, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50) were prepared by the co-precipitation technique. The samples were finally sintered at 1150°C followed by air quenching. The x-ray diffraction analysis confirms the phases precipitated out in the samples. AC magnetic susceptibility of these samples has been measured using the low field mutual inductance technique over the temperature range 298 K to 550 K at a frequency of 250 Hz. The magnetic parameters like Curie constant, C, Curie temperature, Tc, Lande splitting factor, g, effective magnetic moment, Peff, exchange integral, J/kB, and characteristic temperature, θ(K) were calculated. The reciprocal of susceptibility versus temperature curves of each sample follows the Curie Weiss behaviour above the Curie temperature. Below the Curie temperature, all the samples show the ferrimagnetic behaviour. It was concluded that the magnetic properties were enhanced by the addition of silicon as is evident by the variation of magnetic interactions J, with Si-concentration and followed subsequently by the Peff, θ(K) and Tc etc.

  17. Fabrication of Tb3Al5O12 transparent ceramics using co-precipitated nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiawei; Pan, Yubai; Wang, Wei; Luo, Wei; Xie, Tengfei; Kou, Huamin; Li, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Terbium aluminum garnet (TAG) precursor was synthesized by a co-precipitation method from a mixed solution of terbium and aluminum nitrates using ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC) as the precipitant. The powders calcined at different temperatures were investigated by XRD, FTIR and FESEM in order to choose the optimal calcination temperature. Fine and low-agglomerated TAG powders with average particle size of 88 nm were obtained by calcining the precursor at 1100 °C for 4 h. Using this powder as starting material, TAG transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum sintering combined with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) sintering. For the sample pre-sintered at 1700 °C for 20 h with HIP post-treated at 1700 °C for 3 h, the average grain size is about 3.9 μm and the in-line transmittance is beyond 55% in the region of 500-1600 nm, reaching a maximum transmittance of 64.2% at the wavelength of 1450 nm. The Verdet constant at 633 nm is measured to be -178.9 rad T-1 m-1, which is 33% larger than that of the commercial TGG single crystal (-134 rad T-1 m-1).

  18. Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kielmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques by selectively addressing spin probes either to the surfactant layer (labeled stearic acid or the clay surface (labeled catamine. Continuous-wave (CW EPR studies of the surfactant dynamics allow to define a transition temperature T* which was tentatively assigned to the order-disorder transition of the surfactant layer. CW EPR studies of PCNC showed that completely exfoliated nanoparticles coexist with agglomerates. HYSCORE spectroscopy in PCNCs showed couplings within the probe −assigned with DFT computations− and couplings with nuclei of the environment, 1H and 23Na for the surfactant layer probe, and 29Si, 7Li, 19F and 23Na for the clay surface probe. Analysis of these couplings indicates that the integrity of the surfactant layer is conserved and that there are sizeable ionic regions containing sodium ions directly beyond the surfactant layer. Simulations of the very weak couplings demonstrated that the HYSCORE spectra are sensitive to the composition of the clay and whether or not clay platelets stack.

  19. Investigation of the effective parameters on the synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles by chemical coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, A., E-mail: akbardavudijamaloee@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-25

    Strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a protective agent. A mixture of the deionized water/ethanol (50/50) was used as the solvent. The effects of PVP, pH of the solution, Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} molar ratio and calcination temperature of the precipitates on the synthesis of strontium hexaferrite samples were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (DTA-TGA), dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer (PSA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of the obtained samples. The results showed that increasing the pH from 9 to 13 or decreasing Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} molar ratio from 12 to 9 promoted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation and decreased the size of nanoparticles. The minimum coercivity of 4733 Oe and maximum saturation magnetization of 51 emu/g were obtained by increasing the pH from 9 to 13. It was also concluded that PVP could be effective in decreasing the size of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles and resulted to decrease the calcination temperature from 800 to 700 Degree-Sign C.

  20. Synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared using co-precipitation method and microemulsion processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmota, A; Znidarsic, A; Kosak, A, E-mail: ana.drmota@kolektor.s [Kolektor Group, Nanotesla Institute, Stegne 29, 1521 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanoparticles have been prepared with co-precipitation in aqueous solutions and precipitation in microemulsion system water/SDS/n-butanol/cyclohexane, using iron and strontium nitrates in different molar rations as a starting materials. The mixed Sr{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} hydroxide precursors obtained during the reaction between corresponding metal nitrates and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), which served as a precipitating reagent, were calcined in a wide temperature range, from 350 {sup 0}C to 1000 {sup 0}C in a static air atmosphere. The influence of the Sr{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} molar ratio and the calcination temperature to the chemistry of the product formation, its crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated. It was found that the formation of single phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with relatively high specific magnetization (54 Am{sup 2}/kg) was achieved at the Sr{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} molar ration of 6.4 and calcination at 800 {sup 0}C for 3h with heating/cooling rate 5 {sup 0}C/min. The prepared powders were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and specific surface area measurements (BET). The specific magnetization (DSM-10, magneto-susceptometer) of the prepared samples was measured.

  1. Synthesis of nickel oxide - zirconia composites by coprecipitation route followed by hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci; Paschoal, Jose Octavio Armani

    2009-01-01

    Nickel oxide-yttria stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) for use as solid oxide fuel cell anode were synthesized by coprecipitation to obtain amorphous zirconia and crystallized β-nickel gels of the corresponding metal hydroxides. Hydrothermal treatment at 200°C and 220 psi from 2 up to 16 hours, under stirring, was performed to produce nanocrystalline powder. The as-synthesized powders were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, laser scattering, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), gas adsorption technique (BET) and TGDTA thermal analysis. Ceramic samples were characterized by dilatometric analysis and density measurements by Archimedes method. The characteristics of hydrothermally synthesized powders and compacts were compared to those produced without temperature and pressure application. Crystalline powders were obtained after hydrothermal process, excluding the calcination step from this route. The specific surface area of powders decreases with increasing time of hydrothermal treatment while the agglomerate mean size is not affected by this parameter. (author)

  2. Preparation of Cerium Orthophosphate Nanosphere by Coprecipitation Route and Its Structural, Thermal, Optical, and Electrical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium orthophosphate (CePO4 nanoparticles were synthesized via wet chemical coprecipitation technique using cerium nitrate hexahydrate for Ce3+ ion and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for PO43- ion source. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis suggests that the material belongs to monoclinic crystal system with crystallite size of 49.3 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM reveal the surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles as nanospheres having grain size in the range of 30–50 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX gives elemental composition present in the grown nanomaterial. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that the structural phase transition is above 800°C. The optical properties include UV-VIS-NIR absorption and the photoluminescence spectrum shows the absorption and emission peaks in the ultraviolet region. The dielectric constant (ε/  and ac conductivity properties were investigated with regard to change in temperature (40 to 500°C and frequency (5 kHz to 1 MHz. The dielectric measurement indicates that the transition is diffused and the activation energy values decrease suggesting that the conduction mechanism is due to hopping of the charge carriers from one site to another.

  3. Synthesis of mono and multidomain YIG particles by chemical coprecipitation or ceramic procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium iron garnet powders have been synthesized by chemical coprecipitation using two different precursors, nitrates and chlorides, and by an oxides mixture route. It is shown that depending on the precursors and synthesis conditions used pure yttrium iron garnet powders can be obtained with a mono or multidomain magnetic behaviour. The yttrium iron garnet crystalline structure, as studied by Raman spectroscopy, was already formed after calcination at temperatures as low as 800 o C when the nitrate precursors were used. However, calcination temperatures of up to 1100 o C were required to obtain yttrium iron garnet powders when the precursors were chlorides or when the oxides mixture route was chosen. The saturation magnetization of the powders correlates well with the structural characterization: when nitrate precursors were used, the saturation magnetization was already close to the bulk value, 26.8 emu/cm 3 , after calcination at 800 o C. However, the saturation magnetization of the powders obtained by the chlorides and oxides mixture routes was close to zero up to calcination temperatures of 1100 o C. Finally, both the chlorides and the oxides mixture routes yield multidomain micron sized yttrium iron garnet powders, whereas the nitrates route led to monodomain submicron sized powders.

  4. Neptunium sorption and co-precipitation of strontium in simulated DWPF salt solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.; Orebaugh, E.G.; King, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Batch experiments performed using crushed slag saltstone (∼40 mesh) removed >80% of 237 Np from simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) salt solution. The concentration of 237 Np (110 pCi/ml) used was 1000x greater than levels in actual DWPF solutions. Neptunium-239 was used as a tracer and was formed by neutron activation of uranyl nitrate. Results showed that small amounts of crushed saltstone (as little as 0.05 grams), removed >80% of neptunium from 15 ml of simulated DWPF solution after several hours equilibration. The neptunium is sorbed on insoluble carbonates formed in and on the saltstone matrix. Further testing showed that addition of 0.01 and 0.10 ml of 1 molar Ca +2 (ie. Ca (NO 3 ) 2 , CaCl 2 ) into 15 ml of simulated DWPF solution yielded a white carbonate precipitate which also removed >80% of the neptunium after 1 hour equilibration. Further experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of this procedure to co-precipitate strontium

  5. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum monoaluminate by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoui N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution has focused on the synthesis and characterization of lanthanum monoaluminate LaAlO3 by the method of co-precipitation. The powder was successfully synthesized using NaOH, La (NO33.6H2O and Al (NO33.9H2O as raw materials by this method and calcined at different temperatures. It was characterized by several techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and laser diffusion. All the results for physico-chemicals characterizations show that the crystallization temperature of the LaAlO3 precursor gels precipitated is estimated as 790 °C by TG/DTA. The XRD pattern of the LaAlO3 precursor gels calcined at 700 °C for 6 h has a perovskite structure of rhombohedral hexagonal phase formed and the presence of crystalline impurities is not found. The crystallite size of LaAlO3 slightly increases from 31to 44.5 nm with calcination temperature increasing from 700to1000 °C for 6 h.

  6. Enabling Large Superalloy Parts Using Compact Coprecipitation of γ' and γ''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detor, Andrew J.; DiDomizio, Richard; Sharghi-Moshtaghin, Reza; Zhou, Ning; Shi, Rongpei; Wang, Yunzhi; McAllister, Donald P.; Mills, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Next-generation gas turbines will require disk materials capable of operating at 923 K (650 °C) and above to achieve efficiencies well beyond today's 62 pct benchmark. This temperature requirement marks a critical turning point in materials selection. Current turbine disk alloys, such as 706 and 718, are limited by the stability of their major strengthening phase, γ'', which coarsens rapidly beyond 923 K (650 °C) resulting in significant degradation in properties. More capable γ' strengthened superalloys, such as those used in jet engine disks, are also limited due to the sheer size of gas turbine hardware; the γ' phase overages during the slow cooling rates inherent in processing thick-section parts. In the present work, we address this fundamental gap in available superalloy materials. Through careful control of Al, Ti, and Nb levels, we show that fine (stability of compact coprecipitates. The alloying strategies discussed here enable a new class of superalloys suitable for applications requiring large parts operating at high temperature.

  7. Tunable Band Gap Energy of Mn-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Using the Coprecipitation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Ling Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple coprecipitation technique was introduced to form manganese (Mn doped on zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles effectively. Based on our morphological studies, it was revealed that mean particle size was increased while bigger agglomeration of nanoparticles could be observed as the amount of concentration of Mn was increased. Interestingly, it was found that the position of the absorption spectra was shifted towards the lower wavelength (UV region as correlated with the increasing of Mn dopants concentration into ZnO nanoparticles. This result inferred that optimum content of Mn doped into the ZnO nanoparticles was crucial in controlling the visible/UV-responsive of samples. In the present study, 3 mol% of Mn dopants into the ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the better UV as well as visible light-responsive as compared to the other samples. The main reason might be attributed to the modification of electronic structure of ZnO nanoparticles via lattice doping of Mn ions into the lattice, whereas excessive Mn dopants doped on ZnO nanoparticles caused the strong UV-responsive due to the more 3d orbitals in the valence band.

  8. Effect of Calcination Conditions on the Performance of Co-precipitation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method, and the effect of calcination temperature and calcination time on the performances of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the optimum calcination temperature and calcination time of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were 450 °C and 7 h, respectively. Using the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions catalytic wet oxidation of methyl orange simulated wastewater, after 90 min, the COD, COD removal rate, absorbance, decolorization rate and pH of the methyl orange simulated wastewater were 737.7, 70.5%, 0.348, 95.3%, and 5.31, respectively. According to the analyses of the SEM, FTIR, and TG-DTA curves, the components of the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions distributed evenly, and the chemical compositions of the catalysts including C-O, -OH, and H-O-H, showing a good thermal stability.

  9. Preparation and characterization of the cobalt ferrite nano-particles by reverse coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huixia, Feng, E-mail: fenghx66@163.com; Baiyi, Chen; Deyi, Zhang; Jianqiang, Zhang; Lin, Tan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, cobalt ferrite nano-particles were rapidly prepared using a reverse coprecipitation method. The effects of pH value, aging time, aging temperature and calcination temperature were studied by VSM, XRD and TEM. The results presented that the conditions to obtain the cobalt ferrite nano-particles with a perfect cubic spinel ferrite type structure are the pH value of 12.00, aging time of 60 min, aging temperature of 92 °C and calcination temperature of 800 °C. The crystallite size of cobalt ferrite increased with increasing the aging and calcination temperature. The saturation magnetization of cobalt ferrite increased with increasing the aging and calcination temperature. The VSM analysis demonstrated that the optimum sample has a high saturation magnetization and proper coercivity, 72.95 emu/g and 717 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, the particle size estimated from the TEM was seen to be larger than that observed from the XRD analysis. - Highlights: • Cobalt ferrite nano-particles were synthesized by reverse precipitation method. • The synthesis conditions were investigated in detail. • The optimum sample presents high saturation magnetization and proper coercivity. • The optimum sample was approximately spherical shape.

  10. Transition metal tungstates synthesized by co-precipitation method: Basic photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, U.M.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; Peral, J.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal tungstates with general formula M 2+ WO 4 (M 2+ = Co, Cu, Mn and Ni) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at 400 °C. The prepared powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and photoelectrochemical measurements. The quasi-Fermi potentials of electrons determined at pH 7 were −0.67, −0.54, −0.21 and −0.18 V (vs. NHE) for CoWO 4 , CuWO 4 , MnWO 4 and NiWO 4 , respectively. Photodegradation of methanol and 4-chlorophenol was used to evaluate the photoactivity of the tungstate oxides under visible-light irradiation. The CuWO 4 powders showed the best mineralization yields (about 12% for methanol after 25 h, and 23% for 4-chlorophenol after 6 h of irradiation). These results show the feasibility of organic photocatalytic mineralization using CuWO 4 .

  11. Ultratrace analysis of actinides via coprecipitation/laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Actinides were selectively preconcentrated by coprecipitating each out of solution with a fluoride matrix and calcining each sample at 800 0 C. The fluorescence spectrum of each sample was recorded by illuminating the sample with laser light and detecting fluorescence with either a fluorescence/Raman spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer or in certain cases a filter fluorimeter. Three previously unobserved actinide spectra were recorded. Narrow lines at 546.9 nm, 564.6 nm, and 569.6 nm were found for CaF 2 :PuO 2++ at 10K. CaF 2 :Am + 3 displayed two broadband fluorescent peaks at 625 nm and 746 nm at room temperature and CaF 2 :Pu + 3 possessed a fluorescent peak at 1.22 microns at 10K. Energy transfer was observed in the form of Tb fluorescence quenching in TbF 3 :Pu + 3 when Pu was present in quantities of 10 ppM or more and in the form of Tb fluorescence enhancement in TbF 3 :Am + 3 when 1 ppM or more of Am was present. Careful sample preparation and the use of temporal as well as a spectral discrimination system extended the detection limit of U from 1 ml samples to the subfemtogram level. The fluorescence detection limits for Pu and Am were extended to 0.48 and 0.032 pg/ml. 39 figures, 9 tables

  12. Effect of synthesis conditions on the preparation of YIG powders via co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, M.M.; Hessien, M.M.; El-Midany, A.; Ibrahim, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) powders have been synthesized through a co-precipitation method in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate), AOT as an anionic surfactant. The garnet precursors produced were obtained from aqueous iron and yttrium nitrates mixtures using 5 M sodium hydroxide at pH 10. A statistical Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of the main parameters (i.e. AOT surfactant concentration, annealing time and temperature) on YIG powder formation, crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties. YIG particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer. XRD revealed that the formation of single cubic phase of YIG was temperature dependent and increased by increasing the annealing temperature from 800 to 1200 o C. SEM micrographs showed that the addition of AOT surfactant promoted the microstructure of YIG in crystalline cubic-like structure. The magnetic properties were sensitive to the synthesis variables of annealing temperature, time and AOT surfactant concentration. The maximum saturation magnetization (28.13 emu/g), remanence magnetization (21.57 emu/g) and coercive force (703 Oe) were achieved at an annealing temperature of 1200 o C, time 2 h and 500 ppm of AOT surfactant concentration.

  13. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil samples by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Trinh Thi Bich; Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to prepare soil samples for U and Th isotope measurement by alpha-spectrometry after coprecipitation with LaF 3 . In this procedure the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was performed by Zn metal in 4M HCl solution. The recoveries of chemical separation equal to ε U-chemistry = 78±4% for uranium and ε Th-chemistry = 82±4% for thorium. Canberra alpha-spectrometer was used with PIPS detectors of A-1200-37-AM Model of 1200 mm 2 active area. The counting efficiency of the measuring system equals to ε counting = 18% and the total efficiencies were ε U = ε counting - ε U-chemistry = 14.0 ± 0.7% for uranium and ε Th = ε counting - ε Th-chemistry = 14.7 ± 0.7% for thorium. The recoveries of chemical separation were rather high (about 80%), that leads to the use of a small weight of soil sample (about 0.5 g). The efficiencies were also stable, that allows analyzing the soil sample without using radiotracers. They are advantages of the sample preparation procedure of this work. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of Arsenic Co-Precipitation with Fe-Al Hydroxides for Treatment of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Wilson Vargas de Mello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wastewater treatment is a challenging problem faced by the mining industry, especially when mine effluents include acid mine drainage with elevated arsenic levels. Iron (hydroxides are known to be effective in removal of As from wastewater, and although the resulting compounds are relatively unstable, the presence of structural Al enhances their stability, particularly under reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Al-Fe (hydroxide co-precipitates for the removal of As from wastewater and to assess the chemical stability of the products. Different Al-Fe (hydroxides were synthesized at room temperature from ferrous and aluminum salts using three different Fe:Al molar ratios (1:0.0, 1:0.3, and 1:0.7 and aged for 90 days (sulfate experiments or 120 days (chloride experiments in the presence of arsenic. At the end of the aging periods, the precipitated sludges were dried and characterized in order to evaluate their stability and therefore potential As mobility. All treatments were effective in reducing As levels in the water to below 10 µg L-1, but the presence of Al impaired the effectiveness of the treatment. Aluminum decreased the chemical stability of the precipitated sludge and hence its ability to retain As under natural environmental conditions.

  15. Synthesis of mono and multidomain YIG particles by chemical coprecipitation or ceramic procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L. [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Menendez, J.L. [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo -UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-04-09

    Yttrium iron garnet powders have been synthesized by chemical coprecipitation using two different precursors, nitrates and chlorides, and by an oxides mixture route. It is shown that depending on the precursors and synthesis conditions used pure yttrium iron garnet powders can be obtained with a mono or multidomain magnetic behaviour. The yttrium iron garnet crystalline structure, as studied by Raman spectroscopy, was already formed after calcination at temperatures as low as 800 {sup o}C when the nitrate precursors were used. However, calcination temperatures of up to 1100 {sup o}C were required to obtain yttrium iron garnet powders when the precursors were chlorides or when the oxides mixture route was chosen. The saturation magnetization of the powders correlates well with the structural characterization: when nitrate precursors were used, the saturation magnetization was already close to the bulk value, 26.8 emu/cm{sup 3}, after calcination at 800 {sup o}C. However, the saturation magnetization of the powders obtained by the chlorides and oxides mixture routes was close to zero up to calcination temperatures of 1100 {sup o}C. Finally, both the chlorides and the oxides mixture routes yield multidomain micron sized yttrium iron garnet powders, whereas the nitrates route led to monodomain submicron sized powders.

  16. Uranium (III)-Plutonium (III) co-precipitation in molten chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Co-management of the actinides in an integrated closed fuel cycle by a pyrochemical process is studied at the laboratory scale in France in the CEA-ATALANTE facility. In this context the co-precipitation of U(III) and Pu(III) by wet argon sparging in LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) molten salt at 705 °C is studied. Pu(III) is prepared in situ in the molten salt by carbochlorination of PuO2 and U(III) is then introduced as UCl3 after chlorine purge by argon to avoid any oxidation of uranium up to U(VI) by Cl2. The oxide conversion yield through wet argon sparging is quantitative. However, the preferential oxidation of U(III) in comparison to Pu(III) is responsible for a successive conversion of the two actinides, giving a mixture of UO2 and PuO2 oxides. Surprisingly, the conversion of sole Pu(III) in the same conditions leads to a mixture of PuO2 and PuOCl, characteristic of a partial oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV). This is in contrast with coconversion of U(III)-Pu(III) mixtures but in agreement with the conversion of Ce(III).

  17. Determination of molybdenum and vanadium in seawater by carbon furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with metal chelate coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kitao; Morikawa, Toshiki; Fuwa, Keiichiro

    1986-01-01

    Coprecipitation with metal chelate complex formation has been studied for determining molybdenum and vanadium in seawater. As coprecipitation carriers, several pairs of metal ion and chelating agent were applied : Co(II)-ammonium pyrrolydinedithiocarbamate (APDC), Cu(II)-APDC, Cr(VI)-APDC, Co(II)-sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, AI(III)-8-quinolinol, Cu(II)-cupferron, and Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime. The procedure was as follows : A 100 ml molybdate {Mo(VI)} and metavanadate {V(V)} sample solution was taken to which were added acetate buffer solution. After addition of the carrier metal ion, the pH of the solution was adjusted and the chelating agent was then added. After stood for 1 h, the precipitate was collected by a membrane filter(pore size 0.2 μm), and dissolved in 5 ml of nitric acid(1 mol/l). It was then analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The coprecipitation done with Co(II)-APDC surpassed the others in recoveries of molybdenum and vanadium ; which were 94 ± 3 and 96 ± 3 %, respectively. The minimum detectable amounts in the initial solution were found to be 0.05 μg/l for molybdenum and 0.1 μg/l for vanadium. Molybdenum and vanadium were determined in seawater sampled at the Japan Trench in the North Pacific Ocean. (author)

  18. Coprecipitation with metal hydroxides for the determination of beryllium in seawater by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Chen, Z.S.; Kawaguchi, H.

    1994-01-01

    Coprecipitation first with magnesium hydroxide. next with tin(IV) hydroxide is developed for the determination of traces of beryllium in seawater. To a 200-ml sample is added a sodium hydroxide solution to form magnesium hydroxide at pH 11.5, on which beryllium is quantitatively coprecipitated. The precipitate is separated by centrifugation and dissolved in 2 ml of 12 mol/l hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution (ca. 10 ml) is mixed with 2 mg of tin(IV) carrier and the pH is adjusted to 5.0 to collect the beryllium on tin(IV) hydroxide, leaving magnesium ions in the solution. The tin(IV) hydroxide is centrifuged, dissolved in 0.1 ml of 5 mol/l hydrobromic acid, and then diluted to 1 ml with water. Magnesium is so added as to be 500 μg/ml for increasing the sensitivity about four times, and the beryllium in the solution is determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The experiments with synthetic seawater samples showed that pg-μg amounts of beryllium can be coprecipitated on the metal hydroxides and beryllium at the low ng/l level can be determined with reasonable precision (RSD < 10%). The detection limit of the proposed method is 0.5 ng/l of beryllium in seawater. (author)

  19. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L.

    1996-06-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed

  20. Mercury (II) reduction and co-precipitation of metallic mercury on hydrous ferric oxide in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Bischoff, Cornelia; Ahrens, Christian G M; Biester, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and sorption analyses in contaminated aquifers are useful for understanding transformation, retention, and mobility of Hg in groundwater. In most aquifers hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) are among the most important sorbents for trace metals; however, their role in sorption or mobilization of Hg in aquifers has been rarely analyzed. In this study, we investigated Hg chemistry and Hg sorption to HFO under changing redox conditions in a highly HgCl2-contaminated aquifer (up to 870μgL(-1) Hg). Results from aqueous and solid phase Hg measurements were compared to modeled (PHREEQC) data. Speciation analyses of dissolved mercury indicated that Hg(II) forms were reduced to Hg(0) under anoxic conditions, and adsorbed to or co-precipitated with HFO. Solid phase Hg thermo-desorption measurements revealed that between 55 and 93% of Hg bound to HFO was elemental Hg (Hg(0)). Hg concentrations in precipitates reached more than 4 weight %, up to 7000 times higher than predicted by geochemical models that do not consider unspecific sorption to and co-precipitation of elemental Hg with HFO. The observed process of Hg(II) reduction and Hg(0) formation, and its retention and co-precipitation by HFO is thought to be crucial in HgCl2-contaminated aquifers with variable redox-conditions regarding the related decrease in Hg solubility (factor of ~10(6)), and retention of Hg in the aquifer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  2. Magnetic properties of Sn-Mg substituted strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized via coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-12

    Highlights: > Decreasing mean particle size from 82 to 56 nm with increasing the Sn-Mg proportion from x = 0.0 to x = 0.8. > Reducing the coercivity from 4728.9 to 1455.5 Oe and increasing the saturation magnetization from 51.34 to 65.49 emu/g with increasing the Sn-Mg from x = 0.0 to x = 0.8. > The higher effective electromagnetic absorption properties for strontium hexaferrite-acrylic resin composites which contained doped hexaferrite with x = 0.8. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of Sn-Mg substituted strontium hexaferrite with the composition of SrFe{sub 12-x}(Sn{sub 0.5} Mg{sub 0.5}){sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0-1.0) were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. Deionized water/ethanol (50/50) was used as the solvent. The single phase strontium hexaferrites were obtained at pH 13 and Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} molar ratio of 9 after calcination at 800 deg. C. The mean particle size of samples was decreased from 82 to 56 nm with increasing the Sn-Mg content from x = 0.0 to x = 0.8. The effect of Sn-Mg substitution on magnetic properties of hexaferrites was studied using vibrating-sample magnetometer. It was found that increasing the Sn-Mg from x = 0.0 to x = 0.8 reduced the coercivity from 4728.9 to 1455.5 Oe and increased the saturation magnetization from 51.34 to 65.49 emu/g. A vector network analyzer was used to investigate the microwave absorption properties. According to microwave measurements, doped strontium hexaferrite composites had much more effective electromagnetic absorption properties than undoped strontium hexaferrite composite.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} obtained by the coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, M.E.; Junior, F.A.; Hernandez, E.P.; Barbosa, F.C.G.; Paulo, V.I.M.; Junior, J.N.A.; Almeida, J.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The study shows a structural and magnetic properties of cobalt oxide Co3O4 doped with Cr as a function of the parameters adopted during the synthesis by chemical co-precipitation were flowing neutralizing NaOH and calcination temperature to 800 °C and 1000 °C. First, a series of samples of this oxide in which the flow was changed neutralization of the NaOH solution was generated. Thermal treatments were carried out at 800 °C and 1000 °C in anticipation of changing voltages on the network, average crystal size, etc. XRD observed in this case that the major phase and Co3O4 was found that the change of flow, the average crystallite size of network parameters and changes suffered distorted. In magnetic measurements MxT for samples to 800 °C and 1000 °C we observed behavioral evidence of a ferri / ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition. On the other hand, the Curie-Weiss parameter was found negative for all samples associated with the major phase Co3O4 antiferromagnetic. Thus, we could correlate these phenomena the possible presence of phase clusters / nanoclusters amorphous ferri / ferromagnetic with CoCr2O4 / CrO2 generated with the incorporation of Cr under different NaOH flows. These coupling steps leading to the observed behavior. Have the MXH measures to 1000 °C in 50K presented a characteristic hysteresis loop system ferri / ferromagnetic well pronounced and could associate this, beyond the coupling phase, the fact that higher temperatures increase the grain size decreasing the surface anisotropy and favoring phases ferri / ferromagnetic. We are convinced that the results of our research is an important contribution to the field. (author)

  4. Preparation of ZnO-SnO2 ceramic materials by a coprecipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, A. C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tin (IV-doped zinc oxide ceramics find its main application as specific gas sensor devices. The sensor ability of the mixture and its particular affinity for a particular gas (selectivity depends both on the crystalline phases in the microstructure of the sintered semiconductor and on the degree of tin incorporation into ZnO lattice. By means of a highly reactive coprecipitation method it is revealed that the range of solid solution of tin in zinc oxide stays below 0.1 mol % of SnO2 since higher concentrations lead to segregation of a secondary Zn2SnO4 spinel type-phase.Los materiales cerámicos basados en óxido de cinc dopado con estaño (IV encuentran su principal aplicación como dispositivos sensores específicos de gases. La capacidad sensora de la mezcla de óxidos y su particular afinidad por un determinado gas específico (selectividad es función directa de cuáles sean las fases cristalinas presentes en la microestructura del semiconductor sinterizado, así como del grado de incorporación del estaño en la red del ZnO. La obtención del polvo cerámico de partida por un método de coprecipitación altamente reactivo revela que el rango de solución sólida del estaño en el óxido de cinc se encuentra por debajo del 0.1 % en moles de SnO2; concentraciones superiores llevan a la segregación de una fase secundaria, Zn2SnO4, con estructura de tipo espinela.

  5. Magnetite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method in different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aphesteguy, J.C., E-mail: caphestegu@fi.uba.ar [LAFMACEL-INTECIN, Facultad de Ingeniería, UBA, Paseo Colón 850, C1063EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Universidad del País Vasco UPV-EHU, Dept. Electricidad y Electronica, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Ural Federal University, Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Celis, J.P. de [National Technology University (UTN), Facultad Regional Avellaneda, Department of Chemistry (Argentina); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Schegoleva, N.N. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, Ekaterinburg 620044 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of pure magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared in an aqueous solution (sample M−I) and in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (sample M−II) by the co-precipitation method. The structure and magnetic properties of both samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic (M−H) and microwave measurements (FMR). The mean average particle diameter and particle size distribution was evaluated by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller techniques (BET). The Quantitative chemical analysis of iron was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) technique. The MNPs prepared in aqueous solution show a higher grain than those prepared in the water-ethyl alcohol mixture. The type of phase structure in both cases can be defined as “defective spinel”. The shape of the majority of M−I MNPs is octahedral. The shape of the majority of M−II MNPs is cubic. The specific surface area of MNPs was as high as 14.4 m{sup 2}/g for M−I sample and 77.8 m{sup 2}/g for sample M–II. The obtained saturation magnetization values of 75 emu/g (M−I) and 68 emu/g (M−II) are consistent with expected values for magnetite MNPs of observed sizes. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements confirmed that MNPs of both types are magnetically homogeneous materials. FMR lines' position and line widths can be understood by invoking the local dipolar fields, deviations from sphericity, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and stresses. M−I sample shows sizeable zero field microwave absorption which is absent in the M−II case. The differences in microwave behaviour of M−I and M−II MNPs can be used in the design of microwave radiation absorbing multilayers. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared in two different conditions. • Specific surface area of sample prepared in water- ethanol mix is

  6. Revisiting Pocos de Caldas. Application of the co-precipitation approach to establish realistic solubility limits for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; Jordana, S.; Cera, E.

    1996-02-01

    Solubility limits constitute a critical parameter for the determination of the mobility of radionuclides in the near field and the geosphere, and consequently for the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Mounting evidence from natural system studies indicate that trace elements, and consequently radionuclides, are associated to the dynamic cycling of major geochemical components. We have recently developed a thermodynamic approach to take into consideration the co-precipitation and co-dissolution processes that mainly control this linkage. The approach has been tested in various natural system studies with encouraging results. The Pocos de Caldas natural analogue was one of the sites where a full testing of our predictive geochemical modelling capabilities were done during the analogue project. We have revisited the Pocos de Caldas data and expanded the trace element solubility calculations by considering the documented trace metal/major ion interactions. This has been done by using the co-precipitation/co-dissolution approach. The outcome is as follows: A satisfactory modelling of the behaviour of U, Zn and REEs is achieved by assuming co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. Strontium concentrations are apparently controlled by its co-dissolution from Sr-rich fluorites. From the performance assessment point of view, the present work indicates that calculated solubility limits using the co-precipitation approach are in close agreement with the actual trace element concentrations. Furthermore, the calculated radionuclide concentrations are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than conservative solubility limits calculated by assuming equilibrium with individual trace element phases. 34 refs, 18 figs, 13 tabs

  7. Fe-based soft magnetic composites coated with NiZn ferrite prepared by a co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yuandong; Yi, Yi; Li, Liya; Ai, Hengyu; Wang, Xiaoxu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Lulu [Jiangsu Eagle-globe Group Co., Ltd., Nantong 226600 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Fe powder was coated with NiZn ferrite by a co-precipitation method using chlorate as the raw material. Soft magnetic composites were manufactured via compaction and heat treatment of the coated powder. The coated powder and heat treated powder were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Their magnetic properties were determined using a Quantum Design-Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (QD-VSM). The composites were analysed with SEM and EDS. The permeability and magnetic loss of the composites were measured with a B-H curve analyzer. The results show that, using the co-precipitation method, the raw precipitate was successfully prepared and coated the pure Fe powder and turned into spinel NiZn ferrite treated at 600 ℃ for 1 h. After heat treatment at 500 ℃ under air, the insulation coating layer of soft magnetic composite (SMC) was not destroyed and containing Fe, Ni, Zn and oxygen. The permeabilities of the SMC are stable at edge of the 2–200 kHz frequency range and the total loss was lower. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Fe/(NiZn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite powder heated at 600 ℃ for 1 h. - Highlights: • Fe particles were coated with (NiZn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} via a co-precipitation and calcined method. • Coating layers were uniform and dense. • The permeabilities of the SMC are stable at edge of the 2–200 kHz frequency range.

  8. Revisiting Pocos de Caldas. Application of the co-precipitation approach to establish realistic solubility limits for performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; Jordana, S.; Cera, E. [QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-02-01

    Solubility limits constitute a critical parameter for the determination of the mobility of radionuclides in the near field and the geosphere, and consequently for the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Mounting evidence from natural system studies indicate that trace elements, and consequently radionuclides, are associated to the dynamic cycling of major geochemical components. We have recently developed a thermodynamic approach to take into consideration the co-precipitation and co-dissolution processes that mainly control this linkage. The approach has been tested in various natural system studies with encouraging results. The Pocos de Caldas natural analogue was one of the sites where a full testing of our predictive geochemical modelling capabilities were done during the analogue project. We have revisited the Pocos de Caldas data and expanded the trace element solubility calculations by considering the documented trace metal/major ion interactions. This has been done by using the co-precipitation/co-dissolution approach. The outcome is as follows: A satisfactory modelling of the behaviour of U, Zn and REEs is achieved by assuming co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. Strontium concentrations are apparently controlled by its co-dissolution from Sr-rich fluorites. From the performance assessment point of view, the present work indicates that calculated solubility limits using the co-precipitation approach are in close agreement with the actual trace element concentrations. Furthermore, the calculated radionuclide concentrations are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than conservative solubility limits calculated by assuming equilibrium with individual trace element phases. 34 refs, 18 figs, 13 tabs.

  9. Red coloration by heat treatment of the coprecipitate of cadmium sulfide and mercury(II) sulfide prepared from the nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Fujiya

    1979-01-01

    The effects of starting salts on the color, particle size and crystal structure of mercury-cadmium-sulfide pigments were investigated. The coprecipitate (N-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was prepared by adding sodium sulfide solution to a mixed cadmium-mercury (II) nitrate solution. The coprecipitate (C-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was also prepared from the mixed solution of their chlorides by the same method as described above. The coprecipitated products were heat-treated (calcination or hydrothermal treatment) at 350 0 C for 2 hours and subsequent changes in powder properties of both products were compared from each other. The powder properties of N-S, C-S and their heat-treated products were investigated by spectral reflectance, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and specific surface area measurements. Sample (N-C) obtained by the calcination of N-S was brown, indicating no red coloration, but the calcined product (C-C) of C-S developed a red color. Cl - and hot water were found to be effective for the red color development of the pigment. The effectiveness was confirmed by calcining N-S in the presence of NaCl or by treating it hydrothermally. It was found that halides other than NaCl, (e.g., NH 4 Cl, KCl, KBr and KI), were also effective for the color development of the pigment. The red samples are solid solutions with a basically hexagonal CdS structure, and it appears that CdS takes up HgS without any apparent structural changes. The particle size of the red samples are larger than those of the non red samples. (author)

  10. Synthesis of cubic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders by co-precipitation and two-step calcinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, H. N.; Zhu, C.; Ma, F. F.; Shao, G. Q.

    2017-04-01

    YAG powders were synthesized by co-precipitation and two-step moderate calcinations at 600/800 °C or 600/900 °C in air, respectively. Two kinds of the synthesized powders both possess pure cubic YAG phases without any secondary phases such as YAH, YAP and YAM, etc.. The former has low agglomeration with nano-sized primary particles and large active energy, and the latter has homogeneously dispersed and well-crystallized particles, with a narrow particle size distribution of 8 - 13 µm.

  11. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrogen to ammonia with coprecipitated Fe(III) and Ti(IV) hydrous oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakone, K.; Fernando, C.A.N.; Damayanthi, M.W.P.; Silva, L.H.K.; Wijeratne, W.; Wickramanayake, S.; Punchihewa, S.; Illeperuma, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of coprecipitated hydrous oxides of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) is found to photocatalyse reduction of molecular nitrogen to ammonia with visible light. The activity of the complex catalyst is higher than that of pure hydrous ferric oxide which also catalyses the above reaction. It is suggested that hydrous TiO/sub 2/ acts as the hole transfer agent so that water oxidation takes place at the TiO/sub 2/ sites and nitrogen reduction at ferric oxide sites.

  12. Comparison of arsenic co-precipitation and adsorption by iron minerals and the mechanism of arsenic natural attenuation in a mine stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Ahn, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Mine stream precipitate collected from Ilkwang mine, Korea, contained high concentrations of arsenic (As), while water collected from the same site had negligible As concentrations, indicating natural attenuation of As occurred in the mine stream. The mechanism of attenuation was explained by comparison of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of As(V) co-precipitated with or adsorbed to iron (Fe) minerals in mine precipitates. Arsenic in the mine precipitate was present as As(V) and schwertmannite was the main Fe mineral. Arsenic co-precipitation with schwertmannite was the major mechanism of As removal in the mine stream, followed by As adsorption by goethite and As co-precipitation with ferrihydrite. Schwertmannite and ferrihydrite were formed in acid mine drainage and As was incorporated in their structure during formation. Additionally, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite may transform to goethite with As adsorbed onto the goethite surface. Based on the results of batch experiments of As co-precipitation and adsorption, co-precipitation of As with ferrihydrite and schwertmannite was the most effective As sequestration mechanism in the removal of As(V) from acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E.

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 x 10 -3 M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) x 10 -4 M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH) 3 , Fe(OH) 3 , Cr(OH) 3 , and Mn(OH) 2 obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400

  14. Co-precipitation of tobramycin into biomimetically coated orthopedic fixation pins employing submicron-thin seed layers of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Jan H; Lilja, Mirjam; Åstrand, Maria; Sörensen, Torben C; Procter, Philip; Strømme, Maria; Steckel, Hartwig

    2014-01-01

    The migration, loosening and cut-out of implants and nosocomial infections are current problems associated with implant surgery. New innovative strategies to overcome these issues are emphasized in today's research. The current work presents a novel strategy involving co-precipitation of tobramycin with biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) formation to produce implant coatings that control local drug delivery to prevent early bacterial colonization of the implant. A submicron- thin HA layer served as seed layer for the co-precipitation process and allowed for incorporation of tobramycin in the coating from a stock solution of antibiotic concentrations as high as 20 mg/ml. Concentrations from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml tobramycin and process temperatures of 37 °C and 60 °C were tested to assess the optimal parameters for a thin tobramycin- delivering HA coating on discs and orthopedic fixation pins. The morphology and thickness of the coating and the drug-release profile were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The coatings delivered pharmaceutically relevant amounts of tobramycin over a period of 12 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest release period ever observed for a fast-loaded biomimetic implant coating. The presented approach could form the foundation for development of combination device/antibiotic delivery vehicles tailored to meet well-defined clinical needs while combating infections and ensuring fast implant in-growth.

  15. Characterization of γ- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized by Co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jbara, Ahmed S., E-mail: ahmedsbhe@yahoo.com [Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Physics Department, Science College, Al-Muthanna University, Samawah - 66001 (Iraq); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ati, Ali A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Saeed, M.A., E-mail: moalsd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai - 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore - 54770 (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    Co-precipitation technique has been used to synthesize gamma-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders under annealing temperature effect. The crystalline phase and purity for the prepared powder were characterized by different spectroscopy techniques. XRD analysis confirms the gamma phase of alumina nanopowders with particle diameter ranging from 6 to 24 nm, which confirms the quantum dots formation, which is also supported by the BET measurement. The surface area of the prepared nanopowders is in the range of 109–367 m{sup 2}/g. Morphology analysis indicates that γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders are consisted of grains almost spherical in shape. Some agglomeration of nanoparticles occurs, which become more regular hexagonal shaped with the increasing annealing temperature. The small nanoparticles size and the high surface area from a simple procedure for preparing γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may make it more suitable for use as an adsorbent for malachite green. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation technique is used to synthesize gamma- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders. • Pure gamma- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was obtained having maximum nanoparticle size is 24 nm. • The quantum dots were formed inside powder. • High surface area of nanopowders at the low annealing temperature. • Increasing annealing temperature causes the hexagonal agglomeration shape.

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Coprecipitation Method: An Approach to Obtain Magnetite and Maghemite Nanoparticles with Improved Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sacchi Peternele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides that exhibit magnetic properties have been widely studied not only from an academic standpoint, but also for numerous applications in different fields of knowledge, such as biomedical and technological research. In this work, magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation of FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O (proportion of 1 : 2 in three different cases using two bases (sodium hydroxide and hydroxide ammonium as precipitants. The chemical coprecipitation method was selected for its simplicity, convenience, reproducibility, and low cost in the use of glassware. The nanostructured materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and magnetometry (VSM. The objective of this work is to study the variation in the morphological characteristics and physical properties of nanoparticles magnetic as a function of the different production processes. As observed by TEM, the materials obtained from the precipitating agent NH4OH are more uniform than those obtained with NaOH. From XRD pattern analysis, it appears that the obtained materials correspond to magnetite and maghemite and, from magnetometry VSM analysis, show high magnetization as a function of the magnetic field at room temperature, indicating that these materials are superparamagnetic.

  17. Gd doping induced weak ferromagnetic ordering in ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by low temperature co-precipitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Palvinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002 (India); Kumar, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeev04101977@gmail.com [Applied Science Department, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh, 160012 (India); Chen, Chi-Liang, E-mail: chen.cl@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kai-Siang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wei, Da-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chung-Li [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan (China); Srivastava, C. [Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Rao, S.M. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002 (India); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-15

    Zn{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}S nanoparticles with Gd concentration x = 0.00, 0.02 and 0.04 were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation technique using thioglycerol as capping agent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the as synthesized Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. XRD and TEM studies show the formation of cubic ZnS nanoparticles with an average size in the range 5–10 nm. The doping did not alter the phase of the ZnS. The PL spectra of doped ZnS nanoparticles showed the presence of sulphur vacancies in the lattice. XANES of Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles depicts spectral changes may arise from charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. A VSM study shows that the weak ferromagnetic behaviour increases with increase in Gd doping ZnS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation technique. • PL studies depict sulphur and zinc vacancies in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles. • XANES studies depict the charge transfer between host Zn and dopant Gd ions. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetism is observed in Gd doped ZnS nanoparticles.

  18. Development of Hydrotalcite Based Cobalt Catalyst by Hydrothermal and Co-precipitation Method for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faizan Shareef

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of a synthesis method for cobalt catalyst supported on hydrotalcite material for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The hydrotalcite supported cobalt (HT-Co catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using various techniques like BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Fixed bed micro reactor was used to test the catalytic activity of prepared catalysts. The catalytic testing results demonstrated the performance of hydrotalcite based cobalt catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with high selectivity for liquid products. The effect of synthesis method on the activity and selectivity of catalyst was also discussed. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 3rd November 2016; Revised: 26th February 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Sharif, M.S., Arslan, M., Iqbal, N., Ahmad, N., Noor, T. (2017. Development of Hydrotalcite Based Cobalt Catalyst by Hydrothermal and Co-precipitation Method for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(3: 357-363 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.762.357-363

  19. Synthesis and characterization of La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, F.A., E-mail: fernandafabianro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Aluísio Campos, Departamento de Física, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Pedra, P.P.; Filho, J.L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Aluísio Campos, Departamento de Física, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Duque, J.G.S.; Meneses, C.T. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, Departamento de Física, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic and structural properties have been investigated in La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction measurements allied to Rietveld method confirm the formation of LaCrO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and LaMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles with crystal structure orthorhombic (Pbnm), orthorhombic (Pnma) and rhombohedral (R-3c), respectively. We also verified an decreasing in the average crystallite size from 73 to 26 nm, depending of the transition metal. The magnetic measurements reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior for the LaCrO{sub 3} sample with T{sub N}~289 K, and a weak ferromagnetic ordering for the LaMnO{sub 3} sample with T{sub c}~200 K. - Highlights: • La(Cr,Fe,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. • XRD results confirm the formation single phase in the compounds studied. • Magnetic property in the La(Fe,Cr,Mn)O{sub 3} nanoparticles dependent on the TM. • La(Cr,Fe)O{sub 3} nanoparticles presented behavior antiferromagnetic and LaMnO{sub 3} ferromagnetic.

  20. Structural, magnetic, dielectric and bonding properties of BiMnO3 grown by co-precipitation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanif

    Full Text Available In this work, powders of BiMnO3 (BMO are prepared by using co-precipitation method. The effect of sintering temperature on the physical properties is observed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD reveals monoclinic structure, while the surface morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates sintering temperature dependent grain growth and an increased surface uniformity. The paramagnetic behavior is exhibited by the grown samples at room temperature (RT, which is due to the ordering temperature well below RT. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decay with frequency, which is due to the dipole relaxation. Moreover, Mn–O and Bi–O vibrational bands have been observed in the range 800–850 cm−1 and 500–600 cm−1, respectively. The prepared samples find potential application as a multiferroic material, with simultaneous control over both the magnetism and the dielectric characteristics. Keywords: Multiferroics, Paramagnetism, Co-precipitation, Dielectric constant, Surface morphology

  1. Evaluation of Three Chitin Metal Silicate Co-Precipitates as a Potential Multifunctional Single Excipient in Tablet Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Al-Shaikh Hamid

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the novel chitin metal silicate (CMS co-precipitates as a single multifunctional excipient in tablet formulation using direct compression and wet granulation methods is evaluated. The neutral, acidic, and basic drugs Spironolactone (SPL, ibuprofen (IBU and metronidazole (MET, respectively, were used as model drugs. Commercial Aldactone®, Fleximex® and Dumazole® tablets containing SPL, IBU and MET, respectively, and tablets made using Avicel® 200, were used in the study for comparison purposes. Tablets of acceptable crushing strength (>40 N were obtained using CMS. The friability values for all tablets were well below the maximum 1% USP tolerance limit. CMS produced superdisintegrating tablets (disintegration time < 1 min with the three model drugs. Regarding the dissolution rate, the sequence was as follow: CMS > Fleximex® > Avicel® 200, CMS > Avicel® 200 > Dumazole® and Aldactone® > Avicel® 200 > CMS for IBU, MET and SPL, respectively. Compressional properties of formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the compression Kawakita equation as assessment parameters. On the basis of DSC results, CMS co precipitates were found to be compatible with the tested drugs. Conclusively, the CMS co-precipitates have the potential to be used as filler, binder, and superdisintegrant, all-in-one, in the design of tablets by the direct compression as well as wet granulation methods.

  2. Plasma-enhanced comparative hydrothermal and coprecipitation preparation of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 nanocatalyst used in hydrogen production via methanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherzadeh, Seyed Behnam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalyst is synthesized by hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. In order to evaluation the effects of plasma treatment, synthesized samples by each preparation method are exposed under non-thermal glow discharge plasma. It is obvious from FESEM images that plasma treatment can significantly affect surficial morphology and particles size distribution of the nanocatalysts. The most uniform distribution of isomorph particles and the smallest size of particles in the sample which is synthesized by plasma assisted coprecipitation method can facilitate achieving of reactants to surficial active phases and this leads to the best performance of this sample in steam reforming of methanol reaction. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal vs. coprecipitation synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalyst. • Improvement of catalytic properties by applying non-thermal glow discharge plasma. • Better performance of plasma-coprecipitated nanocatalyst vs. plasma-hydrothermal one. • Enhanced hydrogen production over plasma treated nanocatalysts. - Abstract: The CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 nanocatalyst was synthesized using hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. Then they were exposed to glow discharge plasma for 45 min at 1000 V. The performance of prepared nanocatalysts in conversion of methanol to hydrogen was investigated in steam reforming of methanol reaction. Various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, field emission electron microscopy, particle size distribution, EDX-dot mapping, BET surface area and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used in order to obtain physicochemical properties of synthesized nanocatalysts. XRD diffraction patterns showed that applying coprecipitation method and also glow discharge plasma, led to more dispersion of CuO (1 1 1) crystallite plate. FESEM images displayed that using non-thermal plasma assisted coprecipitation synthesis method caused to best surficial morphology and particle size

  3. Determination of Ultra-trace Amounts of Arsenic(III) by Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with On-line Preconcentration by Coprecipitation with Lanthanum Hydroxide or Hafnium Hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    . Subsequently the precipitate is eluted with 1 mol/l hydrochloric acid, allowing ensuing determination of the analyte via hydride generation. The preconcentration of As(III) was tested by coprecipitation with two different inorganic coprecipitating agents namely La(III) and Hf(IV). It was shown that As...

  4. Effect of Co(2+) and Ni(2+)-doped zinc borate nano crystalline powders by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaesool; Venkata Reddy, Ch; Sarma, G V S S; Narayana Murthy, P; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2015-05-05

    A simple co-precipitation method has been used for the synthesis of Co(2+) and Ni(2+)-doped zinc borate nanopowders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/Vis absorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies techniques has been employed for their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction data reveals that the crystal structure belongs to monoclinic for both as-prepared samples. SEM images showed surface morphology of the prepared samples. Optical absorption spectra showed the characteristic bands of doped ions in octahedral site symmetry. From the optical absorption data crystal field and inter-electronic repulsion parameters are evaluated. The FT-IR spectra showed the characteristic vibrational bands related to ZnO, BO3 and BO4 molecules. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited the emission bands in ultraviolet and blue regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+ doped barium titanate phosphor prepared by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Kaushal; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we have synthesized the Er(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped barium titanate phosphor via co-precipitation method and studied its upconversion emission properties. The prepared BaTiO3 powder was found in cubic phase as a major component and having good crystallinity revealed by the XRD analysis. Optical band gap of the cubic barium titanate was calculated using the diffuse reflectance absorption spectrum. Good green upconversion emission is observed from the samples when excited by 980 nm diode laser. The variation in upconversion emission intensity is studied with the increase in excitation power as well as temperature of the sample. It is found that the emission bands centred at 524 and 548 nm are thermally coupled and can act as a temperature sensor in the 300-480 K temperature range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging Time Effect on Porous Characteristics of Natural Mud-based Silica Prepared by Hydrothermal-Coprecipitation Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaid, A.; Hidayat, N.; Munasir

    2017-05-01

    In this present study, we report the influence of aging time on porous characteristics and chemical bonding within structurally related silicates of silica. The silica was well prepared by using a combination of hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. Local natural mud from Sidoarjo, Indonesia was preferred as a starting material, rather than the expensive commercial ones. The aging time was set at 20, 24, 28, and 32 hours. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) test revealed that the produced porous silica has a purity of 98.9%. The Fourier Transform of Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed that ≡Si-OH and ≡Si-O -Si≡ functional groups were found in the samples. The pores of the silica, after Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, found to be macropore and mesopore. The prepared silica with different porous characteristics were strongly influenced by the chemical activities during the synthesis, known as syneresis and Ostwald processes.

  7. Optical and structural properties of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Abhinav, Singh, Gurwinder Pal; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Today nanomaterials plays important role in every field, due to their unique mechanical, chemical and electrical properties which are completely different from the bulk materials. With reduction in the size of material its properties are dynamically changed. Semiconductor materials are widely used in electronic devices but in the field of optoelectronic these materials have some limitations. Tin oxide could be the material which could be used in these applications without limitations. Doped Tin Oxide is an oxygen deficient material which could be beneficial for transparent conducting oxide. Iron doped SnO2 prepared by co-precipitation method. Studies on structural properties of undoped and doped SnO2 were done by X-ray diffraction. The XRD results have shown that the size of the nanoparticles decreases with Fe doping down to 53nm. Optical Properties were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. Band gap was found to decrease with increase in iron content in samples.

  8. Optical and structural properties of Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navneet; Abhinav,; Singh, Gurwinder Pal; Kumar, Sacheen, E-mail: sacheen3@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh [Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra, University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India-136119 (India); Singh, Vishal [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P., India-177005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Today nanomaterials plays important role in every field, due to their unique mechanical, chemical and electrical properties which are completely different from the bulk materials. With reduction in the size of material its properties are dynamically changed. Semiconductor materials are widely used in electronic devices but in the field of optoelectronic these materials have some limitations. Tin oxide could be the material which could be used in these applications without limitations. Doped Tin Oxide is an oxygen deficient material which could be beneficial for transparent conducting oxide. Iron doped SnO{sub 2} prepared by co-precipitation method. Studies on structural properties of undoped and doped SnO{sub 2} were done by X-ray diffraction. The XRD results have shown that the size of the nanoparticles decreases with Fe doping down to 53nm. Optical Properties were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. Band gap was found to decrease with increase in iron content in samples.

  9. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Maria Cristina; Pei, Yongbing; Ring, Terry A

    2013-11-28

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄) represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C₂H₅)₄NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  10. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mascolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C2H54NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Atenolol Delivery Application of Functionalized Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Co-precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Derazkola, Sobhan; Naimi-Jamal, Mohammad Reza; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Atenolol has been used to treat angina and hypertension, either alone or with other antihypertensives. Despite its usefulness, it shows some side effects such as diarrhea and nausea in some patients. A method for slow release of atenolol in intestine is helpful to prevent such side effects. A facile co-precipitation microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (mHAp). It was then functionalized to have SO3H groups. The synthesized material was used for storage/slow release study of atenolol. Atenolol loaded mHAp shows immediate release of atenolol in pH 8, whileafter functionalizing shows up to ca. 30% release at the beginning. In pH 1, 50% of drug was released after 10 h from AT@mHAp and after 18h the drug was almost completely released.The drug release profiles of functionalized HAp at pH value 1 and 8reveals the complete release of atenolol in intestine pH, while no complete release is observed in stomach environment. The aims of this work were synthesis and characterization of mesoporous HAp through the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method and elucidate the underlying drug release capability of mesoporous HAp nanoparticles. The SO3H group was incorporated into the mesoporous HAp and then used as drug delivery carriers using atenolol as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Increasing pH value to 8 causes increase in the drug release.

  12. Determination of heavy metals at sub-ppm levels in seawater and dialysis solutions by FAAS after tetrakis(pyridine)-nickel(II)bis(thiocyanate) coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Uğur; Kartal, Senol; Ulgen, Ahmet

    2008-06-01

    A coprecipitation method has been developed for the determination of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) with the combination of pyridine, nickel(II) as a carrier element and potassium thiocyanate as an auxiliary complexing agent. The obtained coprecipitates were dissolved with nitric acid and measured by FAAS. The coprecipitation conditions, such as the effect of the pH, amounts of nickel, pyridine and potassium thiocyanate, sample volume, and the standing time of the precipitate formation were examined in detail. It was found that the metal ions studied were quantitatively coprecipitated with tetrakis(pyridine)-nickel(II)bis(thiocyanate) precipitate (TP-Ni-BT) in the pH range of 9.0 - 10.5. The reliability of the results was evaluated by recovery tests, using synthetic seawater solutions spiked with the analyte metal ions. The obtained recoveries ranged from 96 to 101% for all of the metal ions investigated. The proposed method was validated by analyses of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2711 Montana soil and HPS Certified Waste Water Trace Metals Lot #D532205). It was also successfully applied to seawater and dialysis solution samples. The detection limits (n = 25, 3s) were in the range of 0.01-2.44 microg l(-1) for the studied elements and the relative standard deviations were seawater and dialysis solution having high salt contents.

  13. Aluminum Coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides: Does Isomorphous Substitution of Al3plus for Fe3plus in Goethite Occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Bazilevskaya; D Archibald; M Aryanpour; J Kubicki; C Martinez

    2011-12-31

    Iron (hydr)oxides are common in natural environments and typically contain large amounts of impurities, presumably the result of coprecipitation processes. Coprecipitation of Al with Fe (hydr)oxides occurs, for example, during alternating reduction-oxidation cycles that promote dissolution of Fe from Fe-containing phases and its re-precipitation as Fe-Al (hydr)oxides. We used chemical and spectroscopic analyses to study the formation and transformation of Al coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides. In addition, periodic density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to assess the structural and energetic effects of isolated or clustered Al atoms at 8 and 25 mol% Al substitution in the goethite structure. Coprecipitates were synthesized by raising the pH of dilute homogeneous solutions containing a range of Fe and Al concentrations (100% Fe to 100% Al) to 5. The formation of ferrihydrite in initial suspensions with {<=}20 mol% Al, and of ferrihydrite and gibbsite in initial suspensions with {>=}25 mol% Al was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction analyses. While base titrations showed a buffer region that corresponded to the hydrolysis of Fe in initial solutions with {<=}25 mol% Al, all of the Al present in these solutions was retained by the solid phases at pH 5, thus indicating Al coprecipitation with the primary Fe hydroxide precipitate. In contrast, two buffer regions were observed in solutions with 30 mol% Al (at pH {approx}2.25 for Fe{sup 3+} and at pH {approx}4 for Al{sup 3+}), suggesting the formation of Fe and Al (hydr)oxides as two separate phases. The Al content of initial coprecipitates influenced the extent of ferrihydrite transformation and of its transformation products as indicated by the presence of goethite, hematite and/or ferrihydrite in aged suspensions. DFT experiments showed that: (i) optimized unit cell parameters for Al-substituted goethites (8 and 25 Mol% Al) in clustered arrangement (i.e., the

  14. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with high magnetization prepared by acetone-aided coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu, E-mail: hfyu@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2013-09-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with high magnetization were produced using an acetone-aided coprecipitation process. An aqueous solution of iron and barium nitrates, in an Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio of 12, was added in a stirred precipitation liquid medium composed of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}(CO)CH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH. After reacting metallic ions with ammonia, the precipitates were formed, centrifugally filtered, freeze dried and calcined. Effects of amount of the acetone in the precipitation liquid medium on the formation of crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were investigated. The presence of acetone in the precipitation liquid medium can greatly promote formation of the crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at temperature as low as 650 °C and can enhance magnetization of the derived particles. On the other hand, raising the calcination temperature can effectively accelerate development of crystallite morphology and magnetic characters of the barium hexaferrites. While the barium hexaferrite powder obtained without acetone additions and calcined at 1000 °C had magnetization (measured at 50 kOe; M(50 kOe)) of 63.5 emu/g, remanence magnetization (Mr) of 31.3 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 4.7 kOe, the single magnetic domain size BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was produced at 1000 °C, using a precipitation liquid medium of 64 vol% acetone. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high magnetic characters was produced by an acetone-aided coprecipitation. • The effects of acetone addition in the precipitation on the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were studied. • Acetone presence in the precipitation liquid medium promoted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation at ≥650 °C. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was obtained.

  15. Preparation of LuAG Powders with Single Phase and Good Dispersion for Transparent Ceramics Using Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjie Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of pure and well dispersed lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG powder is crucial and important for the preparation of LuAG transparent ceramics. In this paper, high purity and well dispersed LuAG powders have been synthesized via co-precipitation method with lutetium nitrate and aluminum nitrate as raw materials. Ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC was used as the precipitant. The influence of aging time, pH value, and dripping speed on the prepared LuAG powders were investigated. It showed that long aging duration (>15 h with high terminal pH value (>7.80 resulted in segregation of rhombus Lu precipitate and Al precipitate. By decreasing the initial pH value or accelerating the dripping speed, rhombus Lu precipitate was eliminated and pure LuAG nano powders were synthesized. High quality LuAG transparent ceramics with transmission >75% at 1064 nm were fabricated using these well dispersed nano LuAG powders.

  16. Co-Precipitation of YAG Powders for Transparent Materials: Effect of the Synthesis Parameters on Processing and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of transparent polycrystalline Y3Al5O12 (YAG is still a challenge, requiring the achievement of highly pure and fully dense, homogeneous materials. An important role is played by the powder characteristics: pure, fine and unagglomerated powders are essential for achieving full density and the required microstructural features. Keeping in mind these requirements, the aim of this work was to investigate the role of different synthesis parameters during co-precipitation, which is widely used to prepare YAG powders for transparent devices. The key role of the precipitant solution is here illustrated, by comparing the effect of aqueous ammonia (AA versus ammonium hydrogen carbonate (AHC. This latter allowed the preparation of softly agglomerated powders, characterized by a very good sinterability. However, when AHC is used, attention should be paid to its concentration. By comparing the effect of two AHC precipitant solutions (at 0.5 M and 1.5 M, respectively, only the former one allowed the preparation of pure YAG powders, free from secondary phases. In this last condition, by using both chlorides and nitrates as YAG precursors, pressureless sintering at 1500–1600 °C/3 h gave rise to pure materials, highly dense and characterized by a fine and homogeneous microstructure.

  17. Magnetic properties of co-precipitated hexaferrite powders with Sm-Co substitutions optimized with the molten flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, C.; Litsardakis, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, using the chemical coprecipitation method, Sr1-xSmxFe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) hexaferrite powders were prepared. Major magnetization loops were recorded at room temperature in order to determine the correct calcination temperature for optimum hard magnetic properties. It is found that a small degree of substitution increases substantially the coercive field. Also, the use of the molten flux calcination method increases the remanent magnetization. SEM/EDXS and XRD measurements were performed at the calcined powders: the results show that a single hexaferrite phase is formed and that the substituted powders consist of an assembly of grains with a mean diameter of 40 nm. Measurements of minor magnetization loops and of the temperature and time dependence of the magnetization confirm that the powders consist of a non-oriented single domain magnetic particles assembly. The results indicate that Sm could be a viable replacement for La in the manufacturing of hexaferrites with a high-energy product.

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Ist group elements codoped ZnO:Fe nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazhanivelu, V.; Paul Blessington Selvadurai, A. [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India); Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry 605014 (India); Murugaraj, R., E-mail: r.murugaraj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we report on the structural, vibrational and magnetic behavior of Ist group elements (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +}) codoping effect in ZnO:Fe nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by co-precipitation method. The single crystalline phase of the prepared NPs was identified as Wurtizite structure and the Raman spectra expressed the local structural change and the presence of complex lattice defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and Oxygen vacanvy (V{sup +}{sub o}) defects in the NPs. The presence of functional groups was confirmed by FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical absorption properties of the prepared NPs were characterised by UV-Drs spectroscopy. The valance state of Zinc ions and the role of Oxygen related defects were analysed from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral line illustrated the presence of complex defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and oxygen vacancy (V{sup +}{sub o}) defects in the sample. The observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in the prepared sample was induced by lattice defects. The observed results are discussed and reported.

  19. Investigation of optical, photocatalytic and physical adsorption of a new nanocomposite synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Googhari, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    In this experimental work, different morphologies of the CdxZn1-xS/ZnO nanocomposite were synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method. The effect of Zn2+: Cd2+ mole ratio on the product size and morphology was investigated and it was found that the mole ratio has a significant effect on the morphology of the products. To study the crystallinity and purity of the product, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was served. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the products. The optical properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites were studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra. Photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite was carried out by decomposition of Acid Black 1 dye, and it was found after 60min, almost all the dye structure was decomposed under UV radiation. Finally, to study the nanocomposite performance in removing heavy metal ions from water, three different solutions containing Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ with 0.01 molar concentration were prepared in the aqueous medium and the absorption of them with the nanocomposite was investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that the synthesized nanocomposite has a unique performance and it can remove almost 80% of heavy metal ions from the water.

  20. Synthesis of Zn1-xCuxO Nanoparticles by Coprecipitation and Their Structure and Electrical Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Daratika, Dyah; Anjelh Baqiya, Malik; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    The Zn1-xCuxO (x = 0 - 6% wt) nanoparticles has been synthesized by coprecipitation method using zinc acetate dihydrate, and copper powder were employed with HCl and NH4OH respectively as solvent and precipitating agents. The effect of Cu concentration on structural, optical, and electrical properties of Zn1-xCuxO nanoparticles were investigated. The diffraction patterns of XRD indicate that Zn1-xCuxO phase crystallized in the wurtzite structure having crystal size which was evaluated by using MAUD software, in the range of 28 - 79 nm. Electron microscope analysis shows the morphology of Zn1-xCuxO is nanowires, having finer grains with the increasing content of Cu. The Cu doping reduced the optical band gap energy from 3.10 eV to 2.80 eV, while the electrical conductivity increased from 1.18 × 10-8 to 24.25 × 10-8 S/cm. This result implies that Cu+ or Cu2+ ions have substituted Zn2+ ions. However, doping of Cu more than 4% wt increase optical band gap which makes the electrical conductivity decrease. The electrical conductivity obtained from this study is significantly higher than that reported previously.

  1. Electrical transport properties of CoZn ferrite-SiO{sub 2} composites prepared by co-precipitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan)], E-mail: muislampk@yahoo.com; Aen, Faiza [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Niazi, Shahida B. [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, M.; Ishaque, M.; Abbas, T.; Rana, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan)

    2008-06-15

    CoZn ferrite-SiO{sub 2} composites having general formula (1 - x)Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} + xSiO{sub 2} with x = 0.0-0.8 were prepared by co-precipitation technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the composites reveals that they are bi-phase. Room temperature resistivity increases from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 9} ({omega} cm) from x = 0.0-0.8. This drastic increase in resistivity may be attributed to the presence of pores and the segregation of Si at grain boundaries. The Arrhenius plots of these samples show that resistivity decreases as the temperature increases indicating their semi conducting behavior. Arrhenius plots show a change of slope at particular temperature (except for x = 0.8) that may be attributed to their Curie temperature. It is observed that the activation energies are small in Para-region as compared to Ferri-region and is an indication of the hopping conduction mechanism. The variation of thermopower with temperature reveals that these samples are degenerate type semiconductors. The values of activation energies calculated from log {mu}{sub d} vs. 1000/T are slightly lower than the values of activation energies obtained from Arrhenius plots. This suggests that the conduction phenomenon is due to polaron hopping.

  2. Investigating the effect of Mn-doped CeO2 nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabaharan, D. Durai Manoharadoss; Sadaiyandi, K.; Mahendran, M.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The paper exhibits a detailed study about the synthesis and characterization in analysis of structural, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of pure and Mn-doped Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles which were synthesized by co-precipitation technique. Phase formation of the prepared sample was analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) examines, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The PXRD comes about affirmed partial crystallinity having cubic phases and the crystallite sizes of the pure and Mn-doped Cerium oxide (CeO2) were estimated by utilizing Debye-Scherrer's formula and they were calculated to be 12 and 14 nm individually. SEM pictures revealed that the particles were profoundly accumulated and were of permeable nature. The optical properties of pure and Mn-doped CeO2 were ascertained by using UV-visible absorption spectrum. The estimated band gap values for the pure and the Mn-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were observed to be 2.7 and 2.6 eV, respectively, utilizing UV-Vis spectroscopy. At different frequencies and temperatures the dielectric properties of the Mn-doped Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles, for example, the dielectric consistent, the dielectric loss and the AC conductivity, were studied.

  3. Separation of valence forms of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation with iron(III) hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirmadov, B.; Khamidov, B.O.; Egorova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption of 9.62·10 -5 M of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with iron hydroxide in 1 M potassium nitrate and potassium chloride was investigated in relation to the pH of the medium. Experimental data on the sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) with iron(III) hydroxide made it possible to determine the region of practically complete concentration of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) (pH = 3-6.5). The results from spectrophotometric investigations, calculated data on the distribution of the hydroxocationic forms of chromium(III) and the anions of chromium(IV), and their sorption by iron-(III) hydroxide made it possible to characterize the sorbability of the cationic and anionic forms of chromium in various degrees of oxidation. On this basis a method was developed for the separation of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation on iron(III) hydroxide and their separation from the iron(III) hydroxide support

  4. Preparation and characterization of polyol assisted ultrafine Cu–Ni–Mg–Ca mixed ferrite via co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobalan, T. [Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Pavithradevi, S. [Department of Physics, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Suriyanarayanan, N., E-mail: nsuri22@gmail.com [Department of Physics, PSG Polytechnic College, Coimbatore (India); Manivel Raja, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India, Hyderabad (India); Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite of composition Cu{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.2}Mg{sub 0.2}Ca{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is synthesized by wet hydroxyl co-precipitation method in ethylene glycol as chelating agent and sodium hydroxide as precipitator at pH 8. Ethylene glycol is utilized as the medium which serves as the dissolvable and in addition a complexing specialist. The synthesized particles are annealed at various temperatures. Thermogravimetric investigation affirms that at 280 °C ethylene glycol is dissipated totally and stable phase arrangement happens over 680 °C. FTIR spectra of as synthesized and annealed at 1050 °C recorded between 400 cm{sup −1} and 4000 cm{sup −1}. Structural characterizations of all the samples are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) affirm that the particles are spherical and cubic shape with the crystallite size of 12 nm to 32 nm. Magnetic measurements are performed utilizing vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. - Highlights: • Polyol improves purity of the spinel ferrite. • TG curves confirm the single phase ferrite is obtained above 680 °C. • Super paramagnetic behavior is seen at lower annealing temperature. • Soft ferromagnetic behavior is obtained at 1050 °C.

  5. Influence of Co{sup 2+} on the structural and magnetic properties of substituted magnetites obtained by the coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, A. A., E-mail: avelas26@eafit.edu.edu.co [Universidad EAFIT, Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (Colombia); Urquijo, J. P. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Sólido, Instituto de Física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we report the effect of divalent cobalt on the structural and magnetic properties of substituted magnetites, Fe {sub 3−x}Co {sub x}O{sub 4}, with γ=Co {sup 2+}/Fe = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 % wt, synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The samples were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, room temperature Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. The effect of Co {sup 2+} was found to depend strongly of the concentration employed in the synthesis process. For γ≤15 % the Co {sup 2+} promotes the formation of particles more crystalline and with higher saturation magnetization, remanence and coercivity than those obtained in absence of this cation. A sequential increasing of the lattice parameter is observed, as well as a reduction in the hyperfine magnetic field of the Fe {sup 2.5+}sub spectrum, while the hyperfine magnetic field of the Fe {sup 3+}sub spectrum keeps almost constant. For γ=20 % and 30 % the crystallinity of the samples decreases, particle size distribution effects are evidenced and the saturation magnetization decreases drastically. The results suggest that for low Co {sup 2+} contents the substitution of Fe {sup 3+}by Co {sup 2+} at octahedral sites of the inverse spinel system is the dominant effect, while for the highest concentrations used the substitution of Fe {sup 2+} by Co {sup 2+} and the increasing of the particle size distribution are the dominant effects.

  6. Preparation and characterization of polyol assisted ultrafine Cu-Ni-Mg-Ca mixed ferrite via co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobalan, T.; Pavithradevi, S.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Manivel Raja, M.; Ranjith Kumar, E.

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite of composition Cu0.2Ni0.2Mg0.2Ca0.4Fe2O4 is synthesized by wet hydroxyl co-precipitation method in ethylene glycol as chelating agent and sodium hydroxide as precipitator at pH 8. Ethylene glycol is utilized as the medium which serves as the dissolvable and in addition a complexing specialist. The synthesized particles are annealed at various temperatures. Thermogravimetric investigation affirms that at 280 °C ethylene glycol is dissipated totally and stable phase arrangement happens over 680 °C. FTIR spectra of as synthesized and annealed at 1050 °C recorded between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. Structural characterizations of all the samples are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) affirm that the particles are spherical and cubic shape with the crystallite size of 12 nm to 32 nm. Magnetic measurements are performed utilizing vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature.

  7. Structural characterization, formation mechanism and stability of curcumin in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Li, Ruirui; Mao, Like; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-12-15

    Curcumin (Cur) exhibits a range of bioactive properties, but its application is restrained due to its poor water solubility and sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation technique for delivery of Cur. The result showed that the encapsulation efficiency of Cur was significantly enhanced from 42.03% in zein nanoparticles to 99.83% in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles. The Cur entrapped in the nanoparticles was in an amorphous state confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic attraction were the main interactions among zein, lecithin, and Cur. Compared with single zein and lecithin nanoparticles, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles significantly improved the stability of Cur against thermal treatment, UV irradiation and high ionic strength. Therefore, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles could be a potential delivery system for water-insoluble bioactive compounds with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and chemical stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous precipitation of mineral products: influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Patrizio, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An automated experimental set-up with rapid mixers is used to study the influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides. The intensity of mixing is controlled by the inlet flow rates of the reacting solutions. An engulfment model is used to estimate a mixing time from the measurement of a segregation index by the Villermaux-Dushman reaction system. Three geometries of Hartridge Roughton mixers are compared. Mixing performance is better when a separate mixing chamber upstream of a narrower outlet pipe is present. A better mixing decreases the maximal reducibility temperature of the material and increases the crystal strains of the particles calcined at 1100 C. This is probably due to a better homogenization of the particles content. The important incorporation of nitrates in the particle at the outlet of the mixers shows precipitation occurs while the mixing process is not finished. This experimental result was confirmed by numerical simulation and an estimation of sur-saturations during the mixing process. (author)

  9. Research on a pellet co-precipitation micro-filtration process for the treatment of liquid waste containing strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Luo; North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing; Guanghui Zhang; Xue Wang; Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    The chemical precipitation method for radioactive wastewater treatment has the advantages of being simple and cost-effective. However, difficulties with the solid–liquid separation and sludge concentration restrict the application of this method. In this paper, a pellet co-precipitation micro-filtration (PCM) process was studied for treating strontium-containing wastewater on a laboratory scale. The seed was prepared by CaCO 3 powders. Sr 2+ and CO 3 2- were constantly crystallised on the seed surface, with Na 2 CO 3 as the precipitating agent in the pellet reactor. The following membrane separator with the addition of FeCl 3 enhanced the treatment effect. The average strontium concentrations in the raw water and in the effluent were 12.0 and 0.0220 mg/L, respectively. The strontium decontamination factor (DF) increased with the operation time, with an average value of 577. The precipitate particles formed gradually grew larger, with good sedimentation properties. When the experiment was complete, the formed precipitate was separated easily from the liquid phase and directly discharged. The concentration factor (CF) was 1,958. In the PCM process, crystallisation was the main mechanism for strontium removal, with the influent strontium level playing an important role. Membrane pore blockage and cake layer formation could help to further intercept the strontium crystallites. Furthermore, ferric chloride coagulation in the membrane separator also contributed to strontium removal. The PCM process has potential for wider application in the removal of strontium from wastewater. (author)

  10. Characterization and in vivo evaluation of chitosan-hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds made by one step coprecipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilchenko, Sergei N; Kalinkevich, Oksana V; Pogorelov, Maksim V; Kalinkevich, Aleksei N; Sklyar, Anatoly M; Kalinichenko, Tatyana G; Ilyashenko, Vyacheslav Y; Starikov, Vadim V; Bumeyster, Valentina I; Sikora, Vitaly Z; Sukhodub, Leonid F

    2011-03-15

    Chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds could be used for bone regeneration in case the application of auto- or allografts is impossible. The objective of the present work was to characterize and study in vivo biodegradation of simple chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds. For this purpose, a series of chitosan/hydroxyapatite composites has been synthesized in aqueous medium from chitosan solution and soluble precursor salts by a one step coprecipitation method. A study of in vivo behavior of the materials was then performed using model linear rats. Cylindrical-shaped rods made of the chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite material were implanted into tibial bones of the rats. After 5, 10, 15, and 24 days of implantation, histological and histo-morphometric analyses of decalcified specimens were performed to evaluate the stages of biodegradation processes. Calcified specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis to compare elemental composition and morphological characteristics of the implant and the bone during integration. Porous chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds have shown osteoconductive properties and have been replaced in the in vivo experiments by newly formed bone tissue. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, S. Y.; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro, Darminto

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.

  12. Photoluminescence and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnS nano-particles synthesized by chemical co-precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Eryong; Liu Donglai; Zhang Yunsen; Bai Xue; Yi Liang; Jin Yong; Jiao Zhifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Sun Xiaosong, E-mail: sunxs@scu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China)

    2011-08-15

    This paper is focusing on the synthesis of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S nano-particles with x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2 by chemical co-precipitation method, the prepared of which are characterized by XRD, EDS, TEM, PL, magnetization versus field behavior and M-T curve. In the XRD patterns, Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S nano-particles are shown of cubic zinc blende structure, and the broadening diffraction peaks consistent with the small-size characteristic of nano-materials. The diameter of nano-particles is between 3.3 and 5.5 nm according to the HR-TEM images. The EDS data confirm the existence of Fe ions in Fe-doped ZnS nanoparticles. There we found that Fe-doping did not import new energy bands or defect states, but reduced the intensity of PL peaks. The magnetization versus field behaviors were illustrated by the M-H curves at both 5 K and 300 K, respectively, where no remanence or coercive force was observed. This phenomenon indicates that the Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S (x = 0.1) nano-particles are superparamagnetic. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization curves further reveal that the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the superparamagnetic behavior might be below 5 K.

  13. Preparation of Fe3O4/Bentonite Nanocomposite from Natural Iron Sand by Co-precipitation Method for Adsorbents Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Kurniawan, Candra; Aryanto, Didik; Arief Setiadi, Eko; Tamba, Konni; Djuhana; Sudiro, Toto

    2018-03-01

    An adsorption method is one of the effective ways to filter the heavy metals wastes in aqueous system. In this paper, the Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites were successfully prepared from natural iron sand by co-precipitation method. The chemical process was carried out by dissolving and hot stirring the milled iron sand and bentonite in acid solution and precipitating it by NH4OH. The sediment was then washed using distilled water to neutralize pH and dried at 100 °C for 5 hours to produce Fe3O4/bentonite powders. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, TEM, VSM and AAS. All samples were composed by Fe3O4 single phase with a spinnel structure and lattice parameter of 8.373 Å. The transmittance peak of FTIR curve proved that the Fe3O4 particles and bentonite had a molecular bonding. The addition of bentonite to Fe3O4 nanoparticles generally reduced the magnetic properties of Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites. The optimum condition of 30 wt% bentonite resulted 105.9 m2/g in surface area, 14 nm in an average particle size and 3.2 nm in pore size. It can be used as Cu and Pb adsorbent materials.

  14. Study of new U(VI) and Pu(VI) coprecipitation methods for the preparation of (U,Pu)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanoit, J. de.

    1990-01-01

    Two U(VI) and Pu(VI) coprecipitation methods have been studied, for the definition of new processes to prepare (U,Pu)O 2 mixed oxides suitable for making MoX fuels or fast breeder reactor fuels. The first system is based on the coprecipitation of a new U(VI), Pu(VI) compound; ammonium uranoplutonate, where as a second system is related to the precipitation of uranyl plutonyl monocarbonate. Experimental conditions to optimize the precipitation and the filtration steps of these two systems have been determined. After calcination under reducing conditions, the mixed oxides obtained are characterized according to different techniques: granulometry, thermogravimetry, solubility in boiling HNO 3 solutions. The properties of such oxides are excellent. The possible processes for preparing (U, Pu)O 2 using these new routes are compared with those actually exploited [fr

  15. Superior magnetic properties of Ni ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by capping agent-free one-step coprecipitation route at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, P.; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sh.; Mehran, M.; Saeednia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, well-dispersed nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 with diameters less than 10 nm and good crystallinity and excellent magnetic properties were synthesized via a simple one-step capping agent-free coprecipitation route from metal chlorides. The ammonia was used as the precipitating agent and also the solution basicity controller. The effect of pH value during the coprecipitation process was investigated by details through microstructural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized particles using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the particle size, departure from the inverse spinel structure, the band gap value and the magnetization of Ni ferrite samples increase with pH value from 9 to 11 indicating the more pronounced surface effects in the smaller nanoparticles.

  16. Speciation analysis of 129I in seawater by carrier-free AgI-AgCl coprecipitation and accelerator mass spectrometric measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; He, Chaohui

    2013-01-01

    -2 and then separated by the same method as for iodide. Ag2SO3 in the coprecipitate was removed by washing with 3 mol/L HNO3 and the excess AgCl and AgBr was removed by use of diluted NH3, and finally a 1-3 mg precipitate was obtained for AMS measurement of 129I. The recovery of iodine species in the entire procedure...

  17. Determination of ultratrace dissolved arsenite in water - selective coprecipitation in the field combined with HGAFS and ICP-MS measurement in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elteren, J.T. van [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Slejkovec, Z. [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Svetina, M.; Glinsek, A. [ERICo Velenje, Environmental Research and Industrial Corp., Velenje (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Because stabilization of arsenite in water samples during transit and storage is troublesome, this work deals with a method to prevent this by on-site selective coprecipitation of arsenite with dibenzyldithiocarbamate and recovery of the coprecipitate by filtration through a 0.45-{mu}m membrane filter. In the laboratory arsenic on the filter is quantitatively released by oxidation of arsenite to arsenate with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (6%) in alkaline medium (8 mmol L{sup -1} NaOH) at elevated temperature (85 C) for 30 min followed by ultratrace determination by routine HGAFS and ICP-MS. It is shown that arsenate contamination of the coprecipitate is so low that arsenate concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than the arsenite concentration do not interfere; this is essential, because arsenate is usually the dominant arsenic species in water. Because significant preconcentration can be achieved in the solution obtained from the leached filter (normally a factor 20 but easily increased to 100) very low detection limits can be obtained (only limited by the purity of the materials and the cleanliness of working); a realistic limit of determination is 0.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} arsenite. The procedure was used for the determination of arsenite in two ground waters from an ash depository site in the Salek valley (Slovenia). The matrix contained some elements at very high levels but this did not impair the efficiency of arsenite coprecipitation. The results obtained by use of HGAFS and ICP-MS were not significantly different at the 5% level for sub-{mu}g L{sup -1} arsenite concentrations. (orig.)

  18. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the finding...

  19. Preparation of (U, Gd)O2 by inverse co-precipitation in nitric solutions. Study of homogeneity and process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchi, Daniel E.; Menghini, Jorge E.; Trimarco, Viviana G.

    1999-01-01

    The inverse co-precipitation method has been used at the laboratory level to produce uranium - gadolinium mixed oxides. The formation of a mixed phase in the precipitates has been determined as well as the occurrence of only one phase in the sintered pellets, corresponding to a gadolinium - uranium solution. Moreover, a modification in the calcination-reduction stage was introduced that allows the elimination of the fissures previously detected in the sintered pellets

  20. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of heavy metals in aqueous solution and surface water preceded by co-precipitation procedure with copper(II) 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipeaiyeda, Ayodele Rotimi; Ayoade, Abisayo Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Co-precipitation procedure has widely been employed for preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrices of environmental samples. This is simply due to its simplicity, low consumption of separating solvent and short duration for analysis. Various organic ligands have been used for this purpose. However, there is dearth of information on the application of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element. The use of Cu(II) is desirable because there is no contamination and background adsorption interference. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use 8-HQ in the presence of Cu(II) for coprecipitation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from standard solutions and surface water prior to their determinations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effects of pH, sample volume, amount of 8-HQ and Cu(II) and interfering ions on the recoveries of metal ions from standard solutions were monitored using FAAS. The water samples were treated with 8-HQ under the optimum experimental conditions and metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The metal concentrations in water samples not treated with 8-HQ were also determined. The optimum recovery values for metal ions were higher than 85.0%. The concentrations (mg/L) of Co(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) in water samples treated with 8-HQ were 0.014 ± 0.002, 0.03 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02, respectively. These concentrations and those obtained without coprecipitation technique were significantly different. Coprecipitation procedure using 8-HQ as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element enhanced the preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrix of water sample.

  1. Isolation of recombinant proteins from culture broth by co-precipitation with an amino acid carrier to form stable dry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Barry D; Deere, Joseph; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Ingram, Andrew; van der Walle, Christopher F

    2010-08-01

    Protein-coated microcrystals can be generated by co-precipitation of protein and a water-soluble crystalline carrier by addition to excess water miscible organic solvent. We have investigated this novel process for its utility in the concentration and partial purification of a recombinant protein exported into the culture broth during expression by Pichia pastoris. Co-precipitation with a L-glutamine carrier selectively isolated the protein content of the culture broth, with a minimal number of steps, and simultaneously removed contaminants including a novel yeast metabolite. This pigment co-elutes during aqueous chromatography but its elucidation as a benzoylated glycosamine suggested a simple route of removal by partition during the co-precipitation process. Scale-up of the process was readily achieved through in-line mixing and subsequent reconstitution of the dried protein-coated microcrystals yielded natively folded, bioactive protein. Additional washing of the crystals with saturated L-glutamine facilitated further purification of the recombinant protein immobilized on the L-glutamine carrier. Thus, we present a novel method for the harvesting of recombinant protein from culture broth as a dry powder, which may be of general applicability to bioprocessing. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel slurry sampling analysis of lead in different water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Calisir, F. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-10-30

    A preconcentration/separation technique based on the coprecipitation of lead with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex (Co(PDC){sub 2}) and subsequently its direct slurry sampling determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex formed using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as a chelating agent and cobalt as a carrier element. The supernatant was then separated and the slurry of the precipitate prepared in Triton X-100 was directly analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with respect to lead concentration. The effects of experimental conditions on coprecipitation of lead with gathering precipitate as well as homogeneity and stability of the slurry were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, a 100-fold enrichment of the analyte with quantitative recovery (>90%) and high precision (<10% R.S.D.) were obtained. By using the proposed technique, the lead concentrations in heavy matrices of Certified Sea-water and wastewater samples could be practically and rapidly determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The detection limit of the described method for lead using sample-matching blanks was 1.5 ng/L (3{sigma}, N = 10)

  3. Microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorptive behavior of doped W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza, E-mail: gordani@gmail.com; Mohseni, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Rahman

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • High frequency properties of substituted W-type Sr-hexaferrite. • Saturation magnetization of samples is decreased with increasing of dopants content. • The ferrite sample covers about 6 GHz of bandwidth in K{sub u} band. • The optimum substituted samples can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Sample contain x = 0.4 of dopants have shown greater than 90% of reflection loss. - Abstract: Substituted W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles of SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x/2}Ni{sub x/2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction results confirmed that W-type ferrite was identified as the main phase in whole samples in the range of x = 0–0.4. According to magnetic hysteresis loops, with increasing of substituted cations, saturation of magnetization increased and coercivity decreased due to crystalline site occupation of Zn with Ni and Co cations. The microwave reflection loss analysis results in the K{sub u} band (12–18 GHz) show that the highest value of reflection loss of samples was −29.11 dB at frequency of 14.57 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 6 GHz by choosing reflection loss value of −10 dB as a reference. The results indicate that, the sample with appropriate amount of substituted cations hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic properties of (Eu–Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite by surfactant assisted co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Sadiq, Imran [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of The Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Karamat, Nazia [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iftikhar, Aisha [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Azhar [Department of Physics, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan (Pakistan); Shah, Afzal [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Athar, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2015-07-01

    A series of (Eu–Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite with composition Sr{sub 2}Co{sub (2−x)}Ni{sub x}Eu{sub y}Fe{sub (12−y)}O{sub 22} (x=0.0–1, Y=0.0–0.1) were prepared by the surfactant assisted co-precipitation method. The present samples were sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. The shape of the particles is plate-like which is very advantageous for various applications and the grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. The values of saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and magnetic moment (n{sub B}) were found to decrease which are attributed to the weakening of super exchange interactions. The values of in-plane Squareness ratios (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) ranging from 0.41 to 0.65 whereas in case of out of plane measurement it varies from 0.30 to 0.62.The investigated samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to high value of coercivity 2300 Oe which is analogous to the those of M-type and W-type hard magnetic. - Highlights: • The present samples sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. • The grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. • The magnetic moment varies from 15.27 to 6.07. • The shape of grains is plate like for microwave devices. • The present samples can be used in PRM due to high value of coercivity i.e. 2300 Oe.

  5. Characterization of a microwave absorbent prepared by coprecipitation reaction of iron oxide on the surface of graphite nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongqing, E-mail: ylqqyyq@yahoo.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Qi, Shuhua [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Jianning [Personnel Department, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 710021 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NanoG was prepared by ultrasonication of EG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was precipitated on the NanoG's surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure was characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties such as thermal stability, conductivity and microwave absorbing were measured. - Abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was precipitated on the surface of graphite nanosheet (NanoG) to produce a microwave absorbing material Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/NanoG. The structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results show that under basic conditions, FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and FeSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O can be used in a coprecipitation reaction to obtain Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, which are bound to and well distributed on the NanoG surface. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the thermal stability of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/NanoG is good. According to the four-point-probe test, with the increasing mass ratios of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to NanoG, the conductivities of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/NanoG decrease. Measurement of electromagnetic parameters shows that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/NanoG has better microwave absorbing properties than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NanoG.

  6. Ex-Situ Synthesis of Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Coprecipitation-Ultrasonication Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva’i, Imam; Oktavia Wulandari, Ika; Sulistyarti, Hermin; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was done with surface modification using PVA with coprecipitation-ultrasonication method. Time variations and PVA concentrations were added to determine the effect on crystallite size and lattice parameters on the synthesis of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles. Fe3O4 characterization was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments. FTIR was employed to determine PVA coating on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size and lattice parameters were analyzed using XRD. From the FTIR data, it is known that the interaction between PVA and Fe3O4 nanoparticles is characterized by Fe-O-C group at 1100 cm-1 region which is characteristic of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles, C-H groups of PVA in the range of 2950 cm-1 wave number, C-C of PVA regions of wave number 1405 cm-1, Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-PVA samples are in the range of 565 cm-1. In addition, the variation of ultrasonication time and the addition of PVA concentration have an effect on the crystallite size change and the lattice parameter observed from the XRD data. The use of ultrasonication time will affect the size of the crystallite become smaller and the grating lattice parameters obtained are wider. The effect of addition of PVA showed that higher concentration of PVA resulted in smaller crystallite size and larger lattice parameters. These results indicated that ultrasonication time and addition of PVA concentration greatly affect the characteristics of nanoparticles.

  7. Synthesis of nanostructured BSCF by oxalate co-precipitation - As potential cathode material for solid oxide fuels cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun [Functional Materials Division, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Darab, Mahdi [Functional Materials Division, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Syvertsen, Guttorm Ernst [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-09-15

    Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} (BSCF) cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was synthesized in nanocrystalline form by a novel chemical alloying approach. Thermodynamic modeling has been performed using Medusa software for obtaining the optimum conditions for the fabrication of a precursor with the desired composition. Precursor powder was then calcined and annealed to produce the final mixed oxide BSCF composition. The thermal properties, phase constituents, microstructure and elemental analysis of the samples were characterized by TGA, XRD, SEM and EDS techniques respectively. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) has been used at 1080 C and under 50 MPa pressure to obtain the pellets of BSCF with preserved nanostructure and rather high compaction density for electrical conductivity measurements. The results show that the powders have cubic perovskite-type structure with a high homogeneity. Finer resultant powder, compared to earlier reports, and SPS sintered BSCF with nanosized grains exhibited a significantly higher electrical conductivity up to 900 C. Specific conductivity values have been measured in air and N{sub 2} and the maximum of 63 S cm{sup -1} at 430 C in air and 25 S cm{sup -1} at 375 C in N{sub 2} correspondingly show twice as much as conventional BSCF implying a high pledge for nano-BSCF as cathode material in intermediate-temperature SOFC. This is due to the lower interfacial resistance of preserved nanograins by the use of SPS sintering. Presented co-precipitation method is easy to handle and has a high promise to synthesize BSCF at large-scale for IT-SOFCs. (author)

  8. Synthesis, Properties and Application of Glucose Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ayu Y.; Eko, A. S.; Candra, K.; Hasibuan, Denny P.; Ginting, M.; Sebayang, P.; Simamora, P.

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis of glucose coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been successfully prepared with co-precipitation method. Raw material of natural iron-sand was obtained from Buaya River, Deliserdang, Indonesia. The milled iron-sand was dissolved in HCl (37 mole %), and stirred in 300 rpm at 70°C for 90 minutes. Glucose was added to the filtered powder with varied content of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mole, and precipitated by NH3 (25 mole%). After drying process, the final product subsequently was glucose coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The characterizations performed were true density measurement, FTIR, VSM, XRD, BET, and adsorbent performance by AAS. The FTIR analysis showed that M-O (bending) with M=Fe (stretching vibration) with υ = 570.92 and 401.19 cm-1. While glucose coated well on nanoparticle Fe3O4, proved by functional groups C=O (stretching), M-O (stretching) and C-H (bending) with υ = 1404.17, 570.92, and 2368.58 cm-1, respectively. Single phase of magnetite (Fe3O4) structure was determined from XRD analysis with cubic spinel structure and lattice parameter of 8.396 Å. The optimum conditions, obtained on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 0.01 mole of glucose addition, which has true density value of 4.57 g/cm3, magnetic saturation, M s = 35,41 emu/g, coercivity, H cJ = 83.58 Oe, average particle size = 12.3 nm and surface area = 124.88 m2/g. This type magnetic nanoparticles of glucose-coated Fe3O4 was capable to adsorbed 93.78 % of ion Pb. Therefore, the glucose-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticle is a potential candidate to be used as heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  9. Investigation of magnetic and structural properties of copper substituted barium ferrite powder particles via co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vadivelan

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is proposed to synthesize copper-doped barium ferrite (BaCuxFe12−xO19 using co-precipitation technique at different ratios in order to increase the coercivity value which in turn increases the magnetic storage capacity of the copper-doped barium ferrite powder. This technique is very compactable with lower cost. This method was used to prepare different ratio (0–8% of copper-doped barium ferrite samples exposed to sintering process under the temperature 1200 °C for 6 h because the base and doped materials are combined to form a new compound. The sintered compound is involved the XRD analysis and the obtained values are matched with the constant standards (a = b = 5.864 Å and c = 23.098 Å. Hence, the samples proved as hexagonal system. TGA/DTA used to establish selected characteristics of materials that exhibit decomposition and oxidation process. FT-IR spectroscopy used to confirm the chemical bonds and vibration mode of samples. Using beam of X-rays, XPS spectra obtained and the binding energy of the sample is measured. From the SEM analysis, the morphology and grain size of the copper-doped barium ferrite powder materials are found. The vibrating sample magnetometer measures the magnetic saturation, magnetic reminisce and coercivity of a sample. The magnetic saturation, magnetic remanence and coercivity values are found and tabulated. Keywords: Magnetic remanence, Magnetic saturation, Coercivity, Ferrite

  10. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of the incorporation of tobramycin and strontium-ions into hydroxyapatite by means of co-precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baochang [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Lilja, Mirjam, E-mail: mirjam.lilja@sandvik.com [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Ma, Taoran [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sörensen, Jan; Steckel, Hartwig [Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Christian Albrecht University Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Ahuja, Rajeev [Condensed Matter Theory, Uppala University (Sweden); Strømme, Maria, E-mail: maria.stromme@angstrom.uu.se [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • We investigate incorporation of tobramycin into hydroxyapatite using co-precipitation by theory and experiment. • The drug molecule shows larger adsorption energy on a submicron HA surface compared to a TiO{sub 2} surface. • Strontium substitution allows for production of thinner coatings with enhanced drug incorporation capacity. - Abstract: Antibiotic incorporation into hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings by co-precipitation and the impact of bone relevant doping elements on the adsorption kinetics are investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Tobramycin interactions with bioactive TiO{sub 2} and HA surfaces are analyzed using density functional theory. According to the calculations, the drug molecule has larger adsorption energy than the Ca{sup +} ion on both surfaces under study in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). The results support the experimental observations that HA nucleation and growth are strongly limited on TiO{sub 2} surfaces in the presence of clinically relevant antibiotic concentrations in PBS. The drug molecule is more likely to adopt parallel arrangement onto the HA surface, as the adsorption energy of such arrangement is higher compared to a perpendicular one. Strontium substitution of the HA surface is found to results in a weaker drug–surface interaction, and leads also to a decrease in coating thickness. However, the presence of strontium gives rise to a coating morphology with enhanced drug incorporation capacity and slower antibiotic release compared to non-substituted, co-precipitated counterparts. Our theoretical calculation results were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data and provide a powerful tool to understand the interaction mechanism between drug and different surface chemistries necessary for development of future versatile orthopedic and dental implant surfaces.

  12. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles’ formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe 3+ ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ ions in the presence of aspartic amino acid (Asp). • Through analysis of nanoparticle formation mechanism. • Presence of Asp changes the mechanism of the nanoparticles’ formation. • Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe 3+ ions. • Asp impedes the formation of iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of iron-oxide nanoparticles. • The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles form stable aqueous suspensions.

  13. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drofenik, Miha [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles’ formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe{sup 3+} ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions in the presence of aspartic amino acid (Asp). • Through analysis of nanoparticle formation mechanism. • Presence of Asp changes the mechanism of the nanoparticles’ formation. • Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe{sup 3+} ions. • Asp impedes the formation of iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of iron-oxide nanoparticles. • The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles form stable aqueous suspensions.

  14. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  15. Filterless pre-concentration by co-precipitation by formation of crystalline precipitate in the analysis of barium by FIA-FAES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, C.; Westtoft, H.C.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES) is presented. It was developed for direct determination of barium in drinking water, in natural water, in digested samples of bone and liver, in saline water and in a standard reference material...... (NIST SRM 1640). It was found that digestion of bone by an incineration procedure was required, in order to extract most of the barium. In the FIA manifold, barium was pre-concentrated by co-precipitation with lead chromate leading to a crystalline deposit that adhered well to the inner walls of a nylon...

  16. Facile synthesis of radial-like macroporous superparamagnetic chitosan spheres with in-situ co-precipitation and gelation of ferro-gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations of the ferro-gels. The results showed that the in-situ co-precipitation of ferro-ions gave rise to a radial morphology with non-spheroid macro pores (large cavities inside the chitosan spheres. The particle size of iron oxide can be adjusted from 2.5 nm to 5.4 nm by tuning the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, the synthesized nanoparticles were illustrated as Fe(3O(4 nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared macroporous chitosan spheres presented a super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature with a saturation magnetization value as high as ca. 18 emu/g. The cytotoxicity was estimated using cell viability by incubating doses (0∼1000 µg/mL of the macroporous chitosan spheres. The result showed good viability (above 80% with alginate chitosan particles below 1000 µg/mL, indicating that macroporous chitosan spheres were potentially useful for biomedical applications in the future.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harzali, Hassen, E-mail: harzali@mines-albi.fr [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne [Université de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi CT cedex 09 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Taibah University, Faculty of Sciences & art, Al Ula (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni–Cu–Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power P{sub diss}=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10–25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation experiments were carried out with ultrasound. • The spinel ferrite NiCuZn was perfectly synthesized by ultrasound. • The saturation magnetization and crystals size are found to be correlated as the dissipated power was varied.

  18. Effect of preparation conditions on Nickel Zinc Ferrite nanoparticles: A comparison between sol–gel auto combustion and co-precipitation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Kurian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental conditions used in the preparation of nano crystalline mixed ferrite materials play an important role in the particle size of the product. In the present work a comparison is made on sol–gel auto combustion methods and co-precipitation methods by preparing Nickel Zinc Ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano particles. The prepared ferrite samples were calcined at different temperatures and characterized by using standard methods. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of single phase ferrite nanoparticles for samples calcined at 500 °C. The lattice parameter range of 8.32–8.49 Å confirmed the cubic spinel structure. Average crystallite size estimated from X-ray diffractogram was found to be between 17 and 40 nm. The IR spectra showed two main absorption bands, the high frequency band ν1 around 600 cm−1 and the low frequency band ν2 around 400 cm−1 arising from tetrahedral (A and octahedral (B interstitial sites in the spinel lattice. TEM pictures showed particles in the nanometric range confirming the XRD data. The studies revealed that the sol–gel auto combustion method was superior to the co-precipitation method for producing single phase nano particles with smaller crystallite size.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the incorporation of tobramycin and strontium-ions into hydroxyapatite by means of co-precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochang; Lilja, Mirjam; Ma, Taoran; Sörensen, Jan; Steckel, Hartwig; Ahuja, Rajeev; Strømme, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Antibiotic incorporation into hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings by co-precipitation and the impact of bone relevant doping elements on the adsorption kinetics are investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Tobramycin interactions with bioactive TiO2 and HA surfaces are analyzed using density functional theory. According to the calculations, the drug molecule has larger adsorption energy than the Ca+ ion on both surfaces under study in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). The results support the experimental observations that HA nucleation and growth are strongly limited on TiO2 surfaces in the presence of clinically relevant antibiotic concentrations in PBS. The drug molecule is more likely to adopt parallel arrangement onto the HA surface, as the adsorption energy of such arrangement is higher compared to a perpendicular one. Strontium substitution of the HA surface is found to results in a weaker drug-surface interaction, and leads also to a decrease in coating thickness. However, the presence of strontium gives rise to a coating morphology with enhanced drug incorporation capacity and slower antibiotic release compared to non-substituted, co-precipitated counterparts. Our theoretical calculation results were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data and provide a powerful tool to understand the interaction mechanism between drug and different surface chemistries necessary for development of future versatile orthopedic and dental implant surfaces.

  20. Simultaneous determinations of zirconium, hafnium, yttrium and lanthanides in seawater according to a co-precipitation technique onto iron-hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Maria; Censi, Paolo; Saiano, Filippo

    2013-11-15

    Very low concentrations (pg mL(-1) or sub-pg mL(-1) level) along with the high salinity are the main problems in determining trace metal contents in seawater. This problem is mainly considered for investigations of naturally occurring YLOID (Y and Lanthanides) and Zr and Hf in order to provide precise and accurate results. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), both in high and low resolution, offers many advantages including simultaneous analyses of all elements and their quantitative determination with detection limits of the order of pg mL(-1). However in the analysis of YLOID in seawater, a better determination needs an efficient combination of ICP-MS measurement with a pre-concentration technique. To perform an ultra-trace analysis in seawater, we have validated an analytical procedure involving an improved modified co-precipitation on iron hydroxides to ensure the simultaneous quantitative recovery of YLOID, Zr and Hf contents with measurement by a quadrupole ICP-MS. The validity of the method was assessed through a series of co-precipitation experiments and estimation of several quality control parameters for method validation, namely working range and its linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, precision and spike recoveries, and the methodological blank choice, are introduced, evaluated and discussed. Analysis of NASS-6, is the first report on the latest seawater reference material for YLOID, hafnium and zirconium. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and co-precipitation preconcentration methods for the determination of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komjarova, Irina; Blust, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    Three major types of pre-concentration methods were evaluated and optimised for the extraction and determination of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from seawater samples. The traditional APDC/DDDC-Freon liquid-liquid extraction method showed excellent results for a multi-elemental analysis. However, the technique is labour consuming, very sensitive to operational conditions, employs environmentally unsafe and expensive solvents and requires large sample volumes. In the solid phase extraction method, the performances of a traditional Amberlite XAD-4 and a novel Dowex Optipore V-493 were evaluated. Application of Dowex Optipore V-493 resin provided better results at low concentrations than the generally used Amberlite XAD-4 resin using low sample volumes. However, the presence of natural organic compounds may decrease extraction efficiency of both resins for Cu. Thus, a pre-treatment with UV irradiation is advantageous for samples with high organic content. Cobalt co-precipitation methods showed good Cu and Ni recoveries, but gave poor results for Cd at low concentrations. In addition, high sample volumes are required. Both solid phase and co-precipitation methods showed unsatisfactory results in determination of Pb. Finally, a summary of methods advantages are given for choosing the most suitable method

  2. One-pot Synthesis and Surface Modification of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Alcohol by Coprecipitation and Ultrasonication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Aditya D.; Wulandari, Ika O.; Hutami Rahayu, L. B.; Riva’i, Imam; Santojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    Among the various substances developed through nanoparticles, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle is one of the substances that have been widely used in various fields such as industry, agriculture, biotechnology and biomedicine. The synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticle can be carried out by two methods, consist of chemical and mechanical synthesis methods. Coprecipitation is one of the most commonly used methods for chemical synthesis. Fe3O4 compounds are easily oxidized because they are amphoteric. To avoid the continuous oxidation process, chemical modification process should be carried out with the addition of a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this study, PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ coprecipitation and ultrasonication methods through direct mixing (one-pot synthesis) of the iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2.4H2O), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O), and PVA under alkaline condition. The effects of addition amount of NH3solution (by adjusting its flow rate using automated syringe pump) and PVA concentration were gently studied. Interaction of PVA with Fe3O4 nanoparticle was identified by infrared spectroscopy whereas lattice parameters and crystallite sizes of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  3. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li 2 CO 3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , and the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Zn{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}O DMS by co-precipitation and ceramic methods: Structural and magnetization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Joseph, D. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Naveenkumar, S. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Sivakumar, N. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: cvunom@hotmail.com

    2006-05-10

    Transitional metal ions-substituted ZnO are recently explored for SPINTRONICS applications. Synthesis of single-phase oxide 'diluted magnetic semiconductors' (DMS) is a must to explore the magnetic properties arising due to the strong sp-d exchange interaction. The synthesis route plays a vital role in this aspect. In this work, we have prepared Zn{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}O by using the co-precipitation method and also the standard ceramic method and optimized the conditions to obtain the single-phase compound. X-ray diffraction measurements were done on Zn{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}O annealed and sintered at various temperatures. Comparing these results, we conclude that the co-precipitation method is more convenient for obtaining single-phase compound by the relatively low temperature processing of the precipitated hydroxides. Pelleted sample examined for its magnetic property using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) indicated ferromagnetic-like behavior at 300 K and a spin-glass state at 77 K.

  5. Multielement determination of trace elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after tandem preconcentration with cooperation of chelating resin adsorption and lanthanum coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabutani, Tomoki; Chiba, Koichi; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A tandem preconcentration method, in which chelating resin adsorption and La coprecipitation were cooperatively employed for preconcentration, was developed as a pretreatment method for simultaneous multielement determination of trace elements in seawater by ICP-MS. First, the seawater sample (250 ml) was treated with a chelating resin for preconcentration of trace elements, and then trace elements with good recoveries were determined by ICP-MS. Trace elements with the chemical properties of oxoanion- and hydride-formation, which were poorly recovered in the chelating resin preconcentration, were further subjected to preconcentration by La coprecipitation. As a result, more than 30 elements could be determined in the concentration range from 9.6 μg L -1 for Mo to 0.00018 μg L -1 for Tm, when the present tandem method was applied to the analysis of open seawater standard reference material (NASS-4). Furthermore, the analytical results for open seawater reference materials were compared with those for coastal seawater reference material as well as for coastal seawater collected in the Ise Bay. It was found that the multielement data for trace elements in these seawater samples clearly showed different elemental distributions, reflecting the different marine environments. (author)

  6. Determination of Ultra-trace Amounts of Arsenic(III) by Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with On-line Preconcentration by Coprecipitation with Lanthanum Hydroxide or Hafnium Hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A time-based flow-injection (FI) procedure for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic arsenic(III) is described, which combines hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) with on-line preconcentration of the analyte by inorganic coprecipitation-dissolution in a filt......A time-based flow-injection (FI) procedure for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic arsenic(III) is described, which combines hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) with on-line preconcentration of the analyte by inorganic coprecipitation...

  7. Structural, magnetic and optical characterization of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 nano particles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Y. B.; Saravanan, R.; Srinivasan, N.; Praveena, K.; Sadhana, K.

    2016-12-01

    Bond strength values, between tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites atoms in the unit cell, are evaluated using maximum entropy method (MEM) for the Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 nano ferrite particles, prepared by co-precipitation method and sintered at 900 °C. The spinel structure is confirmed from the XRD analysis done using the Rietveld method. Substitution of zinc ion causes increase in lattice parameter value. Thermal behavior, morphology, magnetic properties and optical band gap energy values of the sample are determined by using thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and UV-VIS-NIR techniques respectively. Low value of saturation magnetization is attributed to the disorder in cation distribution.

  8. High energy milling of zirconia-titania powders synthesized by coprecipitation; Moagem de alta energia em pos de zirconia-titania sintetizados por co-precipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano M.B.; Marchi, Juliana; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter, E-mail: vussui@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Zirconia based ceramics are known by its remarkable mechanical properties as hardness and fracture toughness and in biomedical applications are classified as bioinert. By its turn, titania ceramics has been studied due to its ability to bond directly to bone tissue, but are structurally brittle. Properties of ceramics are strongly dependent of physical and chemical characteristics of its former powders. In the present work, research done for the synthesis of zirconia-titania ceramics by the coprecipitation route are presented, emphasizing the conditioning process through a high energy milling in a atritor mill, classifying of powders in vibratory sieves and forming of cylindrical ceramic samples followed by a sintering process at 1500 deg C for 01 hour. The intermediary samples produced in the various steps of the process were characterized by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption and granulometric analysis. (author)

  9. Structural, electric and dielectric properties of Eu-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics obtained by co-precipitation route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Afqir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the structure and dielectric properties of Eu-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics prepared by co-precipitation route and sintered at 850 °C. The materials were examined using XRD and FTIR methods. XRD data indicated the formation of well crystallized structure of the pure and doped SrBi2Nb2O9, without the presence of undesirable phases. FTIR spectra do not bring a significant shift in the band positions. Moreover, the AC conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the ceramics were determined through the frequency range [50 kHz–1 MHz]. In particular, the dielectric constant (ε′ and dielectric losses (tan δ of the SrBi2Nb2O9 and SrBi1.6Eu0.4Nb2O9 ceramics were measured as a function of temperature at various frequencies.

  10. Synthesis, microstructure and EPR of CaMnO3 and EuxCa1-xMnO3 manganite, obtained by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago T, M.; Hernandez C, L.; Legorreta G, F.; Montiel S, H.; Alvarez L, G.; Flores G, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of CaMnO 3 and Eu x Ca 1-x MnO 3 obtained by coprecipitation method is showed. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, the powders showed orthorhombic structure and pnma space group. When it was doped with Europium, their morphology tendency was spherical. Measurements were carried out on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with constant frequency = 9.4 GHz (band X) and dc magnetic field (H dc) 0-0.8 T, measurements were at 300 K and 77 K. EPR spectra showed significant differences between both samples, indicating that the substitution of divalent alkaline earth cations by trivalent rare earth ions, allowing the formation of a mixed valence state of manganese, Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ . A 77 K, the manganite of concentration x = 0.30 had a magnetic ordering, noted by the presence of hysteresis. (Author)

  11. Photocatalytic properties of BiVO{sub 4} prepared by the co-precipitation method: Degradation of rhodamine B and possible reaction mechanisms under visible irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-de la Cruz, A., E-mail: azael70@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, U.M. Garcia [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) was synthesized by the co-precipitation method at 200 {sup o}C. The photocatalytic activity of the oxide was tested for the photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The analysis of the total organic carbon showed that the mineralization of rhodamine B over a BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst ({approx}40% after 100 h of irradiation) is feasible. In the same way, a gas chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy revealed the existence of organic intermediates during the photodegradation process such as ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and phthalic anhydride. The modification of variables such as dispersion pH, amount of dissolved O{sub 2}, and irradiation source was studied in order to know the details about the photodegradation mechanism.

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 ferrite synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 nanosize particles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The XRD patterns confirmed the single phase spinel structure of the synthesized powder. The average crystallite size of the powder varied from 14 to 55 nm by changing annealing temperature. The activation energy for crystal growth was estimated as about 18.61KJ/mol. With the annealing temperature increasing, saturation magnetization (MS was successively increased while the coercivity (HC was first increased, passed through a maximum and then declined. The sintering temperature has significant influence on bulk density, initial permeability and Curie temperature of Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 ferrite.

  13. Study of the hyperfine properties of the nickel-zinc ferrite using coprecipitation process; Estudo das propriedades hiperfinas de ferrita de niquel e zinco obtida por coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Adriana Silva de; Almeida Macedo, Waldemar Augusto de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-09-01

    In this work were studied the synthesis by coprecipitation of the Ni Zn ferrite, Ni {sub 0,5} Zn{sub 0,5} Fe{sub 2} O{sub 4}``, and its hyperfine properties. The ferrite specimens were prepared using metallic nitrates in aqueous solutions as precursor agents and the precipitation processes were promoted by addition of ammonium or sodium hydroxide. The obtained powders were calcined and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, and by {sup 57} Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The liquid phase was analysed by atomic absorption. The samples of stoichiometric Ni Zn ferrite were obtained using Na O H as precipitating agent. The ferrite powders presented different particles size related with changing in the preparation method,and then, different hyperfine properties. Moessbauer effect measurements reveled the superparamagnetic nature of the ferrite samples that presented particles size smaller than 30 nm. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The effect of precipitants on Ni-Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a co-precipitation method for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, You-Shick; Yoon, Wang-Lai; Seo, Yong-Seog; Rhee, Young-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Ni-Al2O3 catalysts are prepared via the co-precipitation method using various precipitants: urea, Na2CO3, NaOH, K2CO3, KOH and NH4OH. The effects of the precipitants on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the Ni-Al2O3 catalysts are investigated. The Ni50-urea catalyst displays the largest specific surface area and the highest pore volume. This catalyst also exhibits the highest Ni dispersion and the largest Ni surface area. Ni50-urea catalyst prepared with urea as precipitant and Ni50-K2CO3 catalyst prepared with K2CO3 as precipitant exhibit high pore volumes and good catalytic activities for methane steam reforming. The Ni50-urea catalyst exhibits the best physicochemical properties and shows good catalytic activity and a strong resistance to electrolyte contamination. PMID:22962548

  15. A co-precipitation technique for the preparation of ferroelectric BaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhage, S.R. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Pasricha, R. [Center for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Vadivel Murugan, A. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Government of India, Dr. Homibhabha Road, Panchawati, Pune 411008 (India); Ravi, V. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)]. E-mail: ravi@ems.ncl.res.in

    2006-08-01

    A simple co-precipitation technique had been successfully applied for the preparation of pure ultrafine single phase BaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (BBT). Ammonium hydroxide and ammonium oxalate were used to precipitate Ba{sup 2+}, Bi{sup 3+} and Ta{sup 5+} cations simultaneously. No pyrochlore phase was found while heating powder at 800 deg. C and pure BaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase was found to be formed by X-ray diffraction. Particle size and morphology was studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). The room temperature dielectric constant at 1 kHz is 350. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop parameters of these samples were also studied.

  16. Effect of pH variation on the stability and structural properties of In(OH)3 nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Kian Wei; Wong, Yew Hoong; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Indium hydroxide (In(OH) 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized at various pH values (8-11) by co-precipitation method. Its properties were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The electrostatic stability of nanoparticles is carried out through zeta potential measurement. The crystallite size of nanoparticles calculated by Scherrer equation has similar trend with the values obtained from William-Hall plot. TEM images show that the particles size is within the range of 11.76-20.76 nm. The maximum zeta potential is 3.68 mV associated with the smallest particle size distribution of 92.6 nm occurred at pH 10. Our work clearly confirms the crystallite size, stability and the morphology of In(OH) 3 NPs are strongly depending on the pH of precursor solution. (orig.)

  17. Effect of pH variation on the stability and structural properties of In(OH){sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Kian Wei; Wong, Yew Hoong [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Johan, Mohd Rafie [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya, Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-10-15

    Indium hydroxide (In(OH){sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized at various pH values (8-11) by co-precipitation method. Its properties were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The electrostatic stability of nanoparticles is carried out through zeta potential measurement. The crystallite size of nanoparticles calculated by Scherrer equation has similar trend with the values obtained from William-Hall plot. TEM images show that the particles size is within the range of 11.76-20.76 nm. The maximum zeta potential is 3.68 mV associated with the smallest particle size distribution of 92.6 nm occurred at pH 10. Our work clearly confirms the crystallite size, stability and the morphology of In(OH){sub 3} NPs are strongly depending on the pH of precursor solution. (orig.)

  18. Thermoluminescence studies of manganese doped calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7:Mn) nanocrystal synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani Haghiri, Maryam; Saion, Elias; wan Abdullah, Wan Saffiey; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Navasery, Manizheh; Shafaei, Mohammad Ali

    2013-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) doped bone-equivalent calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanocrystals were synthesized using co-precipitation and thermal treatment techniques. The synthesized nanophosphors are found to possess the monoclinic structure and have the particle size about 9 nm. They showed good luminescence quantum efficiency and enough potential for radiation dose measurement in medical and industrial purposes. The variation of dopant concentrations was investigated from 0.1 to 2 mol% and it was found that the optimal concentration of 1.4 mol% Mn has the highest sensitivity among other concentrations. The results revealed that Mn enhance the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity about 80 times higher than the un-doped samples at 1 kGy and the TL response over a wide range of doses from 0.05 Gy to 2.0 kGy increased linearly with increasing the absorbed dose.

  19. Photodegradation of Acid Black 1 and Removing Heavy Metals from the Water by an Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized via Simple Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Mohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, PbS/ZnS/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method. The effect of Zn2+/Pb2+ mole ratio was investigated on the product size and morphology. The products were characterized via scanning electron microscopy to obtain product size and morphology. The optical properties of the nanocomposites were studied by ultra violet-visible spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the product was examine by decomposition of acid black 1 as dye. To investigation of the effect of as synthesized nanocomposite on the water treatment, the influences of the nanocomposite to remove heavy ions was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the synthesized nanocomposite has well optical properties, photocatalytic and water treatment activities.

  20. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration-A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-02

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus ® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved-without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  1. Modification the Oxalic Co-precipitation Method on a Novel Catalyst Cu/Zn/Al2O3/Cr2O3 for Autothermal Reforming Reaction of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng- Hsin Kuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the catalytic performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3/Cr2O3 in low-temperature of autothermal reforming (ATR reaction. Various operating conditions were used to decide the optimum reaction conditions: type of promoter (ZrO2, CeO2, and Cr2O3, precipitation temperature, precipitation pH, operation temperature, molar ratio of O2/CH3OH (O/C, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV. The catalysts were prepared using the oxalic coprecipitation method. Characterization of the catalyst was conducted using a porosity analyzer, XRD, and SEM. The methanol conversion and volumetric percentage of hydrogen using the best catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al2O3/Cr2O3 exceeded 93% and 43%, respectively. A catalyst prepared by precipitation at -5 oC and at pH of 1 converted methanol to 40% H2 and less than 3000 ppm CO at reaction temperature of 200 oC. The size and dispersion of copper and the degradation rate and turnover frequency of the catalyst was also calculated. Deactivation of the Cu catalyst at a reaction temperature of 200 oC occurred after 30 h. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 8th May 2013; Revised: 10th August 2013; Accepted: 18th August 2013[How to Cite: Cheng, H.K., Lesmana, D., Wu, H.S. (2013. Modification the Oxalic Co-precipitation Method on a Novel Catalyst Cu/Zn/Al2O3/Cr2O3 for Autothermal Reforming Reaction of Methanol. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 110-124. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4844.110-124][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4844.110-124

  2. Fe(II)–Al(III) layered double hydroxides prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method for the reduction of bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yu; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Wu, Xiuqiong; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yang; Tang, Wangwang; Zeng, Guangming; Peng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe(II)–Al(III) LDHs were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method. ► The Fe–Al (30 min) exhibited highly reduction reactivity on bromate. ► Pseudo-first-order model described the experimental data well. ► The mechanisms of bromate removal were proposed. -- Abstract: Bromate is recognized as an oxyhalide disinfection byproduct in drinking water. In this paper, Fe(II)–Al(III) layered double hydroxides (Fe–Al LDHs) prepared by the ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method were used for the reduction of bromate in solution. The Fe–Al LDHs particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ultrasound irradiation assistance promoted the formation of the hydrotalcite-like phase and then improved the removal efficiency of bromate. In addition, the effects of solid-to-solution ratio, contact time, initial bromate concentration, initial pH, coexisting anions on the bromate removal were investigated. The results showed the bromate with an initial concentration of 1.56 μmol/L could be completely removed from solution by Fe–Al LDHs within 120 min. When the initial bromate concentration was 7.81 μmol/L, the Fe–Al LDHs with irradiation time of 30 min exhibited the optimum removal efficiency and the bromate removal capacity (q e ) was 6.80 μmol/g. In addition, the appearance of sulfate and production of bromide were observed simultaneously in this process, which suggested that ion-exchange between sulfate and bromate, and the reduction of bromate to bromide by Fe 2+ were the main mechanisms responsible for the bromate removal by Fe–Al LDHs

  3. Structure and electrochemical properties of Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao, E-mail: htang@ncu.edu.cn [Institute of Photovoltaics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Cheng, Cuixia; Yu, Gaige [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Haowen, E-mail: liuhwchem@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Weiqing [Institute of Photovoltaics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Nanosized Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} has been synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} sample is very sensitive to the aging time of the precursor. The single phase Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles with ∼23 nm can be obtained at 900 °C using the aging 35 min percusor as source. The electrochemical properties of the powder obtained at 900 °C are investigated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests and cyclic voltammograms (CVs). The initial specific discharge capacity reaches as high as 927.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.2 mA cm{sup −2} in 0.05–3.0 V, which indicates that Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles could be a promising candidate of anode material for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Nanosized Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} has been synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method. • We find that Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} sample is very sensitive to the ageing time of the precursor. • The single phase Mg{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles with about 23 nm can be obtained by calcining the ageing 35 min percusor at 900 °C. • The obtained powders show a better electrochemical performance.

  4. Modeling and optimization of effective parameters on the size of synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles by coprecipitation technique using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: Ghazanfari.mr@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza [Biotechnology Research Center, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Generally, the statistical methods are defined as appropriate techniques to study the processes trends. In current research, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. In order to investigate the size properties of synthesized particles, the experimental design was done using central composite method (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) while the temperature, pH, and cation ratio of reaction were selected as influential factors. After particles synthesis based on designed runs, the different responses such as hydrodynamic size of particles (both freeze dried and air dried), size distribution, crystallite size, magnetic size, and zeta potential were evaluated by different techniques i.e. dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on these results, the quadratic polynomial model was fitted for each response that could predict the response amounts. In following, the study of factors effects was carried out that showed the temperature, pH, and their interactions had higher effectiveness. Finally, by optimizing, it was clear that the minimum amounts of particle size (10.15 nm) and size distribution (13.01 nm) were reached in the minimum temperature (70 °C) and cation ratio (0.5) amounts and maximum pH amount (10.5). Moreover, the characterizations showed the particles size was about 10 nm while the amounts of M{sub s}, H{sub c}, and M{sub r} were equal to 60 (emu/g), 0.2 (Oe) and 0.22 (emu/g), respectively. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. • By RSM technique, some predicted models were presented for particles size. • Temperature, pH and their interactions had most effectiveness on the particles size. • The drying techniques can effect on the size properties.

  5. Method for determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in sea water using X-ray fluorescence analysis, after concentration step of these elements by coprecipitation with APDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Estevez Alvarez, J.R.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Ramirez, M.; Rivera, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this work an analytical procedure has been applied to the to the determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb in seawater, that includes a coprecipitation step applied of these metals with APDC. The final analysis is carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis thin layer absolute method

  6. Modified structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by pH in capping agent free co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranmanesh, P., E-mail: p.iranmanesh@vru.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, 77139-36417 Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeednia, S. [Department of Chemistry, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, 77139-36417 Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehran, M.; Dafeh, S. Rashidi [Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, 77139-36417 Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Nano-sized manganese ferrite (MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) particles were prepared using co-precipitation method in two different pH (9 and 11). The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The FTIR spectra revealed two strong peaks at about 600 and 400 cm{sup −1} that can be attributed to the vibration mode of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of spinel structure of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The XRD results showed that the nanocrystalline MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has pure cubic spinel crystal structure with average crystallite size of 11 nm. The cation distribution of these nanoparticles was estimated by X-ray analysis data. The blue shift was observed in the band gap when compared with bulk sample which is due to the quantum size effect. The absence of hysteresis for MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles indicated the superparamagnetic behaviour, as expected for single domain nanoparticles. The obtained value for saturation magnetization being less than its value of bulk ones and larger pH is due to surface effects. The calculated magnetic particle size was smaller than crystallite size estimated from the XRD results; which indicate the presence of dead layer on particle surface. - Highlights: • We study effect of pH on the size and magnetic properties of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by co-precipitation method without any capping agent. • The physical properties are affected by cation contribution and surface effects. • The smaller nanoparticles with larger pH show a red shift in the band gap energy. • The M{sub s} is less than its value of bulk ones due to surface effects.

  7. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Dabagh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of cobalt (Co2+ ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 with copper (Cu2+ and aluminum (Al3+ ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8 nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1–26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0–23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0–0.8. The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8. Keywords: Co-precipitation method, XRD, Spinel ferrites, VSM, TEM

  8. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Otter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L, iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L, phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L, >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L, 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L, 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  9. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hussein, Mohd Zobir, E-mail: mzobir@putra.upm.edu.my [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Arulselvan, Palanisamy [Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakurazi, Sharida [Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-15

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro. - Highlights: • We intercalated chlorogenic into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide by ion-exchange and coprecipitation methods. • The two methods gave nanocomposites

  10. Structural and magnetic characterization of co-precipitated NixZn1−xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B.V.; Meena, S.S.; Yusuf, S.M.; Babu, Ch. Seshu; Ramakrishna, K.S.; Potukuchi, D.M.; Sastry, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    A series of Ni x Zn 1−x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.5, 0.6 and 0.7) ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a co-precipitation technique, in order to understand the doping effect of nickel on their structural and magnetic properties. XRD and FTIR studies reveal the formation of spinel phase of ferrite samples. Substitution of nickel has promoted the growth of crystallite size (D), resulting the decrease of lattice strain (η). It was also observed that the lattice parameter (a) increases with the increase of Ni 2+ ion concentration. All particles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature. The hyperfine interaction increases with the increase of nickel substitution, which can be assumed to the decrease of core–shell interactions present in the nanoparticles. The Mössbauer studies witness the existence of Fe 3+ ions and absence of Fe 2+ ions in the present systems. These superparamagnetic nanoparticles are supposed to be potential candidates for biomedical applications. The results are interpreted in terms of microstructure, cation redistribution and possible core–shell interactions. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic solubility of Ni 2+ in zinc ferrite influences the crystallite sizes. • At room temperature the ferrite systems exhibit superparamagnetism. • Core–shell model was exactly suited to explain magnetic behavior. • Core–shell interactions decrease with increase in Ni 2+ ion concentration.

  11. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of NiO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 nanocomposite powders: effect of precipitation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changsheng; Lin, Hongfei; Sato, Kazuhisa; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    NiO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (NiO-SDC) nanocomposite powders applied as promising anode material for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were synthesized by hydroxide co-precipitation method using NH3 x H2O, NaOH and NH3 x H2O + NaOH as precipitation agents. The crystal phases, morphologies and sintering behavior of the synthesized NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and sintering experiments. The effect of precipitation agents on the synthesis of the NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders was discussed. Results show that different precipitation agents influence greatly the synthesis and characteristics of the NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders. The NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders synthesized with NH3 x H2O deviate from the original composition due to the loss of Ni. The loss of Ni is avoided and nano-sized NiO-SDC composite powders are synthesized, when NaOH and NH3 x H2O + NaOH are used as precipitation agents. The NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders can be synthesized at relatively low temperature using NH3 x H2O + NaOH as precipitation agent, and the synthesized NiO-SDC nanocomposite powders show good sintering characteristics.

  12. Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders prepared by co-precipitation of TiCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudoyono, Gatut; Ichzan, Nur; Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Rizqa; Santoso, Hadi; Indarto, Bachtera; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of basic dye methylene blue (MB) onto titanium dioxide (titania) powder that were prepared by coprecipitation method of TiCl 3 and NH 4 OH as iniatial material with different calcination temperature was studied to examine the photocatalytic activity. Synthesis process carried out by the solution pH was adjusted to be 8. Effect of calcination temperature on the titania powder were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of TG and XRD showed that the NH 4 Cl decomposed between 235-372°C. The XRD result showed that the anatase TiO 2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor at 800°C, and over which it began to grow rutile phase. The influence of synthesis condition on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 powder was determined by the photodegradation of MB dye under UV light.

  13. Highly transparent Tb3Al5O12 magneto-optical ceramics sintered from co-precipitated powders with sintering aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiawei; Pan, Yubai; Xie, Tengfei; Kou, Huamin; Li, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Highly transparent terbium aluminum garnet (Tb3Al5O12, TAG) magneto-optical ceramics were fabricated from co-precipitated nanopowders with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as sintering aid by vacuum sintering combined with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) post-treatment. The ball milled TAG powder shows better dispersity than the as-synthesized powder, and its average particle size is about 80 nm. For the ceramic sample pre-sintered at 1720 °C for 20 h with HIP post-treated at 1700 °C for 3 h, the in-line transmittance exceeds 76% in the region of 400-1580nm (except the absorption band), reaching a maximum value of 81.8% at the wavelength of 1390 nm. The microstructure of the TAG ceramic is homogeneous and its average grain size is approximately 19.7 μm. The Verdet constant of the sample is calculated to be -182.7 rad·T-1·m-1 at room temperature.

  14. Controlling the size and magnetic properties of nano CoFe2O4 by microwave assisted co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, T.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Denardin, Juliano C.

    2018-02-01

    In this report, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using microwave assisted co-precipitation method was reported. Efforts have been made to control the particles size, distribution, morphology and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by varying the concentration of NaOH solution and microwave irradiation time. It was observed that the rate of nucleation and crystal growth was influenced by the tuning parameters. In that way, the average crystallite size of single phase cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was controlled within 9-11 and 10-12 nm with an increase of base concentration and microwave irradiation time, respectively. A narrow size distribution of nearly spherical nanoparticles was achieved through the present procedure. A soft ferromagnetism at room temperature with the considerable saturation magnetization of 58.4 emu g-1 and coercivity of 262.7 Oe was obtained for the cobalt ferrites synthesized with 2.25 M of NaOH solution for 3 and 7 min of microwave irradiation time, respectively. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized with a shorter reaction time of 3-7 min was found to be advantageous over other methods that involved conventional heating procedures and longer reaction time to achieve the better magnetic properties for the technological applications.

  15. Determination of Pb in river water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Bispo, Marcia; Santos da Boa Morte, Elane; Korn das Gracas Andrade, Maria; Sena Gomes Teixeira, Leonardo; Korn, Mauro; Costa, Antonio Celso Spinola

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure for separation and pre-concentration using ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation with manganese dioxide was developed for Pb determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The optimization process was carried out using a two-level factorial design and a Doehlert matrix. Three variables (i.e. concentration of oxidizing solution-KMnO 4 , concentration of MnSO 4 solution and time of ultrasonic irradiation) were used as factors in the optimization. The recoveries, based on the analysis of spiked samples, were between 90% and 105%, and the precision was ≤ 5%. The detection limit and quantification limit for Pb determination were 3.2 and 10.7 μg L -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Pb in water samples from a river heavily polluted by industrial effluents. The recovery measured by analyte addition technique showed that the proposed pre-concentration method had good accuracy

  16. Physical, electrical and dielectric properties of Ca-substituted strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.co [Surface and Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad-45320 (Pakistan); Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Hussain Gul, Iftikhar [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    Calcium substituted strontium hexaferrite Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x=0.0-0.6) nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The synthesized samples are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, DC electrical resistivity and dielectric measurements. FTIR data of uncalcined sample shows that nitrate ions are present which disappeared on calcination at 920 deg. C. The XRD data shows that a single hexagonal magnetoplumbite phase is formed in samples in which the calcium content, x, is <=0.20. However, a nonmagnetic phase (alpha-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in addition to the hexagonal phase is also present in samples with x>0.20. The average crystallite size is found between 17 and 29 nm. The DC electrical resistivity increases with increase of calcium content up to level of x=0.2 but decreased on further addition of calcium. The enhanced resistivity of the calcium doped material has potential applications in microwave devices. The variations of dielectric constant and dielectric loss angle are explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner and Koops models.

  17. Synthesis and crystallization behavior of 3 mol% yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) nanosized powders prepared using a simple co-precipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Yu-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Science, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ko-Ho, E-mail: yangkoho@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Science, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kuo-Ming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Dental Materials Research Center, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Sung-Wei [Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, 1001 Kaohsiung Highway, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shihchuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-16

    Highlights: > The thermal behavior of 3Y-TZP precursor powders had been investigated. > The crystallization behavior of 3Y-TZP nanopowders had been investigated. > The activation energy for crystallization of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} was obtained. > The growth morphology parameter n is approximated as 2.0. > The crystallites show a plate-like morphology. - Abstract: The synthesis and crystallization behavior of 3 mol% yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) nanopowders prepared using a simple co-precipitation process at 348 K and pH = 7 were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The activation energy of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} crystallization from 3Y-TZP freeze-dried precursor powders using a non-isothermal method, namely, 169.2 {+-} 21.9 kJ mol{sup -1}, was obtained. The growth morphology parameter n was approximated as 2.0, which indicated that it had a plate-like morphology. The XRD, Raman spectra, and SAED patterns showed that the phase of the tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} was maintained at 1273 K. The crystallite size of 3Y-TZP freeze-dried precursor powders calcined at 1273 K for 5 min was 21.3 nm.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders prepared by the co-precipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian-Chih [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yin-Chun [Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.t [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-30

    Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized by a co-precipitation process at a relatively low temperature, using cerium (III) nitrate as the starting material in a water solution with pH in the range of 8-9. The effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K, by XRD analysis. When calcined at temperatures from 473 to 1273 K, face-centered cubic phase crystallization was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 12.0 to 48 nm as the calcining temperature increased from 473 to 1273 K, in the pH range 8-9. The activation energy for the growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to have very low values of 17.5 kJ/mol for pH = 8 and 16.0 kJ/mol for pH = 9.

  19. A co-precipitation preparation, crystal structure and photoluminescent properties of Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathi, G., E-mail: psixboopathi@gmail.com; Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 (India); Raj, S. Gokul [Department of Physics, VEL TECH UNIVERSITY, Avadi, Chennai - 600 062 (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering Arni, Anna University Chennai, Arni - 632 317 (India)

    2015-06-24

    An inexpensive preparation method is being reported for obtaining erbium doped gadolinium oxide (Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoscale rods. The elongated nanoscale systems, as-formed through a co-precipitation process, are characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, Ultra Violet-visible (UV-vis.) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot is also performed to distinguish the effect of crystalline size-induced broadening and strain-induced broadening at full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the XRD profile. The XRD patterns of as-formed and calcined products show that the phase confirmation. As revealed from the SEM micrographs, the morphology of the products show that the rod-like nanoparticles. The EDX micrographs show that the presence of elements in our samples. The band gap values in calcined samples are found to be in the range of 3.569 eV. Upon 230 nm excitation on calcined samples, three broad emission peaks are observed from PL studies. The possible mechanism for the formation of Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods is briefly discussed.

  20. Synthesis of well-dispersed magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in cellulose aerogels via a facile oxidative co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-10

    With the increasing emphasis on green chemistry, it is becoming more important to develop environmentally friendly matrix materials for the synthesis of nanocomposites. Cellulose aerogels with hierarchical micro/nano-scale three-dimensional network beneficial to control and guide the growth of nanoparticles, are suitable as a class of ideal green nanoparticles hosts to fabricate multifunctional nanocomposites. Herein, a facile oxidative co-precipitation method was carried out to disperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the cellulose aerogels matrixes, and the cellulose aerogels were prepared from the native wheat straw based on a green NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution. The mean diameter of the well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the hybrid aerogels is 98.5 nm. Besides, the hybrid aerogels exhibit strong magnetic responsiveness, which could be flexibly actuated by a small magnet. And this feature also makes this class of magnetic aerogels possibly useful as recyclable adsorbents and some magnetic devices. Meanwhile, the mild green preparation method could also be extended to fabricate other miscellaneous cellulose-based nanocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nano cube of CaSnO3: Facile and green co-precipitation synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Saeed; Gholamrezaei, Sousan; Salavati Niasari, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    In this work, nanocubes of CaSnO3 have been prepared by a simple and green co-precipitation method. In this technique, for preparation of calcium stannate, we have used from a complex structure of calcium as a new precursor and the synthesis of CaSnO3 have been done in water as a green solvent. Using of complexing precursors were created a congestion in reaction medium. Different conditions have been studied in synthetic approaches and optimized the effect of different parameters on the morphology of product such as precipitation agent (alkaline), pH, temperature, the rate of stirrer, surfactants and the mole ratio of surfactants for preparation product and obtain the best product in terms of quality and morphology. By using of this CaSnO3, two types of azo dyes (acid blue 92 and acid brown 14) have been degraded at presence of ultraviolet light from aqueous solution. Results display that the powder shows appropriate catalytic behavior for degradation of dyes (77% acid brown 14 and 67% acid black 92). Therefore these nano-cube structures have been used as photocatalysts in presence of UV light for degradation of azo dyes.

  2. PTFE Additive and Re-annealing Effect on Thermoluminescence Response of CaSO4:Dy Derived from Co-precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, Nunung; Dwi Septianto, Ricky; Iskandar, Ferry; Haryanto, Freddy; Waris, Abdul; Hiswara, Eri

    2017-07-01

    Effect of re-annealing treatment in thermoluminescence response of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:Dy with PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) addition was investigated. CaSO4:Dy was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The PTFE was added before re-annealing treatment which the mass ratio of CaSO4:Dy and PTFE was fixed to 2:3. The re-annealing treatments of the samples were done at temperature 700 °C for 1 hr. The obtained samples were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe the molecule bonding in sample and crystal properties, respectively. From the experimental results, it was observed that the thermoluminescence intensity of CaSO4:Dy, CaSO4:Dy re-annealed at 700 °C, and CaSO4:Dy + PTFE re-annealed at 700 °C are 57.03, 75.15, and 1191.11 nC, respectively. The intensity of 700 °C-re-annealed CaSO4:Dy increased significantly after PTFE addition.

  3. Room Temperature Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}O4}) Nanoparticles by a Simple Reverse Co-Precipitation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmed, N; Soederberg, O; Hannula, S-P [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Heczko, O, E-mail: norsuria@cc.hut.f [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-29

    Magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}O4}) nanoparticles with the size less than 30 nm have been synthesized by using a simple reverse co-precipitation method at room temperature. During the process, ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4{center_dot}}7H{sub 2}O) powder was used as an iron precursor, and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 4}OH) as a precipitating agent. The experiment was carried out in ambient atmosphere without any surfactant added. In this method, the base solution for the precipitation process was adjusted to have a pH value suitable for the formation of the magnetite phase. The iron salt precursor was added into the solution during the synthesis by two different synthesis protocols. The phase, morphology and magnetic characteristic of differently synthesized magnetite particles were characterized by using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The morphologies of the particles were spherical or irregular in shape depending on the synthesis protocol used. Magnetic measurement shows that the particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature with relatively high saturation magnetization and low hysteresis. The saturation magnetization and magnetic hysteresis of the particles varied with preparation reaction conditions and the resulting oxidation state of the particles.

  4. Structural and magnetic characterization of co-precipitated Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Ch., E-mail: srinivas.chintoju75@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sasi Institute of Technology and Engineering, Tadepalligudem 534101 (India); Tirupanyam, B.V. [Department of Physics, Government College (Autonomous), Rajamahendravaram 533103 (India); Meena, S.S.; Yusuf, S.M. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Babu, Ch. Seshu [Department of Physics, Sasi Institute of Technology and Engineering, Tadepalligudem 534101 (India); Ramakrishna, K.S. [Department of Physics, Srinivasa Institute of Engineering and Technology, Amalapuram 533222 (India); Potukuchi, D.M. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada 533003 (India); Sastry, D.L., E-mail: dl_sastry@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2016-06-01

    A series of Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.5, 0.6 and 0.7) ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a co-precipitation technique, in order to understand the doping effect of nickel on their structural and magnetic properties. XRD and FTIR studies reveal the formation of spinel phase of ferrite samples. Substitution of nickel has promoted the growth of crystallite size (D), resulting the decrease of lattice strain (η). It was also observed that the lattice parameter (a) increases with the increase of Ni{sup 2+} ion concentration. All particles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature. The hyperfine interaction increases with the increase of nickel substitution, which can be assumed to the decrease of core–shell interactions present in the nanoparticles. The Mössbauer studies witness the existence of Fe{sup 3+} ions and absence of Fe{sup 2+} ions in the present systems. These superparamagnetic nanoparticles are supposed to be potential candidates for biomedical applications. The results are interpreted in terms of microstructure, cation redistribution and possible core–shell interactions. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic solubility of Ni{sup 2+} in zinc ferrite influences the crystallite sizes. • At room temperature the ferrite systems exhibit superparamagnetism. • Core–shell model was exactly suited to explain magnetic behavior. • Core–shell interactions decrease with increase in Ni{sup 2+} ion concentration.

  5. Synthesis and crystallization behavior of 3 mol% yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) nanosized powders prepared using a simple co-precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ko-Ho; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The thermal behavior of 3Y-TZP precursor powders had been investigated. → The crystallization behavior of 3Y-TZP nanopowders had been investigated. → The activation energy for crystallization of tetragonal ZrO 2 was obtained. → The growth morphology parameter n is approximated as 2.0. → The crystallites show a plate-like morphology. - Abstract: The synthesis and crystallization behavior of 3 mol% yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) nanopowders prepared using a simple co-precipitation process at 348 K and pH = 7 were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The activation energy of tetragonal ZrO 2 crystallization from 3Y-TZP freeze-dried precursor powders using a non-isothermal method, namely, 169.2 ± 21.9 kJ mol -1 , was obtained. The growth morphology parameter n was approximated as 2.0, which indicated that it had a plate-like morphology. The XRD, Raman spectra, and SAED patterns showed that the phase of the tetragonal ZrO 2 was maintained at 1273 K. The crystallite size of 3Y-TZP freeze-dried precursor powders calcined at 1273 K for 5 min was 21.3 nm.

  6. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y1.47 Gd1.53 Fe5 O12 and relevant magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving; Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 5 O 12 powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min -1 was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y 1.47 Gd 1.53 Fe 5 O 12 was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm -3 . Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 μm, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H c from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g -1 (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B s -value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  7. Removal of chromium(VI) and dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) using polymer-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Sara; Shahzad, Asma

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted with an aim to develop such adsorbent system: polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can remove heavy metal and dye from water of different concentration. Synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contaminated water purification has been one of the outcomes of application of rapidly growing field of Nanotechnology in Environmental Science. In the present study, the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cr(VI) and dye (alizarin) from water solutions of known concentrations were evaluated. The nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymer-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying functional groups on their surface were synthesized by different methods for permanent magnet-assisted removal of heavy metal (chromium) and dye (Alizarin Red S) from water. The characterization showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 10-50 nm. The adsorption capacities of the Fe3O4 using polyMETAC-coated particles for dye (Alizarin Red S) removal were 80-96 % and chromium 62-91 %. The chromium concentration was determined after magnetic separation using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and dye concentration was estimated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. Nanoparticles of polymer coated showed the highest removal capacity from water for metal and dye. The developed adsorbents had higher capacity for removal of heavy metal ions and dye.

  8. Structural, optical and morphological characterization of Cu-doped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized through co-precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Dkhil, Brahim; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2017-11-01

    Pure and copper (Cu concentration varying from 2 to 8%) doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanocrystals were synthesized through co-precipitation method using simple equipment. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) techniques were used to characterize the synthesized samples. XRD measurements confirm that all the prepared nanocrystals consist only in nanocrystalline hematite phase. These results along with TEM and SEM show that the size of the nanoparticles decreases with Cu-doping down to 21 nm. FT-IR confirm the phase purity of the nanoparticles synthesized. The Raman spectroscopy was used not only to prove that we synthesized pure and Cu-doped hematite but also to identify their phonon modes. The TGA showed three mass losses, whereas DTA resulted in three endothermic peaks. The UV-Vis absorption measurements confirm that the decrease of particle size is accompanied by a decrease in the band gap value from 2.12 eV for pure α-Fe2O3 down to 1.91 eV for 8% Cu-doped α-Fe2O3. 8% Cu-doped hematite had the smallest size, the best crystallinity and the lowest band gap.

  9. Synthesized of PEG-6000 coated MgFe2O4 nanoparticles based on natural iron sand by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, E. A.; Simbolon, S.; Saputra, A. S. P.; Marlianto, E.; Djuhana; Kurniawan, C.; Yunus, M.; Sebayang, P.

    2018-02-01

    The polymer coated Magnesium Ferrite nanoparticles (MgFe2O4) based on natural iron sand, Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O, and PEG-6000 have been successfully prepared by co-precipitation method. The mass variation of PEG-6000 content was from 0 to 12 gram. It was prepared at synthesize temperature of 70°C. The PEG coating reduced the effect of agglomeration, so the coercivity value can be closed to soft magnets. The nanoparticle of synthesized has MgFe2O4 single phase and cubic spinel structure. The bonding of MgFe2O4 and PEG-6000 as a coating material was confirmed by FTIR curve. The MgFe2O4 density decreased with the increasing of PEG 6000 content. On the other hand, the coercivity value was slightly reduced as the addition of PEG-6000, with the lowest value was obtained on 8 gram PEG content. The optimum condition is obtained at addition of 8 gram PEG 6000 to MgFe2O4, with coercivity, saturation, and remanence are 198.41 Oe, 52.53 emu/g, and 8.51 emu/g, respectively. So that, the sample is widely used as absorbance material of heavy metal.

  10. Effects of Gd on the magnetic, electric and structural properties of BiFeO3 nanstructures synthesized by co-precipitation followed by microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S.; Shokrollahi, H.; Basiri, M. H.

    2015-02-01

    The ultrafine of Bi1-xGdxFeO3 with x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. These powders were defined by the X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured by an inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) meter. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that increasing the asymmetry and decreasing the second phases occur by increasing the amount of gadolinium. A phase transformation began from the rhombohedral phase to the orthorhombic one by adding gadolinium in about x=0.15. Gd-doping improved the magnetic properties because the cycloid spins were distorted by adding Gd instead of Bi. Furthermore, the dielectric properties were improved as a result of the reduction in Fe2+ and oxygen vacancies. The microwave sintering method was used to densify the compact pellets for electrical tests. FESEM images showed that microwave sintering leads to the enhancement of ferroelectric properties due to the high densities of the sintered pellets and the prevention of grain growth.

  11. Co-precipitation synthesis and luminescence behavior of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) phosphor: The effect of precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Liu Hezhou; Wu Yating; Hu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    YAG:Ce precursors were co-precipitated using ammonia water and ammonium hydrogen carbonate as precipitants, respectively. Phase transition of the precursors during sintering was compared between the two precipitants. The precursors synthesized with ammonia water transformed to YAG at about 1000 deg. C via YAlO 3 phase. The precursors synthesized with ammonium hydrogen carbonate directly converted to pure YAG at about 900 deg. C. Comparing the powders produced with the two precipitants, the powders produced with ammonia hydrogen carbonate showed good dispersity. When sintered at 1600 deg. C, aggregation of the powders synthesized with the two precipitants both became severe. With increase the sintering temperature, the maximum wavelength of excitation and emission spectra of the phosphors synthesized with ammonium water hardly varied. While the maximum wavelength of excitation spectra of the phosphors synthesized with ammonium hydrogen carbonate unchanged, and the emission spectra showed red shift. Because of size effect and higher loss of cerium content, the emission intensity of phosphors prepared with ammonium hydrogen carbonate was lower than the phosphors prepared with ammonium water, when sintered at the same temperature

  12. High solar-light photocatalytic activity of using Cu3Se2/rGO nanocomposites synthesized by a green co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Morteza; Saray, Abdolali Moghaddam; Azimi, H. R.; Yousefi, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    Current work presents a facile, cost-effective, and green method to synthesize copper selenide nanostructures and copper selenide/graphene nanocomposites. The products were synthesized by a co-precipitation method by glycine amino acid as a green surfactant and graphene oxide (GO) sheets as a graphene source. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the products indicated that the products were Cu2Se3 with tetragonal phase. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the XRD patterns indicated that the GO sheets were changed into reduced GO (rGO) during the synthesis process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) images showed the nanoparticles (NPs) that were decorated on rGO sheets had the significantly smaller size in compared to the pristine NPs. UV-vis results revealed that, the absorption peak of the products were in the visible region with a band-gap value between 1.85 eV and 1.95 eV. Finally, the products were applied as photocatalytic materials to remove Methylene Blue (MB) dye under solar-light and visible-light irradiation conditions. It was observed; the rGO had a significant role in enhancing the photocatalytic performance of the products and Cu2Se3/rGO (15%) could degrade more than 91% and 73% of MB only during 1 h under solar-light and visible-light sources, respectively.

  13. Effects of solution concentration and capping agents on the properties of potassium titanyl phosphate noparticles synthesized using a co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibshahian, E.; Jafar Tafershi, M.; Fazli, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, KTiOPO4 (KTP) nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method. The effects of the solution concentration (M) and capping agents, such as PVA, oxalic acid, glycine, triethanolamine, and L-alanine, on the structural, microstructural, and optical properties of the products were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Decreasing the solution concentration decreased the crystallite size from 53.07 nm (for M = 2) to 39.42 nm (for M = 0.5). After applying different capping agents to the sample at the optimum concentration (M = 0.5), the crystallite size decreased again and grains as small as 10.61 nm were obtained. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated the formation of KTP nanoparticles with an orthorhombic structure in all of the samples. The optical band gap increased as the crystallite size decreased. Different morphological patterns such as spherical, needle shaped, polyhedron, and tablet forms were observed in the nanoparticles, which were correlated with the effects of the capping agents employed.

  14. A rapid and precise procedure for Pb isotopes in whole blood by Fe co-precipitation and MC-ICPMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chillrud, Steven N.; Hemming, N. Gary; Ross, James M.; Wallace, Sean; LoIacono, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Elevated Pb levels in humans through environmental exposure are a significant health concern requiring scientific study of the sources of, and physiological response to this toxin. This requires a simple and precise method for measuring radiogenic Pb isotopes and Pb levels in blood. Presented here is a combination of methods for separation and analysis of Pb previously used predominantly for geologic samples. This includes separation of Pb from the complex matrix of blood samples using an Fe co-precipitation method, followed by isotopic analysis by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Evaluation of the efficacy of this procedure shows that the precision of sample preparations as measured by % difference between the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb of duplicate analyses averages 0.064% (n = 48). Using the same preparation and analysis techniques to measure Pb concentrations by isotope dilution resulted in a reproducibility of better than 6%. The method was successfully used to measure uptake of ingested soil Pb in a study of the bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soils

  15. A novel pharmaceutical excipient: Coprecipitation of calcium and magnesium silicate using brine-seawater in date palm cellulose as an absorbing host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamaidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce a cost competitive and innovative pharmaceutical additive with multi-purpose use in the pharmaceutical industry from Saudi Arabia natural resources and bio-wastes. The waste substance, brine, and the naturally occurring compound, sodium silica, were reacted together to produce water insoluble calcium and magnesium silicate salts [WISS]. The purity index WISS was compared with synthetic Mg silicae.The produced particle size was 1.994 µm. Date palm cellulose [DPC] with a high purity index [0.99] was produced from the biomass waste of date palm tree. DPC was used as a host for coprecipitation of synthetic calcium magnesium silicate within its intimate structures. The interaction between the cellulose polymer and silicates is physical in nature. WISS-DPC was more flowable than DPC. In SEM, the particles of DPC were fibrous and irregular in shape, while WISS-DPC showed more regular shape than DPC. Tablets prepared from WISS-DPC were harder and had lower disintegration time at all compression forces compared to those made from DPC. The produced excipient had excellent compaction and disintegration properties and could be used as a superdisintegrant and tablet binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Sintering study of NiO-YSZ composite obtained by coprecipitation route; Estudo de sinterabilidade do composito de NiO-YSZ obtido pela rota de coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Resitivo, T.A.G.; Ussui, V.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Paschoal, J.O.A., E-mail: wyoshito@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    NiO-YSZ composite is a widely used anode material for solid oxide fuel cell. The main purpose of the present work was the evaluation of the appropriate conditions of ceramic processing, by sintering behavior study of NiO-YSZ pressed powders, synthesized by hydroxide coprecipitation route. Using the empirical rate equation developed by Makipirtti-Meng, it was analyzed shrinkage rate in the temperature ranges of 900-1400 deg C as function of time. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, laser diffraction and helium picnometry. The microstructural characterization of the samples was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and relative density by the Archimedes method. It was found that activation energy value is 48,3 kJ.mol{sup -1} in the temperature range of 900-950 deg C and 604,83 kJ.mol{sup -1} for 1000-1200 deg C. These values correspond to the change that occurs in the microstructure during the heat treatment process. The sintering process was evaluated by the dilatometry date treatment. (author)

  17. Continuum damage growth analysis using element free Galerkin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various reasons as they avoid burdensome mesh generation, can easily model the evolution of discontinuities such as cracks and interfaces. Among these methods, EFGM is particularly appealing, due to its simplicity, alleviation of numerical difficulties of mesh entanglement, faster rate of convergence, and formulation that ...

  18. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  19. Influence of coprecipitation and mechanical mixture methods on the characteristics of nickel oxide-alumina composites; Influencia dos metodos de coprecipitacao e mistura mecanica nas caracteristicas de compositos oxido de niquel-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, G.L.; Yoshito, W.K.; Ussui, V.; Lima, N.B. de; Lazar, D.R.R., E-mail: gcordeiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Alumina-supported nickel catalysts are currently used in the reforming process due to low cost and high activity for hydrogen production from alcohols. In this work, the effect of preparation methods on nickel oxide-alumina based materials has been investigated. Nickel content was fixed at 15 wt%. Ceramic powders were obtained by coprecipitation in ammonia medium and mechanical mixture. Coprecipitated materials were calcined in air at 750 deg C to obtain the corresponding oxides. Materials obtained by mechanical mixture were prepared by wet milling of nickel oxide and alumina powders, both synthesized by precipitation and calcination in air at 450 and 750 deg C, respectively. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption by applying the BET method, laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoretic mobility measurements for zeta potential determination and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that coprecipitation method allowed the production of mixed oxides with high surface area (232,7 ± 3,2 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and normal granulometric distribution while mechanical mixture led to the formation of materials constituted by gamma alumina and nickel oxide phases, with low surface area (136,2 ± 0,5 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and bimodal granulometric distribution. (author)

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles using Ex-Situ Co-Precipitation Method and Tripolyphosphate/Sulphate as Dual Crosslinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Ika O.; Mardila, Vita T.; Santjojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterial provide great opportunities to develop in several fields. Several types of nanoparticles have been proven beneficial for biomedical and therapeutic agent development. Particularly for clinical use, nanoparticles must be biocompatible and non-toxic. Iron oxide nanoparticles consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) was eligible to use for in vivo application including targeting drug delivery. Due to their distinct properties, these nanoparticles could be directed to the specific target under external magnetic field. However, nanoparticles have a tendency to form agglomeration. Therefore, surface modification was required to reduce the agglomeration. In this study, nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were produced and coated by biomaterial (chitosan) using ex-situ co-precipitation method. Nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized by adding ammonia water into iron ferric and ferrous solution. Synthesis process of Fe3O4 was conducted prior to adding chitosan. Chitosan was then cross-linked by a combination of tripolyphosphate/sulphate. The different composition ratio and crosslinking time provide the different physical and magnetic characteristics of nanoparticles. Particle and crystallite size was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) respectively, whereas magnetic characteristic was determined by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). The results showed that the ratio enhancement between chitosan: Fe3O4 increase the particle size, while decreased the crystallite size. Morphology and particle size were influenced by the ratio of crosslinkers. It was found that the higher tripolyphosphate content was contributed to the small size and more spherical morphology. In addition, the influence of crosslinking time toward crystallite size was determined by altering stirring time. The longer duration of crosslinking time, provide the larger crystallite size of chitosan-Fe3O4. There was an interesting

  1. Drug delivery system for an anticancer agent, chlorogenate-Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide nanohybrid synthesised using direct co-precipitation and ion exchange methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-09-01

    A nano-structured drug-inorganic clay hybrid involving an active anticancer compound, which is chlorogenic acid (CA) intercalated into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide, has been assembled via ion-exchange and co-precipitation methods to form a nanohybrid CZAE (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using an ion-exchange method) and CZAC (a chlorogenic acid-Zn/Al nanohybrid synthesised using a direct method), respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the CA-LDH had a hybrid structure in which the anionic chlorogenate is arranged between the interlayers as a horizontal monolayer at 90 and 20° angles from the x axis for CZAE and CZAC, respectively. Both nanohybrids have the properties of mesoporous materials. The high loading percentage of chlorogenic acid (approximately 43.2% for CZAE and 45.3% for CZAC) with basal spacings of 11.7 and 12.6 Å for CZAE and CZAC, respectively, corroborates the successful intercalation of chlorogenic acid into the interlayer gallery of layered double hydroxides. Free chlorogenic acid and the synthesised nanocomposites (CZAE, CZAC) were assessed for their cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. The Fourier transform infrared data supported the formation of both nanohybrids, and a thermal analysis showed that the nanohybrids are more thermally stable than their counterparts. The chlorogenate shows a sustained release, and the release rate of chlorogenate from CZAE and CZAC nanohybrids at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8 due to their different release mechanisms. The release rate of chlorogenate from both nanohybrids can be described as pseudo-second order. The present investigation revealed the potential of the nanohybrids to enhance the in vitro anti-tumour effect of chlorogenic acid in liver and lung cancer cells in vitro.

  2. Determination of trace amounts of indium in some sediments by means of coprecipitation with zirconium hydroxide and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Wataru; Uzawa, Atushi; Hong Luxin.

    1994-01-01

    Indium in some sediments was determined by means of coprecipitation and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The analytical procedure was as follows. Fifty milliliters of distilled water is added to 10 ml of sample solution containing 0.04 g of sediment. Then, constant amounts of indium standard solution and 1 ml of zirconium oxychloride solution are added and the pH adjusted to 8.8 with ammonia water (1:2). The precipitate is separated by filtration and then dissolved in 25 ml of 4 M hydrochloric acid. After 1 ml of 5% KCNS solution is added, this solution is diluted to 50 ml with distilled water. A portion of this solution is employed for the determination of indium. After bubbling nitrogen gas through the sample solution for 100 s it was pre-electrolyzed for 100 s. The potential was scanned from -0.9 V to -0.3 Vυs. SCE for dissolution of indium ion. Indium ion was determined from the peak current of the voltammogram. The results are as follows: (1) Zirconium hydroxide was the most effective collector of indium when the pH was adjusted to 8.8 with ammonia water (1:2). (2) Iron (III) and cadmium ions were found to interfere with the determination of indium. (3) The analytical procedure took about 90 min and 0.01 ppm of indium in sample solution could be determined. (4) This method is applicable to the determination of indium in river bottom and sea floor sediment. (author)

  3. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagh, Shadab; Chaudhary, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib; Ali, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    Substitution of cobalt (Co2+) ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) with copper (Cu2+) and aluminum (Al3+) ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al) substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8) nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1-26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0-23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0-0.8). The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8.

  4. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of tin-doped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Houda; Bargougui, Radhouane; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Sn-doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with various dopant concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 mol% were prepared successfully using a simple co-precipitation technique. The effects of Sn doping on the structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. XRD analysis showed that all of the samples had a typical hematite-type hexagonal structure of Fe2O3 without any additional peaks due to spurious phases. The cell parameters a and c decreased monotonically as the Sn content increased, thereby indicating that Sn ions were substituted into the α-Fe2O3 lattice. These results and the TEM analyses showed that the size of the nanoparticles decreased to 10 nm as the Sn doping concentration increased. UV-visible absorption measurements showed that the decrease in particle size was accompanied by a decrease in the band gap value from 2.07 eV for α-Fe2O3 to 1.87 eV with 6 mol% Sn doping. Furthermore, the magnetic properties demonstrated that all of the samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were studied based on the degradation of methylene blue as a model compound, where the results showed that an appropriate amount of Sn dopant could greatly increase the amount of hydroxyl radicals generated by α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which were responsible for the obvious increase in the photocatalytic activity.

  5. Crystallite growth kinetics of TiO2 surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Wang, Moo-Chin; Zhao, Xiujian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 powder surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO was obtained. • Phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by ZnO added. • Growth kinetic of anatase TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D A,9 2 =2.42×10 5 ×exp(-39.9×10 3 /RT). • Growth kinetic of rutile TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D R,9 2 =8.49×10 5 ×exp(-47.6×10 3 /RT) rutile TiO 2 . -- Abstract: The nanocrystallite growth of TiO 2 surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process has been studied. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry have been utilized to characterize the TiO 2 nanocrystallites surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO (denoted by T-9Z). The DTA result shows that the anatase TiO 2 first formed at 533 K and the completion of anatase TiO 2 crystallization occurred at 745 K for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders. XRD results reveal that the anatase and rutile TiO 2 coexist when the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 523–973 K for 2 h. When the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 973 K for 2 h, rutile TiO 2 was the major phase, and the minor phases were anatase TiO 2 and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 . The phase was composed of the rutile TiO 2 and Zn 2 TiO 4 for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination at 1273 K for 2 h. The growth kinetics of TiO 2 nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders were described as: D A,9 2 =2.42×10 5 ×exp(-39.9×10 3 /RT)and D R,9 2 =8.49×10 5 ×exp(-47.6×10 3 /RT) for anatase and rutile TiO 2 nanocrystallites respectively. The analysis results of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination have a red-shifted effect with increasing calcination temperature and can be used as a UVA-attenuating agent

  6. Characteristics and properties of a novel in situ method of synthesizing mesoporous TiO2 nanopowders by a simple coprecipitation process without adding surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Shang-Wei; Ko, Horng-Huey; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Yen-Ling; Lee, Jian-Hong; Wen, Chiu-Ming; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The TiO 2 precursor powder contained anatase and 19.5% NH 4 Cl. • Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 nanopowders were successfully synthesized. • Uncalcined precursor powder contained the phases of type I NH 4 Cl and anatase TiO 2 . • Anatase size increases from 3.3 to 14.3 nm when calcined at 473–773 K for 2 h. • The average pore size between 3.80 and 14.0 nm when calcined between 473 and 773 K. - Abstract: In situ synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 nanopowders using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) and NH 4 OH as initial materials has been successfully fabricated by a coprecipitation process without the addition of surfactant. Characteristics and properties of the mesoporous TiO 2 nanopowders were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrent–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results of TG and XRD showed that the NH 4 Cl decomposed between 513 and 673 K. XRD results showed that the anatase TiO 2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor powder was less than 673 K. Whereas phases of anatase and rutile TiO 2 coexist after calcining at 773 K for 2 h. The crystalline size of the anatase and rutile TiO 2 was 14.3 and 26.6 nm, respectively, when the precursor powder was calcined at 773 K for 2 h. The BET and BJH results showed a significant increase in surface area and pore volumes when the NH 4 Cl was completely decomposed. The maximum values of BET specific surface area and volume were 172.8 m 2 /g and 0.392 cm 3 /g, respectively. The average pore sizes when calcination was at 473 and 773 K for 2 h were 3.8 and 14.0 nm, respectively

  7. Characteristics and properties of a novel in situ method of synthesizing mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanopowders by a simple coprecipitation process without adding surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Shang-Wei [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Science, National University of Kaohsiung, 700 Kaohsiung University Road, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Ko, Horng-Huey [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hsiu-Mei [Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling, E-mail: yelichen@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jian-Hong [Clean Energy and Eco-Technology Center, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 8 Gongyan Road, Tainan 734, Taiwan (China); Wen, Chiu-Ming [Department of Life Science, National University of Kaohsiung, 700 Kaohsiung University Road, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2} precursor powder contained anatase and 19.5% NH{sub 4}Cl. • Mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were successfully synthesized. • Uncalcined precursor powder contained the phases of type I NH{sub 4}Cl and anatase TiO{sub 2}. • Anatase size increases from 3.3 to 14.3 nm when calcined at 473–773 K for 2 h. • The average pore size between 3.80 and 14.0 nm when calcined between 473 and 773 K. - Abstract: In situ synthesis of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanopowders using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and NH{sub 4}OH as initial materials has been successfully fabricated by a coprecipitation process without the addition of surfactant. Characteristics and properties of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanopowders were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrent–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results of TG and XRD showed that the NH{sub 4}Cl decomposed between 513 and 673 K. XRD results showed that the anatase TiO{sub 2} only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor powder was less than 673 K. Whereas phases of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} coexist after calcining at 773 K for 2 h. The crystalline size of the anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} was 14.3 and 26.6 nm, respectively, when the precursor powder was calcined at 773 K for 2 h. The BET and BJH results showed a significant increase in surface area and pore volumes when the NH{sub 4}Cl was completely decomposed. The maximum values of BET specific surface area and volume were 172.8 m{sup 2}/g and 0.392 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The average pore sizes when calcination was at 473 and 773 K for 2 h were 3.8 and 14.0 nm, respectively.

  8. Effect of irradiation power and time on ultrasound assisted co-precipitation of nanostructured CuO–ZnO–Al2O3 over HZSM-5 used for direct conversion of syngas to DME as a green fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahyari, Somaiyeh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Amanollah; Hosseinzadeh, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO–Al 2 O 3 /HZSM-5 catalyst has been prepared by an ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation hybrid method. Effect of power and irradiation time have been studied by changing the time (30–45–60 min) and power of sonication (50–100–150 W) during the synthesis which lead to different physiochemical properties of the catalyst. The XRD, FESEM, EDX, FTIR and BET analyses exhibited smaller particles with higher surface area and less population of particle aggregates at longer and highly irradiated catalysts. Study on the performance of investigated catalysts in direct synthesis of DME from syngas showed ultrasound-assisted co-precipitated synthesized catalysts have superior reactivity and stability compared with non-sonicated catalyst. Among sonicated catalysts, with increasing power and time of irradiation, the catalyst represents higher activity and DME selectivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO–ZnO–Al 2 O 3 /HZSM-5 by ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method. • Significant changes in morphology and surface area after ultrasound irradiations. • Smaller dispersed particle aggregates in longer and more intense irradiated catalysts. • Improvement in reactivity and stability of the longer and more intense ultrasound irradiated CZAZ catalyst. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO–Al 2 O 3 /HZSM-5 catalyst has been prepared by an ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation hybrid method. The effect of irradiation power and irradiation time have been studied by changing time (30, 45, 60 min) and power of the sonication (50, 100, 150 W) during the synthesis which led to different physiochemical properties of the nanocatalyst. The XRD, FESEM, EDX, FTIR and BET analyses exhibited smaller particles with higher surface area and less population of particle aggregates at longer and highly irradiated nanocatalysts. The nanocatalyst irradiated at 150 W for 60 min (the longest irradiation time and the most intense power

  9. Synthesis and magnetic properties of bacterial cellulose—ferrite (MFe2O4, M  =  Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) nanocomposites prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplai, Nipaporn; Mongkolthanaruk, Wiyada; Pinitsoontorn, Supree

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic nanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose (BC) matrix and ferrite (MFe2O4, M  =  Mn, Co, Ni and Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated. The never-dried and freeze-dried BC nanofibrils were used as templates and a co-precipitation method was applied for NPs synthesis. The nanocomposites were either freeze-dried or annealed before subjected to characterization. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that only MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 NPs could be successfully incorporated in the BC nanostructures. The results also indicated that the BC template should be freeze-dried prior to the co-precipitation process. The magnetic measurement by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed that the strongest ferromagnetic signal was found for BC-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites. The morphological investigation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the largest volume fraction of NPs in the BC-CoFe2O4 sample which was complimentary to the magnetic property measurement. Annealing resulted in the collapse of the opened nanostructure of the BC composites. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  10. The effect of Mn{sup 2+} substitution on magnetic properties of Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amighian, J. [Physics Department, Islamic Azad University—Najafabad Branch, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozaffari, M., E-mail: mozafari@sci.ui.ac.ir [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghbostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this work single phase Mn substituted magnetite (Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4}, x=0–0.75) nanoparticles were prepared by the coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the prepared nanoparticles have a single-phase spinel structure. An average crystallite size of about 20 nm has been obtained for all the samples, using Scherrer's formula. Field emission scanning electron microscope images of the samples showed that the average particle sizes were about 25 nm. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of the samples were measured by a Faraday balance and decreased from 610 °C to 510 °C by increasing Mn content from x=0 to x=0.75. The M–H curves of the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior for all the samples except for x=0 and saturation magnetization (σ{sub s}) decreased with increasing of Mn content. The temperature dependence of AC-susceptibility of samples at different frequencies reveals maxima corresponding to the different blocking temperatures. It was shown that the frequency dependence of the blocking temperature can be described by the Vogel–Fulcher law for superparamagnets, well. - Highlights: ► Mn substituted magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method successfully. ► The nanoparticles have a decreasing Curie temperature with increasing Mn contents. ► Increase in Curie temperature explained based on changes in superexchange interactions.

  11. Measurement by liquid scintillation of {sup 226} Ra coprecipitated in BaSO{sub 4}; Medicion por centelleo liquido de {sup 226} Ra coprecipitado en BaSO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J.I.; Badillo A, V.E.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Lugo R, J.F.; Pinedo V, J.L.; Rios M, C. [UAEN-UAZ, A.P. 579C, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: idavila@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 226} Ra is one of the more radio toxic nuclides since when entering to the organism it continues metabolically to the calcium, accumulating mainly in the bone tissue where it becomes in an internal radiation source. For the analysis of radium in water the methods of radon emanation are generally applied and coprecipitation with barium sulfate. This last is quick and efficient, and the radium in the precipitate can be measured by alpha or gamma spectrometry, or liquid scintillation dissolving the precipitate one with EDTA. In this work it is proposed a procedure for the radium measurement in water based on the coprecipitation with barium sulfate and in the detection by liquid scintillation. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} it is carried with water and blended with the liquid scintillator OptiPhase Hi Safe 3, avoiding the dissolution with EDTA. A 92{+-} 1.4% of radium it was recovered and it was reached a minimum activity detectable of 4.2 {+-} 0.9 mBq{sup -1}. The procedure was essayed with natural mineral water with a knew activity in concentration of {sup 226} Ra. The analytic result it coincided with the reported value with a relative error of 9%. (Author)

  12. Crystallite growth kinetics of TiO{sub 2} surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Horng-Huey [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsi, Chi-Shiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Zhao, Xiujian, E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} powder surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO was obtained. • Phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by ZnO added. • Growth kinetic of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D{sub A,9}{sup 2}=2.42×10{sup 5}×exp(-39.9×10{sup 3}/RT). • Growth kinetic of rutile TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders was described as: D{sub R,9}{sup 2}=8.49×10{sup 5}×exp(-47.6×10{sup 3}/RT) rutile TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: The nanocrystallite growth of TiO{sub 2} surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO prepared by a coprecipitation process has been studied. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry have been utilized to characterize the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites surface modification with 9 mol% ZnO (denoted by T-9Z). The DTA result shows that the anatase TiO{sub 2} first formed at 533 K and the completion of anatase TiO{sub 2} crystallization occurred at 745 K for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders. XRD results reveal that the anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} coexist when the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 523–973 K for 2 h. When the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders were calcined at 973 K for 2 h, rutile TiO{sub 2} was the major phase, and the minor phases were anatase TiO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The phase was composed of the rutile TiO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} for the T-9Z freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination at 1273 K for 2 h. The growth kinetics of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in T-9Z powders were described as: D{sub A,9}{sup 2}=2.42×10{sup 5}×exp(-39.9×10{sup 3}/RT)and D{sub R,9}{sup 2}=8.49×10{sup 5}×exp(-47.6×10{sup 3}/RT) for anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites respectively. The analysis results of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the T-9Z freeze

  13. Triethylamine-assisted Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation/preconcentration for determination of trace metals and rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zikri; Oymak, Tulay; White, Jeremy

    2018-05-30

    In this paper, we report an improved magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 , coprecipitation method for the determination of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sb, Sn and Pb) and 18 rare earth elements (REEs), including Sc, Y, U and Th in seawater and estuarine water samples. The procedure involves coprecipitation of the trace elements and REEs on Mg(OH) 2 upon addition of a small volume of triethylamine (TEA) followed by analysis of the dissolved pellet solutions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Three-step sequential coprecipitation was carried out on 10 mL aliquots of seawater to eliminate the matrix ions and to preconcentrate the analytes of interest into a 1 mL final volume. Spike recoveries varied from 85% (Th) to 105% (Y). Calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) matrices were virtually eliminated from the analysis solutions. Collision reaction interface (CRI) technology utilizing H 2 and He gases was employed to determine its effectiveness in removing the spectral interferences originating from the residual Mg matrix, TEA and plasma gases. H 2 was more effective than He in reducing spectral interferences from TEA and plasma gases. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.01 ng L -1 (Ho) to 72 ng L -1  (Al). The method was validated by using certified seawater (CASS-4) and estuarine water (SLEW-3) reference materials. Precision for five (n = 5) replicate measurements were between 1.2% (Pr) and 18% (Lu). Fe, Pb, Sn, and Zn impurities in TEA were significant in comparison to the levels in CASS-4 and SLEW-3, while relatively high background signals impacted determinations of low levels of Sc and Th. The effects of these hurdles on precision and accuracy were alleviated by measuring these elements in spiked CASS-4 and SLEW-3. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects studies of H2SO4/Na2SO4 on separation of Sr-90 from liquid Sr-90 waste by coprecipitation method using BaSO4 as a carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetjipto.

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive liquid waste of Sr-90 less than 10 -3 Uci/ml by coprecipitation method using BaSO 4 as carrier has been studied. The experiment shows that the removal efficiency of Sr-90 is high, if the molarity of H 2 SO 4 /Na 2 SO 4 is high. If Na 2 SO 4 is used as source SOsub(4)sup(2-), the removal efficiency is higher than H 2 SO 4 as source SOsub(4)sup(2-). The high value of pH which is equivalent to the low concentration of HCl will result in the high removal efficiency of Sr-90 in the waste treatment using H 2 SO 4 as source SOsub(4)sup(2-). (author)

  15. Structural, magnetic and optical characterization of Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Y.B., E-mail: ybkans@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Arumugam Pillai Seethai Ammal College, Tiruppattur 630211 (India); Saravanan, R. [Research Centre & PG Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625011 (India); Srinivasan, N. [Research Centre & PG Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009 (India); Praveena, K. [School of Physics, Univeristy of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sadhana, K. [Material Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Bond strength values, between tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites atoms in the unit cell, are evaluated using maximum entropy method (MEM) for the Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano ferrite particles, prepared by co-precipitation method and sintered at 900 °C. The spinel structure is confirmed from the XRD analysis done using the Rietveld method. Substitution of zinc ion causes increase in lattice parameter value. Thermal behavior, morphology, magnetic properties and optical band gap energy values of the sample are determined by using thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and UV–VIS–NIR techniques respectively. Low value of saturation magnetization is attributed to the disorder in cation distribution.

  16. Preparation of nano-porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high electrochemical performances by a co-precipitation method for 5 V lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoling; Li, Hongliang; Li, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is prepared by co-precipitation method. The results of scanning electron microscopy show that the sample has a nano-porous structure. Charge-discharge tests show that the synthesized product exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high initial discharge capacity of 129.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and a preferably capacity retention of 96.5% after 200 cycles. The superior performance of the synthesized product is attributed to its nano-porous structure. The nanoparticle reduces the path of Li+ diffusion and increases the reaction sites for lithium insertion/extraction, the pores provide room to buffer the volume changes during charge-discharge.

  17. Nanocrystalline composites of transition metal molybdate (Ni1-xCoxMoO4; x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1) synthesized by a co-precipitation method as humidity sensors and their photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeseentharani, V.; Dayalan, A.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline transition metal nickel-cobalt molybdate (Ni1-xCoxMoO4, NiCM; x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1) composites were prepared using a simple co-precipitation method. The composites were characterized by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The NiCM composites were studied to determine their possible use as humidity sensors, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were obtained. The sensing study was performed in environments with different relative humidity levels (5-98%). The maximum sensitivity of 18624 ± 168 was observed with the Ni0.7Co0.3MoO4 composite where the humidity could be calculated according to the relationship: Sf = R5%/R98%, where R5% and R98% are the dc resistances at 5 and 98% RH, respectively. The photoluminescence measurements acquired at room temperature for the NiCMs included green and red emission peaks when excited at a wavelength (λex) of 520 nm.

  18. Pronounced effects of the nominal concentrations of WO3 and Ag: WO3 nano-plates (obtained by a co-precipitation method) on their structural, morphological and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, V.; Deepa, B.

    2018-03-01

    Tungsten oxide and different concentration of silver (Ag)-doped tungsten oxide nano material were synthesized by co-precipitation technique. The functional vibrations, structure, and morphology of as-prepared nano material were studied by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. The SEM and HR-TEM analysis revealed the formation of nano-plate/nano rods with an average diameter of 40-80 nm diameter and 1-1.5 mm length. Fluorescence (PL) and UV-visible absorption techniques have been used to study the optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles. The observed red shift in the visible absorption spectra confirmed the promoted electron-phonon interaction in WO3 and Ag: WO3 nanoparticles compared to bulk structures. The photoluminescence of nanocrystalline Ag2+ doped WO3 exhibited a strong violet-blue, blue-green emission. Concentration dependence of the emission intensity of Ag2+ in WO3 was studied, and the significant concentration was found to be 0.5% of Ag: WO3. The effluent dye degradation executed for the 0.5% of Ag: WO3 sample under the visible light which reveals the highest degradation efficiency in appropriate time.

  19. In situ co-precipitation preparation of a superparamagnetic graphene oxide/Fe3O4 nanocomposite as an adsorbent for wastewater purification: synthesis, characterization, kinetics, and isotherm studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shengyan; Xue, Shengyang; Yang, Zeng; Hou, Yaqi; Zhu, Rongxin; Chu, Wei

    2018-04-13

    A superparamagnetic graphene oxide (GO)/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite (MGO) was prepared by a facile in situ co-precipitation strategy, resulting in a prospective material for the application of graphene oxide in wastewater treatment. MGO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared adsorbent showed a high adsorption efficiency relevant to the purification of dye-contaminated wastewater and could be readily magnetically separated. The maximum adsorption capacity was ca. 546.45 mg g -1 for the common cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and ca. 628.93 mg g -1 for the anionic dye Congo red (CR). The adsorption processes fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, which revealed that these processes may involve the chemical interaction between adsorbate and adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Furthermore, the prepared magnetic adsorbent had a wide effective pH range from 5 to 11 and showed good stability after five reuse cycles. The synthetic MGO showed great potential as a promising adsorbent for organic contaminant removal in wastewater treatment.

  20. Fabrication of In-rich AgInS{sub 2} nanoplates and nanotubes by a facile low-temperature co-precipitation strategy and their excellent visible-light photocatalytic mineralization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Fang; Zhong, Fei [Nanchang Hangkong University, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China); Hu, Peng [Jiaozuo University, College of Chemical Industry and Environment Engineering (China); Pei, Xule; Luo, Xubiao, E-mail: luoxubiao@126.com; Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [Nanchang Hangkong University, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-01-15

    Visible-light-driven In-rich AgInS{sub 2} nanoplates and nanotubes were successfully prepared by a convenient co-precipitation strategy at low temperature. The effect of different In/Ag molar ratio in the raw materials on the physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of AgInS{sub 2} was investigated. The In/Ag molar ratio has an obvious effect on the morphology of AgInS{sub 2}, and the physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of AgInS{sub 2} are also dependent on the In/Ag molar ratio. When the molar ratio of In/Ag is 9, the photoluminescence intensity of AgInS{sub 2} reaches a minimum value, while its photocurrent density is maximum (0.011 mA/cm{sup 2}), indicating the most efficient separation of electron-hole pairs. The AgInS{sub 2} with the In/Ag molar ratio of 9 exhibits the highest visible-light photocatalytic activities with almost complete degradation of 2-nitrophenol, which is attributed to the narrowest band gap and the most efficient separation of electron-hole pairs. Moreover, In-rich AgInS{sub 2} exhibits excellent regeneration ability.

  1. Fabrication of 2D sheet-like BiOCl/carbon quantum dot hybrids via a template-free coprecipitation method and their tunable visible-light photocatalytic activities derived from different size distributions of carbon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhong, Fei; Pei, Xule; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Au, Chaktong

    2016-02-12

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) interlaced BiOCl/carbon quantum dot composites (denoted as BiOCl/CQD composites) were synthesized by a template-free coprecipitation method at room temperature, and the influence of different particle size distributions of the CQDs on the physiochemical properties and photocatalytic activities of the BiOCl/CQD composites was studied. CQDs can change the morphology and increase the specific surface area of the BiOCl/CQD composites. Moreover, the particle size distribution of the CQDs (CQD loading amount) has some effect on the light absorption, separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and photocatalytic performance of  the BiOCl/CQD composites. The optimized size distribution of the CQDs is 50-150 nm. BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites showed the best improvement of light absorption and the highest photocurrent density of 0.44 μA cm(-2), and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with almost 100% 2-nitrophenol removal under visible-light irradiation. The high efficacy of BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites could be attributed to their excellent light absorption and highly effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  2. Synthesis, microstructure and EPR of CaMnO{sub 3} and Eu{sub x}Ca{sub 1-x}MnO{sub 3} manganite, obtained by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago T, M.; Hernandez C, L.; Legorreta G, F. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, AACTyM, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, 42074 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Montiel S, H. [UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Departamento de Tecnociencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez L, G. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Flores G, M. A., E-mail: mar200878@hotmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia y Bioelectromagnetismo Aplicado, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km 20, Ex-Hacienda de Santa Barbara, 43830 Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of CaMnO{sub 3} and Eu{sub x}Ca{sub 1-x}MnO{sub 3} obtained by coprecipitation method is showed. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, the powders showed orthorhombic structure and pnma space group. When it was doped with Europium, their morphology tendency was spherical. Measurements were carried out on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with constant frequency = 9.4 GHz (band X) and dc magnetic field (H dc) 0-0.8 T, measurements were at 300 K and 77 K. EPR spectra showed significant differences between both samples, indicating that the substitution of divalent alkaline earth cations by trivalent rare earth ions, allowing the formation of a mixed valence state of manganese, Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}. A 77 K, the manganite of concentration x = 0.30 had a magnetic ordering, noted by the presence of hysteresis. (Author)

  3. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) in ambient atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmed, N., E-mail: norsuria.mahmed@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); School of Materials Engineering, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian UniMAP, Taman Muhibbah, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Heczko, O., E-mail: heczko@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Lancok, A., E-mail: Lancok@seznam.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hannula, S-P., E-mail: simo-pekka.hannula@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, i.e., magnetite was attempted by using only ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) as a magnetite precursor, under an ambient atmosphere. The room temperature reverse co-precipitation method was used, by applying two synthesis protocols. The freshly prepared iron oxide was also immediately coated with Stöber silica (SiO{sub 2}) layer, forming the coreshell structure. The phase, stoichiometry, crystallite and the particle size of the synthesized powders were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the magnetic and oxidation behaviors were studied by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the results, the bare iron oxide nanoparticles are in the stoichiometry between the magnetite and the maghemite stoichiometry, i.e., oxidation occurs. This oxidation is depending on the synthesis protocols used. With the silica coating, the oxidation can be prevented, as suggested by the fits of Mössbauer spectra and low temperature magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetite was attempted by using ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) in air. • The synthesized particle has a stoichiometry in between magnetite and maghemite. • Silica shell partly prevented the oxidation as suggested by magnetic and Mössbauer study.

  4. Detailed crystallization study of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.47} Gd{sub 1.53} Fe{sub 5} O{sub 12} and relevant magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Rogerio Arving [Instituto de Criminalistica Carlos Eboli (ICCE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ogasawara, Tsuneharu; Ogasawara, Angelica Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ogasawat@metalmat.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization process of co-precipitated Y{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} powder heated up to 1000 deg C at rate of 5 deg C min{sup -1} was investigated. Above 810 deg C crystalline Y{sub 1.47}Gd{sub 1.53}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was obtained with a lattice parameter of 12.41 A and a theoretical density of 5.84 g cm{sup -3}. Dry pressed rings were sintered at 1270 and 1320 deg C, increasing the grain-size from 3.1 to 6.5 {mu}m, the theoretical density by 87.6 to 95.3% and decreasing H{sub c} from 2.9725 to 1.4005 Oe. Additionally, Hc increased when the frequency of the hysteresis graph varied from 60 Hz to 10 kHz, the curie temperature was 282.4 deg C and Ms equalled 9.25 emu g{sup -1} (0.17 kG) agreeing well with the B{sub s}-value of the hysteresis graph and literature values. (author)

  5. Effect of electron irradiation exposure on phase formation, microstructure and mechanical strength of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} superconductor prepared via co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiju, Zaahidah ' Atiqah; Hamid, Nasri A., E-mail: Nasri@uniten.edu.my; Kannan, V. [Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Yusof [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    In this work the effect of electron irradiation on the mechanical properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) superconductor was studied by exposing the Bi-2212 superconductor with different doses of electron irradiation. Bi-2212 samples were prepared by using co-precipitation method. Irradiation was performed with irradiation dose of 100 kGray and 200 kGray, respectively. Characterization of the samples was performed by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Instron Universal Testing machine was used to measure the strength of the samples. The XRD patterns for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples show well-defined peaks of which could be indexed on the basis of a Bi-2212 phase structure. XRD patterns also indicate that electron irradiation did not affect the Bi-2212 superconducting phase. SEM micrographs show disorientation in the texture of the microstructure for irradiated samples. Sample exposed to 200 kGray electron irradiation dose shows enhancement of grain size. Their grain growth and texture improved slightly compared to other sample. The results also show that enlargement of grain size resulted in higher mechanical strength.

  6. Speciation and separation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) using coprecipitation with Ni2+/2-Nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid and determination by FAAS in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    A speciation procedure for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in the water and food samples has been established in the presented work. The procedure presented based on quantitative recoveries of Cr(III)>95% using coprecipitation of Ni(2+)/2-Nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. The total chromium was measured after reduction of Cr(VI) by concentrated H(2)SO(4) and ethanol. The Cr(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr content and the Cr(III) contents. The analytical variables, pH, amounts of precipitate, sample volume for optimum recoveries of Cr(III) were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries of analyte ions were also investigated. The preconcentration factor was 50. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for chromium(III) was 1.33 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviations for determinations were found to be bush branches and leaves (GBW 0703). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of chromium in natural water and food samples (fish, white cheese, cow's meat, black tea, boiled wheat).

  7. High-temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca0.92La0.04RE0.04MnO3 (RE = Sm, Dy and Yb) prepared by coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiqin; Chen, Qianlin; Yan, Yunan; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Ying

    2018-02-01

    A series of Ca0.92La0.04RE0.04MnO3 (RE = Sm, Dy and Yb) compounds are synthesized via a coprecipitation technique. The influence of La/RE dual doping on the phase structure, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of the CaMnO3 system is investigated. Increased material density with grain sizes of 1–2 μm and a homogeneous microstructure is realized. Dual doping decreases the electrical resistivity due to an increase in the carrier concentration and also decreases the thermal conductivity due to increased grain scattering, damping of local vibrations by heavier La/RE ions compared to Ca and lattice distortion. The Ca0.92La0.04Yb0.04MnO3 shows the highest power factor of 3.49 × 10‑4 W m‑1 K‑2 and the highest dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.25 at 770 K, which is approximately 3 times larger than that obtained for the undoped CaMnO3 and significantly larger than that of single-doped CaMnO3 prepared by solid-state reaction. This work provides a basic foundation for the industrial application of this thermoelectric material.

  8. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe2O4 ferrites prepared by polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods: a low-toxicity alternative to Ni((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe2O4 ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, A; Modest, J; Geiler, A L; Gillette, S; Chen, Y; Geiler, M; Hu, B; Kim, S; Stopher, K; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G

    2011-07-29

    The synthesis and properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) spinel ferrites as a low-toxicity alternative to the technologically significant Ni((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) ferrites are reported. Ferrite nanoparticles have been formed through both the polyol and aqueous co-precipitation methods that can be readily adapted to industrial scale synthesis to satisfy the demand of a variety of commercial applications. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Mg((x))Zn((1 - x))Fe(2)O(4) were studied as a function of composition and particle size. Scanning electron microscopy images show particles synthesised by the aqueous co-precipitation method possess a broad size distribution (i.e. ∼ 80-120 nm) with an average diameter of the order of 100 nm ± 20 nm and could be produced in high process yields of up to 25 g l(-1). In contrast, particles synthesised by the polyol-based co-precipitation method possess a narrower size distribution with an average diameter in the 30 nm ± 5 nm range but are limited to smaller yields of ∼ 6 g l(-1). Furthermore, the polyol synthesis method was shown to control average particle size by varying the length of the glycol surfactant chain. Particles prepared by both methods are compared with respect to their phase purity, crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties and microwave properties.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Microspherical Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2 through Carbon Dioxides-assisted Co-precipitation Method for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wenchao; Jiang, Jicheng; Liu, Wei; Yan, Xiao; Sun, Deye; Jin, Yongcheng; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Lan; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-rich layered electrode materials are of interest as a promising candidate of cathodes for lithium-ion batteries because of their excellent electrochemical properties. The electrochemical performance of these materials is mainly regulated by preparation conditions during synthesis and calcination process. Here, microspherical Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Co 0.13 Ni 0.13 O 2 (LMNCO) particles are synthesized through steady pH value control with carbon dioxides bubbling method in co-precipitation process using a simple reactor. SEM images present that CP-LMNCO sample prepared through the assistance of carbon dioxides has spherical particle morphology, while sample (TP-LMNCO) without carbon dioxides assistance shows large nanoparticles agglomeration. The CP-LMNCO electrode demonstrates superior electrochemical performance, which exhibits capacity retention of 97.76% after 100 cycles compared with only 81.94% for TP-LMNCO electrode at 1C (250 mA g −1 ). Even at a higher current density (5C), the CP-LMNCO electrode shows reversible capacity up to 105.4 mA h g −1 . The remarkably improved electrochemical performance of CP-LMNCO electrode is ascribed to spherical morphology with small surface area which decreases side reactions with electrolyte during cycling and smaller primary sizes which reduce lithium ion (Li + ) diffusion distance. Furthermore, the synthesis of spherical materials using metal sulfate with high concentration (up to 5 M) as starting agents are attempted under carbon dioxides assisted conditions, and as-prepared materials also show improved performance.

  10. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO2–10%SiO2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Moo-Chin; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Lee, Huey-Er

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO 2 , which corresponds to ZrO 2 ·1/8 H 2 O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO 2 formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO 2 formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 . - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO 2 freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO 2 crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO 2 appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 occurred

  11. Structural and Morphological Properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}O with Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism and Fabricated by Using the Co-Precipitation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Irfan, R.; Riaz, S.; Naseem, S.; Hussain, S. S. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, ZnO was doped with various concentrations of zirconium (x{sub Zr} = 0 - 5 mole%), by using the co-precipitation method so as to achieve successful formation of a single-phase diluted magnetic semiconductor. X-Ray diffraction results showed that the crystal structure of Zn{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}O was that of hexagonal wurtzite. The structural properties showed no additional phases at low impurity contents (x{sub Zr} < 3%); however, impurity peaks belonging to ZrO{sub 2} appeared at high impurity contents (x{sub Zr} ≥ 3%). The calculated ZnO lattice constants 'a' and 'c' were found to be 3.256 Å and 5.203 Å, respectively, which are in close match to the values found in the literature. For undoped ZnO, the average calculated particle size was 75.35 nm, and calculated bond length was 1.98 Å. The residual strains and the secondary phases of ZrO{sub 2} were found to affect the lattice parameters and the bond lengths. The scanning electron microscopy images showed a porous structure with non-uniform surface morphology. However, a few nano-scale dendrite-type structures were also present, indicating the potential applications of Zr-doped ZnO in nano-devices. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was employed to measure the magnetic properties, and the measurements showed undoped ZnO to be diamagnetic; however, doping with Zr induced a small ferromagnetic character at small magnetic fields. On the other hand, a paramagnetic behavior was evident at higher magnetic fields. The magnetization at 1T was observed to degrade with increasing Zr content in the ZnO host lattice, which was due to the residual strains and the secondary phases.

  12. Synthesis of Nano-Structured La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 Perovskite by Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Mostafavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-structured lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF, was successfully synthesized via co-precipitation method using metal nitrates as starting materials. Effects of precipitating agent and calcination temperature on the phase composition and morphology of synthesized powders were systematically studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, respectively. XRD analysis revealed that a single phase La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 perovskite was obtained in the processed sample using ammonium carbonate as precipitating agent with a NH4+/NO3-molar ratio of 2 after calcination at 1000C for 1 h. The phase composition of products was also affected by changing pH values. Moreover, using sodium hydroxide as a precipitant resulted in a mixture of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 phases. Careless washing of the precursors can also led to the formation of mixed phase after calcination of final powders. Mean crystallite size of the obtained powders was not noticeably affected by varying calcination temperature from 900 to 1050C and remained almost the same at 10 nm, however increasing calcination temperature to 1100C resulted in sharp structural coarsening. FESEM studies demonstrate that relatively uniform particles with mean particle size of 90 nm were obtained in the sample processed with a NH4+/NO3- molar ratio of 2 after calcination at 1000C for 1 h.

  13. High Tap Density Spherical Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical [Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2](OH2 precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess Li2CO3 followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 powder is as high as 2.61 g cm−3. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, particle size distribution (PSD, and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12 μm consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1 μm, which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V and 2.5–4.6 V, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214 mAh g−1 at a current density of 32 mA g−1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability.

  14. Growth mechanisms for spherical mixed hydroxide agglomerates prepared by co-precipitation method: A case of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Xie, Ming; He, Yinghe; Huang, Guoyong; Yang, Youcai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 along the [0 0 1] direction was revealed. • DFT calculation results show crystal surface energies of (0 0 1) plane is highest. • A new model was proposed to explain the formation of spherical agglomerates. - Abstract: Spherical Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 agglomerates were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in the presence of ammonia. The results show that the growth mechanism of spherical agglomerates follows three-stages, i.e. nucleation and anisotropic growth of single crystals; agglomeration of polycrystalline crystallites agglomerated by single crystal grains as primary particles to form embryonic agglomerates; formation, growth and consolidation of spherical agglomerates or particles by agglomeration of embryonic agglomerates, continued growth of individual crystals in the agglomerates and further attachment of primary particles. The first two stages are very fast while the last stage takes almost the entire process to complete. The main reason for the anisotropic growth of Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 (OH) 2 crystal is that crystal surface energy of E (001) , E (100) , E (101) and E (102) is different with E (001) being the highest. The morphology of the final spherical agglomerates is explained by partial re-crystallization of contacting primary particles. The growth process of spherical agglomerates was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and calculation of crystal surface energy using density function theory

  15. Effect of agglomeration during coprecipitation: Delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and stoichiometry changes. Powders prepared by continuous method with better control of process para- meters than batch process yields better spinellization. Keywords. Agglomeration; stoichiometry; spinellization; solid solution. 1. Introduction. MgAl2O4 (spinel) has emerged as a potential ceramic material because of its ...

  16. Effect of agglomeration during coprecipitation: Delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Precipitation of magnesium aluminate hydrate with faster addition of ammonia at desired pH causes agglomeration. Agglomerated powder, without any further treatment, on calcination forms intermediate compounds at low temperatures (≤ 900°C). The intermediate compounds on further heat treatment (≥ 1000°C) ...

  17. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Projects under Scientific and Technological planning of the education office, Jiangxi Province (GCJ2011-243), domestic visiting scholar of Jiangxi provincial higher education insti- tution, Jiangxi Province Training Programs of Innovation and. Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (201310407028), the. Science Program of ...

  18. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Li [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuen-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hong-Hsin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Cheng Ching Road, Niaosong, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lee, Huey-Er, E-mail: huerle@kmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, which corresponds to ZrO{sub 2}·1/8 H{sub 2}O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO{sub 2} freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} occurred.

  19. The effect of doping Mg2+ on structure and properties of Sr(1.992-x)MgxSiO4: 0.008Eu2+ blue phosphor synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingxiang; Wang, Jin-shan; Zhu, Da-chuan; Pu, Yong; Zhao, Cong; Han, Tao

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the luminescence property of silicate phosphors, a series of Sr(1.992-x)MgxSiO4: 0.008Eu2+(x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) blue phosphors have been synthesized using one-step calcination of a precursor prepared by chemical co-precipitation. And then the crystal structure and luminescence properties of the phosphors are investigated by means of X-Ray Diffraction and spectrophotometer. The results show that β-phase existed in the mixed phases of Sr2SiO4 (β+α‧) would transform to α‧-phase with Mg2+ ions doping into the silicate host until it disappeared. On the other hand, the introduction of Mg2+ ions can enhance the intensity of the excitation spectrum and promote the excitation sensitivity of Sr(1.992-x)MgxSiO4: 0.008Eu2+ phosphors in NUV region. Under NUV excitation at 350 nm, all samples exhibit a broadband emission in range of 400-550 nm due to the 4f65d1→4f7(8S7/2) transition of Eu2+ ions. According to Multi-peak fitting to emission spectra by Gauss method, the broad emission band consists of two single bands with peaks Em1 and Em2 locating at 460 and 490 nm, which corresponds to Eu2+ ions occupying the ten-fold oxygen-coordinated Sr1 site and the nine-fold oxygen-coordinated Sr2 site, respectively. The luminescence intensity of Sr(1.992-x)MgxSiO4:0.008Eu2+(x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) blue phosphors has been enhanced remarkably after Mg2+ ions are added. Meanwhile, the chromaticity coordinates change from the blue-green region to the blue region as x moves from 0 to 0.75. Moreover, the decay curves are measured and can be well fitted with double exponential decay equation. It shows that the average lifetime is extended with the concentration of Mg2+ ions increasing. These results indicate that Sr(1.992-x)MgxSiO4: 0.008Eu2+(x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) can be used as a potential blue phosphor in near UV-excited white LEDs.

  20. Effect of Ca and Li additions on densification and electrical conductivity of 10 mol% gadolinia-doped ceria prepared by the coprecipitation technique; Efeito de adicoes de litio e calcio na densificacao e na condutividade eletrica da ceria-10% mol gadolinia preparada pela tecnica de co-precipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porfirio, T.C.

    2010-07-01

    Ceria containing rare-earth ceramics are potential candidates for application in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. One of the main problems related to these ceramic materials is their relatively low sinterability. In this work, the effects of Ca and Li additions on densification and electrical conductivity of 10 mol% gadolinia-doped ceria was investigated. Ceramic compositions containing 1.5 mol% Ca or Li were prepared by the oxalate coprecipitation technique. Results of sintered density and electrical conductivity were compared to those of ceramic samples obtained by solid state reactions showing the effects of the synthesis method on densification and total electrical conductivity of the sintered materials. (author)

  1. Multi-Element Free-Space Optical (FSO) Modules for Mobile-Opportunistic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    powerfully configured as well, as it will be connected with multiple high-range USRPs. For that reason, an Intel Core i7-5930K 3.50 GHz CPU, an ASUS ...MOSFET MOSFET 2N7002 $0.09 100 $9.39 10 Controller CPU Intel Core i7-5930K 3.50 GHz $651.93 1 $651.93 11 Controller Motherboard Asus X99-DELUXE ATX LGA2011...3Dfuturemark- 20%26linkCode%3Dxm2%26camp%3D2025%26creative%3D165953%26creativeASIN%3DB00N5GYRSM 11 http://pcpartpicker.com/part/ asus -motherboard

  2. Finite Element Free Vibration Analysis of Doubly Curved Laminated Composite Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, D.; Bandyopadhyay, J. N.; Sinha, P. K.

    1996-04-01

    A finite element analysis for the free vibration behaviour of doubly curved shells is presented in which eight-noded curved quadrilateral isoparametric finite elements are used. The first order shear deformation theory for thin and shallow shells is used in the formulation. Results are obtained for comparison with those in the existing literature and to investigate the effects of various composite parameters relevant to doubly curved shells, such as fibre orientations and lamination schemes and several geometrical parameters like aspect ratio, smaller height to greater height ratio (for conoids), thickness to radius ratio (for hyperbolic and elliptic paraboloids), and radii of curvature ratio (for elliptic paraboloids).

  3. Influence of Yb{sup 3+} on the structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Mg{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystallites synthesized via co-precipitation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejaz, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Azhar [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Hussain, Altaf [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Sultan, Amber [Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Asif [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Chughtai, Adeel Hussain; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq, E-mail: farooq.warsi@iub.edu.pk [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-15

    A series of nanostructured ferrites having chemical composition Mg{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}Yb{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x=0.0–0.08) was prepared by the chemical co-precipitation route. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and impedance analyzer. The analysis of XRD patterns confirmed the spinel structure and the crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula was found in the range of 18–43 nm. The crystallite size was small enough to obtain considerable signal to noise ratio in the recording media. The lattice constant was increased from 8.362 Ǻ to 8.383 Ǻ as the Yb contents were increased in the magnesium-cobalt ferrites. The TGA and DTA were carried out for prepared sample to investigate the thermal decomposition process. Magnetization results obtained from VSM measurements elucidate that the substitution of rare earth ytterbium decreased the saturation magnetization and retentivity. The dielectric properties of the samples were studied at room temperature in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 3 GHz and the samples exhibited the dispersion in high frequency region. The dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were decreased with the increased frequency and ytterbium doping. The dielectric parameters were explained on the basis of space charge distribution. The dielectric and magnetic parameters suggested that these nano-materials are potential candidates for switching and recording media applications. - Graphical abstract: Mg{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}Yb{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} nanostructured spinel ferrites were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. The crystallite size was found in the range 18–43 nm. The substitutions of rare earth ytterbium decrease the saturation magnetization and retentivity. The dielectric parameters were explained on the basis of space charge distribution. The

  4. Influence of the use of NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation; Influencia da utilizacao de NaOH e NH{sub 4}OH na sintese de nanoparticulas de oxido de ferro por coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.C.; Zampiva, R.Y.S., E-mail: pr.priscila@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduaco em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais; Campos, H.G.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil), Escola de Engenharia

    2012-07-01

    Numerous chemical methods can be used to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles, including, microemulsion, sol-gel, polyol among others. This work was used because of advantages such as coprecipitation simplicity and large scale production. The goal is to control the characteristics and stability of nanoparticles. Thus, it is a reaction in aqueous iron salts with a base (NaOH, NH{sub 4}OH, etc.) In which parameters such as quality and the molar ratio of base used were varied to control the morphology that the particles, and consequently varying the grain size. Factors such as reaction time and temperature, pH, influence on morphology, and magnetic. There were measures of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to obtain the phases and average diameters. The results show that as the choice of base used and its molar concentration variation occurring in the sizes of the iron oxide nanoparticles. (author)

  5. Size-controlled synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles onto zeolite by means of a modified activated-coprecipitation method: effect of the HCl concentration during the activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Bello, S., E-mail: quim.sam@gmail.com [Technological Research and Development Centre CID, Nanostructured Materials Group (Mexico); Morales-Luckie, Raul A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM (Mexico); Flores-Santos, L. [Technological Research and Development Centre CID, Nanostructured Materials Group (Mexico); Hinestroza, Juan P. [Cornell University, Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design (United States); Sanchez-Mendieta, Victor [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Synthetic sodium type A zeolite bearing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles composites have been prepared by means of a coprecipitation method with two different activation methodologies, one using Sn and the other using Sn/Pd nanoparticles as activators. Sn activation generates hematite nanoparticles while Sn/Pd produces magnetite nanoparticles. Amount of HCl used during the activation of the zeolite with SnCl{sub 2} showed a correlation between the stannous activating species and the particle size. Both Sn and Sn-Pd activated nanocomposites show nearly narrow size distributions but only those iron oxides obtained with Sn-Pd showed supermagnetism.

  6. Investigation on orientation, epitaxial growth and microstructure of a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films prepared on (001), (110) and (111) SrTiO3 single crystal substrates by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Zhi liang; Mao, Yangwu; Xu, Yuan Lai

    2015-04-01

    a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were pareared by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition. The surface of the a-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of rectangular needle-like grains whose in-plane epitaxial growth relationship was YBCO [100] // STO [001] (YBCO [001] // STO [100]), and that of the c-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of dense flat surface with epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [001] // STO [001] (YBCO [100] //STO [100]). For the (103)/(110)-oriented and (113)-oriented YBCO film, they showed wedge-shaped and triangle-shaped grains, with corresponding in-plane epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [110] // STO [110] (YBCO [010] // STO [010]) and YBCO [100] // STO [100] (YBCO [113] // STO [111], respectively.

  7. Lithium-Rich Nanoscale Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 Cathode Material Prepared by Co-Precipitation Combined Freeze Drying (CP-FD) for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ying; Li, Yu; Wu, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhong, Yunxia; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Cunzhong; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Feng

    2015-07-14

    Nanoscale Li-rich Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 material is synthesized by a co-precipitation combined freeze drying (CP-FD) method, and compared with a conventional co-precipitation method combined vacuum drying (CP-VD). With the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it is found that the sample from CP-FD method consists of a pure phase with good crystallinity and small, homogenous particles (100-300 nm) with uniform particle size distribution. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) shows that the sample has a stoichiometric ratio of n((Li)): n((Mn)): n((Ni)): n((Co))=9: 4: 1: 1; and its Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area is 5.749 m(2)g(-1). This sample achieves excellent electrochemical properties: its initial discharge capacities are 298.9 mAhg(-1) at 0.1C (20 mAg(-1)), 246.1 mAhg(-1) at 0.5C, 215.8 mAhg(-1) at 1C, and 154.2 mAhg(-1) at 5C (5C charge and 5C discharge), as well as good cycling performance. In addition, the Li+ chemical diffusion coefficient of Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 material prepared by the CP-FD method is 4.59 x 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1), which is higher than that of the Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 material prepared by CP-VD. This phenomenon illustrates the potential for Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 with good rate performance synthesized by CP-FD method.

  8. Fate of nickel ion in (II-III hydroxysulphate green rust synthesized by precipitation and coprecipitation Adsorção de íon níquel em (II-III green rust hidroxisulfato sintetizado por precipitação e co-precipitação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the efficiency of sulfate green rust (GR2 to remove Ni from solution, GR2 samples were synthesized under controlled laboratory conditions. Some GR2 samples were synthesized from Fe(II and Fe(III sulfate salts by precipitation. Other samples were prepared by coprecipitation, of Ni(II, Fe(II and Fe(III sulfate salts, i.e., in the presence of Ni. In another sample, Ni(II sulfate salt was added to pre-formed GR2. After an initial X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization all samples were exposed to ambient air in order to understand the role of Ni in the transformation of the GR2 samples. XRD was repeated after 45 days. The results showed that Nious GR2 prepared by coprecipitation is isomorphous to Ni-free GR2, i.e. Ni is incorporated into the crystalline structure. Fe(II was not replaced by Ni(II in the crystalline structure of GR2 formed prior to exposure to solution-phase Ni. This suggests Ni was adsorbed to the GR2 surface. Sulfate green rust is more efficient in removing Ni from the environment by coprecipitation.Com objetivo de investigar a eficiência do "sulfate green rust" (GR2 na remoção de Ni da solução, amostras de GR2 foram sintetizadas em laboratório sob condições controladas. Algumas amostras de GR2 foram sintetizadas pela precipitação de sais de Fe(II e de Fe(III; outras amostras, pela co-precipitação de sais de Ni(II, Fe(II e de Fe(III; e em outras amostras, o sulfato de Ni(II foi adicionado às amostras GR2 pré-formadas. Após caracterização inicial, por difração de raios X, todas as amostras ficaram expostas ao ar atmosférico durante 45 dias, a fim de se avaliar o papel do Ni na transformação delas. Após esse período, a difração de raios X das amostras foi repetida. Os resultados mostraram que Ni-GR2 preparado por co-precipitação é isomórfico do GR2, estando o íon Ni na estrutura cristalina deste. Fe(II não foi substituído por Ni(II na estrutura cristalina de GR2 formado a priori

  9. Coprecipitation of nickel zinc malonate: A facile and reproducible synthesis route for Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O nanoparticles and Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO nanocomposites via pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lontio Fomekong, Roussin, E-mail: lonforou@yahoo.fr [Inorganic Chemistry Department, University of Yaoundé I, B.P. 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Institut de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 1, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice [Inorganic Chemistry Department, University of Yaoundé I, B.P. 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Magnin, Delphine; Hermans, Sophie; Delcorte, Arnaud [Institut de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 1, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Lambi Ngolui, John [Chemistry Department, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, B.P. 47, Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    2015-10-15

    Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O and Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO, which can be good candidates for selective gas sensors, were successfully obtained via a two-step synthetic route, in which the nickel zinc malonate precursor was first synthesized by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution, followed by pyrolysis in air at a relatively low temperature (~500 °C). The precursor was characterized by ICP-AES, FTIR and TG and the results indicate the molecular structure of the precursor to be compatible with Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}(OOCCH{sub 2}COO)·2H{sub 2}O. The decomposition product, characterized using various techniques (FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, SEM, TEM and XPS), was established to be a doped nickel oxide (Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O for 0.01≤x≤0.1) and a composite material (Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO for 0.2≤x≤0.5). To elucidate the form in which the Zn is present in the NiO structure, three analytical techniques were employed: ToF-SIMS, XRD and XPS. While ToF SIMS provided a direct evidence of the presence of Zn in the NiO crystal structure, XRD showed that Zn actually substitutes Ni in the structure and XPS is a bit more specific by indicating that the Zn is present in the form of Zn{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation synthesis of nickel zinc malonate single bath precursor was achieved. • The as synthesized precursors are an homogeneous mixture of nickel and zinc malonate. • XRD, ToF-SIMS, XPS, SEM and TEM was used to characterized decomposition products. • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O nanoparticles (0.01≤x≤0.1) formed after pyrolysis (~500 °C) of precursor. • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO nanocomposite (0.2≤x≤0.5) formed after pyrolysis at 500 °C of precursor.

  10. Eco friendly green and yellow ceramic pigments based on calcium-doped Pr{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} obtained by addition of mineralizers and chemical coprecipitation.; Ecopigmentos ceramicos verdes y amarillos de Pr{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} dopados con calcio obtenidos en presencia de mineralizadores y por coprecipitacion quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, R.; Garcori, C.; Llusar, M.; Garcia, A.; Badenes, J.; Monros, G.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper the synthesis of (Pr{sub 2}-xCa{sub x})Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} solid solutions by ceramic route is presented. Crystallography and colour evolution from green to yellow described on literature have been checked. When enamelled in a lead free double firing ceramic glaze, pigments produces light yellow colours not better than b*=19. Using NH{sub 4}Cl, NaF and Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} as mineralizers in the (Pr{sub 2}-xCa{sub x})Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} x=0,1 composition with the same molar addition of halogens (0.84 mols per formula weight), a structural effect of fluoride ion is observed but the yellow colour on enamelled samples do not improve. Finally, using an ammonia coprecipitation method in the x=0.6 sample, a similar crystallization to the homologous ceramic sample is detected, but x ray diffraction peaks are more intense and less wide, pointing to a more regular and higher crystal size crystallization which is checked by electronic scanning microscopy. This microstructure give more intense yellow coloured powders and improve their resistance against glaze, producing significantly best yellow colours than ceramic samples. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Evaluation of the structure and microstructure of Ni{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}O oxides obtained by co-precipitation; Evaluacion de la estructura y microestructura de oxidos de Ni{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}O obtenidos por co-precipitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez L, G.; Kryshtab, T. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hesiquio G, M. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Edif. 6, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kryvko, A., E-mail: marloz7@yahoo.com.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Edif. Z-4, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-06-01

    Ni{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}O oxides were prepared by thermal treatment at temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 C from a hydrotalcite-like precursor obtained by co-precipitation at constant ph. The oxides obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. From the obtained results we concluded that the oxides calcined at temperatures of 400, and 600 C are unstable that means that there exists the effect of memory and with a time they return to the precursor. Presence of Ni in Mg oxide provides stability of the compounds thermally treated at 800 C. In order to analyze the structure and microstructure, the reflections 111, 200 and 220 were used. The positions of the maxima of the diffraction peaks are shifted with respect to the simulated ones for Mg O and Ni O. This result reveals that in solid solutions studied compressive strains or vacation are present. The parameters of the microstructure (coherent domain size and micro deformations) were evaluated. The coherent domain size was found to be in the range of 8 - 10 nm and the presence of residual strains of micro deformation can be associated with the existence of extended defects. (Author)

  12. Caracterização estrutural, textural e morfológica de aluminato de lítio (LiAlO2 sintetizado por coprecipitação Structural, textural and morphological characterization of lithium aluminate (LiAlO2 synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminato de lítio (LiAlO2 foi sintetizado por coprecipitação. O material foi calcinado em diferentes temperaturas e caracterizado por difração de raios X, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, adsorção gasosa, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET, possibilitando sua caracterização estrutural, morfológica e textural. Diferentes fases cristalinas foram observadas à medida que a temperatura foi elevada de 550 para 1150 ºC. Texturalmente o material foi classificado como não-poroso e particulado a 550 e 750 ºC, apresentando microporos a 950 ºC. Análises comparativas de imagens de MET e MEV possibilitaram a identificação nanoflocos e microfolhas como as principais morfologias presentes no material.Lithium aluminate (LiAlO2 was synthesized by coprecipitation. The material was calcined at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, providing a structural, morphological and textural characterization. Different crystalline phases were observed as the temperature was raised from 550 to 1150 ºC. Texturally, the material was classified as non-porous and particulate at 550 and 750 ºC showing micropores at 950 ºC. Comparative analysis of TEM and SEM images allowed the identification of nanoflakes and microsheets as the main morphology present in the material.

  13. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during...

  14. Fractionation behavior of chromium isotopes during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenviro......Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track...

  15. Characterization of magnetic nano particles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method; Caracterizacion de nanoparticulas magneticas de CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} y CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} preparadas por el metodo de coprecipitacion quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M. E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Peliculas Delgadas, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Universidad del Valle, Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Espinoza B, F. J., E-mail: javierlo21@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by co-precipitation technique from aqueous salt solutions of Co (II), ZnSO{sub 4} and Fe (III), in an alkaline medium. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder samples were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing the presence of the most intense peat at 2{theta} = 413928{sup o} (Co K{alpha}1) corresponding to the (311) crystallographic orientation of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The mean size of the crystalline of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles determined from the full width at half maximum of the strongest reflection of the (311) peak by using the Scherrer approximation was calculated to be 11.4 and 7.0 ({+-} o.2) nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy studies permitted determining nanoparticle size of CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of Fe-O bonds, allowing identifying the presence of ferrite spinel structure. Magnetic properties were investigated with the aid of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature Herein, the sample showed superparamagnetic behavior, determined by the hysteresis loop finally, due to the hysteresis loop of the CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is very small, our magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as a soft magnetic material. These magnetic nanoparticles have interesting technological applications in biomedicine given their biocompatibility, in nano technology, and in ferro fluid preparation. (Author)

  16. Use of micrometric latex beads to improve the porosity of hydroxyapatite obtained by chemical coprecipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webler, G. D.; Rodrigues, W. C.; Silva, A. E. S.; Silva, A. O. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; Degenhardt, M. F. S.; Oliveira, C. L. P.; Otubo, L.; Barros Filho, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is one of the most important biomaterials whose application mainly extends to implants and drug delivery. This work will discuss the changes in the pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite when there are latex beads present during the synthesis. These changes were monitored using different techniques: small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetrical analysis, N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Latex beads and hydroxyapatite form a single nanocomposite with well-distinguished inorganic and organic phases. Latex bead removal in the temperature range of 300-600 °C did not modify the original crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. However, the latex beads favored an increase in the adsorption capacity of mesopores at temperatures higher than their glassy transition (Tg). The main result of this research work consists on the increase of surface area and pore size distribution obtained after the removal of latex beads template. Latex beads have been used in a different approach changing the porosity of hydroxyapatite scaffolds not only introducing new routes for cell integration but also broadening the pore size distribution which can result in a more high efficiency for drug release in living cells.

  17. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three relative humidity chambers (100%, 75% and 1%) representing accelerated stability, ambient and dry conditions respectively, were employed. Five metronidazole tablets were stored in each of the humidity chambers for thirty days. The tablets were weighed every five days. Disintegration and dissolution tests were ...

  18. Stabilization of extracellular polymeric substances (Bacillus subtilis) by adsorption to and coprecipitation with Al forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikutta, R.; Zang, U.; Chorover, J.; Haumaier, L.; Kalbitz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are continuously produced by bacteria during their growth and metabolism. In soils, EPS are bound to cell surfaces, associated with biofilms, or released into solution where they can react with other solutes and soil particle surfaces. If such reaction

  19. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb2O6 powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Zn2+ and Nb5+ cations as hydro- xides simultaneously. This precursor on ... tion technique from simple water soluble inorganic salts. This process can avoid complex steps such as ... dispersed in amyl acetate on a carbon coated TEM copper grid. 3. Results and discussion.

  20. Enhancement of MgAl2 O4 spinel formation from coprecipitated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by suitable design of process flow chart is the primary objective for any ... process manipulation such as control of precipitation rate, adjustment of pH .... Table 1. Chemical analysis of the precursor powders dried at. 110°C. Wt%. Powder. Wt% L.O.I. Molar ratio. (Batch). Al2O3. MgO (1200°C, 2 h) (Al2O3 : MgO). A. 21⋅93.

  1. Controlling the composition and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessien, M.M. [Electronic Materials Lab, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: hessienmahmoud@yahoo.com; Rashad, M.M.; El-Barawy, K. [Electronic Materials Lab, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-02-15

    Nanocrystalline strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) powders have been synthesized using the co-precipitation-calcination route. The ferrite precursors were obtained from aqueous mixtures of strontium carbonate and ferric chloride by precipitating strontium and iron ions using 5 M sodium hydroxide solution. These precursors were calcined at different temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 deg. C for constant calcination time 2 h in a static air atmosphere. Effects of Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} mole ratio, annealing temperature and pH on the formation, crystalline size, morphology and magnetic properties were systematically studied. The powders formed were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and VSM. The results obtained showed that the single-phase SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powders were achieved by decreasing the Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} mole ratio from the stoichiometric value 12 to 9.23 and increasing the annealing temperature up to 900 deg. C for 2 h and pH 10. The maximum saturation magnetization (84.15 emu/g) was achieved by decreasing the Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} mole ratio to 9.23 and the annealing temperature 1000 deg. C, annealing time 2 h and pH 10 due to the formation of a plate-like hexagonal-shape structure. Wide coercivities (2937-5607 Oe) can be obtained at different synthesis conditions. Moreover, the microstructure and the magnetic properties of the produced Sr-M ferrite powders were strongly dependent on he synthesis conditions.

  2. TEM characterization of UO2-Gd2O3 nuclear fuels synthesized by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldati, A.; Gana Watkins, I.; Menghini, J.; Prado, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a micro and nano structural characterization of 4% weight doped Gd 2 O 3 -UO 2 pellet using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Agglomerate morphology and crystallite sizes were determined using light/dark field and high resolution (HR-TEM) images. Convergent beam Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Diffraction (ED) were used to evaluate sample composition and homogeneity, even at the nanometer scale. We obtained an average crystallite size of 90±20 nm. Moreover, from TEM-EDS analyses we determined the presence of Gadolinium in all the analyzed crystallites but with 25% variation among their concentrations. These results show the capability of TEM analysis to characterize a nuclear fuel pellet with burnable poisons nano structure and homogeneity.(author)

  3. Moessbauer study of CO-precipitated Fischer-Tropsch iron catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.E.; Mahajan, V.; Huffman, G.P.; Bukur, D.B.; Rao, V.U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of precipitated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) iron catalysts, viz. 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/x SiO 2 , where x = 0, 8, 16, 24, 25, 40, or 100, have shown that reduction of the oxide precursor in CO gives rise to χ-carbide Fe 5 C 2 whose amount decreases with an increase of SiO 2 content. The χ-carbide is converted into magnetite Fe 3 O 4 while catalyzing the FT synthesis reaction. A correlation between FT activity and the content of χ-carbide in the catalysts was found, which indicated that χ-carbide is active for FT synthesis reaction. (orig.)

  4. A coprecipitation technique to prepare NaNbO3 and NaTaO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    both sodium hydroxide and niobium (or tantalum) fluoride. Then, aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate and am- monium hydroxide was added with constant stirring to the above solution mixture to reach pH ~ 9 to ensure com- plete precipitation of sodium carbonate and niobium (or tantalum) hydroxide. The precipitate ...

  5. Polymer-assisted co-precipitation route for the synthesis of Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Thermal behaviour of the prepared powder samples have been studied using differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and ... them, owing to its better thermo-mechanical property. Com- mercially ... and calcination temperature on the synthesis of magnesium aluminates (MgAl2O4) ...

  6. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  7. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb2O6 powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    having narrow particle size distribution (Dhage et al 2003;. Gaikwad et al 2004, 2005). The purpose of this study was to prepare ultrafine ZnNb2O6 powder using coprecipita- tion technique from simple water soluble inorganic salts. This process can avoid complex steps such as refluxing of alkoxides, resulting in less time ...

  8. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  9. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  10. A coprecipitation technique to prepare NaNbO3 and NaTaO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (V) oxide, tantalum(V) oxide, sodium hydroxide, ethyl alcohol, am- monium carbonate and standard ammonia solution were used and all the starting materials were of AR grade. (Loba chemie). A stoichiometric amount of NaOH was dissolved ...

  11. Adsorption characteristics of lithium in sea water with coprecipitated alumina-magnesia gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Shoji; Takahashi, Wataru

    1988-01-01

    Alumina-magnesia mixed-oxide gel exhibited adsorptive ability for lithium in sea water attributed to weak acidic sites and micropores of diameter 20-30 A. The adsorption of lithium proceeded predominantly by the mechanism of ion-exchange, on which the facility was shown in the order of Na + > H + > NH 4 + . The elution of lithium adsorbed on the gel was complete with dilute hydrochloric acid. (author)

  12. The coprecipitation of Sr2+ with calcite at 250C and 1 atm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingitore, N.E. Jr.; Eastman, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of Sr 2+ into calcite at earth surface aqueous conditions is affected by the absolute concentration of Sr 2+ , the presence of Ba 2+ and NaCl in the solution and the rate of precipitation. At solution ratios (molar) of Sr 2+ to Ca 2+ in the low 10 -3 range, which yield calcites with several hundred ppm Sr 2+ , kappasub(calcite) sup(Sr) typically assumes a value between 0.10 and 0.20. Above these concentrations the value of kappasub(calcite) sup(Sr) drops to approximately 0.06. Furthermore, if minor amounts of Ba 2+ or large amounts of Na + (0.48 M) are added to a dilute Sr 2+ solution, a value around 0.06 for kappasub(calcite)sup(Sr) is found. This 'strontium concentration effect' and the associated 'competitive cation effect' suggest that small amounts of Sr 2+ may be incorporated into a limited number of nonlattice sites in calcite. Incorporation of Sr 2+ into these sites, presumably defects, noticeably affects kappasub(calcite)sup(Sr) only at low Sr 2+ concentrations and in the absence of competition from other large cations. An increase in kappasub(calcite)sup(Sr) with rate of precipitation, qualitatively similar to that found in other studies, was observed only when precipitation times were decreased from days to hours. For many geologic settings a partition coefficient for Sr 2+ into calcite of 0.06 appears appropriate, but there are situations - very low Sr 2+ concentrations, the presence of Mg 2+ , and fast precipitation rates - in which a larger value might better approximate natural partitioning. (author)

  13. and aluminum-substituted cobalt ferrite prepared by co-precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Shiv Chhatrapati College, Aurangabad 431 004, India. 2Department of Physics, Dr. B. A. Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431 004, India. ∗Corresponding author. E-mail: ... S T Alone and K M Jadhav a wide spectrum of magnetic structures, ferrimagnetic order, cluster spin glass etc. [8]. No systematic investigations of ...

  14. A simple DNA coprecipitation method for the detection of diatoms in heart blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yasuhisa; Sato, Shingo; Kuroki, Kohji; Kishida, Tetsuko

    2013-10-10

    We developed a method for detecting and enumerating diatoms in the heart blood of drowning victims and evaluate its utility for diagnosing death by drowning. For purification of diatoms from blood, the DNA binding ability of the diatom frustule in the presence of a chaotropic agent was utilized. The procedure is basically the same as the commonly used method for DNA purification from blood using Proteinase K treatment and denaturation by a chaotropic agent. DNA adsorbed to the diatom (DNA/diatom complex) is recovered by ethanol precipitation, and the DNA is subsequently digested using DNase. Purified diatoms could be clearly observed under a microscope. Diatoms spiked in the blood of non-drowned cadavers (n=15) were well recovered, and were detected in heart blood from all drowning victims (n=22). The mean number of diatoms found in 5 ml of blood from drowning victims was 7.8±5.8 (mean±SD), and the number of diatoms detected in the blood of the left ventricle (6.1±5.8) was approximately two times higher than that of the right ventricle (3.0±2.7, p<0.05). These results suggest that this simple and safe method can become an effective tool for diagnosing the cause of death as drowning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coprecipitation of radium on hydrated manganese dioxide in the presence of precipitate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartikova, O.; Jedinakova, V.

    1984-01-01

    Optimal conditions were determined of radium precipitation on hydrated manganese dioxide. Parameters investigated included: manganese dichloride and sodium hypochlorite concentrations, pH value, stirring time and the presence of flocculants. The following conditions were found to be optimal: pH 10.3, manganese dichloride concentration 0.4 g/dm 3 , sodium hypochlorite concentration 0.3 g/dm 3 , stirring time 2 mins. Sedimentation may be accelerated and decontamination increased by 1.5% by adding a 1 μg/dm 3 concentration of the flocculant Prestol. The probable sorption mechanism was derived from sorption isotherms and measured X-ray spectra. (author)

  16. Biomimetic coprecipitation of calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin on titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yuelian; Layrolle, Pierre; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium alloy implants were precoated biomimetically with a thin and dense layer of calcium phosphate and then incubated either in a supersaturated solution of calcium phosphate or in phosphate-buffered saline, each containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) at various concentrations, under

  17. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    Demands for a better drinking water quality, especially concerning arsenic, a compound with many adverse health effects, put a pressure on the utilities to ensure the best treatment technologies that meet nowadays and possible future quality standards. The aim of this paper is to introduce...... an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...

  18. Coprecipitation mechanisms and products in manganese oxidation in the presence of cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, J.D.; Lind, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    Manganese oxidation products were precipitated in an aerated open-aqueous system where a continuous influx of mixed Mn2+ and Cd2+ solution was supplied and pH was maintained with an automated pH-stat adding dilute NaOH. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction identified the solids produced as mixtures of Cd2Mn34+O8, Mn2+2Mn4+3O8, MnO2 (ramsdellite), and CdCO3. Mean oxidation numbers of the total precipitated Mn as great as 3.6 were reached during titrations. During subsequent aging in solution, oxidation numbers between 3.8 and 3.9 were reached in some precipitates in less than 40 days. Conditional oxidation rate constants calculated from a crystal-growth equation applied to titration data showed the overall precipitation rate, without considering manganese oxidation state in the precipitate, was increased by a factor of ~4 to ~7 when the mole ratio (Cd/Mn + Cd) of cadmium in the feed solution was 0.40 compared with rate constants for hausmannite (Mn2+Mn23+O4 precipitation under similar conditions but without accessory metals. Kinetic experiments were made to test effects of various Cd/Mn + Cd mole ratios and rates of addition of the feed solution, different temperatures from 5.0 to 35??C, and pH from 8.0 to 9.0. Oxidation rates were slower when the Cd mole ratio was less than 0.40. The rate increased by a factor of ~10 when pH was raised one-half unit. The effect of temperature on the rate constants was also substantial, but the meaning of this is uncertain because the rate of formation of Mn4+ oxide in the absence of Cd or other accessory metals was too slow to be measurable in titration experiments. The increased rate of Mn4+ oxide formation in the presence of Cd2+ can be ascribed to the formation of a labile adsorbed intermediate, CdMn2O4 Int, an analog of hausmannite, formed on precipitate surfaces at the beginning of the oxidation process. The increased lability of this structure, resulting from coordination-chemical behavior of Cd2+ during the titration, causes a rapid second-stage rearrangement and facilitates disproportionation of the Mn3+ ions. The Mn2+ ions thus released provide a positive feedback mechanism that couples the two steps of the conversion of Mn2+ to Mn4+ more closely than is possible when other metal ions besides manganese are not present. During aging of precipitates in contact with solutions, proportions of Cd2Mn3O8 and MnO2 increased at the expense of other precipitate components. ?? 1991.

  19. On preparation of nanocrystalline chromites by co-precipitation andautocombustion methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, Irena; Holec, Petr; Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Mantlíková, Alice; Plocek, Jiří; Němec, I.; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 195, May (2015), s. 66-73 ISSN 0921-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1250 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : transition metal chromites * nanocrystalline particles * microstructural analysis * vibrational spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.331, year: 2015

  20. Fast Coprecipitation of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles inside Gelatin Nanofibers by Tricoaxial Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panzavolta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an effective method for fabricating electrospun gelatin nanofibers containing well-dispersed inorganic nanoparticles. The new method encompasses the use of a special triaxial needle where mixing calcium and phosphate aqueous solutions in an intermediate needle yield calcium phosphate (CaP nanoparticles that immediately after precipitation are dragged by the outer polymeric solution and incorporated directly in the electrospinning jet, before nanofiber formation. Gelatin electrospun mats containing different amounts of CaP nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, and stress-strain measurements. The results demonstrate that CaP particles having diameter of few tens of nanometers were successfully introduced in the gelatin nanofibers during the electrospinning process and that they were well dispersed throughout the fiber length. In addition, the use of the special triaxial needle enabled modulating the CaP amount in the nanofibers.

  1. An Innovative Carbonate Coprecipitation Process For The Removal Of Zinc And Manganese From Mining Impacted Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although mine drainage is usually thought of as acidic, there are many cases where the water is of neutral pH, but still contains metal species that can be harmful to human or aquatic animal health, such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn). Typical treatment of mine drainage waters ...

  2. Polymer-assisted co-precipitation route for the synthesis of Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... as rockets, jet engines, gas turbines, heat shields for space vehicles, fusion reactors and heat treatment furnaces [1]. Reinforcement phases provide strength, whereas the matrix itself supports the whole structure, which results in a product with superior mechanical and thermal properties; a scope to be.

  3. Decontamination by fractional distillation of a radioactive mixture of perchlorethylene, bitumen, and sludges from chemical co-precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Hullo, R.

    1969-01-01

    It is not possible to incinerate the contaminated organic waste containing chlorine, produced at the Marcoule Centre. The only valid method for these solvents of average activity is fractional distillation. This report presents a pilot fractional distillation plant designed for decontaminating the residual solvents produced by the Centre's Waste Processing Station. These contaminated solvents come from the decontamination of a screw extrusion apparatus with perchlorethylene; this equipment is used for coating the radioactive sludges with bitumen. The pilot plant operates discontinuously and is used to decontaminate the perchlorethylene, to separate the perchlorethylene from the water, and to process the distillation residue. The electrically heated boiler is fitted with a removable base in the form of a disposable container. The installations decontamination factor is 3.4 x 10 6 when solvents with a specific activity of 0.23 Ci/m 3 are used. The average flow-rate for a distillation run is 10 l/hr at atmospheric pressure, and 21 l/hr at a residual pressure of 40 torr. The decontamination factor for the installation is better at atmospheric pressure than in a vacuum. (authors) [fr

  4. Co-precipitation of ettringite of rapid and slow formation. Consequence: Expansive Synergic Effect. Its demonstration by mortars and concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several prior papers have shown that enough pozzolans can bring about rapid formation ettringite (from its Al2O3r-. It has likewise been found that the formation rate of this ettringite is higher than the of slower forming ettringite originating from OPC (from its C3A. In this context: What type of effect will they ultimately produce? Addition? Synergism? Antagonism? or perhaps Inversion of final expansive action?. To reply to these questions, 4 PC and 12 blended cements containing 20%, 30% or 40% metakaolin, were tested using the ASTM C 452-68, EN 196-1 and RT-86:ΔL tests and also concrete specimens. The experimental results have shows that the joint precipitation in a common sulfate medium, of ettringite from pozzolan and from OPC, was always more synergic than additive, and the technical consequences of the Expansive Synergic Effect may be classified as beneficial, adverse or indifferent according to its sulfates content in excess is more or less adequate.En investigaciones anteriores se ha demostrado que bastantes puzolanas pueden originar ettringita de rápida formación (de su Al2O3r- cuya velocidad es mayor que la de la ettringita de lenta formación, o de origen CPO (de su C3A. En este contexto: ¿qué tipo de efecto será el que produzcan finalmente ambas ettringitas?, ¿adición?, ¿sinergismo?, ¿antagonismo? o ¿inversión de la acción expansiva?. Para responder a estas cuestiones, 4 CPO y 12 cementos con 20%, 30% y 40% de metakaolín fueron ensayados mediante los métodos ASTM C 452-68, EN 196-1 y RT-86:ΔL, y también mediante hormigones. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que la precipitación conjunta en un medio selenitoso común, de ettringita de origen puzolana y de origen CPO, es siempre cuantitativamente hablando, más que aditiva, sinérgica, pudiendo ser por ello las consecuencias técnicas del Efecto Sinérgico Expansivo, beneficiosas, adversas o indiferentes, según que el exceso de sulfatos presentes sea más o menos adecuado.

  5. Coprecipitation of (14)C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkin, David J; Stewart, Douglas I; Graham, James T; Burke, Ian T

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr(2+) and (14)CO3(2-) from pH>12 Ca(OH)2 solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca(2+):CO3(2-) ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of (14)C and Sr(2+) both occurred in the system containing 10mM Ca(2+) and 1mM CO3(2-) (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes (14)C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of (14)C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated >46% of the (14)C back to solution. Sr(2+) removal occurred as Ca(2+) became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for (90)Sr and (14)C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m(3) treated). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coprecipitation of {sup 14}C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkin, David J. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Stewart, Douglas I. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Graham, James T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Burke, Ian T., E-mail: I.T.Burke@leeds.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr{sup 2+} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} from pH > 12 Ca(OH){sub 2} solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of {sup 14}C and Sr{sup 2+} both occurred in the system containing 10 mM Ca{sup 2+} and 1 mM CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes {sup 14}C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of {sup 14}C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated > 46% of the {sup 14}C back to solution. Sr{sup 2+} removal occurred as Ca{sup 2+} became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 14}C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m{sup 3} treated). - Highlights: • 99.7% of {sup 14}C and 98.6% of Sr removed from aqueous solution by CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. • Remobilization of {sup 14}C observed during calcium carbonate recrystallization. • Sr displayed variable distribution coefficient (possibly affected by Ca:Sr ratio). • Reagent cost of $0.22/m{sup 3} of treated groundwater.

  7. Synthetic Smectite Colloids: Characterization of Nanoparticles after Co-Precipitation in the Presence of Lanthanides and Tetravalent Elements (Zr, Th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Bouby

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnesian smectite hectorite is a corrosion product frequently detected in nuclear waste glass alteration experiments. The structural incorporation of a single trivalent lanthanide was previously demonstrated. Hectorite was presently synthesized, for the first time, in the presence of several lanthanides (La, Eu, Yb following a multi-step synthesis protocol. The smallest-sized particles (nanoparticles, NPs were isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF coupled to ICP-MS, in order to obtain information on the elemental composition and distribution as a function of the size. Nanoparticles can be separated from the bulk smectite phase. The particles are able to accommodate even the larger-sized lanthanides such as La, however, with lower efficiency. We, therefore, assume that the incorporation proceeds by substitution for octahedral Mg accompanied by a concomitant lattice strain that increases with the size of the lanthanides. The presence of a mixture does not seem to affect the incorporation extent of any specific element. Furthermore, syntheses were performed where in addition the tetravalent zirconium or thorium elements were admixed, as this oxidation state may prevail for many actinide ions in a nuclear waste repository. The results show that they can be incorporated as well.

  8. Assessment of the radium-barium co-precipitation and its potential influence on the solubility of Ra in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Merino, Joan; Bruno, Jordi

    2008-08-01

    Radium 226 is one of the main contributors to radiological dose in some of the scenarios contemplated in the recent SR Can safety assessment. The relative contribution of the 226 Ra dose is clearly dependent on the source term value for this radionuclide, which is directly connected to its solubility behaviour. Most of the source term calculations performed for this radionuclide pessimistically assume that its solubility is controlled by the individual solubility of RaSO 4 (s), the most insoluble phase under near field conditions, while the abundant information from early radiochemical research, natural system studies and anthropogenic systems would indicate that Ra(II) is mainly associated to BaSO 4 (s) precipitation. In this work we have investigated the extensive literature concerning the mechanisms and processes controlling the co-precipitation/solid solution formation behaviour of the Ra(II)/Ba(II) sulphate system. We have also established the necessary thermodynamic moles to model the solubility behaviour in the vicinity of the spent fuel system. Calculations using an ATM-104 fuel at 40 MWd/kg U show that barium and radium inventories per canister progressively grow with time after deposition, most of the barium is produced in the initial 500 years. In the unlikely event of a contact of sulphate-containing groundwaters with the fuel, Ba(II) will precipitate as BaSO 4 (s). The production of 226 Ra reaches its peak some 300,000 years after deposition. This substantial time gap indicates that most of the BaSO 4 (s) will be present when and if radium is released from the fuel, even if some Ra(II) and Ba(II) will be released contemporaneously. Two potential scenarios have been addressed from the mechanistic point of view. In the event of a simultaneous release of Ra with Ba, the former will be readily incorporated into the precipitating BaSO 4 to build a Ra Ba sulphate solid solution. All the existing evidence indicates, that in this case, the behaviour of the system can be described by the established aqueous-solid solution thermodynamic formalism and assuming that the system behaves ideally. In the case when 226 Ra is released from a secondary source, like a UO 2 precipitate away from the fuel but within the canister, there is not sufficient experimental information at the molecular level to establish when and how the system will reach equilibrium and, therefore, it is not clear to which extent the aqueous solid solution thermodynamic formalism can be applied. Nevertheless, the long contact times expected under repository conditions together with the small mass transfer processes involved would indicate that it is quite likely that equilibrium will be reached. Dedicated experimental investigations are under way in collaboration with INE-KFZ to establish the mechanism and rates of this critical process in order to support the solid solution thermodynamic approximation. We have performed a number of scoping calculations in order to establish the absolute and relative effects of RaBaSO 4 (ss) formation on 226 Ra solubility. We have assumed that the free volume per canister filled by water in case of intrusion is roughly 1 m 3 . By using the standard fuel dissolution rate of 1.0x10 -7 /y, and a congruent release of barium, the calculated radium and barium concentrations after one year of contact at the disposal time of 300,000 years (when the 226 Ra content is largest), are 1.3x10 -12 and 4.9x10 -9 mol/L, respectively. If we apply the thermodynamics of aqueous-solid solution equilibria the resulting solid phase in equilibrium has a calculated nominal composition of (Ba 0.99942 Ra 0.00057 )SO 4 (ss) and the resulting dissolved Ra(II) is in the 10 -11 mol/L range. This is in the upper range of any observed Ra(II) concentration in natural and anthropogenic environment. If the solubility of Ra(II) is assumed to be controlled by the precipitation of a pure sulphate phase, the resulting concentration is three orders of magnitude higher. A concentration never observed in natural systems. Since sulphate concentration can be highly variable due to changes in the nature of the groundwaters flowing into the near field, we have performed a sensitivity study of the influence of the sulphate concentrations in the expected concentration range. In the case when the lowest concentration is assumed ([SO 4 2- ] = 3x10 -4 mol/L), the calculated radium solubility increases up to 7.1x10 -10 mol/L when equilibrium with the solid solution is considered

  9. Room temperature synthesis of magnetite (Fe.sub.3−δ./sub.O.sub.4./sub.) nanoparticles by a simple reverse co-precipitation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmed, N.; Heczko, Oleg; Söderberg, O.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), 032020/1-032020/4 ISSN 1757-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferromagnetic nanoparticles * magnetite nanoparticles synthesis * maghemi Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Chieng, Norman

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to characterize the structural behaviour of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems (1 : 1 molar ratio) prepared by quench cooling, co-evaporation and ball milling. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and DSC were used to characterise the samples. Structural relaxation (i.e. molecular mobility) behaviour was obtained from the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relationship. A glass transition temperature (Tg ), on average 20 °C higher than the predicted Tg (calculated from the Fox equation), was observed in all samples. The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). The estimated relaxation times by the DSC-KWW method suggest that different preparative methods resulted in a variation of structural characteristics. Despite the differences in molecular mobility, all sample remained co-amorphous for up to 7 months. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Investigation of in situ gelling alginate formulations as a sustained release vehicle for co-precipitates of dextromethrophan and Eudragit S 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghraby Gamal Mohamed El

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alginate vehicles are capable of forming a gel matrix in situ when they come into contact with gastric medium in the presence of calcium ions. However, the gel structure is pH dependent and can break after gastric emptying, leading to dose dumping. The aim of this work was to develop modified in situ gelling alginate formulations capable of sustaining dextromethorphan release throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Alginate solution (2 %, m/m was used as a vehicle for the tested formulations. Solid matrix of the drug and Eudragit S 100 was prepared by dissolving the drug and polymer in acetone. The organic solvent was then evaporated and the deposited solid matrix was micronized, sieved and dispersed in alginate solution to obtain candidate formulations. The release behavior of dextromethorphan was monitored and evaluated in a medium simulating the gastric and intestinal pH. Drug-polymer compatibility and possible solid-state interactions suggested physical interaction through hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. A significant decrease in the rate and extent of dextromethorphan release was observed with increasing Eudragit S 100 concentration in the prepared particles. Most formulations showed sustained release profiles similar to that of a commercial sustained-release liquid based on ion exchange resin. The release pattern indicated strict control of drug release both under gastric and intestinal conditions, suggesting the potential advantage of using a solid dispersion of drug-Eudragit S 100 to overcome the problem of dose dumping after the rupture of the pH dependent alginate gels

  12. Assessment of the radium-barium co-precipitation and its potential influence on the solubility of Ra in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Merino, Joan; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-08-15

    Radium 226 is one of the main contributors to radiological dose in some of the scenarios contemplated in the recent SR Can safety assessment. The relative contribution of the 226Ra dose is clearly dependent on the source term value for this radionuclide, which is directly connected to its solubility behaviour. Most of the source term calculations performed for this radionuclide pessimistically assume that its solubility is controlled by the individual solubility of RaSO{sub 4}(s), the most insoluble phase under near field conditions, while the abundant information from early radiochemical research, natural system studies and anthropogenic systems would indicate that Ra(II) is mainly associated to BaSO{sub 4}(s) precipitation. In this work we have investigated the extensive literature concerning the mechanisms and processes controlling the co-precipitation/solid solution formation behaviour of the Ra(II)/Ba(II) sulphate system. We have also established the necessary thermodynamic moles to model the solubility behaviour in the vicinity of the spent fuel system. Calculations using an ATM-104 fuel at 40 MWd/kg U show that barium and radium inventories per canister progressively grow with time after deposition, most of the barium is produced in the initial 500 years. In the unlikely event of a contact of sulphate-containing groundwaters with the fuel, Ba(II) will precipitate as BaSO{sub 4}(s). The production of 226Ra reaches its peak some 300,000 years after deposition. This substantial time gap indicates that most of the BaSO{sub 4}(s) will be present when and if radium is released from the fuel, even if some Ra(II) and Ba(II) will be released contemporaneously. Two potential scenarios have been addressed from the mechanistic point of view. In the event of a simultaneous release of Ra with Ba, the former will be readily incorporated into the precipitating BaSO{sub 4} to build a Ra Ba sulphate solid solution. All the existing evidence indicates, that in this case, the behaviour of the system can be described by the established aqueous-solid solution thermodynamic formalism and assuming that the system behaves ideally. In the case when 226Ra is released from a secondary source, like a UO{sub 2} precipitate away from the fuel but within the canister, there is not sufficient experimental information at the molecular level to establish when and how the system will reach equilibrium and, therefore, it is not clear to which extent the aqueous solid solution thermodynamic formalism can be applied. Nevertheless, the long contact times expected under repository conditions together with the small mass transfer processes involved would indicate that it is quite likely that equilibrium will be reached. Dedicated experimental investigations are under way in collaboration with INE-KFZ to establish the mechanism and rates of this critical process in order to support the solid solution thermodynamic approximation. We have performed a number of scoping calculations in order to establish the absolute and relative effects of RaBaSO{sub 4}(ss) formation on 226Ra solubility. We have assumed that the free volume per canister filled by water in case of intrusion is roughly 1 m3. By using the standard fuel dissolution rate of 1.0x10-7/y, and a congruent release of barium, the calculated radium and barium concentrations after one year of contact at the disposal time of 300,000 years (when the 226Ra content is largest), are 1.3x10-12 and 4.9x10-9 mol/L, respectively. If we apply the thermodynamics of aqueous-solid solution equilibria the resulting solid phase in equilibrium has a calculated nominal composition of (Ba{sub 0.99942}Ra{sub 0.00057})SO{sub 4} (ss) and the resulting dissolved Ra(II) is in the 10-11 mol/L range. This is in the upper range of any observed Ra(II) concentration in natural and anthropogenic environment. If the solubility of Ra(II) is assumed to be controlled by the precipitation of a pure sulphate phase, the resulting concentration is three orders of magnitude higher. A concentration never observed in natural systems. Since sulphate concentration can be highly variable due to changes in the nature of the groundwaters flowing into the near field, we have performed a sensitivity study of the influence of the sulphate concentrations in the expected concentration range. In the case when the lowest concentration is assumed ([SO{sub 4}2-] = 3x10-4 mol/L), the calculated radium solubility increases up to 7.1x10-10 mol/L when equilibrium with the solid solution is considered

  13. Determination of platinum group elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry combined with nickel sulfide fire assay and tellurium coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yali; Guan, Xiyun; Du, Andao

    1998-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace platinum group elements (PGEs) by nickel sulfide fire assay inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With isotope dilution, the improved technique gives precise Os content data. Through the purification of the reagent nickel oxide, reagent blank was greatly reduced. Results obtained for the standard reference materials (SRM) GPt-1-GPt-7(GBW 07288-07294, China), DZ Σ-2 (GBW 07102, China) and Guilin Cu-Ni Ore are in good agreement with the recommended values for platinum group elements. The detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 ng/g. The relative standard deviations for Ru, Rh, Pd and Ir were less than 5%, for Os less than 1%, and Pt less than 8% for SRM GPt-6.

  14. Preparation of Calcium Phosphate/pDNA Nanoparticles for Exogenous Gene Delivery by Co-Precipitation Method: Optimization of Formulation Variables Using Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenpan; Zhang, Xirui; Jing, Shasha; Xin, Xiu; Chen, Kang; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    This research focused on optimizing the preparations of pDNA-loaded calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design. Results indicated that a Ca/P ratio of 189.56, pH of 7.82, and a stirring speed of 528.83 rpm were the optimum conditions for preparation of the nanoparticles. The size of the optimized CaP/pDNA nanoparticles was 61.3 ± 3.64 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.341 and an encapsulation efficiency of up to 92.11%. The optimized CaP/pDNA nanoparticles had high transfection efficiency and demonstrated good biocompatibility in vitro. Therefore, the Box-Behnken design method was successful in providing desirable CaP nanoparticle pDNA delivery systems by optimizing the experimental factors. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to characterize the structural behaviour of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems (1 : 1 molar ratio) prepared by quench cooling, co-evaporation and ball milling. METHODS: Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and DSC were used to characterise....... The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared...... by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). CONCLUSION: The estimated relaxation times by the DSC...

  16. Zinc and nickel removal in limestone based treatment of acid mine drainage: The relative role of adsorption and co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Wildeman, Thomas; Figueroa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Limestone treatment of mining impacted water was simulated in batch reactors. • Zinc and nickel removals were quantified/characterized with a sequential extraction. • Removals were described with a surface complexation and a surface precipitation model. • Extraction/modeling results imply mechanisms beyond adsorption dominate metal removal. - Abstract: Mining influenced water may contain high metal and sulfate loads, and have low pH (acid mine drainage). Removal of these metals prior to environmental discharge is critical to maintain ecosystem vitality. Limestone based passive treatment systems are commonly used for pH neutralization. The same conditions that lead to pH neutralization may also remove a substantial amount of metals from solution, but the connection between treatment conditions and metal removal are not well understood. In this study, zinc and nickel removals are quantified in batch reactor simulated limestone treatment of acid mine drainage. The resulting solid phase is characterized with a sequential extraction procedure, and the removals are interpreted using surface complexation and surface precipitation models. Zinc and nickel removals are closely linked to the initial iron concentration in the mine water, but are also affected by pH, alkalinity, calcium and sulfate concentrations. The surface complexation model was based on literature descriptions of hydrous ferric oxide. In order to obtain a sufficient fit to the data, the surface site density was increased to an unrealistically high value. Uptake data was also fit to an existing surface precipitation model. The values used are similar to those found in previous studies. Both models indicate that adsorption is not the dominant removal process in the treatment system. Using adsorption only models will generally underpredict metal removals within limestone based treatment systems

  17. Synthesis of nanoparticles of manganese MnFe2O4 by co-precipitation micellar ferrite: structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Paneque, A.; Diaz, S.; Diaz, C.; Santiago-Jacinto, E.; Reguera, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The microemulsion method was used in reverse, shaped micelles by dodecyl of sodium (NaDBS) in toluene/water system, for MnFe2O4 manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Were also variants of heat treatments to improve the crystallinity of the material obtained. These were, treatments to reflux to 100 ° C or treatments in an inert atmosphere at temperatures that were varied between 350 and 600 ° C. The retrieved material was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy of high and low resolution (HR-TEM and TEM, respectively), Mössbauer Spectroscopy and vibrational magnetometry. Powder XRD patterns revealed the formation of phase MnFe2O4, cubic type Spinel, of space group Fd3m, accompanied by the minority phase Hematite (a-Fe203) group spatial R-3 c. The size of the nanoparticles was estimated from the profile setting from the pattern of powder by the method of Le Bail, obtaining sizes mean that varied between 5 and 25 mn depending on the heat treatment to which they were subjected. This result was corroborated from TEM micrographs. The vibrational magnetometer showed that the smaller MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, prepared following this route of synthesis They presented a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature (coercive field and) remanence approximately zeros), which was also confirmed by the study of Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Was also the magnetically inactive layer thickness, of around 0.9 nm, responsible for the decrease in the values of saturation magnetization (as) to decrease the size of nanoparticles. Was obtained a set of nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior based in the MnFe2O4 around 5.9 NM in diameter and a-Fe203 around 6.6 NM, as phase secondary. They managed to get this material and the desired magnetic properties optimum crystallinity, applying heat treatment variant proposed in this work, and that It consists of making a reflux at 100 ° C, before the treatment on solid phase under flow N2. (author)

  18. Crystallization behavior of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders synthesized by a coprecipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Du, Je-Kang [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ker-Kong, E-mail: enamel@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-05

    Crystallization behaviors of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders were studied with zirconium nitrate (Zr(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O), yttrium nitrate (Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) constituting the initial materials. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were utilized to characterize the crystallization behavior of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders. The activation energies of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (t-ZrO{sub 2}) crystallization were 389.1, 327.6, and 315.1 kJ/mol with SrO content for 1, 2, and 3 mol%, respectively, obtained with a non-isothermal method. The growth morphology parameter and growth mechanism index were close to 2.0 and 1.0, respectively, showing that t-ZrO{sub 2} had a plate-like morphology. - Highlights: • The single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formed when calcined at 923 K for 2 h. • ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−2SrO precursor powders crystallization is at 765.6 K. • The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization was 389.1 kJ/mol with 1 mol% SrO. • The growth morphology and index of crystallization were close to 2.0 and 1.0.

  19. Determination of Ultra-Trace Amounts of Selenium(IV) by Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with On-line Preconcentration by Co-precipitation with Lanthanium Hydroxide. Part II. On-line Addition of Coprecipating Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A flow injection procedure for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of selenium(IV) is described, which combines hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) with on-line preconcentration of the analyte by co-precipitation-dissolution in a filterless knotted Microline reactor...... with hydrochloric acid, allowing an ensuing determination via hydride generation. At different sample flow rates, i.e., 4.8, 6.4 and 8.8 ml/min, enrichment factors of 30, 40 and 46, respectively, were obtained at a sampling frequency of 33 samples/h. The detection limit (3s) was 0.005 µg/l at a sample flow rate...

  20. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe.sup.2+./sup.) in ambient atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmed, N.; Heczko, Oleg; Lančok, Adriana; Hannula, S.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 353, MAR (2014), s. 15-22 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : reverseco-precipitation * ferrousion * magnetite * Mössbauer * silica Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885313007336

  1. In situ ultrasound-assisted preparation of Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanoparticles integrated with ion co-precipitation for multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbala-Tafti, Elaheh; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Bendicho, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a new analytical approach based on in situ ultrasound-assisted preparation of manganese dioxide coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs) was applied for extraction and preconcentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Tl, Pb, Bi and Se. The Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanocomposite was synthesized by application of high-intensity sonication to an aqueous reaction medium in the presence of the target analytes, which are trapped during NPs formation. In this way, synthesis of the nanosorbent and extraction can be simultaneously accomplished within only 30 s. After the extraction step, the resulting Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs enriched with the target analytes were separated by an external magnetic field, so that filtration or centrifugation steps were unnecessary. A 10 μL aliquot of the solid phase was deposited onto a sample carrier (quartz reflector) and directly analyzed by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) without the need for an elution step. A comprehensive characterization of the Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and TXRF. Detection limits ranged from 0.19 to 0.98 μg L- 1 depending on the analyte. Enrichment factors in the range of 402-540 were obtained. The repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was around 1.7% (N = 5). The accuracy of the proposed method was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material BCR®-610 (groundwater). An effective, simple, rapid and sensitive procedure for multielemental analysis of water samples was accomplished.

  2. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of spectromicroscopic methods. 4. Artificial aging of model samples of co-precipitates of lead chromate and lead sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Miliani, Costanza; Van der Snickt, Geert; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela; Radepont, Marie; Cotte, Marine

    2013-01-15

    Previous investigations about the darkening of chrome yellow pigments revealed that this form of alteration is attributable to a reduction of the original Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and that the presence of sulfur-containing compounds, most often sulfates, plays a key role during this process. We recently demonstrated that different crystal forms of chrome yellow pigments (PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4)) are present in paintings by Vincent van Gogh. In the present work, we show how both the chemical composition and the crystalline structure of lead chromate-based pigments influence their stability. For this purpose, oil model samples made with in-house synthesized powders of PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4) were artificially aged and characterized. We observed a profound darkening only for those paint models made with PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4), rich in SO(4)(2-) (x ≥ 0.4), and orthorhombic phases (>30 wt %). Cr and S K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure investigations revealed in an unequivocal manner the formation of up to about 60% of Cr(III)-species in the outer layer of the most altered samples; conversely, independent of the paint models' chemical composition, no change in the S-oxidation state was observed. Analyses employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on unaged and aged model samples in order to obtain additional information on the physicochemical changes induced by the aging treatment.

  3. Fuzzy logic modeling of Pb (II) sorption onto mesoporous NiO/ZnCl2-Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Hamedreza; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria; Asl, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini; Masomi, Mojtaba

    2018-01-01

    In this study, NiO/Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite (NiO/ACNC) was prepared by adding dropwise NaOH solution (2mol/L) to raise the suspension pH to around 9 at room temperature under ultrasonic irradiation (200W) as an efficient method and characterized by FE-SEM, FTIR and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effect of different parameters such as contact time (0-120min), initial metal ion concentration (25-200mg/L), temperature (298, 318 and 333K), amount of adsorbent (0.002-0.007g) and the solution's initial pH (1-7) on the adsorption of Pb (II) was investigated in batch-scale experiments. The equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir model type 1 (R 2 >0.99). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (q m ) of NiO/ACNC was 1428.57mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) were also calculated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb (II) onto NiO/ACNC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. In addition, a fuzzy-logic-based model including multiple inputs and one output was developed to predict the removal efficiency of Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Four input variables including pH, contact time (min), dosage (g) and initial concentration of Pb (II) were fuzzified using an artificial intelligence-based approach. The fuzzy subsets consisted of triangular membership functions with eight levels and a total of 26 rules in the IF-THEN approach which was implemented on a Mamdani-type of fuzzy inference system. Fuzzy data exhibited small deviation with satisfactory coefficient of determination (R 2 >0.98) that clearly proved very good performance of fuzzy-logic-based model in prediction of removal efficiency of Pb (II). It was confirmed that NiO/ACNC had a great potential as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the platinum - group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in the manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balaram, V.; Mathur, R.; Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rao, C.R.M.; Rao, T.G.; Dasaram, B.

    and rhodium in chromitite, US Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 650-C, C149-C151, (1969) 15 Asif M & Parry S.J, Elimination of reagent blank problems in fire-assay preconcentration of platinum group elements and gold with a nickel sulphide bead of less than one...

  5. Efeito da lisina na produção de compostos beta-lactâmicos produzidos por Sterptomuces clavuligerus

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Tatiana [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Muitos compostos beta-lactâmicos são sintetizados por bactérias do gênero Streptomyces. As cefalosporinas, entre elas a cefamicina C (CefC) são apenas alguns exemplos de antibióticos sintetizados por Streptomyces clavuligerus. Os antibióticos beta-lactâmicos são formados, em procariotos e eucariotos, a partir de três aminoácidos, o ácido L-alfaaminoadípico (AAA), a L-cisteína e a L-valina. Em procariotos, o AAA é formado por desaminação da L-lisina pela enzima lisina ε-aminotransferase (LAT)....

  6. Influence of Functional Capacity Evaluation on Physician's Assessment of Physical Capacity of Veterans With Chronic Pain: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppers, Dominique; Figoni, Stephen F; Carroll, Breda W; Chen, Michael M; Song, Sungchan; Mathiyakom, Witaya

    2017-07-01

    Physicians have difficulty predicting patients' occupational limitations, abilities, and success from clinical evaluation (CE) of pathology and impairments, especially in the presence of chronic pain. Additional information from a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) may improve the accuracy of their physical capacity assessments. It is not known whether FCE information will change these assessments. No such study has been published using Veterans or non-Veterans. To determine the influence of FCE data on the physician's assessment of the US Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) work capacity levels of Veterans with chronic moderate-intensity pain. Retrospective analysis. Tertiary care medical center. Veterans aged 18-60 years with moderate chronic musculoskeletal pain who were seeking employment. Two kinesiotherapists performed FCEs on all participants, namely, the lumbar protocol of the EvalTech Functional Testing System (BTE, Inc, Hanover, MD). One physiatrist performed CEs in all participants. Two other physiatrists assessed DOT physical capacity levels using CE data alone and later using combined CE and FCE data. DOT physical capacity level (sedentary = 1, light = 2, medium = 3, heavy = 4, very heavy = 5). Of 55 charts reviewed, 27 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The mean age was 38 years, and there were 25 male and 2 female participants. The predominant pain location was the lower back. DOT scores for 2 physicians were averaged. The mean ± SD DOT scores for CE only and CE+FCE conditions were 2.04 ± 0.33 and 2.40 ± 0.90, respectively. In all, 65% of DOT scores changed (17% decreased and 48% increased at least 1 level) after FCE data were considered. A 1-sample t test revealed that the mean CE+FCE DOT score was significantly greater than the mean CE-only score (by 20%, P = .02). Interrater agreement (weighted κ) for CE+FCE-based DOT scores was much higher than for CE alone (0.715 versus 0.182). The addition of FCE data to CE

  7. Development of innovative technological base for large-scale nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.O.; Dedul, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Slesarev, I.S. [ITC ' ' PRORYV' ' Project, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The problems of the Nuclear Power (NP) further development as well as the ways of their resolution on the basis of innovative fast reactor concepts and the Closed Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (CEFC) are analyzed. The new paradigm of NP and the corresponding NP super task are declared. The corresponding super task could be considered a transition to the vital risk free nuclear power through the guaranteed elimination/suppression of all their vital risks and threats (or their transformation to the category of some ordinary risks and threats) on the base of ''natural safety principle''. The project of Rosatom State Corporation (named ''PRORYV'') is launched within the Federal Target Program ''Nuclear power technologies of new generation for 2010 to 2015 and in perspective till 2020''. It has been planned just for these goals achievement. Super-task solution is quite ''on teeth'' to PRORYV project which is initially focused on the ''natural safety'' realization. This project is aimed, in particular, at construction of the demonstration lead cooled reactor BREST-300-OD and the enterprise for equilibrium fuel cycle closing.

  8. Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Use Case Analysis to Define Data Needs and Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    There are over 200 energy efficiency loan programs—across 49 U.S. states—administered by utilities, state/local government agencies, or private lenders.1 This distributed model has led to significant variation in program design and implementation practices including how data is collected and used. The challenge of consolidating and aggregating data across independently administered programs has been illustrated by a recent pilot of an open source database for energy efficiency financing program data. This project was led by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the Investor Confidence Project, the Clean Energy Finance Center (CEFC), and the University of Chicago. This partnership discussed data collection practices with a number of existing energy efficiency loan programs and identified four programs that were suitable and willing to participate in the pilot database (Diamond 2014).2 The partnership collected information related to ~12,000 loans with an aggregate value of ~$100M across the four programs. Of the 95 data fields collected across the four programs, 30 fields were common between two or more programs and only seven data fields were common across all programs. The results of that pilot study illustrate the inconsistencies in current data definition and collection practices among energy efficiency finance programs and may contribute to certain barriers.

  9. M M Patil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. M M Patil. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 205-207 Synthesis. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb2O6 powders · V V Deshpande M M Patil S C Navale V Ravi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple coprecipitation ...

  10. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A Mn2O3/Al2O3/Fe2O3 nanocomposite photocatalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. ... KEY WORDS: Co-precipitation method, Nanocomposite, Photocatalyst, Photodegradation, Malachite green ... Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidations performed with light irradiated semiconductors.

  11. YSZ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    et al 1980). These components are synthesized through standard ceramic processing techniques such as slip cast- ing, extrusion, tape casting and dry pressing. The most versatile method for preparation of the powder required for the above processes is co-precipitation technique. The co-precipitated gel decomposes into ...

  12. Obtainment of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconium oxide with yttrium and rare earth oxides, from Brazilian zirconite, for ceramic aim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents experimental results for processing of brazilian zirconite in order to obtain zirconium oxide with Yttrium and Rare Earth oxide by mutual coprecipitation for ceramics purposes. Due to analysis of experimental results was possible to obtain the optimum conditions for each one of technological route stage, such as: alkaline fusion; acid leaching; sulfactation and coprecipitation. (author)

  13. Preparation and properties of Pr 3/Ce 3: YAG phosphors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Co-precipitation; YAG powder; phosphor; white-light LED; ceramic. Abstract. Pr 3 + /Ce 3 + :YAG precursors were co-precipitated using triethanolamine as dispersant and pH regulator. The different dosages of triethanolamine (D) vs. the properties of Pr 3 + /Ce 3 + :YAG phosphors were discussed. When D = 0.5 ...

  14. Pilot facilities for continuous countercurrent precipitation of radioactive low and intermediate level waste from NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.

    1990-11-01

    Continuous operating laboratory scale unit for coprecipitation of radionuclides in liquid radioactive waste was developed for decontamination of waste not batch-wise, but as a continuous countercurrent process. Coprecipitation of 85 Sr with BaCO 3 and BaSO 4 was studied as a continuous operating process. It was shown that the efficiency of this method depends upon the selection of chemical reagents, operation conditions (concentration, flow rate, temperature, etc.) and can be improved by using several units (multistage process). The operating unit developed could be suitable for connection in series providing coprecipitation of high efficiency and by ''mutatis mutandis'' for application for other systems. Refs and figs

  15. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  16. Distribution of REEs and yttrium among major geochemical phases of marine Fe–Mn-oxides: Comparative study between hydrogenous and hydrothermal deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SuryaPrakash, L.; Ray, D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Satyanarayanan, M.; Sreenivas, B.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Kota, D.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Kaisary, S.; Balaram, V.; Gurav, T.

    in hydrothermal oxides is described in terms of co-precipitation and adsorption of their halide complexes and available free ions in hydrothermal solutions. Instead, adsorption of major carbonate species from seawater primarily regulates the partitioning of REEs...

  17. Soil Organic Matter Stabilization via Mineral Interactions in Forest Soils with Varying Saturation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Inagaki, T.; Bailey, S. W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) interaction with minerals and metals through surface adsorption and co-precipitation processes is important for soil organic C (SOC) stabilization. Co-precipitation (i.e., the incorporation of C as an "impurity" in metal precipitates as they form) may increase the potential quantity of mineral-associated C per unit mineral surface compared to surface adsorption: a potentially important and as yet unaccounted for mechanism of C stabilization in soil. However, chemical, physical, and biological characterization of co-precipitated SOM as such in natural soils is limited, and the relative persistence of co-precipitated C is unknown, particularly under dynamic environmental conditions. To better understand the relationships between SOM stabilization via organometallic co-precipitation and environmental variables, this study compares mineral-SOM characteristics across a forest soil (Spodosol) hydrological gradient with expected differences in co-precipitation of SOM with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) due to variable saturation frequency. Soils were collected from a steep, well-drained forest soil transect with low, medium, and high frequency of water table intrusion into surface soils (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Woodstock, NH). Lower saturation frequency soils generally had higher C content, C/Fe, C/Al, and other indicators of co-precipitation interactions resulting from SOM complexation, transport, and precipitation, an important process of Spodosol formation. Preliminary Fe X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) characterization of SOM and metal chemistry in low frequency profiles suggest co-precipitation of SOM in the fine fraction (soils showed greater SOC mineralization per unit soil C for low saturation frequency (i.e., higher co-precipitation) soils; however, increased mineralization may be attributed to non-mineral associated fractions of SOM. Further work to identify the component of SOM contributing to rapid mineralization using 13C

  18. Chemical preparation of PLZT powders from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    PLZT powders were prepared from an aqueous nitrate solution by three methods. They were fine, chemically homogeneous and amorphous. The particle morphologies, however, were very different due to the different physico-chemical coprecipitation conditions. Traditional method provided fine hydroxide coprecipitates, but they agglomerated strongly during drying. When a small amount of hydrogen peroxide was added prior to hydrolysis it converted the hydroxide coprecipitates into hydrate oxides and/or hydrate peroxides and seems to reduce bridge and non-ridging hydroxo groups in coprecipitates. The effect of shape size and the state of agglomeration are qualitatively explained by the chemistry that the more the linkage of bridge hydroxo group develops in the precipitate, the rigider precipitate becomes and that interparticle surface condensation involving non-bridging hydroxo groups is associated with the aggregation of particles during drying. Particle morphologies and related physical characteristics -'drop' density, 'tap' density, and adsorption-desorption isotherm were quite different between method(2) and (3). The process of precipitation (nucleation, growth and agglomeration in the solution) markedly affected the state of the agglomeration of coprecipitates. Method(3) involving the additive and liquid-gas interface reaction provided the most weakly agglomerated powder. The behavior of crystallization and the development of microstructure during calcination were examined as characterization criteria obtaining sinterable powder. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  19. Treatability of inorganic arsenic and organoarsenicals in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmeier, P.D.; Sherwood, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A 2-year three-phase study into methods for treatment of mixed inorganic and organic arsenic species to drinking water levels was conducted at a former pesticide facility in Houston, Tex. The species present include monomethylarsinic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenate, and arsenite. Phase One studies reported here included the evaluation of four adsorbents using bottle roll and column flow through techniques, oxidation through the application of Fenton's reagent followed by coprecipitation, coprecipitation without oxidation, and ultraviolet (UV)/ozone tests. The four adsorbents tested were activated carbon, activated alumina, ferrous sulfide, and a strongly basic ion exchange resin. All adsorbents removed some arsenic, but none except ferrous sulfide was sufficiently effective to warrant follow-up studies. Two small ferrous sulfide column tests, run under different conditions, removed arsenic but not to the levels and loading capacities needed to make this method practical. Organic compound destruction was tested using Fenton's reagent (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron) before coprecipitation. Arsenic was reduced to 170 ppb in the treated liquor. Coprecipitation without oxidative pretreatment produced a liquor containing 260 ppb arsenic. A two-stage Fenton-type coprecipitation procedure produced a supernatant containing 110 ppb total arsenic. Preliminary tests with a second-stage oxidative process, using ozone and UV radiation, showed approximately 80% destruction of an organic-arsenic surrogate (cacodylic acid) in 1 hour

  20. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  1. Investigation on the measurement of radioactivities of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Morimoto, Junko

    1990-01-01

    The analytical method combined with chemical treatment (ion exchange, solvent extraction, coprecipitation) and measurement of β radiation by a low back ground counter has been adopted in 'Standard Method of Analysis for Hygienic Chemicals' as the analytical method of 131 I in milk. However, it was difficult to apply this method to the analysis of some kinds of milk on the market, because some colloidal phenomena appeared at the coprecipitation step. As a result of detection by use of thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, it is guessed that this is caused by materials possessing surface active action, such as fatty acids which constitute milk fat (e.g., palmitic acid, stearic acid etc.), and surface active agents added to dairy products. Therefore, after the removal with ether of these surfactants before the coprecipitation step, the measurement of radioactivities of 131 I can be carried out without trouble. (author)

  2. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  3. Manganese oxide as a promoter for C2-C4 olefin production in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.; Chen, K.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A number of active research and development programs have been initiated to explore the potential of CO hydrogenation process as a source of low molecular weight (C 2 -C 4 ) olefins. Metal catalysts such as Co-Mn, Ni-zeolite, Rd and Mo have been evaluated for low molecular weight olefin selectivity. The coprecipitated Fe-Mn system (Mn/Fe=9/1) was reported to be highly olefin selective. Recently, many investigators reported supporting evidence for the promotional effect of Mn for precipitated Fe catalysts. In this study, Raney Fe promoted with Mn has been evaluated for C 2 -C 4 olefin selectivity in the hydrogenation of CO relative to coprecipitated Fe-Mn catalysts. Catalyst characterization, including BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, selective chemisorption and ESCA, has been carried to provide insight into the role of manganese in both the Coprecipitated and Raney catalyst systems

  4. Precipitation of human serum albumin from yeast culture liquid at pH values below 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheperegin, Sergey E; Efremov, Boris D; Kozlov, Dmitry G

    2010-08-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that human serum albumin (HSA) co-precipitated with components of the commonly used yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) growth medium in aqueous solutions at pH YPD responsible for HSA precipitation. Among yeast extract constituents, RNAs are likely to be most important for HSA precipitation. HSA precipitation at pH <5 was reversible, so that HSA was easily re-solubilized by increasing pH above 6 with completely retained immunoreactivity. The co-precipitation and re-solubilization of HSA were solely pH-dependent and occurred almost instantly at room temperature. Practical aspects of the observed HSA co-precipitation are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of key parameters on synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Ankit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods to synthesize superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs useful for MPI (magnetic particle imaging and in therapy (Hypothermia such as co-precipitation, hydrothermal reactions etc. In this research, the focus is to analyse the effects of crucial parameters such as effect of molecular mass of dextran and temperature of the co-precipitation. These parameters play a crucial role in the inherent magnetic properties of the resulting SPIONs. The amplitude spectrum and hysteresis curve of the SPIONs is analysed with MPS (magnetic particle spectrometer. PCCS (photon cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements are done to analyse the size distribution of hydrodynamic diameter the resulting SPIONs.

  6. Speciation of As in calcite by micro-XAFS: Implications for remediation of As contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Y; Takahashi, Y; Iwatsuki, T; Terada, Y

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of calcite as a host phase of arsenic (As) in As-contaminated groundwater, distribution behavior of Asbetween natural calcite and groundwater in deep underground was investigated based on As oxidation state. Speciation analyses of As in natural calcite by μ-XRF-XAFS analyses showed (i) preferentialarsenate uptake by calcite, and (ii) promptness of arsenate uptake by minor iron (Fe) carbonate minerals coprecipitated with calcite. These findings suggest that the effect of calcite on As remediation of the As-contamination systems stronglydepends on arsenite to arsenate ratio (i.e., redox condition) in groundwater, and maybe governed bythe amount of Fe coprecipitated with calcite.

  7. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting Pu-239, Pu-249 from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO4 . 7H2O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO3 + HCI from the coprecipitate and the solid particles. The precipita...... stripped by H20, NaOH, 2N HNO3 and 0.5N HNO3 containing 0.01M NaNO3. The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 l seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good....

  8. Refining method for bismuth nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shigeyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of separating and removing α ray emitting nuclides present in an aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate by an industrially convenient method. A nitric acid concentration in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate in which α ray emitting nuclides are dissolved is lowered to coprecipitate the bismuth oxynitrate and the α ray emitting nuclides. The coprecipitation materials are separated from the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate to separate the α ray emitting nuclides dissolved in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate thereby refining the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate. (T.M.)

  9. Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahil Garg

    Abstract. In the present work, element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been extended and implemented to simulate thermal fracture in functionally graded materials. The thermo-elastic fracture problem is decoupled into two separate parts. Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the ...

  10. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic sensitivity analysis using HDMR and score function · Rajib Chowdhury B N Rao A Meher ... Continuum damage growth analysis using element free Galerkin method · C O Arun B N Rao S M Srinivasan ... Numerical modelling of failure of cement concrete using a unit cell approach · M D Ghouse C Lakshmana Rao ...

  11. Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been extended and implemented to simulate thermal fracture in functionally graded materials. The thermo-elastic fracture problem is decoupled into two separate parts. Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the heat transfer ...

  12. Application of meshless EFG method in fluid flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    two-dimensional fluid flow problems and have proposed a new exponential weight function. In the EFG method ... The coefficients aj (x) are found by minimizing the quadratic functional J(x) given by. J(x) = n. ∑. I=1 ..... Dolbow J, Belytschko T 1998 An introduction to programming the meshless element-free Galerkin method.

  13. Synthesis of lanthanum and neodymium dititanates from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tetrachloride with lanthanum nitrate facilitated formation of coprecipitated hydroxides which on thermolysis yielded phase-pure La2Ti2O7 at 950ºC. Precipitates obtained from. 1:1 equimolar aqueous solutions of La/Nd nitrate and potassium titanyl oxalate at different pH values were studied by TG and DTA methods while the ...

  14. preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    extraction, co-precipitation and ion-exchange, electrodeposition [9-14] have been used in the ... This method uses an extracting solvent dissolved in a dispersive solvent, which is miscible with both extraction solvent and water. Methanol, acetonitrile and acetone have been used as ..... NASS-4-CRM are given in Table 5.

  15. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Metcalf, S.G.; Barney, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO 4 , precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  16. Radiochemistry of ruthenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W W; Metcalf, S G; Barney, G S

    1984-06-01

    Information on ruthenium is presented. Topics include the following; isotopes and nuclear properties of ruthenium; review of the chemistry of ruthenium including metal and alloys, compounds of ruthenium, and solution chemistry; separation methods including volatilization of RuO{sub 4}, precipitation and coprecipitation, solvent extraction, chromatographic techniques, and analysis for radioruthenium. 445 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Continuous flow hydrogenation of nitroarenes, azides and alkenes using maghemite-Pd nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghemite-supported ultra-fine Pd (1-2 nm) nanoparticles, prepared by a simple co-precipitation method, find application in the catalytic continuous flow hydrogenation of nitroarenes, azides, and alkenes wherein they play an important role in reduction of various functional group...

  18. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : I. In vitro observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Eissens, Anko; Schoonen, Adelbert; Lerk, C.F.

    The effect of cyclodextrins on suppository drug release was investigated. Complexes of several lipophilic drugs with β- and/or γ-cyclodextrin were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The formation of true complexes was confirmed by DSC and an 'ether-wash' method. Witepsol H15 suppositories

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    is found to be 100 nm as illustrated in TEM photograph. (figure 3) taken for the powder sample. 4. Conclusion. Fine polycrystalline single-phase microwave dielectric,. Sn0⋅2Zr0⋅8TiO4, was prepared by a simple coprecipitation method. References. Christoffersen R, Davies P K and Wei X 1994 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 1441.

  20. Review: The fundamental mechanism of aqueous contaminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminant co-precipitation with continuously generated and transformed iron corrosion products has received relatively little attention in comparison to other possible removal mechanisms (adsorption, oxidation, precipitation) in Fe0/H2O systems at near neutral pH values. A primary reason for this is that the use of ...

  1. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD,.

  2. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  3. A comprehensive study on influence of Nd substitution on properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. LiNdxMn2−xO4 samples are synthesized via co-precipitation technique. The activation energies com- puted from thermogravimetric analyses on the basis of Ozawa method have been observed to linearly increase with increase in dopant concentration. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate the cubic–spinel structure ...

  4. Magnetic and photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline ZnMn2 O4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    magnetic ordering in the broad range of ~ 150 K. The photocatalytic activity of ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles was evaluated using photo-oxidation of ... using a Quantum Design Physical Properties Measure- ment system. The photocatalytic .... and coprecipitation method, shows two weight losses, the first weight loss is at around ...

  5. Growth, characterization and transport properties of PbxZn1− xS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline PbZn1−S semiconductor powder with (0 ≤ ≤ 0.5) has been prepared by controlled co-precipitation method from an alkaline medium using thiourea as a sulphide ion source. Pellets are made with these powders applying 10 ton/sq cm pressure and sintered at 800 °C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere.

  6. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and ...

  7. V V Deshpande

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. V V Deshpande. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 28 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 205-207 Synthesis. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb2O6 powders · V V Deshpande M M Patil S C Navale V Ravi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple ...

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Volume 39; Issue 5. Development and evaluation of degradable hydroxyapatite/sodium silicate composite for low-dose drug delivery systems. R MORSY ... The s-HAp powder was prepared by co-precipitation method, while the b-HAp powder was extracted from bovine bone. Aqueous drug solutions of the atenolol, ...

  9. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts: Effect of the Preparation Method and Reduction Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Hyuck; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Duck

    2015-01-01

    The effect of preparation method on the catalytic activities of the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalysts on steam reforming of ethylene glycol was investigated. The catalysts were prepared with various preparation methods such as an incipient wetness impregnation, wet impregnation, and coprecipitation method. In the case of coprecipitation method, various precipitants such as KOH, K 2 CO 3 , and NH 4 OH were compared. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using N 2 physisorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, pulsed H 2 chemisorption, temperature-programmed oxidation, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Among the catalysts reduced at 773 K, the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH or K 2 CO 3 as precipitants showed the best catalytic performance. The preparation method affected the particle size of Ni, reducibility of nickel oxides, catalytic performance (activity and stability), and types of coke formed during the reaction. The Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation with KOH showed the increasing catalytic activity with an increase in the reduction temperature from 773 to 1173 K because of an increase in the reduction degree of Ni oxide species even though the particle size of Ni increased with increasing reduction temperature

  10. A comparative study on heat dissipation, morphological and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 7. A comparative study on heat dissipation, morphological and magnetic properties of hyperthermia suitable nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Md Shariful Islam Yoshihumi Kusumoto Junichi Kurawaki Md ...

  11. Distribution of impurities during crystallization of tellurous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debska-Horecka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Crystallization has been used for purification of telluric acid and coprecipitation of Zn(2), Bi(3), Ni(2), Cr(3), Mg(2), Ca(2), Tl(1), Mn(2), Cu(2), Co(2), Cd(2) with telluric acid sediment has been investigated. The optimum conditions for obtaining the telluric acid of high purity have been established. (author)

  12. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pd + Mg)/Al ≈ 3 and Mg/Pd ≈ 750 to 35, were prepared by coprecipitation of metal ... with acid, base and hydrogenating sites, were highly active and selective for one-step synthesis of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from acetone and hydrogen.

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Function of magnesium aluminate hydrate and magnesium nitrate as MgO addition in crystal structure and grain size control of -Al2O3 during sintering · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay S .... Enhancement of MgAl2O4 spinel formation from coprecipitated precursor by powder processing · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay ...

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Function of magnesium aluminate hydrate and magnesium nitrate as MgO addition in crystal structure and grain size control of -Al2O3 during sintering · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay S ... Enhancement of MgAl2O4 spinel formation from coprecipitated precursor by powder processing · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay ...

  15. B N Samaddar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Function of magnesium aluminate hydrate and magnesium nitrate as MgO addition in crystal structure and grain size control of -Al2O3 during sintering · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay S ... Enhancement of MgAl2O4 spinel formation from coprecipitated precursor by powder processing · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay ...

  16. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 29, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective separation, preconcentration and determination of Pd(II) ions in environmental samples by coprecipitation with a 1,2,4-triazole derivative · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D. Ozdes, C. Duran, H. Serencam, D. Sahin, A. Gundogdu, M. Soylak ...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several media, it has been found that a saturated solution of starch and water could be employed to obtain acicular crystals. 2.3 Synthesis of mixed oxalates. The starting materials for the Synthesis of doped gamma ferric oxide were mixed oxalates of iron and the dopant (Mg/Co/Ni/Cu), which was co-precipitated from a.

  18. Partial Oxidation of n-Pentane over Vanadium Phosphorus Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    The selective oxidation ofn-pentane to value-added products, maleic anhydride or phthallic anhydride by vanadium phosphorus oxide loaded on hydroxyapatites as catalysts and oxygen as oxidant was investigated. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and cobalt- hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) were prepared by the co-precipitation method ...

  19. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Co- precipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, viscosity, and pH. The effect of ... solution of the solid in the continuous phase [1]. There are two ... When two gums are co-precipitated, their ability to suspend a drug tends to increase more than their individual abilities. This work sought to evaluate the suspending ...

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Studies on the Thermal Stability of Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium-Strontium hydroxyapatite (HAP) solid solutions in the presence and absence of diethylamine (DEA) were prepared by the method of co-precipitation from basic media. The samples were heated at 773.15K in a furnace. Characterization of the samples by x-ray powder diffractometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy ...

  1. Nonisothermal crystallization behaviour of poly (ρ-dioxanone) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blends of poly(ρ-dioxanone) (PPDO) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in different proportions were prepared by solution co-precipitation. The nonisothermal crystallization behaviour of pure PPDO and PPDO/PLLA blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The Avrami, Ozawa and Mo models were used to ...

  2. Preparation of Nd-doped barium cerate through different routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, F.L.; Toft Sørensen, O.; Meng, G.Y.

    1997-01-01

    BaCe0.9Nd0.1O3-delta was prepared through different routes: oxalate coprecipitation (OF), carbonate-oxide mixed by ball-milling (COB) and carbonate-oxide mixed by mortar/pestle (COM). The reaction process studied by DTA-TG and XRD showed that calcination of the precursor powders at T greater than...

  3. Preparation of nanocrystalline ferroelectric BaNb2O6 by citrate gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Using chemical methods, the co-precipitation, sol–gel, hydro- thermal and colloid emulsion techniques have been con- firmed to efficiently control the morphology and chemical composition of prepared powder. Recently, a low tem- perature organic gel route has been reported for strontium barium niobate (Li et al 2004).

  4. Structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial activity of rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Co-precipitate method. The structural characterizations of the nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. UV–Vis, FTIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used for ...

  5. IgG autoantibodies against interleukin 1 alpha in sera of normal individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Poulsen, L K; Fomsgaard, A

    1989-01-01

    to immobilized protein A. Furthermore, [125I]rIL-1 alpha preincubated with serum co-precipitated with a specific rabbit anti-human IgG antibody. Screening of 29 sera from normal individuals showed similar effects in three cases. We conclude that approximately 10% of normal human sera contains detectable Ig...

  6. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  7. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of coprecipitated ferroelectric. BiVO55 299. Blood compatibility. Hepatin bonding: Then and now 99. Biomaterials: role of surface modifications. 1317. Boron. Emission spectroscopic determination of B and. Cd in magnesium used in uranium production. 19. Boron nitride. Thin films of boron nitride grown by ...

  8. A novel method for synthesizing nano-crystalline MgTiO3 geikielite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    synthesis of nano-crystalline geikielite by co-precipi- tation method. The sample has been characterized by electron microscopic, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier– transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopic methods. 2. Experimental. Geikielite sample has been prepared by co-precipitation method through the reaction: ...

  9. Densification and dielectric properties of SrO–Al2O3–B2O3 ceramic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The influence of SrO (0·0–5·0 wt%) on partial substitution of alpha alumina (corundum) in ceramic com- position (95 Al2O3–5B2O3) have been studied by co-precipitated process and their phase composition, microstruc- ture, microchemistry and microwave dielectric properties were studied. Phase composition ...

  10. Relaxation phenomena in ensembles of CoFe.sub.2./sub.O.sub.4./sub. nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bittová, Barbara; Poltierová Vejpravová, Jana; Morales, M.P.; Roca, A.G.; Mantlíková, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 6 (2012), s. 1182-1188 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : CoFe 2 O 4 * super-spin-glass * coprecipitation * decomposition * dynamic magnetic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012

  11. How the Method of Synthesis Governs the Local and Global Structure of Zinc Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschparaj, Suraj S. C.; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Seven zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O] A = NO3-, Cl- or CO32-, prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods were investigated to determine how synthesis parameters (pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment) affect the local...

  12. DNA Assisted Synthesis of Chitosan/ α

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    nitrate, sodium hydroxide and DNA powder were obtained from MERCK and Chitosan was obtained from Matsyafed chitin and Chitosan plant Neendakara Kollam. 2.1 Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 (FD)Nanoparticles. Hematite nanoparticles were prepared by arrested co-precipitation method using ferric nitrate, sodium hydroxide ...

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of Mn/SSZ-13 catalysts of varying Mn content were synthesized by hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods. Their performances for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH₃ were evaluated. The results indicate that over 95% NOx conversion was achieved at a low temperature of 150◦C with an Mn ...

  14. Development and Evaluation of Praziquantel Solid Dispersions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and characterize solid dispersions of praziquantel (PZQ) with sodium starch glycolate (SSG) for enhanced drug solubility. Methods: PZQ solid dispersion (SD) was prepared using co-precipitation method by solvent evaporation. The ratios of PZQ to SSG were 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (w/w). PZQ solubility was ...

  15. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential injection on-line sample pretreatment schemes. Separation and preconcentration procedures for the determination of trace metal concentrations by ETAAS and/or ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    are feasible, such as liquid-liquid extraction, (co)precipitation with collection in knotted reactors, adsorption, hydride generation, or the use of ion-exchange columns. Apart from hydride generation, where the analyte is converted into a gaseous species, the common denominator for these approaches...

  16. Rapid Multisample Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    of simultaneous preconcentration of all target radionuclides. Technetium was separated from the actinides via valence control of technetium (as Tc(VII)) in a ferric hydroxide coprecipitation. A novel preseparation protocol between uranium and neptunium/plutonium fractions was developed based on the observation...

  17. Molecular interaction of connexin 30.3 and connexin 31 suggests a dominant-negative mechanism associated with erythrokeratodermia variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Huber, Marcel; Macari, Francoise

    2003-01-01

    to a gigantic increase of stabilized heteromeric gap junctions. Furthermore, co-expressed wild-type Cx30.3 and Cx31 coprecipitate, which demonstrates a physical interaction. Inhibitor experiments revealed that this interaction begins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results not only provide new insights...

  18. Sanjay R Dhage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Sanjay R Dhage. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 26 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 215-216 Synthesis. Preparation of microwave dielectric, Sn0.2Zr0.8TiO4 · Sanjay R Dhage V Ravi S K Date · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple coprecipitation ...

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay R Dhage V Ravi S K Date · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple coprecipitation technique is described for the preparation of tin substituted zirconium titanate ceramic powders. Volume 27 Issue 1 February 2004 pp 43-45 Dielectric Materials. Nonlinear – characteristics study of doped SnO2 · S R Dhage V ...

  20. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  1. Influence of preparation method on structural and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Nickel ferrite; sol–gel technique; co-precipitation; superparamagnetism. 1. Introduction. During the last few years, ferrite nanoparticles have drawn major attention because of their technological im- portance in high density magnetic storage, electronic and microwave devices, telecommunication equipments,.

  2. Tuning size and catalytic activity of nano-clusters of cobalt oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cobalt oxides were prepared by three different methods: (1) by reacting cobalt nitrate with oxalic acid, (2) co-precipitating cobalt nitrate with sodium carbonate, and (3) using sodium dodecyl sulphate as organic surfactant. All three samples were characterized before and after calcination by solvent extraction and the ...

  3. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple coprecipitation technique has been used successfully for the preparation of pure, ultrafine, single phases of NaNbO3 (NN) and NaTaO3 (NT). An alcoholic solution of ammonium carbonate and ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Na+ and Nb5+ (or Ta5+) cations under basic conditions as carbonate and ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agu, AA. Vol 10, No 3 (2013) - Articles Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg albumin as binder in the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. High performance vanadia-anatase nanoparticle catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Highly active nanoparticle SCR deNO(x) catalysts composed of amorphous vanadia on crystalline anatase have been prepared by a sol-gel, co-precipitation method using decomposable crystallization seeds. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRPD, TEM/SEM, FT-IR, nitrogen physisorption and NH(3...

  6. Spark plasma-sintered Sn-based intermetallic alloys and their Li-storage studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, SnSb, SnSb/Fe, SnSb/Co, and SnSb/Ni alloy powders processed by co-precipitation were subjected to spark plasma-sintering (SPS) at 400 °C for 5 min. The compacts were structurally and morphologically characterized by X...

  7. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  8. Identification of a hypothetical membrane protein interactor of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    characterized earlier through co-precipitation studies us- ing antibodies against this conserved carboxyl-terminal region (Rich and Steitz 1987). Protein P0 is also involved at the eEF2 elongation factor-binding domain, as demon- strated in yeast (Justice et al 1999). The P0 protein, and not P1 and P2 proteins, is essential for ...

  9. Synthesis and characteristics of nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP and CuO powders for ceramic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; de Veen, P.J.; de Veen, P.J.; Ran, S.; Blank, David H.A.

    2010-01-01

    A weakly agglomerated 3Y-TZP powder with 100% tetragonal crystal structure and a primary crystallite diameter of 8 nm was prepared by co-precipitation of metal chlorides in an ammonia solution, followed by extensive washing with ethanol, drying and calcining at 550 °C. Powder characteristics as

  10. Sintering behaviour and microstructure of 3Y-TZP + 8 mol% CuO nano-powder composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Koster, H.; de Veen, P.J.; Blank, David H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline 3Y-TZP and copper-oxide powders were prepared by co-precipitation of metal chlorides and copper oxalate complexation– precipitation, respectively.Asignificant enhancement in sintering activity of 3Y-TZP nano-powders, without presence of liquid phase,was achieved by addition of 8 mol%

  11. Analysis of reactions during sintering of CuO-doped 3Y-TZP nano-powder composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Ran, S.; Speets, E.A.; Blank, David H.A.

    2009-01-01

    3Y-TZP (yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia) and CuO nano powders were prepared by co-precipitation and copper oxalate complexation–precipitation techniques, respectively. During sintering of powder compacts (8 mol% CuO-doped 3Y-TZP) of this two-phase system several solid-state reactions clearly

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of size-controlled Mn 0.5 Zn 0.5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with tunable Curie temperature and saturation magnetization are synthesized using hydrothermal co-precipitation method. Particle size is controlled in the range of 54 to 135 Å by pH and incubation time of the reaction. All the particles exhibit super-paramagnetic behaviour at room ...

  13. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolkova, I.S.; Kazantseva, N.E.; Babayan, V.; Smolka, P.; Parmar, H.; Vilcakova, J.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Pizúrová, Naděžda

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 374, JAN (2015), s. 508-515 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Iron oxide nanoparticles * Coprecipitation * Magnetic interactions * Specific loss power * Hyperthermia Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  14. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize, characterize and investigate the antimicrobial properties of pure and manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Method: Un-doped and manganese-doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation method. The synthesized Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were ...

  15. A low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) study of the influence of the vanadium concentration on the activity of vanadium-niobium oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.H.H.; Smits, R.H.H.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.; van den Oetelaar, L.C.A.; Helwegen, J.H.J.M.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    A series of vanadium-niobium oxide catalysts in which the vanadia content varies between 0.3 and 18 mol% was prepared by coprecipitation. These catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), and by catalytic testing

  16. Effect of solvent-induced structural modifications on optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    vacuum oven. The final products were the light yellow. CdS nanoparticles. The same procedure was tried with different solvents i.e. deionized water, methanol and ethanol for preparing cadmium and sulfide solutions. Thus yellow CdS nanoparticles in powder form were obtained using chemical co-precipitation technique.

  17. Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    circuit photocurrent (sc), open circuit voltage (oc) and fill factor (FF) were 7.017 mA/cm2, 0.690 V and 69.68%, respectively, for solvothermal route and they were 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.756 V and 66.74%, respectively, for co-precipitation method.

  18. Synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explore the comparison of a suitable heterogeneous catalyst for conversion of triglyceride into fatty acid methyl ester. A series of heterogeneous cerium, manganese, and zinc oxide catalyst supported at mixture of cinder was prepared by co-precipitation and applied for conversion of triglyceride in oil to biodiesel ...

  19. The effect of temperature and atmosphere on spinel phase formation of nano-manganese ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available  Phase formation of manganese ferrite prepared by co-precipitation method is studied at different annealing temperatures. It is shown that the spinel phase is formed by quenching only in inert gas. XRD patterns show that the background picks fall in intensity by increasing annealing temperature and the single phase is achieved by magnetic separation.

  20. Effect of synthesis methods and a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sazzad Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc ferrite samples were prepared by two different routes which are chemical co-precipitation and standard solid state double sintering method. Structural properties of ZnFe2O4 were determined, and initial particle size was found as 5 nm in the samples prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. The XRD patterns showed the single phase of ZnFe2O4 spinel structure and confirmed by the lattice parameter and the unmixed hkl values for both the synthesis techniques. M-H curves at room temperature showed superparamagnetic nature of the samples sintered from 200°C to 600°C, synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. The Mössbauer analysis at room temperature showed a doublet which is the signature of superparamagnetic nature, and it is in agreement with the acquired M-H curves. The magnetization of ZnFe2O4 synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method was found higher than the magnetization of ZnFe2O4 synthesized by the solid-state double sintering method in the sintering temperature from 1100°C to 1300°C.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of zinc- and aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a decrease in ferrimagnetic behaviour. Keywords. Ferrite; co-precipitation; magnetization; AC susceptibility. PACS Nos 78.67.Bf; 01.30.-y; 85.70.Ge. 1. Introduction. The method of preparation plays a very important role with regard to the chemical, structural and magnetic properties of spinel ferrite [1]. Ferrites are commonly ...

  2. Sorption and catalytic oxidation of Fe(II) at the surface of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettler, S.; Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Von Gunten, U.

    The effect of sorption and coprecipitation of Fe(II) with calcite on the kinetics of Fe(II) oxidation was investigated. The interaction of Fe(II) with calcite was studied experimentally in the absence and presence of oxygen. The sorption of Fe(II) on calcite occurred in two distinguishable steps:

  3. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 7. A comparative study on heat dissipation, morphological and magnetic properties of hyperthermia suitable nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Md Shariful Islam Yoshihumi Kusumoto Junichi Kurawaki Md ...

  4. Enhancement of In Vitro Skin Transport and In Vivo Hypoglycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To utilize hydroxybutyl-β-cyclodextrin (HB-β-CD) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for the enhancement of the transdermal delivery of glimepiride (GMD). Methods: Matrix-type transdermal patches containing GMD, drug coprecipitate or its inclusion complex were prepared using different gelling agents, viz, ...

  5. Hydrogen peroxide modified Mg-Al-O oxides supported Pt-Sn catalysts for paraffin dehydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Y.; He, Songbo; Luo, S.; Bi, W.; Li, XianRu; Sun, Chenglin; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new method to prepare Mg–Al–O oxide by co-precipitation method with addition of H2O2 was developed. The application of Mg–Al–O as a support of Pt–Sn catalysts for paraffin dehydrogenation was investigated. Characterization results indicated that modification of H2O2 (i) enlarged the

  6. The synthesis and characterization of mixed Y2O3-doped ZrO2 and ¿-Fe2O3 nanosized powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raming, T.P.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    Several wet chemical precipitation methods used to synthesise nanocrystalline composite powders containing zirconium oxide, yttrium oxide and iron(III) oxide are described. The crystallisation and phase composition of the precipitates were studied as a function of temperature. A co-precipitation

  7. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 25 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 181-189 Nanomaterials. Sintering of nano crystalline silicon carbide by doping with boron carbide · M S Datta A K ... Effect of agglomeration during coprecipitation: Delayed spinellization of magnesium aluminate hydrate · Soumen Pal A K Bandyopadhyay S Mukherjee B N Samaddar P G ...

  8. One-pot synthesis of CaAl-layered double hydroxide–methotrexate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... bicarbonate coming from air and cationic octahedral frame- work. Further release of ∼13% of MTX over a period of. 10–24 h incubation of CaAl-LDH–MTX nanohybrid prepared by co-precipitation method was due to a combination of de- intercalation of MTX and crystal dissolution of LDH–MTX nanohybrid.

  9. Rare earth elements in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi estuary,central west coast of India: Influence of mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, T.G.

    -end station. Spatial variations in mean total-REE are maximum (64%) during the pre-monsoon. Strong to moderate correlation of mean total-REE with Al, Fe and Mn in all seasons indicates adsorption and co-precipitation of REEs with aluminosilicate phases and Fe...

  10. Maghemite decorated with ultra-small palladium nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3–Pd): applications in the Heck–Mizoroki olefination, Suzuki reaction and allylic oxidation of alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nanocatalyst comprising ultra-small Pd/PdO nanoparticles (<5 nm) supported on maghemite was prepared by a co-precipitation protocol using inexpensive raw materials and was deployed successfully in various significant synthetic transformations, namely the Heck–Mizoroki olefinati...

  11. Plasma proteome coverage is increased by unique peptide recovery from sodium deoxycholate precipitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Zhu, Hongbin; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; Park, Jung Eun; Ho, Hee Haw; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-03-01

    The ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (SDC) is compatible with in-solution tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomics by virtue of being easy to separate from the peptide products via precipitation in acidic buffers. However, it remains unclear whether unique human peptides co-precipitate with SDC during acid treatment of complex biological samples. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a large quantity of unique peptides in human blood plasma can be co-precipitated with SDC using an optimized sample preparation method prior to shotgun proteomic analysis. We show that the plasma peptides co-precipitated with SDC can be successfully recovered using a sequential re-solubilization and precipitation procedure, and that this approach is particularly efficient at the extraction of long peptides. Recovery of peptides from the SDC pellet dramatically increased overall proteome coverage (>60 %), thereby improving the identification of low-abundance proteins and enhancing the identification of protein components of membrane-bound organelles. In addition, when we analyzed the physiochemical properties of the co-precipitated peptides, we observed that SDC-based sample preparation improved the identification of mildly hydrophilic/hydrophobic proteins that would otherwise be lost upon discarding the pellet. These data demonstrate that the optimized SDC protocol is superior to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/urea treatment for identifying plasma biomarkers by shotgun proteomics.

  12. A comparative study on heat dissipation, morphological and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods and their phase transfer was done successfully to compare their performances in different aspects. Synthesized nanopar- ticles were characterized for XRD, FE–SEM, TEM, UV-Vis absorption (reflectance) spectra, ...

  13. S Mukherjee

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These different types of additions caused two distinct changes in crystal structure of alumina-one small contraction and the other expansion of unit cell parameters. Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 451-456 Ceramics. Effect of agglomeration during coprecipitation: Delayed spinellization of magnesium aluminate hydrate.

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At higher temperatures, due to large agglomerate size, MgO can not properly interact with the exsolved -Al2O3 from spinel solid solution to form secondary spinel; and consequently spinellization gets affected. Solvent treatment and attrition milling of the coprecipitated precursor disintegrate the larger agglomerates into ...

  15. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blends of poly(ρ-dioxanone) (PPDO) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in different proportions were prepared by solution co-precipitation. The nonisothermal crystallization behaviour of pure PPDO and PPDO/PLLA blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The Avrami, Ozawa and Mo models were used to ...

  16. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorov M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  17. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorov, M.; Blums, E.; Kronkalns, G.; Krumina, A.; Lubane, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  18. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Maiorov M.; Blums E.; Kronkalns G.; Krumina A.; Lubane M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  19. Syngas production from the reforming of methane over catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FARIS A J AL-DOGHACHI

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... NixO (x= 0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.15; 1 wt% Co each), we performed the dry reforming of methane. The catalysts were prepared by K2CO3 co-precipitation from aqueous nickel nitrate hexahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Impregnation of cobalt(II)acetylacetonate onto MgO-NiO was then conducted.

  20. Testing of wet scrap recovery equipment for mixed oxide scrap reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiter, J.A.; Klem, M.J.; Owen, T.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Wet Scrap Recovery (WSR) program was initiated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) by Westinghouse Hanford Company in Richland, Washington to demonstrate fuel fabrication scrap recovery and reconversion to fuel grade oxide powder using the continuous coprecipitation-calcination (COPRECAL) conversion process. Advancements in process control equipment and instrumentation were also developed and demonstrated