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Sample records for element substitution effects

  1. Invariant nature of substituted element in metal-hexacyanoferrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Wataru; Shibata, Takayuki; Nitani, Hiroaki; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2017-10-16

    The chemical substitution of a transition metal (M) is an effective method to improve the functionality of materials. In order to design the highly functional materials, we first have to know the local structure and electronic state around the substituted element. Here, we systematically investigated the local structure and electronic state of the host (M h) and guest (M g) transition metals in metal-hexacyanoferrate (M-HCF), Na x (M h, M g)[Fe(CN)6] y (1.40 < x < 1.60 and 0.85 < y < 0.90), by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses. The EXAFS and XANES analyses revealed that the local structure and electronic state around M g are essentially the same as those in the pure compound, i.e, M g-HCF. Such an invariant nature of M g in M-HCF is in sharp contrast with that in layered oxide, in which the M g valence changes so that local M g-O distance (d M-Og) approaches the M h-O distance (d M-Oh).

  2. Effect of the substitution element In in CoFe2-xInxO4 on morphology, magnetic and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlazan, P.; Rus, S. F.; Grozescu, I.; Vasile, E.

    2013-11-01

    Cobalt ferrite substituted with indium, CoFe2-xInxO4 (x = 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mol), was obtained by the original fast hydrothermal method and the effects of the substitution on morphology and magnetic and optical properties of cobalt ferrite were investigated. The obtained nanoparticle samples with different concentrations of the substitute (Fe3+ was substituted by In3+) were characterized by x-ray diffraction, bright field transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, the conventional AC method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis. The measurements confirmed the presence of indium in cobalt ferrite and showed a good degree of crystallization with diffraction peaks corresponding to the cubic spinel structure and crystallite sizes in the range of 11.8-17.6 nm. We observed that a single phase is formed when Fe3+ was substituted with In3+ at low concentrations (x = 0.05 and 0.1), and new peaks in XRD appear characteristic of the secondary phase of In2O3 for a high level of substitution (x = 0.5).

  3. Effects of yttrium and zinc substitutions in Bi-2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignon, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)], E-mail: bruno.pignon@univ-tours.fr; Autret-Lambert, Cecile; Ruyter, Antoine; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle; Ammor, Larbi [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2007-09-01

    In this work, resistivity measurements of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Cu{sub 2-y}Zn{sub y}O{sub 8+d} were analyzed. The yttrium substitution on calcium site modifies the charge concentration and the zinc substitution on cupper site leads to a depression of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub C}. Beyond the superconducting transition, the resistivity curves show the compounds evolve from a metallic state to a semi-conducting state upon the yttrium and zinc substitutions. The semi-conductive behavior is explained by a random distribution of the substituted element. The evolution of the linear resistivity upon doping confirms the presence of heterogeneities. Moreover, the results suggest that zinc lead to a more effective states localization and stripes pinning.

  4. Effect of d-block element Co2+ substitution on structural, Mössbauer and dielectric properties of spinel copper ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M. A.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2017-08-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of replacement of d-block element Cu2+ ion by Co2+ in Cu-spinel ferrites [Cu1-xCoxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0)] on the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties as synthesized by Solid-state reaction route. A structural transition from tetragonal (space group I41/amd)) to cubic (space group Fd3m) phase is observed due to introduction of cobalt. Cubic spinel- type structure at room temperature of Cu1-xCoxFe2O4 (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) is confirmed by Rietveld - refined X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopic studies reveal 2 (5) optical active modes in CuFe2O4 (CoFe2O4) at room temperature. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy of Cu1-xCoxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.2 and 0.6) shows two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns for all the three samples, indicating the presence of Fe in both A and B sites. Identification of sites is accomplished by evidence from hyperfine distribution and isomer-shift data. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent measured in the frequency range from 1 KHz to 1 MHz at room temperature are found to be decreasing with the increase in frequency.

  5. Studying the influence of substitutional elements on mechanical behavior of Alloy 718

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    Max Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In nickel-based superalloys, substitutional solute species have a strong impact on in service mechanical properties as well as on oxidation and corrosion resistances. In alloy 718, recent studies carried out by tensile tests highlighted the fact that refractory solute species are able to interact strongly with mobile dislocations during plastic deformation, generating dynamic strain ageing, and, in wide ranges of tests temperatures and strain rates, Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. The precise nature of the substitutional element responsible for such a dynamic interaction is still subject to debate. We addressed this question by means of mechanical spectroscopy studies of alloy 718 and various related alloys corresponding to monitored changes in the chemical composition. Only a single internal friction relaxation peak has been observed for all the studied alloys. By analyzing the damping behavior of these alloys at different imposed solicitation frequencies by sweeping a large temperatures range, the activation energies of the relaxation process and the type of mechanism involved have been determined. The process is a “Zener relaxation” in the alloys, i.e. a substitutional atoms dipole reorientation under applied stress. The results tend to prove that Niobium is not involved in the relaxation process whereas Molybdenum content seems to play an important role in the relaxation intensity.

  6. Effect of d-block element Co{sup 2+} substitution on structural, Mössbauer and dielectric properties of spinel copper ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, M.A.; Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Tetragonal (I41/amd) to cubic (Fd3m) phase change is observed in Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Raman studies reveal 2 (5) optical active modes in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 5 (5) at room temperature. • Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy discerns two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns. • The dielectric constant increases is maximum for Co{sup 2+}x = 0.1 composition. • ac conductivity is constant (low frequency) and increases abruptly (high frequency). - Abstract: The present work focuses on the influence of replacement of d-block element Cu{sup 2+} ion by Co{sup 2+} in Cu-spinel ferrites [Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0)] on the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties as synthesized by Solid-state reaction route. A structural transition from tetragonal (space group I41/amd)) to cubic (space group Fd3m) phase is observed due to introduction of cobalt. Cubic spinel- type structure at room temperature of Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) is confirmed by Rietveld – refined X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopic studies reveal 2 (5) optical active modes in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at room temperature. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy of Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2 and 0.6) shows two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns for all the three samples, indicating the presence of Fe in both A and B sites. Identification of sites is accomplished by evidence from hyperfine distribution and isomer-shift data. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent measured in the frequency range from 1 KHz to 1 MHz at room temperature are found to be decreasing with the increase in frequency.

  7. A Sequential and Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This article dealt with methods for making substitute teaching more effective. The purpose was to articulate a sequential method for maximizing the effectiveness of substitute teaching while providing substitutes with a comprehensive method for diligently and flexibly earning respect and using reflection to continually improve substitute teaching.…

  8. Surface agglomeration is beneficial for release of magnetic property via research of rare earth (RE) element-substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqing; Qi, Ji; Zhang, Yilin; Wang, Yuhan; Feng, Ming; Zhang, Junkai; Wei, Maobin; Yang, Jinghai

    2018-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films and Rare-Earth (RE) element substitutions were successfully fabricated on silicon substrates by sol-gel technology. Multiferroic properties of BFO had been improved considerably on RE (La, Ho, Er)-substitution at Bi site. The RE-substitution principle was presented in Fig. 1(the simulative images of ions matching). The single phase and the perovskite based rhombohedral structure with R3c space group of BFO and RE-substitution films were confirmed through the full pattern fitting of surface and section XRD profiles. There were obvious agglomeration phenomena for RE-substitution films via FESEM patterns, and the AFM images shown that the RE-substation films possessed smoother surface texture comparing with the BFO. The RE-substitution films showed higher saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr) due to the reduced concentration of defects (oxygen vacancy), RE ions with smaller radii size (size effect) and surface structure of compactness. Fe3+ and O2- ions play an essential role in superexchange interaction, the XPS, surface and vertical EDS images revealed increasing tendency of Fe3+ ions and O2- ions.

  9. Magnetism of substitutional sp-element impurities in graphene and silicene: energetics and concentration dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tecorralco, J.; Meza-Montes, L.; Cifuentes-Quintal, M. E.; de Coss, R.

    It has been predicted from ab-initio calculations that a finite spin magnetic moment may result in sp-element substitutional impurities in two-dimensional materials. Particularly, phosphorus-doped graphene and nitrogen-doped silicene for 3.2% concentrations (supercell 4x4) have been reported to present this effect. In this work, we have performed a structural, electronic, magnetic, and energetics properties systematic study of substitutional impurities for P@graphene and N@silicene as a function of doping concentration, by means of first principles calculations. We have calculated the electronic and magnetic properties for different supercell sizes, from 3x3 to 8x8. The energetics and the magnetic moment for the studied systems were obtained with the Fixed-Spin Moment Method. We found that the magnetic moment in P@graphene practically remains constant for supercell sizes from 3x3 to 8x8, however the exchange energy gained by the spin-polarization is strongly reduced as the concentration decreases. In contrast, N@silicene showed a magnetic moment around 0.8 μB for the 3x3 and 4x4 supercells, but for lower concentrations the system becomes non-magnetic. Finally, the results are analyzed in terms of the charge and spin density distributions in the σ and π orbitals. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP and Cinvestav-Mérida. Computational resources provided by Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo del Sureste de México.

  10. Substitution effects in magnetic and superconducting materials

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    Peña, O.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substitutions at very low level have been proved to be a very effective tool to change important physical parameters in many kinds of materials. These modifications may be the result of, for instance, subtle variations of the position of the Fermi level with respect to the density of states, presence of additional electrons which may change the hole carrier concentration, steric effects which impose contraints in the crystallographic lattice, mixed-valence states resultating from the dismutation of chemical components, etc. We review herein three systems in which the substitution effects are at the origin of new physical states : the high-Tc superconductor bismuth cuprate of the 2212 family, the mixed-valence manganese perovskites representative of giant magneto-resistive compounds, and the Chevrel phase materials in which a structural transition may inhibit the superconducting state.

    Las substituciones químicas a un nivel muy pequeño se han probado como una importante herramienta para cambiar los parámetros físicos en una gran variedad de materiales. Estas modificaciones pueden ser el resultado de, por ejemplo, muy ligeras variaciones de la posición del nivel de Fermi con respecto a la densidad de estados, presencia de electrones adicionales que pueden cambiar la concentración de portadores tipo huecos, efectos estéricos que imponen restricciones en la red cristalográfica, estados de valencia mixtos resultantes de la dismutación de los componentes químicos, etc. Aquí se revisan tres sistemas donde los efectos de substitución son el origen de nuevos estados físicos: los superconductores de alta temperatura basados en cupratos de bismuto de la familia 2212, las perovskitas de manganeso de valencia mixta representantes de compuestos con magnetorresistencia gigante, y los materiales con fases de Chevrelt cuya transición estructural puede inhibir el estado superconductor.

  11. [The substitution effect of leadership substitutes for transformational leadership in nursing organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-04-01

    This paper was conducted to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the substitutes for leadership model (Kerr & Jermier, 1978). Data was collected from 181 staff nurses in 3 general hospitals, with self-reporting questionnaires (MLQ developed by Bass, rd-SLS developed by Podsakoff, et al., and MSQ developed by Weiss, et al.). Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and moderated regression analysis were used. 1) The transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had correlations with job satisfaction. 2) The total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership was substantially greater than by the transformational leadership behaviors. 3) Few of the substitutes variables moderated the relationships between the transformational leader behaviors and job satisfaction in a manner consistent with that specified by Howell, Dorfman, and Kerr (1986). The finding of this study suggest that leaders need to have a better understanding of those contextual variables that influence job satisfaction. Thus future research should focus attention on the moderating effects of substitutes, as well as the things that leaders can do to influence them. In addition, it may be good to examine the effects of substitutes on other criterion variables.

  12. Material Substitution For The Supporting Frame of Power Tiller With Finite Element Analysis Approach

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    Midian Shite

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantageouse characteristic, aluminum is considered to substitute the existing steel as material of the supporting frame of power tiller to meet the strength and environment concerns. The investigation was emphasized on the comparison of both material in view of stress and deformation. In this study, both experimental test and finite element (FE analysis were employed to meet the research concem.comparison between the experimental test and numerical analysis result indicated acceptable differnces of about 7-33% wich is lower than the previouse research. Substitution with aluminum was confirmed using material index that aluminum has better performance in strength and stiffness than that of steel by prescibing minimum better performance in strength and stiffness than that of steel by prescibing minimum weight. FE analysis result revealed that aluminum model was capable of sustaining loads about equal to the steel model. It was based on its maximum von Mises stress wich was insignificatly lower than the steel model. In term of strength characteristic, strength ratio of the aluminum model was higher than the steel model. Furthemore, the substitution also resulted in redistrubuting stress into wider area and mass reduction for about 36%.

  13. Effects of Dietary Substitution of Rubber Seed Cake for Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) five weeks old, Anak broilers were used in a 4-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of rubber seed cake for groundnut cake on the performance of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of rubber seed cake (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) substituted corresponding levels of ...

  14. Effect of Honey as Partial Sugar Substitute on Pasting Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of partial substitution of sugar with liquid honey on the pasting properties of cooked dough made from cassava-wheat composite (10:90) flour as well as the sensory preference and shelf stability of its bread was investigated. Sucrose (S) in the bread recipe formulation was substituted with honey (H) at levels 0, 10, ...

  15. Exploratory studies of element substitutions in synthetic tetrahedrite. Part II. Selenium and tellurium as anions in Zn-Fe tetrahedrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    1999-01-01

    Composition limits of iron and/or zinc-bearing selenium tetrahedrite were explored by means of dry syntheses from pure elements at 450oC. Only the substituted compositions Cu10Zn2Sb4Se13 (a 10.833 Å) and Cu10Fe1.8Sb4Se13 (a 10.823 Å) are stable. All partly substituted and unsubstituted (i.e. Zn...... holes created in the anionic band in this process, such reducible (i.e. partly substituted) compositions are absent or their extend is very limited....

  16. Effect of 3d transition elements substitution for Ni in Ni2Mn1+xSn1-x on the phase stability and magnetic properties: A first principle investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Wang, Fu-He; Jiang, Cheng-Bao; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2014-11-01

    In hope of understanding the origin of the 3d-transition elements doping effect on the phase stability and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic shape memory Heusler alloy Ni-Mn-Sn, the Ni-Z-Mn-Sn system with Z=Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr is investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculated results show that the energetically favorable magnetic order of the L21 structure is antiferromagnetic for Z=Ni and Cu, and ferromagnetic for the Z=Co, Fe, Mn and Cr. However, for L10 structure, the antiferromagnetic state has an energetical preference for each alloy. Accordingly, a magnetic transition accompanies with the martensite phase transformation and a large change in the magnetic moment can be observed in the alloys with the L21 under the ferromagnetic state, which is mainly dependent on the coupling behaviors of the doped atoms. The weak ferromagnetic coupling between the Ni/Cu and Mn, the strong ferromagnetic coupling between Co/Fe and Mn and the antiferromagnetic coupling between Mn/Cr and Mn play an important role on the magnetic order of L21 structures. Furthermore, the Bethe-Slater model is employed to gain a further understanding and regulation of the coupling behaviors of different doping elements, which is very sensitive to the interatomic distance. These calculated results may help in gaining an insight into the doping behavior of these transition metals and provide some theoretical aid to the material design.

  17. Effect of 3d transition elements substitution for Ni in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1+x}Sn{sub 1-x} on the phase stability and magnetic properties: A first principle investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Shang, Jia-Xiang, E-mail: shangjx@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Fu-He [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Jiang, Cheng-Bao; Xu, Hui-Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-11-15

    In hope of understanding the origin of the 3d-transition elements doping effect on the phase stability and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic shape memory Heusler alloy Ni–Mn–Sn, the Ni–Z–Mn–Sn system with Z=Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr is investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculated results show that the energetically favorable magnetic order of the L2{sub 1} structure is antiferromagnetic for Z=Ni and Cu, and ferromagnetic for the Z=Co, Fe, Mn and Cr. However, for L1{sub 0} structure, the antiferromagnetic state has an energetical preference for each alloy. Accordingly, a magnetic transition accompanies with the martensite phase transformation and a large change in the magnetic moment can be observed in the alloys with the L2{sub 1} under the ferromagnetic state, which is mainly dependent on the coupling behaviors of the doped atoms. The weak ferromagnetic coupling between the Ni/Cu and Mn, the strong ferromagnetic coupling between Co/Fe and Mn and the antiferromagnetic coupling between Mn/Cr and Mn play an important role on the magnetic order of L2{sub 1} structures. Furthermore, the Bethe–Slater model is employed to gain a further understanding and regulation of the coupling behaviors of different doping elements, which is very sensitive to the interatomic distance. These calculated results may help in gaining an insight into the doping behavior of these transition metals and provide some theoretical aid to the material design. - Highlights: • The magnetic ground state of Ni–Z–Mn–Sn L2{sub 1} is AFM for Z=Ni and Cu, and FM for the Z=Co, Fe, Mn and Cr. • The L1{sub 0} structures of Ni–Z–Mn–Sn are all under AFM state. • A large Δμ caused by metamagnetic transition can be observed in the alloys with Z=Co, Fe, Mn and Cr. • The coupling behaviors of doped atom play an important role on the magnetic properties of the alloys. • The Bethe–Slater curve can be used in understanding the coupling behavior of

  18. Theoretical studies on substituent effects of meta-substituted pyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gab Yong [Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Dae [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    ab initio molecular orbital calculation is performed to estimate the substituent effects for meta-substituted pyridines. Electrostatic potentials are obtained from ab initio wavefunctions of the optimized structures for the meta-substituted pyridines. Electrostatic potentials are shown to be minimum at nitrogen atom of pyridines. The potential minima are good correlated with the substituent constants, {sigma}{sub m} and with the {delta}pK{sub a}, respectively. It is found that the electrostatic potential minima can be used as a useful measure of substituent effects.

  19. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of substituting soyabean meal for breadfruit (Tricuria africana) meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings on diet acceptability, growth responses and cost benefit of fed catfishes were studied. The acceptability of breadfruit based diets by Heterobranchus ...

  20. Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on structure and piezoelectric properties in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 ceramics. ZHOU CHANG-RONG*, LIU XIN-YU, LI WEI-ZHOU† and YUAN CHANG-LAI. Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology,. Guilin ...

  1. Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on structure and piezoelectric properties in (Bi1/2. Na1/2. )TiO3 ceramics. ZHOU CHANG-RONG*, LIU XIN-YU, LI WEI-ZHOU. † and YUAN CHANG-LAI. Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology,. Guilin ...

  2. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted with 24 albino rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks to determine the effect of substitution of diets with processed neem seed cake on growth, performance and nitrogen metabolism of rats. Group 1 and those of groups II and III were fed experimental diets containing water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol ...

  3. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as protein source in supplementary diets of Small East African goats. ... In the growth experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with six animals, while for the digestibility experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with three ...

  4. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTIONEFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

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    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  5. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

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    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. The methods used for particular calculation andexperiments are nominated. The main application of these elements was to develop a specific execution element:a fluidic step–by-step motor based on the Coanda effect.

  6. Effects of antimony substitution on bismuth based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Sb substitution and simultaneous substitution of Pb and Sb on the superconducting transition temperatures in the BiSrCaCuO system is investigated. The 2:2:2:3 phase is of particular interest since any small increase in the transition temperature could be of great interest. More that 90 different samples were prepared based on 2:2:2:3 stoichiometry in the BiSrCaCuO system. After this preliminary attempt, four different families of samples were investigated. In the first family of samples, Bi was substituted by Sb to form Bi(1.9)Sb(0.1)Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y). The second group of samples were prepared by simultaneous addition of Pb and Sb with nominal composition Bi(1.8)Pb(0.1)Sb(0.1)Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y). The third and fourth groups were prepared to determine the effect created when the Pb concentration is increased with the nominal compositions being Bi(1.7)Pb(0.1)Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y) and Bi(1.6)Sb(0.1)Sr2Ca2Cu3O(y). The results of these investigations are presented with a discussion.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler alloys with Co and Al substitutions

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    Tolea F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys is related to the martensitic and magnetic order-disorder transformations, both of which may be tailored by doping with other elements or by suitable thermal treatments, so that alloys with concomitant (or sequential but close structural and magnetic phase transitions may be obtained. Concerning the magnetocaloric applications, it is assumed that the thin melt-spun ribbons assure a more efficient heat transfer. In the present work we investigate the influence of Co and Al substitutions on magnetocaloric effect characteristics of NiFeGa in bulk and also in ribbons prepared by melt spinning method and subjected to different thermal treatments. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetocaloric and magnetoresistive characterizations have been performed. The results highlight the differences between the bulk and the ribbons (both as prepared and annealed and the role of substitutions.

  8. Effects of hospital generic drug substitution on diabetes therapy

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    Chen HY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hui-Yin Chen,1 Hui-Ru Chang,2 Hui-Chu Lang3 1Department of Auditing, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Social Insurance, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: To evaluate the effects on physicians’ prescribing behavior and on the therapeutic outcome of non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients of substituting different generic brands of metformin. Methods: We adopt a retrospective cohort study involving 280 type-2 diabetes patients who regularly used the outpatient services of one medical center and who had changed metformin brands five times between 2003 and 2008. The aim was to examine the effects of switching brands. The generalized estimating equation was used to determine whether drug brand switching affected patient glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels, their prescribed daily dose, or their adherence to medication with metformin. Results: HbA1c levels increased from 7.91 to 8.34 throughout the study period, although it was found that brand switching did not adversely affect HbA1c levels after controlling for patient characteristics and the time course of the study. Furthermore, the prescribed daily dose of metformin was stable throughout the study period, and was approximately 0.8 of the defined daily dose. Finally, although adherence was significantly higher with the original metformin than with the four generic brands, patients still maintained high levels of adherence of >0.8. Conclusion: Although switching between different brands of metformin slightly affected the prescribing behavior of the physicians, there was no unfavorable effect on patient HbA1c levels. Thus, the policy of substituting between different generic brands of metformin is a good cost-effective approach that does not adversely affect the quality of diabetes patient care. Keywords: metformin, generic substitution, glycemic

  9. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

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    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  10. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  11. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Cibele; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Greters, Mário Edvin; Basta, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR). To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard™ biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS) of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG), which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard™ for ten days, and a control group (CG), which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), were used. After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p=0.007) and C6 (p=0.01). On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p=0.04). The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p=0.04). The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard™ system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming; Wendt, David; Jespersen, Stig; Juhl, Maria Vinther; Theilgaard, Naseem; Martin, Ivan; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model. A 50 mm long porous biphasic-calcium-phosphate bone substitute reinforced with poly(D,L-lactide) and, activated with bone marrow derived mononuclear-cells (BMNC) was used. Eighteen sheep were divided into two groups and one group (n = 9) had BMNC-activated bone substitutes and cell-free substitutes implanted. The second group (n = 9) had autograft supplemented with BMNC and regular autograft implanted. The implant material was alternated between spine level L2-L3 and L4-L5 in both groups. MicroCT was used to compare the spine fusion efficacy and bone structure of the two groups as well as the implanted bone substitutes and non-implanted substitutes. After 4½ months six sheep survived in both groups and we found five spine levels were fused when using activated bone substitute compared to three levels with cell-free bone substitute (p = 0.25). Five sheep fused at both levels in the autograft group. A significant increased bone density (p substitutes compared to cell-free bone substitute and no difference existed on the other parameters. The implanted bone substitutes had a significant higher bone density and trabecular thickness than non-implanted bone substitutes, thus indicating that the PLA reinforced BCP had osteoconductive properties (p substitutes (p substitute might have a similar fusion efficacy to autograft, the fusion bridge is not of equal substance. We found that bioreactor-generated cell-based bone substitutes seemed superior in fusion ability when compared to cell-free bone substitute and comparable to autograft in fusion ability, but not in bone structure. This combined with the favorable biocompatible abilities and strength comparable to human cancellous bone indicates that it might be a suitable bone substitute in spine fusion procedures.

  13. The use of elements as a substitute for biomass in toxicokinetic studies in small organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Holm, Peter E.; Marcussen, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Determining pollutant concentrations in the tissues of experimental test organisms is necessary for understanding uptake and excretion mechanisms of toxicants. Using small organisms can make the determination of organism biomass inaccurate. We here propose the use of selected tissue element...... to select good biomass indicators: The element concentration must (1) be present in concentrations above the limit of quantification of the analytical method, (2) must be stable and (3) must not be affected by the treatment. If the organisms are believed to have significant amounts of soil in their gut.......998 and 0.992 (n = 10) for K, Mg and P in the E. crypticus and C. elegans, respectively. Only P would be an appropriate biomass indicator for organisms with a soil gut uptake assuming the tissue concentrations in soil eating organisms are similar to those measured in the present study. Using Mg as a biomass...

  14. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  15. In situ trace elemental analysis and fluid-inclusion microthermometry of sphalerite from Huize super large Pb-Zn deposit, southwest China: Constraints on trace elements substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Huize deposit is a super large Pb-Zn deposit in Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou metallogenic province, Southwest China. The Huize deposit contains more than 7Mt metal reserves at average grade of 25-35wt.{%} Zn+Pb. The orebodies are mainly hosted within the dolostone of the Lower Carboniferous Baizuo Formation. Ore minerals of primary ores include sphalerite, galena and pyrite. Gangue minerals are calcite and dolomite. In this study, we present in situ trace element analysis of sphalerite in different stages and different generations from Huize deposit, accompanied with the fluid-inclusion microthermometry, to discuss the substitute relation of trace elements in sphalerite. According to the mineral assemblage and forming sequence, the sphalerite is identified as two stages including six generations. There are two distinct generations in the first stage ore, including dark-brown sphalerite (SphI-1) and light-brown sphalerite (SphI-2). Fluid inclusions of SphI-1 have relatively high the homogeneous temperature (270-375 ?), whereas SphI-2 fluid inclusions have lower homogeneous temperature (246.6-288.5?). The second stage consists of four generations, dark brown sphalerite (SphII-1),light brown sphalerite (SphII-2), orange-yellow sphalerite (SphII-3),and the last light yellow sphalerite (SphII-4). The homogenization temperature of the early three sphalerite generations are 304.5-400?,213.5-311.0?,and 208.9-285.6?, respectively. The fluid inclusions of SphII-4 are rare so that we analysis the homogeneous temperature (225.7-254.3?) of fluid inclusion of calcite (CcII) coexistent with SphII-4, which representatives SphII-4 depositional tempreture. SphI-1 sphalerite consists of two types. One is the successional sphalerite (SphI-11) and following SphII formation, and the other one is continuously pulsatile SphI-12 and following SphI-2 formation. SphII tend to occur as continuously growing sphalerite. Therefore, the ore-forming fluids in the process of sphalerite deposition include

  16. Substitution effects in a generalized token economy with pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Pigeons made repeated choices between earning and exchanging reinforcer-specific tokens (green tokens exchangeable for food, red tokens exchangeable for water) and reinforcer-general tokens (white tokens exchangeable for food or water) in a closed token economy. Food and green food tokens could be earned on one panel; water and red water tokens could be earned on a second panel; white generalized tokens could be earned on either panel. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a fixed-ratio schedule, whereas responses on a second key produced exchange periods, during which all previously earned tokens could be exchanged for the appropriate commodity. Most conditions were conducted in a closed economy, and pigeons distributed their token allocation in ways that permitted food and water consumption. When the price of all tokens was equal and low, most pigeons preferred the generalized tokens. When token-production prices were manipulated, pigeons reduced production of the tokens that increased in price while increasing production of the generalized tokens that remained at a fixed price. The latter is consistent with a substitution effect: Generalized tokens increased and were exchanged for the more expensive reinforcer. When food and water were made freely available outside the session, token production and exchange was sharply reduced but was not eliminated, even in conditions when it no longer produced tokens. The results join with other recent data in showing sustained generalized functions of token reinforcers, and demonstrate the utility of token-economic methods for assessing demand for and substitution among multiple commodities in a laboratory context. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  18. Carcinogenic effects of N-nitroso-3-(substituted phenylimino)-indolin-2-one derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, Murali; Theivendren, Panneerselvam; Govindarajan, Rousso; Franzblau, Scott G; Ramalingam, Kirthiga

    2012-07-01

    A novel series of N-nitroso-3-(substituted phenylimino)-indolin-2-one 3a-h was synthesized and tested for carcinogenic effects. The synthesized pyrazole derivatives' chemical structures were proved by means of their infra red (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and mass,and confirmed by elemental analyses. The carcinogenic activity was assessed by 3-(4,5dimethyl thiazole-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) cell-viability assay. The results show that most of the synthesized compounds exhibit significant carcinogenic activities. Among the synthesized compounds, N-nitroso-3-(2,4-dinitrophenylimino)-indolin-2-one 3h exhibited the most potent carcinogenic activity. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies show that the nature as well as the position of the amine are important for deciding the activity profile of the indolin-2-one derivatives, which reiterates the need for further experimental investigations.

  19. Unconscious emotional effects of packaging design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry

    on a convenience sample of 120 participants. The results suggest that image is the only element able to generate a significant effect on consumers’ unconscious emotional response. In addition, the results also suggest the interaction between image and colour has a significant effect on consumers’ unconscious...

  20. Effect of substitution of sand stone dust for quartz and clay in triaxial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quartz and kaolin were partially substituted by sand stone dust (a siliceous byproduct of Indian stone cutting and polishing industries) in a traditional triaxial porcelain composition consisting of kaolin, quartz and feldsper. The effect of substitution upon heating at different temperatures (1050–1150°C) were studied by ...

  1. The spectroscopic and photophysical effects of the position of methyl substitution. II. 2-methylpyrimidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Garrett, Aaron W.; Lee, H. D.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1992-02-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of the first n-π* transition of jet-cooled 2-methylpyrimidine have been recorded and analyzed. This work extends our earlier study of the spectroscopic and photophysical effects of methyl substitution in 4- and 5-methylpyrimidine. An unusual Fermi resonance involving the 6an0 progression forms the focus of the present study. The 6a10 vibronic transition is observed to be split into a triad of transitions. Dispersed fluorescence spectra are used to identify the dark background state responsible for the Fermi resonance coupling as the 16b1(3a''2) vibration/internal rotation combination level. This level is selectively coupled by symmetry constraints to 6a1(0a1), leaving the 6a1(1e`) level unperturbed. The positions and intensities of the triad of peaks in the excitation spectrum allow a quantitative determination of the 6a1(0a'1)↔16b1(3a2) coupling matrix element of V=4.1 cm-1. This vibration/internal rotation Fermi resonance is thus typical of the new types of routes to vibrational state mixing which are opened by methyl substitution. Higher members of the 6an0 progression are also involved in Fermi resonance mixing. However, in addition, these levels experience weaker, less state-specific coupling to a bath of same-symmetry states at that energy. The excitation spectrum provides an estimate of the average coupling matrix element of this second tier coupling of ˜1 cm-1.

  2. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... nitrogen excretion. Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein utilization) for all the processed neem seed cakes were ... Key words: Neem seed, processed cake, substitution, solvent extraction, nitrogen metabolism, albino rats. .... Urine out put was measured and the.

  3. Effects of substituting fishmeal with immobilized urea periodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digitaria exilis (Staph) and Rice (Oryza sativa (L.) straws for substituting fishmeal from the reference diet (crude protein, 32.6%) at 15, 30, 45 and 60% test materials inclusion levels. Ten fish were stocked in triplicate replication in circular plastic tanks ...

  4. Effect of Grain Tef ( Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) Flour Substitutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increased global interest in the food industry to develop and market functional foods in which scientific investigations are limited in Ethiopia. Tef injera functional character can be further enhanced by substitution with flaxseed which is known to bear functional ingredients (α-linolenic acid an ω-3 fatty acid, ...

  5. The Elements of Effective Board Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to act as a guide to good governance by exploring its various aspects and the key elements of success. It is intended to be used by anybody who is a member of a board, particularly in the nonprofit sector. This book is intended to help board members maximize their effectiveness both individually and collectively.…

  6. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  7. The effect of cobalt substitution on magnetic hardening of magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M., E-mail: mozafari@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadadian, Y. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aftabi, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oveisy Moakhar, M. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this work cobalt-substituted magnetite (Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction was carried out and the results show that all of the samples have single phase spinel structure. Microstructure of the samples was studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope and the results show that particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were uniform and in the 50–55 nm range. Room temperature magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were measured by an alternating gradient force magnetometer and the results revealed that substituting cobalt for iron in magnetite structure, changes the magnetite from a soft magnetic material to a hard one. So that coercivity changes from 0 (a superparamagnetic state) to 337 Oe (a hard magnetic material), which is a remarkable change. Curie temperatures of the samples were determined by recording their susceptibility-temperature (χ–T) curves and the results show that by increasing cobalt content, Curie temperature of the samples also increases. Also χ–T curves of the samples were recorded from above Curie temperature to room temperature (first cooling), while the curves in the second heating and second cooling have the same behaviour as the first cooling curve. The results depict that all samples have different behaviour in the first cooling and in the first heating processes. This shows remarkable changes of the cation distribution in the course of first heating. - Highlights: • It is possible to get Co substituted magnetite nanoparticles by coprecipitation method. • Prepared nanoparticles have different cation distribution in comparison with that of bulk counterparts. • Co substitution increases coercivity of the magnetite.

  8. Efficacious rat model displays non-toxic effect with Korean beechwood creosote: a possible antibiotic substitute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quynh, Anh Nguyen Thai; Sharma, Neelesh; Cho, Kwang Keun; Yeo, Tae Jong; Kim, Ki Beom; Jeong, Chul Yon; Min, Tae Sun; Young, Kim Jae; Kim, Jin Nam; Jeong, Dong-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Wood creosote, an herbal anti-diarrheal and a mixture of major volatile compounds, was tested for its non-toxicological effects, using a rat model, with the objective to use the creosote as an antibiotic substitute...

  9. Inventory management with substitution effects and endogenous lead time.:Inventory management with substitution effects and endogenous lead time.

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about multi item inventory management with customer-driven substitution or customer choice. In this setting, the company can only indirectly influence customer decisions by its marketing choices (e.g., price and quality of the products). We study the optimal pricing and assortment decisions of a manufacturing firm in this setting with fixed and load-dependent lead time.

  10. Estimating Intertemporal and Intratemporal Substitutions When Both Income and Substitution Effects are Present: The Role of Durable Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Pakos, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Homotheticity induces a dramatic statistical bias in the estimates of the intratemporal and intertemporal substitutions. I find potent support in favor of nonhomotheticity in aggregate consumption data, with nondurable goods being necessities and durable goods luxuries. I obtain the intertemporal substitutability negligible (0.04), a magnitude close to Hall’s (1988) original estimate, and the intratemporal substitutability between nondurable goods and service flow from the stock of durable go...

  11. DFT Study of Polythiophene Energy Band Gap and Substitution Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Si Mohamed Bouzzine; Guillermo Salgado-Morán; Mohamed Hamidi; Mohammed Bouachrine; Alison Geraldo Pacheco; Daniel Glossman-Mitnik

    2015-01-01

    Polythiophene (PTh) and its derivatives are polymer-based materials with a π-conjugation framework. PTh is a useful photoelectric material and can be used in organic semiconductor devices, such as PLED, OLED, and solar cells. Their properties are based on molecular structure; the derivatives contain different substitutes in the 3 and 5 positions, such as electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups. All molecular geometries were optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The energy ga...

  12. Neutralizing substitutes for leadership theory: leadership effects and common-source bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Shelley D; Yammarino, Francis J; Atwater, Leanne E; James, Lawrence R

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine alternative models of substitutes for leadership theory given the general lack of empirical support for the moderating effects postulated by the theory. On this basis, the research posited that the effects of substitutes also could be conceptualized as mediated relations. The research examined moderated and mediated relations for several sets of leader behaviors and substitutes that have been examined in the literature. The research design sampled 49 organizations, with 940 subordinates rating 156 leaders. Results, although generally not supportive of the moderator or mediator hypotheses, essentially demonstrated that leadership matters. The findings also suggest that prior significant effects in substitutes literature may be merely a statistical artifact, resulting from common-source bias.

  13. Effects of Al substitution on the microstructure and adsorption performance of α-FeOOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling; Cao, Shanshan; Kang, Feifei; Chen, Rufen; Liu, Hui, E-mail: liuhuicn@126.com; Wei, Yu, E-mail: weiyu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Al-substituted goethite exhibited better adsorption ability to azo dye Eriochrome Black T than goethite. - Highlights: • A series of Al-substituted α-FeOOH was prepared. • Effect of Al content on the formation and crystal structure of goethite was studied. • Al-substituted goethite exhibits better adsorption ability than goethite. - Abstract: A series of Al-substituted α-FeOOH was prepared. The morphologies and structures of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results showed that Al incorporation into the crystal structure of goethite occurs via isomorphous ionic substitution of Al for Fe. This substitution induces strain in the structure of goethite, and the formation of multidomainic and twinned goethites. Moreover, Al-substituted goethite exhibited better adsorption ability to azo dye Eriochrome Black T than goethite.

  14. Effect of blanching time on selective mineral elements extraction from the spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa commonly used in Brazil Efeito do tempo de branqueamento na extração seletiva de elementos minerais do substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa comumente empregado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Kawashima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The true spinach (Spinacia oleracea does not grow well in warm climates and for that reason is not commercialized in Brazil. Instead, a spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa, originally from New Zealand, is widely used in the country. There is scant information on the mineral profile and none on the soluble mineral fraction of this vegetable. The solubility of a mineral is one of the important factors for its absorption. For this reason, the calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions in the raw spinach substitute were determined and the effect of blanching times on the solubility of these minerals was investigated. Blanching times of 1, 5, and 15 minutes were employed. The magnesium, manganese, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions increased sizably with shorter blanching time. Longer blanching time (15 minutes caused large losses of minerals. The soluble mineral fractions can contribute poorly to diet in terms of potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. The spinach substitute cannot be considered a dietary source of calcium, iron and copper due to the insolubility of these minerals in the vegetable, possibly caused by the large oxalate content.O verdadeiro espinafre (Spinacia oleracea não se desenvolve bem em climas quentes e por esta razão não é comercializado no Brasil. Em seu lugar, um substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa, originário da Nova Zelândia, é amplamente utilizado. A informação sobre o perfil mineral é resumida e inexistente sobre a fração solúvel de minerais deste vegetal. A solubilidade de um mineral é um dos fatores importantes para sua absorção. Por esta razão, as frações solúveis de cálcio, magnésio, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, potássio e sódio foram determinadas no substituto de espinafre cru, e o efeito dos tempos de branqueamento na solubilidade destes minerais foi investigado. Tempos de branqueamento de 1, 5, e 15 minutos foram

  15. Heat treatment effects on structural and dielectric properties of Mn substituted CuFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Arunkumar, T.; Prakash, T.

    2015-09-01

    Manganese substituted copper and zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by an auto-combustion technique using metal nitrates and urea. The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, and TEM techniques. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and dielectric properties of Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles was analyzed. The presenting elements in the prepared samples are recorded by EDX. TEM analysis clearly showed the particles are in the nanometer range. The dielectric loss and dielectric constant have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz-5 MHz. The variation in structural and dielectric properties of the prepared and annealed samples are discussed.

  16. Exploring the effects of substituting basketball players in high-level teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Silva, Roberto; Lorenzo, Alberto; Kreivyte, Rasa; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    Substituting basketball players during competition is a key process to optimise collective performance. Available research on this topic is scarce, probably due to the difficulty in isolating these effects; thus, the aim of this study was to identify the temporal effects of substitutions in basketball (Spanish professional basketball league). The sample was composed of 1118 substitutions gathered from 21 basketball games. The analysed variables were coach-controlled (player and team's personal fouls, player in and player out roles, player's in and out minutes on-court and timeout situation); on-court (foul committed, free throws, 2- and 3-point field-goal effectiveness) and situational variables (scoreline, quality of opposition, game location and game quarter). The results showed positive scoring performances after the substitution for all the analyses. During the first quarter, there were significant effects for fouls committed, scoreline and game location after the substitution. The player's out personal fouls, free-throw effectiveness, player in, minutes on-court player in, timeout situation and 3-point field-goal effectiveness were significant during the second quarter. The team's personal fouls, game location, and scoreline were identified as important in the third quarter. The fourth quarter did not show significant effects on the independent variables. Current findings allow optimising coaches' plans and team management of on-court and bench players throughout the game.

  17. Spatial Interactions in Multiple-Use Forestry and Substitution and Wealth Effects for the Single Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen K. Swallow; David N. Wear

    1993-01-01

    Forestry models often ignore spatial relationships between forest stands. This paper isolates the effects of stand interactions in muitiple-use forestry through a straightforward extension of the single-stand model. Effects of stand interactions decompose into wealth and substitution effects and may cause time-varying patterns of resource use for a forest...

  18. Intraoral digital radiography: elements of effective imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Intraoral digital imaging has evolved from an experimental and sometimes disparaged technique in the mid 1980s to a reliable and ubiquitously used technology today. There are many advantages for use of digital radiographic techniques in dentistry, one of the chief ones being patient dose reduction. However, as important as dose reduction is for safe and effective radiography, practicing dentists would also like to understand the fundamental differences between digital system configurations so they may be able to make an informed choice as to which system best fits their needs. In addition, there has been considerable debate on the following topics: sensor technology; factors associated with image display; optimum techniques for image manipulation; and image storage, retrieval, and archiving. This article provides insight into these and other elements of effective imaging in intraoral digital imaging.

  19. Effect of substitutions of tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, and titanium for reduced niobium contents in Inconel Alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Inconel Alloy 718 is a nickel iron-base superalloy strengthened by the precipitation of the metastable Ni/sub 3/Nb-..gamma..'' phase. Large coherency strains between ..gamma..'' and the matrix result in a slow precipitation rate and an intermediate maximum use temperature. The combination of slow precipitation rate and the relative formability and machinability of Alloy 718 make it a popular material for the fabrication of superalloy components. The dependence on foreign sources of Nb has pointed out the desirability of reducing the Nb content of alloy 718 while maintaining the tensile and stress-rupture properties of the original alloys. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of reduced Nb, and substitutions for Nb, on the properties of Alloy 718. A seris of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Alloy 718, with reduced Nb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Nb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0 to 5.8% were made for the Nb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Nb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Nb and 1.27% Ti, were also studied. Solution and age heat treatments were optimized for each alloy to develop a proper microstructure. The reduction in Nb content required the substitution of other elements to maintain the properties of the original alloy. Additions of solid-solution elements to a reduced Nb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition.

  20. Isovalent substitutes play in different ways: Effects of isovalent substitution on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hui, E-mail: huisun3@iflytek.com [Department of Basic Teaching, Anhui Institute of Information Technology, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Lu, Xu [College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Morelli, Donald T. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Boron-added CoSi, CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02}, possesses a very high thermoelectric power factor of 60 μW cm{sup −1} K{sup −2} at room temperature, which is among the highest power factors that have ever been reported for near-room-temperature thermoelectric applications. Since the electrical properties of this material have been tuned properly, isovalent substitution for its host atoms is intentionally employed to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity while maintaining the electronic properties unchanged. In our previous work, the effect of Rh substitution for Co atoms on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02} has been studied. Here, we present a study of the substitution of Ge for Si atoms in this compound. Even though Ge and Rh are isovalent with their corresponding host atoms, they play different roles in determining the electrical and thermal transport properties. Through the evaluation of the lattice thermal conductivity by the Debye approximation and the comparison between the high-temperature Seebeck coefficients, we propose that Rh substitution leads to a further overlapping of the conduction and the valence bands, while Ge substitution only shifts the Fermi level upward into the conduction band. Our results show that the influence of isovalent substitution on the electronic structure cannot be ignored when the alloying method is used to improve thermoelectric properties.

  1. Substitutes for endangered medicinal animal horns and shells exposed by antithrombotic and anticoagulation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Yan, Dan; Zhang, Da; Feng, Xue; Yan, Yan; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-06-14

    Cornu Saigae Tataricae (antelope horn), Manis Squama (pangolin scale), Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum (velvet antler) and Cornu Bovis grunniens (yak horn) are valuable medicinal animal horns and shells (MAHS). As the major source of biological agents and ethnodrugs, MAHS show pretty good bioactivities. However, with the increased demand for MAHS, some of the medicinal resources are endangered, and there has been a concomitant increase in the prevalence of adulterated or impostor MAHS. It is of great significance to exploit the substitutes for endangered medicinal animal resources. This study is going to provide a new mode for the exploitation of the substitutes of MAHS. Plasma recalcification time, thrombin time and thrombin consumption were recorded to evaluate the anticoagulation effect of MAHS. Dissolution rate of thrombus in vitro and whole blood-gore were observed to appraise the antithrombotic effect of MAHS. All the MAHS involved in this study except Cornu Procaprae Gutturosae (argali horn), Cornu Saigae Tataricae and Cornu Bovis (cattle horn) could not only prolong recalcification time (Phorn), Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn) and Trionycis Carapax (turtle shell) are rational to be explored as the substitutes of Cornu Saigae Tataricae, Cornu Bovis grunniens and Manis Squama, respectively. On the contrary, velvet antler is not suitable to be substituted by Cornu Cervi (deerhorn). We presume that the bioactive evaluation methods are effective means of seeking substitutive resources of endangered medicinal animals with the advantages of close correlation to drug action, low dosage, and high sensitiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Pr–Ca substitution on the transport and magnetic behavior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of simultaneous substitution of a fluctuating cation and a divalent cation in LaMnO3 perovskite modifies the properties of the material to exhibit large valence colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect. A good example of these properties is (La1-2PrCa)MnO3 (LPCMO) type CMR material.

  3. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P nuggets without significant effect on various attributes.

  4. Tuna Species Substitution in the Spanish Commercial Chain: A Knock-On Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordoa, Ana; Carreras, Gustavo; Sanz, Nuria; Viñas, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Intentional mislabelling of seafood is a widespread problem, particularly with high-value species like tuna. In this study we examine tuna mislabelling, deliberate species substitution, types of substitution and its impact on prices. The survey covered the commercial chain, from Merca-Barna to fishmongers and restaurants in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. To understand the geographic extent of the problem we also sampled Merca-Madrid, Europe's biggest fish market, and Merca-Málaga for its proximity to the bluefin tuna migratory route and trap fishery. Monthly surveys were carried out over one year. The results showed a high deficiency in labelling: 75% of points of sale and 83% of restaurants did not specify the species, and in those cases the name of the species had to be asked. A total of 375 samples were analysed genetically, the largest dataset gathered in Europe so far. The identified species were Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus obesus. Species substitution began at suppliers, with 40% of observed cases, increasing to 58% at fishmongers and 62% at restaurants. The substitution was mainly on bluefin tuna (T. thynnus), 73% of cases. At restaurants, only during the bluefin fishing season, we observed a decrease of Bluefin tuna substitution and an increase of reverse substitution revealing some illegal fishing. The effect of species substitution on species prices was relevant: T. obesus increased its price by around €12 kg-1 when it was sold as bluefin. In view of the deficiency of labelling, the abuse of generic names and the lack of the bluefin catch document, we conclude that the Spanish regulations are ineffective, highlighting the need for policy execution, and the urgent need for information campaigns to Spanish consumers.

  5. Tuna Species Substitution in the Spanish Commercial Chain: A Knock-On Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    Full Text Available Intentional mislabelling of seafood is a widespread problem, particularly with high-value species like tuna. In this study we examine tuna mislabelling, deliberate species substitution, types of substitution and its impact on prices. The survey covered the commercial chain, from Merca-Barna to fishmongers and restaurants in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. To understand the geographic extent of the problem we also sampled Merca-Madrid, Europe's biggest fish market, and Merca-Málaga for its proximity to the bluefin tuna migratory route and trap fishery. Monthly surveys were carried out over one year. The results showed a high deficiency in labelling: 75% of points of sale and 83% of restaurants did not specify the species, and in those cases the name of the species had to be asked. A total of 375 samples were analysed genetically, the largest dataset gathered in Europe so far. The identified species were Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus obesus. Species substitution began at suppliers, with 40% of observed cases, increasing to 58% at fishmongers and 62% at restaurants. The substitution was mainly on bluefin tuna (T. thynnus, 73% of cases. At restaurants, only during the bluefin fishing season, we observed a decrease of Bluefin tuna substitution and an increase of reverse substitution revealing some illegal fishing. The effect of species substitution on species prices was relevant: T. obesus increased its price by around €12 kg-1 when it was sold as bluefin. In view of the deficiency of labelling, the abuse of generic names and the lack of the bluefin catch document, we conclude that the Spanish regulations are ineffective, highlighting the need for policy execution, and the urgent need for information campaigns to Spanish consumers.

  6. The Effect of Substitution Broiler Meat with White Jelly Mushroom (Tremella fuciformis on Qualities Chicken Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yuniarti Utami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was purposed find out the effect of substitution broiler meat with white jelly mushroom (Tremella fuciformis on qualities and organoleptic of chicken nugget. The result were expected to be used as an information about the effect of substitution broiler meat with white jelly mushroom on the qualities and organoleptic of chicken nuggets and these informations can also be used for further research. The material of the research were chicken nuggets with different level substitution of mushroom. Design used in this research was Completely Randomized Design (CDR with three replication. The treatments were the concentration of the white jelly mushroom substitution, i.e: without substitution (P0, 15% (P1, 30% (P2 and 45% (P3. The parameter measured were texture, microstructure, WHC, pH, organoletic, water, lipid and protein content. Data were analyzed by analysis.of variance and if there were significantly different means among treatments it was then followed by Duncan’s multiple Range Test. The result of research showed that chicken nugget with different level substitution mushroom was high significant different effect (P0.05 of texture, WHC, pH, lipid content and organoleptic. The average texture  of (P0, (P1, (P2 and (P3 was; 11.76 N, 14.4 N, 14.22 N and 17.38 N respectively. The WHC 55.83 %, 58.7 %, 63.58 % and 65.08%. pH 6.53, 6.41, 6.32 and 6.25 and lipid content 1.16%, 1.23%, 1% and 1.14%. the treatments also gave a different discription on microstructure.

  7. Improving the electrochemical cyclability of lithium manganese orthosilicate through the pillaring effects of gradient Na substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengping; Feng, Yiming; Ji, Ran; Zhang, Datong; Chen, Libao; Wang, Shuangbao; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2017-05-01

    Lithium manganese orthosilicate is an attractive cathode material providing high theoretical specific capacity (ca. 330 mAhg-1) and reasonably high potential; however, it suffers from rapid capacity/voltage decay upon cycling. The origin of the poor cyclability is closely related to the structural instability of Li2MnSiO4 polymorphs, including layer exfoliation and pulverization during extended cycling. To address these problems, a gradient Na substitution method was developed to prepare Li2MnSiO4 cathode materials with a Na+-enriched surface pillaring layer and a moderately Na+-substituted core material. The results shows that the pillaring layer can effectively suppress the occurrence of layer exfoliation/collapse during delithiation/lithiation and prevent particle pulverization upon extended cycling. This corresponds to a high initial Coulombic efficiency (89.8%) and improved cyclability with a capacity retention (81.3%) after 200 cycles in Na-substituted materials. The gradient Na substitution process also results in improved Li+ diffusivity and rate performance in Na-substituted materials by shortening Lisbnd Li distances. This gradient Na-doping method can be further applied to other structure-unstable polyanion-type cathode materials, such as phosphates, fluorophosphates and borates.

  8. The computational analysis and modelling of substitution effects on hydrolysis of formanilides in acidic aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeš, Vladimír; Škorňa, Peter; Michalík, Martin; Klein, Erik

    2017-11-01

    Various para, meta and ortho substituted formanilides have been theoretically studied. For trans and cis-isomers of non-substituted formanilide, the calculated B3LYP vibration normal modes were analyzed. Substituent effect on the selected normal modes was described and the comparison with the available experimental data is presented. The calculated B3LYP proton affinities were correlated with Hammett constants, Fujita-Nishioka equation and the rate constants of the hydrolysis in 1 M HCl. Found linear dependences allow predictions of dissociation constants (pKBH+) and hydrolysis rate constants. Obtained results indicate that protonation of amide group may represent the rate determining step of acid catalyzed hydrolysis.

  9. Two-way substitution effects on inventory in configure-to-order production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In designing configure-to-order productionsystems for a growing product variety, companies arechallenged with an increased complexity for obtaining highproductivity levels and cost-effectiveness. In academiaseveral optimization methods and conceptual frameworksfor substituting components......, or increasing storage capacityhave been proposed. Our study presents a practicalframework for quantifying the impact of a two-waysubstitution at different production stages and its impact oninventory utilization. In a case study we quantify the relationbetween component substitution, and inventory...... capacityutilization, while maintaining the production capacity as wellas the external product variety....

  10. Employing NMR Spectroscopy To Evaluate Transmission of Electronic Effects in 4-Substituted Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Zamani, Hossein

    1999-05-01

    Described is an organic synthesis experiment that demonstrates the electronic transmission by substituents. The effect of substitution at the para-position of the styryl ring of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenones (chalcones) by typical electron-donating or -accepting groups can be observed by proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. A linear correlation is observed when the differences in chemical shift measurements for H are plotted against the corresponding Hammett substituent constant values. Good correlation between carbon-13 chemical shifts of the alpha carbon are also observed. The syntheses of the 4-substituted chalcones is presented as well as a brief discussion of the theory.

  11. Thermal conductivity reduction by isoelectronic elements V and Ta for partial substitution of Nb in half-Heusler Nb (1-x)/2 V (1-x)/2 Ta x CoSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihong; Wang, Yumei; Shuai, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Siqi; Zhang, Qinyong; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we found a new n-type thermoelectric half-Heusler NbCoSb with a valence electron count of 19, different from the usual 18. In this paper, we focus on the effect of partial substitution of Nb by isoelectronic elements V and Ta on the reduction of the thermal conductivity of Nb(1-x)/2V(1-x)/2TaxCoSb. We found that the isoelectronic elements V and Ta for partial substitution of Nb can dramatically decrease the thermal conductivity from 7.0 W m-1 K-1 to 3.3 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature for Nb0.44V0.44Ta0.12CoSb, but unfortunately a large power factor decrease also occurred. Consequently, a peak ZT of ~0.5 is achieved at 700 °C for Nb0.44V0.44Ta0.12CoSb, which is about 25% higher than the ~0.4 reported earlier for NbCoSb.

  12. Thermal conductivity reduction by isoelectronic elements V and Ta for partial substitution of Nb in half-Heusler Nb (1-x)/2 V (1-x)/2 Ta x CoSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lihong; Wang, Yumei; Shuai, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Siqi; Zhang, Qinyong; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we found a new n-type thermoelectric half-Heusler NbCoSb with a valence electron count of 19, different from the usual 18. In this paper, we focus on the effect of partial substitution of Nb by isoelectronic elements V and Ta on the reduction of the thermal conductivity of Nb (1-x)/2 V (1-x)/2 Ta x CoSb. We found that the isoelectronic elements V and Ta for partial substitution of Nb can dramatically decrease the thermal conductivity from 7.0 W m-1 K-1 to 3.3 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature for Nb0.44V0.44Ta0.12CoSb, but unfortunately a large power factor decrease also occurred. Consequently, a peak ZT of ~0.5 is achieved at 700 °C for Nb0.44V0.44Ta0.12CoSb, which is about 25% higher than the ~0.4 reported earlier for NbCoSb.

  13. the effect of partial substitution of plant protein by fishmeal prepared

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION OF PLANT PROTEIN BY FISHMEAL. PREPARED OUT OF COOKED AND SUN DRIED FISH OFFAL ON FEED INTAKE. AND CARCASS TRAITS OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS. Asrat Tera, Tegene Neggese ∗ and Aberra Melesse. Awassa College of Agriculture, PO Box 05, ...

  14. Effect of low level substitution of Sr–Ba on transport and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of low level substitution of Sr–Ba on transport and magnetic behaviour of La0·67Ca0·33MnO3. B MUNIRATHINAM, M KRISHNAIAH. ∗. , M MANIVEL RAJA†, S ARUMUGAM†† and K PORSEZIAN#. Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India. †Advanced Magnetics Group, Defence ...

  15. Effect of substitution of sand stone dust for quartz and clay in triaxial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of substitution of sand stone dust for quartz and clay in triaxial porcelain composition. M K HALDAR and S K DAS. ∗. Refractories Division, CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road,. Kolkata 700 032, India. MS received 6 July 2011; revised 8 February 2012. Abstract. Quartz and ...

  16. Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on OH ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on ... depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute .... reaction of. •. OH radical with PTA was determined by formation kinetic studies at 330 and. 360 nm. The pseudo-first order rate increased linearly with solute concentration and ...

  17. A novel hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven (R)) for effective perioperative plasma volume substitution in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, RCGG; Siemons, AW; Baus, D; van Rooyen-Butijn, WT; Haagenaars, JAM; van Oeveren, W; Bepperling, F

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the new hydroxyethyl starch HES 130/0.4 (Voluven(R)) and the standard HES 200/0.5 (pentastarch) regarding effectiveness for plasma volume substitution and safety of large volumes in heart surgery. Methods: Fifty-nine patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were

  18. Hemostatic effects of three colloid plasma substitutes for priming solution in cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, [No Value; Huet, RCGG; Korsten, J; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Objective: To evaluate the effects on hemostasis of three different plasma substitutes with special reference to a newly developed hydroxyethyl starch used as priming solution in an extracorporeal circuit as well as peri- and postoperative infusion fluid, we studied 36 patients randomly assigned to

  19. Effect of Pr–Ca substitution on the transport and magnetic behavior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    May & June 2002 physics pp. 1035–1039. Effect of Pr–Ca substitution on the transport and magnetic behavior of LaMnO3 perovskite. C M THAKER1, S RAYAPROL1, KRUSHNA MAVANI1, D S RANA1,. M S SAHASRABUDHE2, S I PATIL2 and D G KUBERKAR1,∗. 1Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 ...

  20. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Condensation of 6-Substituted 3-Formylchromones with Some Five-membered Heterocyclic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Pronayova

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Different types of 3-substituted 4H-4-oxobenzopyrans were prepared by microwave irradiation as well as by a classical method. The beneficial effect of microwave irradiation on the aldol condensation of 3-formylchromones with 2-imino-1-methylimidazolidine-4-one (creatinine, 2-thioxoimidazolidine-4-one (thiohydantoin and 2-ethyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (3-ethylrhodanine in different reaction media is described. Our results show that the effect of microwave irradiation on the reactions studied was a shortening of the reaction times and a smooth increase in the yields. The subsequent reactions of the product with some nucleophiles are discussed. The structure of the products was proven by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectra.

  1. The effect of soil risk element contamination level on the element contents in Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžičková Petra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Red Rubin was cultivated in model pot experiment in the soil amended by arsenic, cadmium and lead solutions in stepwise concentrations representing the soil concentration levels of former mining area in the vicinity of Příbram, Czech Republic. The element levels added to the soil reached up to 40 mg Cd, 100 mg As, and 2000 mg Pb per kg of soil. Moreover, essential macro-and microelements as well as cyanidine contents were investigated to assess their potential interactions with the risk elements. The extractable element portions in soils determined at the end of vegetation period differed according to the individual elements. Whereas the plant-available (extractable with 0.11M CH3COOH content of Cd represented 70-100% of the added Cd, the mobile portion of Pb did not exceed 1%. The risk element content in plants reflected the increasing element contents in soil. The dominant element portions remained in plant roots indicating the limited translocation ability of risk elements to the aboveground biomass of this plant species. Although the risk element contents in amended plants significantly increased, no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity occurred. However, the effect of enhanced risk element contents on the essential element uptake was assessed. Considering inter-element relationships, elevated sulphur levels were seen in amended plants, indicating its possible role of phytochelatin synthesis in the plants. Moreover, the molybdenum contents in plant biomass dropped down with increasing risk element uptake by plants confirming As-Mo and Cd-Mo antagonism. The increasing content of cyanidine in the plant biomass confirmed possible role of anthocyanins in detoxification mechanism of risk element contaminated plants and suggested the importance of anthocyanin pigments for risk element tolerance of plants growing in contaminated areas.

  2. Effects of substituting skimmed milk powder with modified starch in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were stable for three consecutive weeks in all the desirable yoghurt quality parameters tested including consumer acceptability. In conclusion, the application of modified starch at the level of 0.4% was found to have the most significant reduction in cost of production while having the least effect on the keeping ...

  3. Effect of Cassava Flour Processing Methods and Substitution Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of bread is globally increasing. However, due to increased costs associated with production of bread from 100% wheat flour especially in developing countries, other cereal based flours are now being blended with wheat flour to produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two ...

  4. The Effect of Solvent on the Ligand Substitution Reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturation kinetics is observed, in agreement with a dissociative interchange mechanism. The values of ΔH‡ for the rate ... There is a compensation effect between the two activation parameters which is interpreted in terms of the position of the transition state along the reaction coordinate. The transition state occurs later in ...

  5. Effects of synthetic hormone substitutes and genotypes on rooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... The data on rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and the initiated mini tubers were collected 21 days after planting (DAP). Effects of pyroligneous acid dilutions on yam vine cuttings. Pyroligneous acid (PA) used in this experiment is a steam by - product from anaerobic burning of dried bamboo.

  6. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  7. Strontium-substituted bioactive glasses in vitro osteogenic and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Hill, Robert G; Fortune, Farida

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive glass forms a bone mineral apatite interface and can be engineered to promote optimal bone regeneration. Strontium (Sr(2+)) stimulates osteoblast and inhibits osteoclast activities in vitro, and is used clinically as a treatment for osteoporosis. Dental bone defect repair requires rapid bone formation for early osseointegration but, can be subject to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antibacterial effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses in vitro. Strontium-substituted bioactive glasses were designed and produced. Then the osteogenic potential and antibacterial effects of bioactive glass particulates were explored. Alkaline phosphatase activity, cell number, Type I collagen and mineral nodule formation of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly promoted by the 5% strontium-substituted glass (5Sr). Furthermore, after incubation with 0.001g and 0.01g glass particulates, the growth of sub-gingival bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly inhibited; the antibacterial activity being dependent on the percentage of strontium in the glasses. These results show that strontium-substituted bioactive glasses significantly promote osteogenic responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and inhibit the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of increased strut porosity of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials on osteoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Melanie J; Hing, Karin A; Samizadeh, Sorousheh; Chan, Oliver; Fang, Yvette S; Campion, Charlie; Buckland, Thomas; Blunn, Gordon W

    2012-06-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductivity of porous calcium phosphate (CaP) and silicate-substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) bone substitute materials was investigated in an ovine ectopic model. One to two millimeter-sized granules or block implants with strut porosities of 10, 20, or 30% were inserted into the left and right paraspinalis muscle. At 12 weeks, histological sections were prepared through the center of each implant and bone contact, bone area and implant area quantified. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) was used to visualize bone within small pores in the struts of the scaffolds. Increased bone formation was measured in the SiCaP with 30% strut porosity (5.482% ± 1.546%) when compared with the nonsilicate CaP with the same morphology (1.160% ± 0.502%, p = 0.02), indicating that silicate substitution may increase osteoinduction. Greater bone formation was seen in scaffolds with increased strut porosity. No bone growth was found in any of the SiCaP scaffold with 10% porosity. There was no significant difference between block and granule specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and EDX in combination with histology demonstrated bone formation within pores <5 μm in size. The use of silicate-substituted CaP material with increased strut porosity may further augment repair and regeneration in bony sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Analyzing effective elements in agile supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Jamshidi Navid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile supply chain plays an important role on having efficient production planning. There are different factors affecting the efficiency of a supply chain and the attempt of this paper is to find the most important elements in agile supply chain. The proposed model of this paper gathers decision makers' opinions and based on DEMATEL technique determines the most important items. The preliminary results of this survey indicate that we could divide the factors into four groups and two elements including automation and utilization of technical tools of relations and information play the most important roles among other factors.

  10. The effect of electrostatic interactions on conformational equilibria of multiply substituted tetrahydropyran oxocarbenium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael T; Woerpel, K A

    2009-01-16

    The three-dimensional structures of dioxocarbenium ions related to glycosyl cations were determined by an analysis of spectroscopic, computational, and reactivity data. Hypothetical low-energy structures of the dioxocarbenium ions were correlated with both experimentally determined (1)H NMR coupling constants and diastereoselectivity results from nucleophilic substitution reactions. This method confirmed the pseudoaxial preference of C-3 alkoxy-substituted systems and revealed the conformational preference of the C-5 alkoxymethyl group. Although the monosubstituted C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent preferred a pseudoequatorial orientation, the C-5-C-6 bond rotation was controlled by an electrostatic effect. The preferred diaxial conformer of the trans-4,5-disubstituted tetrahydropyranyl system underscored the importance of electrostatic effects in dictating conformational equilibria. In the 2-deoxymannose system, although steric effects influenced the orientation of the C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent, the all-axial conformer was favored because of electrostatic stabilization.

  11. Posidonia oceanica banquettes as a substitute for straw in dairy goat rations: metabolic and productive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Mantecón, Angel R; Sotillo, Juan; Gutiérrez, Cándido; Abuelo, Angel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2016-01-30

    The marine plant Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile can be a source of fibre to increase the efficiency of product costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the productive (milk production and performance) and metabolic (blood metabolites) effects of P. oceanica in the ration of dairy goats as a substitute for straw. Posidonia oceanica was used at 225 and 450 g day(-1) per goat in lieu of barley straw. Supplementation with P. oceanica had no detrimental effects on the body weight, milk production and metabolic status of goats. Goats fed P. oceanica produced more milk fat, had a lower somatic cell count in their milk and showed a decreased risk of oxidative stress. Goats can be fed P oceanica at levels of up to 450 g day(-1) without detrimental effects on milk production and health, therefore P. oceanica can be a substitute for barley straw in the nutrition of goats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of Ge substitution on thermoelectric properties of CrSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Takamatsu, Tomohisa; Iijima, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Kei; Miyazaki, Yuzuru

    2016-11-01

    Polycrystalline Cr(Si1- x Ge x )2 samples were prepared using arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Single-phase Cr(Si1- x Ge x )2 samples were obtained for the compositional range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.015 and the lattice parameters monotonically increased with x. In the range of single phases, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increased and decreased with increasing x, respectively. The partial substitution of Ge effectively reduced the thermal conductivity to ˜80%, which resulted in the increase in the ZT of Cr(Si1- x Ge x )2 samples from 0.16 (x = 0) to 0.25 (x = 0.015) at 600 K. From the results of first-principles calculation for transport properties, it can be concluded that the origin of the increase in electrical conductivity and the decrease in Seebeck coefficient of Ge-substituted samples is the decrease in carrier effective mass.

  13. Effect of KCl substitution on bacterial viability of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and selected probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Cui, Yuxiang; Zhou, Mingyang; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-10-01

    Excessive intake of NaCl has been associated with the increased risk of several diseases, particularly hypertension. Strategies to reduce sodium intake include substitution of NaCl with other salts, such as KCl. In this study, the effects of NaCl reduction and its substitution with KCl on cell membranes of a cheese starter bacterium (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis), probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei), and a pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A critical NaCl concentration that inhibited the viability of E. coli without affecting the viability of probiotic bacteria significantly was determined. To find the critical NaCl concentration, de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) broth was supplemented with a range of NaCl concentrations [0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0%], and the effect on cell viability and FTIR spectra was monitored for all bacteria. A NaCl concentration of 2.5% was found to be the critical level of NaCl to inhibit E. coli without significantly affecting the viability of most of the probiotic bacteria and the cheese starter bacterium. The FTIR spectral analysis also highlighted the changes that occurred mainly in the amide regions upon increasing the NaCl concentration from 2.5 to 3.0% in most of the bacteria. Escherichia coli and B. longum were more sensitive to substitution of NaCl with KCl, compared with Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei, and Lc. lactis ssp. lactis. To evaluate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl, substitution was carried out at the critical total salt concentration (2.5%, wt/vol) at varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% KCl). The findings suggest that 50% substitution of NaCl with KCl, at 2.5% total salt, could inhibit E. coli without affecting the probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. The effect of partial substitution of plant protein by fishmeal prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of partial substitution of plant protein by fishmeal prepared out of cooked and sun dried fish offal on feed intake and carcass traits of Rhode Island Red ... It can thus be concluded that fishmeal inclusion in to diets of growing RIR chicken up to the levels of 16.6% of the DM of the diet did not affect health or carcass ...

  15. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan; Akhmad Zaenal Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. ...

  16. Effect of substitution of Ce on superconducting properties of Bi1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May & June 2002 physics pp. 871–875. Effect of substitution of Ce on superconducting properties of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2−xCexCu3O10+δ system. R R KOTHAWALE1,∗. , B N DOLE2 and S S SHAH3. 1Department ... pestle and precalcined at 800. ◦. C for 240 h. The calcined powders were ground and re-. Figure 1 ...

  17. SELECTION OF LINEAR DEMAND FUNCTION PARAMETERS FOR ENSURING THE CORRECT SUBSTITUTION EFFECT CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Popov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of microeconomics it is convenient to use additive functions of requirements in educational purposes, in which the volume of requirements is set by the linear function of the price, revenue and other factors. But in arriving at the substitution effect there is a number of problems in which impossible answers come out. The formula adjustment concluded by the author, which will allow to avoid contradictions, is described in the article.

  18. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... During the past decade, significant advances were made in understanding the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplement on milk production of dairy cows. This work discussed the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk production of dairy cows. Studies have indicated.

  19. Effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past decade, significant advances were made in understanding the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplement on milk production of dairy cows. This work discussed the effects of vitamins and trace-elements supplementation on milk production of dairy cows. Studies have indicated that vitamin A (VA) and ...

  20. A DFT study of solvation effects and NBO analysis on the tautomerism of 1-substituted hydantoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Shabanian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1-Substituted hydantoins (1-SH have been known as a benefit intermediate for producing agricultural and pharmaceuticals. The effect of solvent polarity on the tautomeric equilibria of 1-substituted hydantoin ring is studied by the density functional theory calculation (B3LYP/6–31++G(d,p level for predominant tautomeric forms of hydantoin derivatives (1-NO2, 1-CF3, 1-Br, 1-H, 1-CHCH2, 1-OH, 1-CH3 in the gas phase and selected solvents (benzene (non-polar solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF (polar aprotic solvent and water (protic solvent. For electron withdrawing and releasing derivatives in the gas phase and solution Hy1 forms is more stable and dominant form. In addition variation of dipole moments and charges on atoms in the solvents are studied.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Se Solid Phase Substitution in Jarosite Minerals Influenced by Bacterial Reductive Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Franzblau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite minerals (AB3(TO42(OH6 are iron hydroxysulfate minerals that can readily incorporate trace metals into their mineral structure. A range of metals can be incorporated into the jarosite structure, including oxyanions such as selenate (SeO42−. Selenium is a micronutrient, but is toxic in relatively low doses. Selenium is present in aqueous systems in its two oxyanion forms: selenate and selenite (SeO32−. The tetrahedral sulfate coordination site can be completely substituted for selenate in jarosite minerals (NaFe3(SO4x(SeO42-x(OH6. Bacteria have been observed to reduce Se oxyanions to both more reduced forms and insoluble elemental Se. This is a pathway for selenium immobilization at contaminated sites. This experiment investigates the reductive dissolution of two Se-jarosites (solid substitution containing high and low selenium concentrations in the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. It was observed that both Fe(III and selenate were metabolically reduced and released into solution through jarosite dissolution . Selenate was also found to be incorporated intracellularly and reduced to particulate Se which was released upon cell lysis. Compared to the abiotic samples, enhanced dissolution was found with both the live and dead bacteria treatments.

  2. Effect of chromium substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Dief, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahmed_benzoic@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David; Amghouz, Zakariae [Scientific and Technical Services, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García-Granda, Santigo [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Single-phase Cr doped zinc ferrites have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure, microstructure, crystallite size and distribution, composition and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined using X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopies and vibrating sample magnetometry. Powders are composed of ultrafine spherical nanoparticles with a highly homogeneous elemental composition. The nanoparticles have partially inversed cubic spinel structure with average crystallite size below 10 nm. Superparamagnetic behavior is observed at high temperature while ferrimagnetic ordering and surface spin canting is reported at 5 K. Substitution of Fe with Cr ions controls both structural and magnetic parameters. - Highlights: • Single-phase Cr doped zinc ferrites nanoparticles have been synthesized. • The prepared nanoparticles have been characterized using different tools. • The investigated nanoparticles were tested for their magnetic behavior.

  3. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  4. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues. PMID:25210846

  5. [The effect of substituting latanoprost 0.005% for unoprostone 0.12%].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otori, Yasumasa; Tokugawa, Hideki; Morimura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masaki; Goto, Hiroya; Miki, Atsuya; Tano, Yasuo

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of substituting latanoprost(LAT) 0.005% for unoprostone(UNO) 0.12% after a trial of unilateral treatment. We treated 30 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma(n = 8), ocular hypertension (n = 1), or normal-tension glaucoma(n = 21) with UNO for 4 weeks in one eye and then substituted LAT for UNO. Four weeks later we measured the intraocular pressure(IOP) in the ipsilateral eye. The mean baseline IOP level was 18.6 +/- 3.8(mean +/- standard deviation) mmHg. The mean IOP levels(reduction rates) after UNO and LAT therapy were 16.7 +/- 3.1 mmHg (16.6%) and 14.1 +/- 3.2 mmHg (28.9%), respectively(p < 0.001). All patients who responded to UNO also responded to LAT; however, 55% of those who did not respond to UNO responded to LAT. If LAT is substituted for UNO, it can be predicted that 63.3% of the patients will respond.

  6. Effect of Silicon Substitution on the Crystal Properties of Cyanate Ester Monomers (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    with 2 phr nonylphenol All samples were melted, blended, and de-gassed for 30 min. prior to cure in silicone molds under N2, cure schedule for 1 hr at...Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECT OF SILICON SUBSTITUTION ON THE CRYSTAL PROPERTIES OF...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 DISTRIBUTION A:  Approved for public release.  Distribution is unlimited.   EFFECT OF SILICON

  7. Effect of Abrupt Substitution of Gadobenate Dimeglumine for Gadopentetate Dimeglumine on Rate of Allergic-like Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Matthew S.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Cohan, Richard H.; Hussain, Hero K; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Ellis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt substitution of gadobenate dimeglumine for gadopentetate dimeglumine resulted in a significant increase in reporting of allergic-like reactions that exhibited a temporal pattern suggestive of the Weber effect.

  8. The Effect of Early Substitution of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Biochemical Blood Parameters and the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandrc Milena S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH is defined as high TSH and normal thyroxine. Data on the effects of early substitution by levothyroxine on psychophysical health in SCH are still not consistent enough to support its introduction.

  9. Determination of chilling temperature effects on nutrient elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Baydas E (2006). Trace element changes during hibernation of. Drosophila melanogaster by WDXRF analyses at chilling temperature. J. Quant. Spec. Rad. Tran. 102: 492-498. Dumlupinar R, Demir F, Bostan H (2007). Determination of Chilling. Temprature Effects on Inorganic Element Composition and.

  10. Determination of chilling temperature effects on nutrient elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Determination of chilling temperature effects on ... Results indicated that the distribution of some inorganic elements among organs (roots, stem and leaves) of cole ... Key words: Common cole (Brassica oleracea cv. Acephala), inorganic element, chilling temperature, X-ray,.

  11. Finite size effects of a pion matrix element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guagnelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Jansen, K. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Palombi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); E. Fermi Research Center, c/o Compendio Viminale, pal. F, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Petronzio, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Shindler, A. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wetzorke, I. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: ines.wetzorke@desy.de

    2004-09-09

    We investigate finite size effects of the pion matrix element of the non-singlet, twist-2 operator corresponding to the average momentum of non-singlet quark densities. Using the quenched approximation, they come out to be surprisingly large when compared to the finite size effects of the pion mass. As a consequence, simulations of corresponding nucleon matrix elements could be affected by finite size effects even stronger which could lead to serious systematic uncertainties in their evaluation.

  12. Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeun Sung; Bae, Jun Kyu; Park, Inshik

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd.

  13. Teniasis: effect on element status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksoz, Ali; Kilic, Eser; Yazar, Suleyman; Saraymen, Recep

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of level of the essential elements of copper, magnesium, and zinc status in cases of teniasis in children. Copper, magnesium, and zinc levels were measured in 40 children who were positive for intestinal parasite of Taenia saginata. Scores were obtained for the positives and their 30 age- and sex-matched T. saginata-negative healthy children. The mean concentration of copper, magnesium, and zinc in blood showed no statistically difference in T. saginata-positive children than in their controls both in females (p>0.05) and males (p>0.05). However, a clear numerically decrease was observed especially in magnesium and zinc levels compared to the controls both in females and males. The average magnesium concentration in T. saginata-positive female children and male children were 20+/-1.9 and 22+/-2.2 mg/L and it was 27+/-2.1 and 27+/-2.3 mg/L in controls, respectively. The mean values of the zinc in blood were 0.76+/-0.5 and 0.72+/-0.4 mg/L in T. saginata-positive female children and male children and 0.85+/-0.3 and 0.81+/-0.5 mg/L in female and male controls, respectively. No correlation could be demonstrated between age and mean values of copper, magnesium, and zinc in T. saginata-positive females and males and controls (p>0.05). No significant correlation could be found between blood copper, magnesium and zinc levels in T. saginata-positive female and male children and controls (p>0.05). Although there was no statistical correlation observed in copper, magnesium, and zinc levels between patients and controls, there seem to be, especially in magnesium and zinc levels, a decrease, whereas no change was seen in the zinc level in children infected with T. saginata compared to controls.

  14. Effective elements of science teacher professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Amy

    Educational reform efforts to improve students' learning outcomes are often present in teacher professional development opportunities; however, the structure and design of these opportunities vary and often focus on a homogenous student population; that is, White students in suburban schools. Reform efforts in teacher professional development that aim to educate teachers not only about science content and pedagogy, but also about practices that aim to reach a diverse student population is needed. This study examines three, science teacher summer professional development (PD) programs [SUN, SEPA, and CLA], and explores how programs affect teacher learning outcome(s) and any subsequent translation into classroom practice(s). The design and delivery, alignment to Ladson-Billings (1994) tenets of culturally responsive practices, and measurement(s) of teachers' learning outcome(s) are evaluated. Fliers were sent to science teachers who participated in SUN, SEPA, and CLA in an effort to recruit volunteers for this study. Program document analysis and teacher post-survey data from each program, focus groups, evidence of program integration, and a culturally responsive practice survey were collected and analyzed. Results show SEPA to include content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), culturally responsive practices (CRP), and some elements of the conceptual change model (CCM) (Larkin, 2012) in program design, structure, and delivery along with translation into classroom practice. SUN and CLA both show incorporation of CK and PCK, with SUN also showing some evidence of CRP. The findings indicate that when teachers are modeled a practice they are able to translate that practice in their classroom. The potential impact of modeling CRP during science teacher PD may address the achievement gap still present among students of color. Program designers must consider the inclusion of CRP alongside CK and PCK during the development of science teacher PD.

  15. Effect of processing temperature on the properties of nanophase Fe-substituted Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathriarachchi, Vindu Wathsala

    The effect of processing temperature on the crystal structure properties of the Fe-substituted Hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) was studied by using the Rietveld refinement method of powder x-ray (XRD) and neutron diffraction (NPD) patterns. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were used to study the magnetic properties, particle morphology and chemical composition of the prepared samples. Two sets of samples of chemical formula Ca5- xFex(PO4)3OH were prepared with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 by using processing temperatures of 37°C and 80°C, following a two-step co-precipitation method. A single phase HAp was identified in samples with x = 0 and 0.05. Processing temperature affects the type and percentage of secondary phases: hematite was detected in samples prepared at 37°C with x ≥ 0.1, hematite and maghemite were detected in samples prepared at 80°C with x = 0.2 and 0.3. Rietveld refinements of NPD and XRD patterns showed that the a lattice constants are greater in Fe-substituted samples prepared at 37°C, whereas the c lattice constants are greater in the 80°C samples for x ≥ 0.05. Fe preferentially substitutes at the Ca2 site in the 80°C samples, whereas Ca1 is the preferred substitution site in the 37°C samples. Fe substitution results to a decrease of the lattice constants at both preparation temperatures. The ratios Fe/(Fe + Ca) of the refined atomic fractions of the samples prepared at 80°C are greater than those of the 37°C samples. Further, more secondary phases form in samples prepared at 37°C compared to 80°C samples. The magnetic measurements reveal that pure HAp is diamagnetic, whereas samples with x = 0.05 and 0.1 are paramagnetic. Samples with x = 0.3 showed superparamagnetic behavior based on ZFC and FC measurements. Similar hysteresis loops in samples x = 0.2 and 0.3 indicate that the samples with x = 0.2 may show

  16. Qualitative elements constituting effective agricultural cooperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives like all cooperatives are built on the principle of cooperation and community spirit, also known as ubuntu. They are widely promoted as a positive force for collective effort in smallholder agriculture development. However, research suggests that they generally have not been effective and successful ...

  17. Effects of fluorine substitution on the edge-to-face interaction of the benzene dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kevin E; Merz, Kenneth M

    2005-09-22

    To gain some insight into the effects of fluorination on the aromatic-aromatic interactions found in protein-ligand complexes, like those observed in the set of N-(4-sulfamylbenzoyl)benzylamine (SBB) inhibitors bound to Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII), we have produced potential energy curves for the edge-to-face interactions of a set of fluorinated benzene dimer compounds. All calculations were carried out at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory using the counterpoise method of Boys and Bernardi (Boys, S. F.; Bernardi, F. Mol. Phys. 1970, 19, 553) to account for the basis set superposition error. Fluorine substitutions are made onto the face molecule of the edge-to-face benzene dimer. As one might expect, the substitution of additional fluorines into this system generally resulted in a decrease of the binding energy. It was also found that the positioning of the fluorine substituents on isosubstituted compounds has a large effect on the total binding energy of these types of systems. More specifically, complexes with fluorines that are substituted closer to the hydrogen atoms of the edge benzene will tend to be stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the partially negative fluorine atoms and the partially positive hydrogen atoms. However, our findings do not explain the recent crystallographic findings for the SBB-HCAII protein-ligand complex, where increased fluorination resulted in closer edge-to-face contacts, which suggests that there are factors, other than edge-to-face aromatic interactions, influencing this system's behavior.

  18. PON-Sol: prediction of effects of amino acid substitutions on protein solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Niroula, Abhishek; Shen, Bairong; Vihinen, Mauno

    2016-07-01

    Solubility is one of the fundamental protein properties. It is of great interest because of its relevance to protein expression. Reduced solubility and protein aggregation are also associated with many diseases. We collected from literature the largest experimentally verified solubility affecting amino acid substitution (AAS) dataset and used it to train a predictor called PON-Sol. The predictor can distinguish both solubility decreasing and increasing variants from those not affecting solubility. PON-Sol has normalized correct prediction ratio of 0.491 on cross-validation and 0.432 for independent test set. The performance of the method was compared both to solubility and aggregation predictors and found to be superior. PON-Sol can be used for the prediction of effects of disease-related substitutions, effects on heterologous recombinant protein expression and enhanced crystallizability. One application is to investigate effects of all possible AASs in a protein to aid protein engineering. PON-Sol is freely available at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/PON-Sol The training and test data are available at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/VariBench/ponsol.php mauno.vihinen@med.lu.se Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. How to Be an Effective Substitute Teacher in the Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Substitute teachers are an important part of students' K-12 educational experience and can have an impact on students' learning. However, without proper training or guidance, substitute teachers are often asked to merely monitor students as they complete worksheets or watch videos. Finding substitute teachers for foreign languages (such as…

  20. Design, synthesis, and anti-melanogenic effects of (E-2-benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hwi Young Yun,1 Do Hyun Kim,1 Sujin Son,1 Sultan Ullah,1 Seong Jin Kim,1 Yeon-Jeong Kim,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Pusoon Chun,2 Hyung Ryong Moon1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 2College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea Background: Tyrosinase is the most prominent target for inhibitors of hyperpigmentation because it plays a critical role in melaninogenesis. Although many tyrosinase inhibitors have been identified, from both natural and synthetic sources, there remains a considerable demand for novel tyrosinase inhibitors that are safer and more effective. Methods: (E-2-Benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles (BPA analogs with a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold were designed and synthesized as potential tyrosinase inhibitors. We evaluated their effects on cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells and their ability to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. Results: BPA analogs exhibited inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. In particular, BPA13 significantly suppressed melanin biosynthesis and inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A docking study revealed that BPA13 had higher binding affinity for tyrosinase than kojic acid. Conclusion: BPA13, which possesses a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, is a potential candidate skin-whitening agent and treatment for diseases associated with hyperpigmentation. Keywords: (E-2-benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles, melanogenesis, tyrosinase inhibitor

  1. Effects of cation substitution on thermal expansion and electrical properties of lanthanum chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Xifeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Liu Yingjia [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Gao Ling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Guo Lucun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China)]. E-mail: lc-guo@163.com

    2006-11-30

    The effects of cation substitution on the sintering characteristics, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity properties of La(AE)Cr(M)O{sub 3} (AE=Mg, Ca, Sr, M=Ni, Cu, Co) were investigated. The sinterability of alkaline metal earth (AE)-doped LaCrO{sub 3} increased with AE contents in a sequence of Ca > Sr > Mg. Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} sample had a TEC compatible with that of 8YSZ electrolyte. The transition metals of Ni, Co and Cu substituted in Cr-site further optimized the sinterability of La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CrO{sub 3} in air. Ni and Co could effectively enhance the electrical conductivity from room temperature to 1123 K though the concomitant increase in TEC was distinctively large with Co doping. The TEC was controlled by co-doping Ni and Co in Cr-site, and La{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}Cr{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.02}Co{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} exhibited a TEC of 10.9 x 10{sup -6}/K, which was matched with that of 8YSZ, indicating that it could be suitable to be used as an SOFC interconnect material.

  2. Effect of Lead substitution on LaO0.5F0.5BiS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Satoshi; Demura, Satoshi; Sakai, Yuuto; Fujisawa, Yuita; Sakata, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We examined Lead (Pb) Substitution effect on a single crystal of a layered superconductor LaO0.5F0.5BiS2. Pb concentration dependence of the lattice constant showed slight anomaly at about 8% and 9% substitution of Pb for Bi. These samples showed the enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature and the superconducting volume fraction. Furthermore, these samples showed the anomaly in the temperature dependence of the resistivity at about 150 K. These results were not observed in Pb substituted NdO0.7F0.3BiS2. Therefore, the enhancement of the superconducting properties by Pb substitution is related to the structural instability for the pale perturbation in LaO0.5F0.5BiS2.

  3. Research Notes ~ Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Brown

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing and developing e-learning materials is a costly and time consuming enterprise. This paper highlights the elements of effective design that we consider assist in the development of high quality materials in a cost efficient way. We introduce six elements of design and discuss each in some detail. These elements focus on paying attention to the provision of a rich learning activity, situating this activity within an interesting story line, providing meaningful opportunities for student reflection and third party criticism, considering appropriate technologies for delivery, ensuring that the design is suitable for the context in which it will be used, and bearing in mind the personal, social, and environmental impact of the designed activities. Along the way, we describe how these design elements can be effectively utilized by contextualizing them with examples from an e-learning initiative.

  4. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  5. Proton affinities in water of maingroup-element Hydrides - Effects of hydration and methyl substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Rosler, E.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have computed the proton affinities in water of archetypal anionic and neutral bases across the periodic table using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of density functional theory (DFT) at BP86/QZ4P//BP86/TZ2P. The main purpose of this work is to provide an intrinsically consistent set

  6. An organic cosmo-barometer: Distinct pressure and temperature effects for methyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Wren; Watson, Jonathan S.; Sephton, Mark A., E-mail: w.montgomery@imperial.ac.uk [Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    There are a number of key structures that can be used to reveal the formation and modification history of organic matter in the cosmos. For instance, the susceptibility of organic matter to heat is well documented and the relative thermal stabilities of different isomers can be used as cosmothermometers. Yet despite being an important variable, no previously recognized organic marker of pressure exists. The absence of a pressure marker is unfortunate considering our ability to effectively recognize extraterrestrial organic structures both remotely and in the laboratory. There are a wide variety of pressures in cosmic settings that could potentially be reflected by organic structures. Therefore, to develop an organic cosmic pressure marker, we have used state-of-the-art diamond anvil cell (DAC) and synchrotron-source Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to reveal the effects of pressure on the substitution patterns for representatives of the commonly encountered methyl substituted naphthalenes, specifically the dimethylnaphthalenes. Interestingly, although temperature and pressure effects are concordant for many isomers, pressure appears to have the opposite effect to heat on the final molecular architecture of the 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene isomer. Our data suggest the possibility of the first pressure parameter or 'cosmo-barometer' (1,5-dimethylnaphthalene/total dimethylnaphthalenes) that can distinguish pressure from thermal effects. Information can be obtained from the new pressure marker either remotely by instrumentation on landers or rovers or directly by laboratory measurement, and its use has relevance for all cases where organic matter, temperature, and pressure interplay in the cosmos.

  7. Key parameters affecting the initial leaky effect of hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles as blood substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Liu, Changsheng; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shiyu; Shan, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yan; Xu, Feng

    2008-06-01

    In order to realize long-term carrying/delivering oxygen and minimize the adverse effects of free hemoglobin (Hb) in vivo, Hb is desired to be confined in Hb-loaded nanoparticles (HbP), a novel blood substitute with potential clinical applications, and thus functions as the native red blood cells (RBCs). However, the initial burst release of Hb ("leaky effect") greatly underscores the significance of this work. The study described here wants to disclose the key preparative parameters, including polymer, excipients in the inner aqueous phase and solvent profile, affecting the Hb release behavior (the initial 24 h) from HbP fabricated by commonly used solvent diffusion/evaporation double emulsion technique. The results demonstrate that PEGlytated polymers, regardless of two- or tri-block copolymers show slower release compared with the corresponding non-PEGlytated ones. The higher polymer concentration yields lower initial release. PEG200, added as excipient facilitates Hb burst effect to about 38.4%, almost 17% increase compared to the control ( approximately 21%), whereas, PVA and Poloxamer188, due to amphiphilic nature, can effectively attenuate this leakage to about 13.0 and 5.1%, respectively. The diffusion/extraction rate from oil phase and the subsequent evaporation rate from the aqueous continuous phase of solvents impose different influences on Hb release. To reduce the burst effect, the initial diffusion/extraction rate should be slow, whereas, the concomitant evaporation rate should be as fast as possible. The results obtained here will be guidance's for the future tailored design of more desirable polymersome nanoparticle blood substitutes.

  8. Osteogenic effect of inflammatory macrophages loaded onto mineral bone substitute in subcutaneous implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the influence of inflammatory macrophages on the osteogenic process in subcutaneous implants composed of mineral bone substitute. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TEPMs were characterized as inflammatory. This was confirmed microscopically by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT test and the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. The implants (M-type were made of mineral bone substitute (Bio-Oss® mixed with TEPMs and blood clot. Implants without macrophages served as the control (C-type. Subcutaneous implantation in the interscapular area was performed on BALB/c mice. Implants were extracted after 2 and 8 weeks. In M-type implants, phagocytosis and angiogenesis were more pronounced, and osteoblast-like cells aligned onto granules of implanted material and osteoid structures can be seen. The observed higher osteocalcin and lower osteopontin immunoexpression in M-type implants when compared to the control after 8 weeks suggest a more advanced osteogenic process. Our results indicate that the presence of inflammatory macrophages in the composition of an implant may have a beneficial effect on the osteogenic process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41017

  9. Effect of Mg substitution on the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Y. Ramesh

    2017-06-01

    Nickel-zinc ferrites with the general chemical formula, Ni_{0.3}Zn_{0.7-x}MgxFe2O4 with x varying from 0.00 to 0.25 in steps of 0.05, have been prepared by conventional solid-state method. Final sintering of the samples was carried out at 1200°C for 6 h in air to investigate their structural and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of all the samples confirm the cubic spinel structure. Percent porosity and lattice constants of the samples are similar for all the samples except for the sample with x=0.05 implying that the changes in magnetic properties could be solely attributed to the effects caused by substitutions only. The saturation magnetization has been observed to increase continuously with the substitution of Mg^{2+} ions in the place of Zn^{2+} ions. Curie temperature of the system was also found to increase from 261°C (x=0.00) to 364°C (x=0.25) with the increase in magnesium content. Smooth coercivity variation suggests better structural homogeneity. The results are discussed in the light of the distribution of the cations among octahedral and tetrahedral sites.

  10. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Widodo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design in five replications with five chicks each. The treatments were  0 % noodle waste in diet (P0, 10 % noodle waste in diet (P1,  20 % noodle waste in diet (P2 and 30 % noodle waste in diet, respectively.The variables measured were carcass weight (g/bird, carcass percentage (%, abdominal fat pad percentage (%, deposition of breast meat percentage (% and meat cholesterol (mg/100g. The results showed that carcass weight and deposition of breast meat percentage were significantly influenced (P0.05 affected by the treatments. The best result was achieved by 20% noodle waste (P2 in diet. The conclusion of this experiment is that utilization of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet is up to 20 % (33.33 % replacing corn.   Keywords: noodle waste, diet, carcass quality, broiler

  11. Effect of Al substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Co-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, N.; Margarette, S. J.; Kumar, G. Pavan; Sailaja, B.; Mulushoa, S. Yonatan; Himakar, P.; Babu, B. Kishore; Veeraiah, V.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of aluminum (Al) substitution on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Co0.5Zn0.5AlxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) prepared by sol-gel method. The structural and magnetic properties are performed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies. The XRD data revealed the formation of single phase cubic spinel with crystallite sizes around 45.83-51.84 nm for Al substituted samples. Two significant absorption bands around 600 and 400 cm-1 are observed from FT-IR spectra of the samples under investigation, which confirmed the formation of a single-phase cubic spinel. Interionic bond lengths and bond angles confirm the solubility of Al in the spinel lattice and support the observed variation in magnetic properties. Using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), saturation magnetization and coercivity are measured. A decrease in lattice parameter and saturation magnetization with increasing Al concentration is attributed to the difference in the ionic radii and weakening of exchange interactions.

  12. Effect of saliva substitutes in combination with fluorides on remineralization of subsurface dentin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandim, Daniela Leal; Tschoppe, Peter; Sampaio, José Eduardo C; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2011-08-01

    Saliva substitutes are prescribed to patients suffering from radiation-induced hyposalivation to alleviate oral complaints; however, some available products have shown to demineralize dentin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of two saliva substitutes in combination or not with fluoridation on remineralization of bovine dentin subsurface lesions. Dentin specimens were demineralized, and stored in either mineral water (control; volvic, danone), Glandosane (cell pharm), or modified Saliva natura (SN, Medac) for 5 weeks (37° C). The following treatments were applied twice daily (n = 12/group): (1) no treatment; (2) immersion in pure Elmex sensitive mouthrinse (250 ppm F-; 10 min; Gaba); (3) brushing with Duraphat toothpaste (5,000 ppm F-; Colgate)/storage solution slurry (5 s; ratio 1:3); (4) combination of treatments 2 and 3. Differences in mineral parameters before and after storage/treatment were microradiographically evaluated. After 5 weeks, Glandosane-induced a significant demineralization of dentin specimens. The mineral loss of specimens stored in Glandosane was significantly higher compared to all other solutions (p fluoride products (p fluoride products (p fluorides in dentate patients.

  13. Comparative investigation for hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides from four substitutes of Lonicera japonica in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmei; Wang, Dongying; Qin, Lijie; Yang, Xianzhi; Gao, Chuanyu

    2017-12-13

    The polysaccharide fractions were obtained from flower buds of the four substitutes of Lonicera japonica, L. macranthoides (LMPB), L. hypoglauca (LHPB), L. fulvotomentosa (LFPB) and L. confuse (LCPB), and their hypoglycemic effects were investigated. In study, streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were orally administrated once daily with LMPB, LHPB, LFPB and LCPB (each 800 mg/kg) for 42 days. Reduction for food and water intake (p cholesterin (LDL-C, 71.2-76.3%, p cholesterin (VLDL-C, 45.2-50.0%, p cholesterin (HDL-C, 21.6-24.3%, p < 0.05) were also demonstrated. Consequently, the four polysaccharide fractions displayed notable hypoglycemic effects, similar to that of the polysaccharide fraction from L. japonica (LJP), so that they can be also considered as ingredients of functional foods for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulating the mechanical properties of Ti2C MXene: Effect of substitutional doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Poulami; Das, Tilak; Nafday, Dhani; Boeri, Lilia; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2017-05-01

    With the aim of manipulating the mechanical properties of the recently discussed two-dimensional material MXene, we investigate the effect of alloying. We consider substitutional doping of B and V at Ti and C sites of Ti2C . Calculations of quantities such as in-plane stiffness, Young's modulus, and critical strain through rigorous first-principles technique establish that B doping is highly effective in improving the elastic properties. Oxygen passivation of B-doped Ti2C in addition to improved elastic properties also exhibits reasonably high critical strains making them ideally suited for applications in flexible devices. Our study further reveals the presence of strong spin-phonon coupling in unpassivated Ti2C compounds which influences the mechanical behavior. The damage of Ti2C in its magnetic ground state of A-type antiferromagnetic structure is found to occur at much higher strain than that of the nonmagnetic Ti2C .

  15. Effect of Titanium Substitution on Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Monophase Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nd12.3Fe81.7−xTixB6.0  (x=0.5–3.0 ribbons have been prepared by rapid quenching and subsequent annealing treatment. Effect of Ti substitution and annealing treatment on the microstructure, magnetic properties, and crystallization behavior of the ribbons was systematically investigated by the methods of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. It is found that Ti addition may increase the crystallization temperature and stabilize the amorphous phase. Ti element inhibits the grain growth during crystallization process and finally refines the microstructure. The exchange coupling interactions and magnetic properties of the ribbons increase with increasing x from 0.5 to 1 and then decrease with further increasing x≥1.5. Optimum magnetic properties with (BHmax⁡=151.6 kJ/m3, Hci=809.2 kA/m, Jr=1.02 T are achieved in the Nd12.3Fe80.7Ti1B6.0 ribbons annealed at 600°C for 10 min.

  16. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming; Theilgaard, Naseem; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA/β-TCP-PDLLA), Colloss®E, and combination of substitute with Colloss®E on bone formation in vivo were evaluated. Cylindrical critical size defects were created at distal femoral condyles bilaterally in sheep. Titanium implant with concentric gap filling with one of the four materials was inserted. After 9 weeks, the sheep were sacrificed. Implants with surrounding bone were harvested and sectioned into two parts: one for microcomputed tomography scanning and push-out test, and one for histomorphometry. The 77% HA/β-TCP reinforced with PDLLA had similar mechanical properties to human cancellous bone and was significantly stronger than the HA/β-TCP without PDLLA. Microarchitecture of gap mass was significantly changed after implantation for all groups. Allograft had stronger shear mechanical properties than the other three groups, whereas there were no significant differences between the other three groups. Significant new bone formation could be seen in vivo in all four groups and there were no significant differences between them. The PDLLA-reinforced substitute seems to be good alternative substitute material for bone healing in sheep. Further investigations should be performed to validate this novel substitute material. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of hemoglobin powder substituted for fishmeal on growth performance, protein digestibility, and trypsin gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Chookird

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in the price and demand of fishmeal, the primary protein source in shrimp feeds, have caused asearch for alternative protein sources. Hemoglobin powder (HE is a by-product produced by separating hemoglobin fromplasma of farm animal un-coagulant blood. HE contains high protein content but low lipid content, and thus has highpotential for fishmeal substitution.A six week feeding trial was carried out to investigate effects of HE substituted for fishmeal protein on growth performance,protein digestibility and trypsin gene expression in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Six diets with0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of HE replacing fishmeal protein were fed four times daily to six groups of shrimp withan average initial weight of 3.53 g/shrimp. Growth of shrimp decreased with increasing level of HE substitution. Although the12.5% HE substitution caused significantly lower final weight, weight gain, SGR, feed intake, PER and PPV in comparisonwith the control diet, FCR of this diet was not statistically different (p0.05. In-vitro and in-vivo protein digestibility of 12.5% HE substitution were significantly lower than that of the controlgroup in which the trypsin gene expression of shrimp fed 12.5% HE substituted diet was the highest.

  18. Polymer Main-Chain Substitution Effects on the Efficiency of Nonfullerene BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar

    2017-07-21

    “Nonfullerene” acceptors are proving effective in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells when paired with selected polymer donors. However, the principles that guide the selection of adequate polymer donors for high-efficiency BHJ solar cells with nonfullerene acceptors remain a matter of some debate and, while polymer main-chain substitutions may have a direct influence on the donor–acceptor interplay, those effects should be examined and correlated with BHJ device performance patterns. This report examines a set of wide-bandgap polymer donor analogues composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT), and thienyl ([2H]T) or 3,4-difluorothiophene ([2F]T) motifs, and their BHJ device performance pattern with the nonfullerene acceptor “ITIC”. Studies show that the fluorine- and ring-substituted derivative PBDT(T)[2F]T largely outperforms its other two polymer donor counterparts, reaching power conversion efficiencies as high as 9.8%. Combining several characterization techniques, the gradual device performance improvements observed on swapping PBDT[2H]T for PBDT[2F]T, and then for PBDT(T)[2F]T, are found to result from (i) notably improved charge generation and collection efficiencies (estimated as ≈60%, 80%, and 90%, respectively), and (ii) reduced geminate recombination (being suppressed from ≈30%, 25% to 10%) and bimolecular recombination (inferred from recombination rate constant comparisons). These examinations will have broader implications for further studies on the optimization of BHJ solar cell efficiencies with polymer donors and a wider range of nonfullerene acceptors.

  19. Climate Change Effects of Forest Management and Substitution of Carbon-Intensive Materials and Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, R.; Gustavsson, L.; Haus, S.; Lundblad, M.; Lundström, A.; Ortiz, C.; Truong, N.; Wikberg, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    Forests can play several roles in climate change mitigation strategies, for example as a reservoir for storing carbon and as a source of renewable materials and energy. To better understand the linkages and possible trade-offs between different forest management strategies, we conduct an integrated analysis where both sequestration of carbon in growing forests and the effects of substituting carbon intensive products within society are considered. We estimate the climate effects of directing forest management in Sweden towards increased carbon storage in forests, with more land set-aside for protection, or towards increased forest production for the substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels, relative to a reference case of current forest management. We develop various scenarios of forest management and biomass use to estimate the carbon balances of the forest systems, including ecological and technological components, and their impacts on the climate in terms of cumulative radiative forcing over a 100-year period. For the reference case of current forest management, increasing the harvest of forest residues is found to give increased climate benefits. A scenario with increased set-aside area and the current level of forest residue harvest begins with climate benefits compared to the reference scenario, but the benefits cannot be sustained for 100 years because the rate of carbon storage in set-aside forests diminishes over time as the forests mature, but the demand for products and fuels remains. The most climatically beneficial scenario, expressed as reduced cumulative radiative forcing, in both the short and long terms is a strategy aimed at high forest production, high residue recovery rate, and high efficiency utilization of harvested biomass. Active forest management with high harvest level and efficient forest product utilization will provide more climate benefit, compared to reducing harvest and storing more carbon in the forest. Figure

  20. Effect of Cr{sup 3+} substitution on electric and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, R.K., E-mail: physics.panda@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769 008 (India); Muduli, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769 008 (India); Jayarao, G. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769 008 (India); Sanyal, D. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, 700064 (India); Behera, D. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 769 008 (India)

    2016-06-05

    This work describes the effect of incorporation of Cr{sup 3+} into CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on its magnetic and electric properties, prepared by auto combustion method. The samples of CoFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O4 (x = 0, 0.15, 0.3) series were characterized by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy to find out the average particle size. The substitution of Cr{sup 3+} caused a significant reduction in particle size of the modified systems. Room temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic characterization were performed. Analysis of extracted parameters concluded that Cr{sup 3+} replaced the Fe{sup 3+} at B-site (octahedral). The decrease in magnetization at B-site was found responsible for the observed reduced saturation magnetization and coercivity. Impedance spectroscopic analysis has revealed the suppression of electrode-sample surface conduction effect and enhancement of material resistivity. The latter was confirmed by dc resistivity measurement. All these results were explained on the basis of occupancy of Cr{sup 3+} at B-site, surface anisotropy potential and reduced particle size. - Highlights: • Cr substitution reduced the particle size in nano-cobalt ferrite. • Mossbauer study revealed that the Cr{sup 3+} replaced the Fe{sup 3+} at B-site. • Decrease in saturation magnetization and coercivity with the addition of Cr{sup 3+}. • Reduction of surface conduction and rise in resistance observed in modified systems.

  1. The distribution of fitness effects caused by single-nucleotide substitutions in an RNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Elena, Santiago F.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the mutational fitness effects associated with single-nucleotide substitutions on RNA viral genomes. Here, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create 91 single mutant clones of vesicular stomatitis virus derived from a common ancestral cDNA and performed competition experiments to measure the relative fitness of each mutant. The distribution of nonlethal deleterious effects was highly skewed and had a long, flat tail. As expected, fitness effects depended on whether mutations were chosen at random or reproduced previously described ones. The effect of random deleterious mutations was well described by a log-normal distribution, with -19% reduction of average fitness; the effects distribution of preobserved deleterious mutations was better explained by a β model. The fit of both models was improved when combined with a uniform distribution. Up to 40% of random mutations were lethal. The proportion of beneficial mutations was unexpectedly high. Beneficial effects followed a γ distribution, with expected fitness increases of 1% for random mutations and 5% for preobserved mutations. PMID:15159545

  2. Effect of component substitution on the atomic dynamics in glass-forming binary metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Voigtmann, Th.; Evenson, Z.; Hansen, T. C.; Meyer, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the substitution of early transition metals (Zr, Hf, and Nb) in Ni-based binary glass-forming metallic melts and the impact on structural and dynamical properties by using a combination of neutron scattering, electrostatic levitation (ESL), and isotopic substitution. The self-diffusion coefficients measured by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) identify a sluggish diffusion as well as an increased activation energy by almost a factor of 2 for Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr36Ni64 . This finding can be explained by the locally higher packing density of Hf atoms in Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr atoms in Zr36Ni64 , which has been derived from interatomic distances by analyzing the measured partial structure factors. Furthermore, QENS measurements of liquid Hf35Ni65 prepared with 60Ni , which has a vanishing incoherent scattering cross section, have demonstrated that self-diffusion of Hf is slowed down compared to the concentration weighted self-diffusion of Hf and Ni. This implies a dynamical decoupling between larger Hf and smaller Ni atoms, which can be related to a saturation effect of unequal atomic nearest-neighbor pairs, that was observed recently for Ni-rich compositions in Zr-Ni metallic melts. In order to establish a structure-dynamics relation, measured partial structure factors have been used as an input for mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition to calculate self-diffusion coefficients for the different atomic components. Remarkably, MCT can reproduce the increased activation energy for Hf35Ni65 as well as the dynamical decoupling between Hf and Ni atoms.

  3. Effects of electrotactile vestibular substitution on rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Camila Giacomo Carneiro; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Danilov, Yuri

    2010-06-07

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of electrotactile tongue biofeedback (BrainPort((R))) as a sensory substitute for the vestibular apparatus in patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) who did not have a good response to conventional vestibular rehabilitation (VR). Seven patients with BVL were trained to use the device. Stimulation on the surface of the tongue was created by a dynamic pattern of electrical pulses and the patient was able to adjust the intensity of stimulation and spatially centralize the stimulus on the electrode array. Patients were directed to continuously adjust head orientation and to maintain the stimulus pattern at the center of the array. Postural tasks that present progressive difficulties were given during the use of the device. Pre- and post-treatment distribution of the sensory organization test (SOT) composite score showed an average value of 38.3+/-8.7 and 59.9+/-11.3, respectively, indicating a statistically significant improvement (p=0.01). Electrotactile tongue biofeedback significantly improved the postural control of the study group, even if they had not improved with conventional VR. The electrotactile tongue biofeedback system was able to supply additional information about head position with respect to gravitational vertical orientation in the absence of vestibular input, improving postural control. Patients with BVL can integrate electrotactile information in their postural control in order to improve stability after conventional VR. These results were obtained and verified not only by the subjective questionnaire but also by the SOT composite score. The limitations of the study are the small sample size and short duration of the follow-up. The current findings show that the sensory substitution mediated by electrotactile tongue biofeedback may contribute to the improved balance experienced by these patients compared to VR. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 4. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base superalloys for gas turbines and strategies for manufacture. O P Sinha M Chatterjee V V R S Sarma S N Jha. Volume 28 Issue 4 July 2005 pp 379-382 ...

  5. Cardiopulmonary bypass. The effect on blood elements in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jeroen Cornelis Frans de

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the components of the heart-lung machine for CPB operations have been tested for their effects on blood elements. The purpose of the experimental investigation in dogs is: 1. To determine the hematological alterations induced by the various components from which an extracorporeal

  6. Fluorescence improvement of pyridylacrylonitrile by dimethylaminophenyl-substitutions: The effect of packing modes of conjugated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino, M. Judith; Chapela, Víctor M.; Cerón, Margarita; Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Castro, Maria Eugenia; Melendez, Francisco J.

    2013-02-01

    Four (dimethylamino)arylacrylonitrile derivatives in the solid state are presented. The compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of substituents on the resulting crystals lattices and to examine the effects of the factors controlling their solid state on photochemical behavior. The molecules included 2-(phenyl)-3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)acrylonitrile (I) 2-(2'-pyridyl)-3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-acrylonitrile (II), 2-(3'-pyridyl)-3-(4-dimethyl-aminophenyl)acrylonitrile (III) and 2-(3'-pyridyl)-3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)acrylonitrile (IV). The dimethyl-, sbnd CN groups and the position of nitrogen atom in the pyridyl groups affected the nature of the molecular packing and consequently their fluorescence properties. The lattice of each compound is compared with acrylonitriles previously reported and the effect of substitution on the crystal properties with the strongest emission in solid state is examined. Based on analyses of molecular packing in the single crystals, the differences in the fluorescence could be attributed to aggregates that showed non-classical herringbone packing with π-π overlap between neighbor molecules. Also the crystal structure studies showed that the N atom position is located anti to the sbnd CN group, giving a more planar geometry. This N-dimethyl substituent for I-IV appears to be general for more planar ground-state geometry about the nitrogen atom and consistent with an "amino conjugation effect" to obtain sufficient quinoid structures.

  7. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangfei [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Jing, E-mail: wangjingbio@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu Hong; Jin Ruofei; Zhou Jiti; Zhang Long [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L{sup -1}, the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  8. Leveraging the happy meal effect: Substituting food with modest nonfood incentives decreases portion size choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Bechara, Antoine; MacInnis, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Despite much effort to decrease food intake by altering portion sizes, "super-sized" meals are the preferred choice of many. This research investigated the extent to which individuals can be subtly incentivized to choose smaller portion sizes. Three randomized experiments (2 in the lab and 1 in the field) established that individuals' choice of full-sized food portions is reduced when they are given the opportunity to choose a half-sized version with a modest nonfood incentive. This substitution effect was robust across different nonfood incentives, foods, populations, and time. Experiment 1 established the effect with children, using inexpensive headphones as nonfood incentives. Experiment 2--a longitudinal study across multiple days--generalized this effect with adults, using the mere chance to win either gift cards or frequent flyer miles as nonfood incentives. Experiment 3 demonstrated the effect among actual restaurant customers who had originally planned to eat a full-sized portion, using the mere chance to win small amounts of money. Our investigation broadens the psychology of food portion choice from perceptual and social factors to motivational determinants. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Increased Walking's Additive and No Substitution Effect on Total Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E

    2017-10-09

    We assessed the associations between a change in time spent walking and a change in total physical activity (PA) time within an urban living adult sample, to test for additive or substitution effects. Participants living in the greater Seattle area were assessed in 2008-2009 and again 1-2 years later (2010-2011). At each time point, they wore accelerometers and GPS units and recorded trips and locations in a travel diary for 7 consecutive days. These data streams were combined to derive a more objective estimate of walking and total PA. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to provide self-reported estimates of walking and total PA. Regression analyses assessed the associations between within-participant changes in objective and self-reported walking and total PA. Data came from 437 participants. On average, a 1-minute increase in total walking was associated with an increase in total PA of 1 minute, measured by objective data and 1.2-minute, by self-reported data. A similar additive effect was consistently found with utilitarian, transportation, or job-related walking, measured by both objective and self-reported data. For recreational walking, the effect of change was mixed between objective and self-reported results. Both objective and self-reported data confirmed an additive effect of utilitarian and total walking on PA.

  10. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  11. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  12. Soy-Milk Waste with Soybean Meal Dietary Substitution: Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Dono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.

  13. Atom substitution effects of [XF6]- in ionic liquids. 2. Theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tateki; Nishikawa, Keiko; Shirota, Hideaki

    2009-07-23

    Following the preceding spectroscopic study, we further investigate atomic mass effects of [XF6]- in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([BMIm]+) based ionic liquids (ILs) on dynamical natures by a computational approach in this study. We carry out the molecular dynamics simulations for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based ILs ([BMIm][PF6], [BMIm][AsF6], and [BMIm][SbF6]) with the development of the force fields of [AsF6]- and [SbF6]- by an ab initio calculation. We have calculated density of state (DOS) and velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) profiles, polarizability time correlation function (TCF) and Kerr spectra, intermediate scattering functions, and dynamical structure factors. The decomposition analysis has been also carried out to understand the ion species and types of motion. From these computational studies, we find that the contribution of the reorientation of cations and anions mainly governs the Kerr spectrum profile in all three ILs, while the contribution of the collision-induced and cross terms, which are related to translational motions including coupling with librational motion, is not large at higher frequencies than 50 cm(-1). It is suggested that, with the atom substitution effects of anion units on interionic interactions, many properties in ILs are controllable. In addition, it is emphasized in this study that atomic mass effects in ILs are accessible through a complementary approach of both experimental and theoretical approaches.

  14. Chalcogen substitution: Effect of oxygen-by-sulfur exchange on structural and spectroscopic properties of flavonols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falantin, Cécilia; Moncomble, Aurélien; Le Person, Annaïg; Cornard, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory have revealed that the substitution of the ketone group by a thioketone one doesn't significantly change the structure of 3-hydroxyflavone. Notably, the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond involving the hydroxyl function is preserved if the O atom is substituted by an S atom, but also by Se or Te atoms. However, fundamental modifications are observed in both absorption and emission electronic spectra upon substitution, particularly the non-fluorescent behavior of the flavothione. All these changes were explained by the optimizations of the different excited states carried out by time-dependent DFT method.

  15. Elemental magic, v.2 the technique of special effects animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gilland, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Design beautiful, professional-level animated effects with these detailed step-by-step tutorials from former Disney animator and animated effects expert Joseph Gilland. Filled with beautiful, full-color artwork, Elemental Magic, Volume II, breaks down the animated effect process from beginning to end-including booming explosions, gusting winds, magical incantations, and raging fires. He also breaks down the process of effects ""clean-up,"" as well as timing and frame rates. The companion website includes real-time footage of the author lecturing as he animates the drawings from the

  16. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group...

  17. Effect of cation substitution on electronic band structure of ZnGeAs{sub 2} pnictides: A mBJLDA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Hardev S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (Haryana) (India); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex Systems, FFWP - South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (Haryana) (India)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds are characterized as narrow band gap semiconductors with a maximum gap (1.27 eV) for ZnGeAs{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good agreement of band gaps with experiments is obtained within mBJLDA formalism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases with the substitution of either one or both cations in reference compound, ZnGeAs{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic/covalent character for A-As/B-As bond has been described on the basis of electro-negativity difference of the atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d-states of transition metal, Zn are localized deeper in valence band (E < 5 eV), showing no effective role to decide the magnitude of semiconducting band gap. - Abstract: The electronic properties of ABAs{sub 2} (A = Zn, Cd; B = Ge, Sn) compounds have been investigated using WIEN2k implementation of full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with an aim to study the effect of changing local environment by substituting cation(s) with corresponding next group element in reference compound (ZnGeAs{sub 2}) on these properties. The exchange and correlation (XC) effects are taken into account by an orbital independent modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential as coupled with Local Density Approximation (LDA) for these calculations. We predict a direct band gap in all these compounds and observe that the band gap decreases with the change of either one or both cations. The calculated band gaps are in better agreement with corresponding experimental ones as compared to other calculations. The electronic band structure is analyzed in terms of contributions from various electrons and the covalency of two bonds, Zn-As and Ge-As has been discussed with respect to substitutions.

  18. Trypanocidal Activity of Thioamide-Substituted Imidazoquinolinone: Electrochemical Properties and Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three thioamide-substituted imidazoquinolinone, which possess a heterocyclic center similar to tryptanthrin and are named C1, C2, and C3, were studied regarding (a their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, (b their cytotoxicity and electrochemical behaviour, and (c their effect on cell viability, redox state, and mitochondrial function. The assayed compounds showed a significant activity against the proliferative forms, but only C1 showed activity on the trypomastigote form (for C1, IC50  epi=1.49 μM; IC50  amas=1.74 μM; and IC50  try=34.89 μM. The presence of an antioxidant compound such as ascorbic acid or dithiotreitol induced a threefold increase in the antiparasitic activity, whereas glutathione had a dual effect depending on its concentration. Our results indicate that these compounds, which exhibited low toxicity to the host cells, can be reduced inside the parasite by means of the pool of low molecular weight thiols, causing oxidative stress and parasite death by apoptosis. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds studied could be explained by a loss of the capacity of the antioxidant defense system of the parasite to keep its intracellular redox state. C1 could be considered a good candidate for in vivo evaluation.

  19. Design, synthesis, and anti-melanogenic effects of (E)-2-benzoyl-3-(substituted phenyl)acrylonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hwi Young; Kim, Do Hyun; Son, Sujin; Ullah, Sultan; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Jung, Yunjin; Chun, Pusoon; Moon, Hyung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is the most prominent target for inhibitors of hyperpigmentation because it plays a critical role in melaninogenesis. Although many tyrosinase inhibitors have been identified, from both natural and synthetic sources, there remains a considerable demand for novel tyrosinase inhibitors that are safer and more effective. (E)-2-Benzoyl-3-(substituted phenyl)acrylonitriles (BPA analogs) with a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold were designed and synthesized as potential tyrosinase inhibitors. We evaluated their effects on cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells and their ability to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. BPA analogs exhibited inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. In particular, BPA13 significantly suppressed melanin biosynthesis and inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A docking study revealed that BPA13 had higher binding affinity for tyrosinase than kojic acid. BPA13, which possesses a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, is a potential candidate skin-whitening agent and treatment for diseases associated with hyperpigmentation.

  20. Inhibitory effect of isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2006-07-01

    Isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids were isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus by means of activity-guided fractionation. Artocarpin (1), cudraflavone C (2), 6-prenylapigenin (3), kuwanon C (4), norartocarpin (5) and albanin A (6) inhibited melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells without inhibiting tyrosinase. A structure-activity investigation indicated that the presence of the isoprenoid-substituted moiety enhanced the inhibitory activity on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells.

  1. Substantial Regional Variation in Substitution Rates in the Human Genome: Importance of GC Content, Gene Density, and Telomere-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Peter F.; Hwa, Terence; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2005-06-01

    This study presents the first global, 1 Mbp level analysis of patterns of nucleotide substitutions along the human lineage. The study is based on the analysis of a large amount of repetitive elements deposited into the human genome since the mammalian radiation, yielding a number of results that would have been difficult to obtain using the more conventional comparative method of analysis. This analysis revealed substantial and consistent variability of rates of substitution, with the variability ranging up to 2-fold among different regions. The rates of substitutions of C or G nucleotides with A or T nucleotides vary much more sharply than the reverse rates suggesting that much of that variation is due to differences in mutation rates rather than in the probabilities of fixation of C/G vs. A/T nucleotides across the genome. For all types of substitution we observe substantially more hotspots than coldspots, with hotspots showing substantial clustering over tens of Mbp's. Our analysis revealed that GC-content of surrounding sequences is the best predictor of the rates of substitution. The pattern of substitution appears very different near telomeres compared to the rest of the genome and cannot be explained by the genome-wide correlations of the substitution rates with GC content or exon density. The telomere pattern of substitution is consistent with natural selection or biased gene conversion acting to increase the GC-content of the sequences that are within 10-15 Mbp away from the telomere.

  2. Testing of currency substitution effect on exchange rate volatility in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous different definitions existing in the literature, currency substitution is generally understood as a phenomenon when domestic residents prefer to use foreign currency rather than domestic currency. The main reasons for such phenomenon include high and volatile inflation, strong depreciation of national currency and high interest rate differential in favour of foreign currency. Currency substitution, as a monetary phenomenon, is widely spread in Latin American, Eastern European and some Asian countries. This paper is dedicated to the influence of currency substitution on exchange rate volatility in Serbia. The research included testing of three hypotheses: (i currency substitution positively affects depreciation rate volatility, (ii depreciation rate volatility has stronger responses to the past negative than to the past positive depreciation shocks, and (iii currency substitution positively affects expected depreciation rate. The analysis was implemented for the period 2002:m1-2015:m12 (2004:m1- 2015:m12, applying modified EGARCH-M model. Based on the obtained results, all three hypotheses have been supremely rejected regardless of the manner of quantification of currency substitution.

  3. Thermal substitution and aerobic efficiency: measuring and predicting effects of heat balance on endotherm diving energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, J R

    2007-11-29

    For diving endotherms, modelling costs of locomotion as a function of prey dispersion requires estimates of the costs of diving to different depths. One approach is to estimate the physical costs of locomotion (Pmech) with biomechanical models and to convert those estimates to chemical energy needs by an aerobic efficiency (eta=Pmech/Vo2) based on oxygen consumption (Vo2) in captive animals. Variations in eta with temperature depend partly on thermal substitution, whereby heat from the inefficiency of exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. However, measurements of substitution have ranged from lack of detection to nearly complete use of exercise heat or HIF. This inconsistency may reflect (i) problems in methods of calculating substitution, (ii) confounding mechanisms of thermoregulatory control, or (iii) varying conditions that affect heat balance and allow substitution to be expressed. At present, understanding of how heat generation is regulated, and how heat is transported among tissues during exercise, digestion, thermal challenge and breath holding, is inadequate for predicting substitution and aerobic efficiencies without direct measurements for conditions of interest. Confirming that work rates during exercise are generally conserved, and identifying temperatures at those work rates below which shivering begins, may allow better prediction of aerobic efficiencies for ecological models.

  4. Therapists’ Perspectives on the Effective Elements of Consultation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cannuscio, Carolyn C.; Gallagher, Mark; Downey, Margaret Mary; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is an effective implementation strategy to improve uptake of evidence-based practices for youth. However, little is known about what makes consultation effective. The present study used qualitative methods to explore therapists’ perspectives about consultation. We interviewed 50 therapists who had been trained 2 years prior in cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety. Three themes emerged regarding effective elements of consultation: (1) connectedness with other therapists and the consultant, (2) authentic interactions around actual cases, and (3) the responsiveness of the consultant to the needs of individual therapists. Recommendations for the design of future consultation endeavors are offered. PMID:23435832

  5. The effects of alloying elements on strength, hardenability, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of alloying elements (Nb, V, Mo) on dual phase steels have been studied in relation to ultimate tensile strength (U.T.S.) ductility and hardenability. C-Mn, Nb-Mo, Nb and Nb-V steels were hot rolled from 25mm to 4.5mm finishing at temperatures in the range 780oC – 950oC. They were then air cooled before ...

  6. Effect of the degree of substitution of octenyl succinic anhydride-banana starch on emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, María del Carmen; Coronel-Aguilera, Claudia P; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2015-11-05

    Banana starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at different degree substitution (DS) and used to stabilize emulsions. Morphology, emulsion stability, emulsification index, rheological properties and particle size distribution of the emulsions were tested. Emulsions dyed with Solvent Red 26 showed affinity for the oil phase. Backscattering light showed three regions in the emulsion where the emulsified region was present. Starch concentration had higher effect in the emulsification index (EI) than the DS used in the study because similar values were found with OSA-banana and native starches. However, OSA-banana presented greater stability of the emulsified region. Rheological tests in emulsions with OSA-banana showed G'>G" values and low dependence of G' with the frequency, indicating a dominant elastic response to shear. When emulsions were prepared under high-pressure conditions, the emulsions with OSA-banana starch with different DS showed a bimodal distribution of particle size. The emulsion with OSA-banana starch and the low DS showed similar mean droplet diameter than its native counterpart. In contrast, the highest DS led to the highest mean droplet diameter. It is concluded that OSA-banana starch with DS can be used to stabilize specific emulsion types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beta radiation effects in sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted pollucite

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, N J; Conradson, S D; Weber, W J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-energy beta radiation on the long-range and local structure of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs-substituted CsAlSi sub 2 O sub 6 (pollucite) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques at the Cs K-edge. Analysis of the XRD pattern of pollucite with an absorbed dose of 10 sup 1 sup 8 beta decays/g using Rietveld analysis indicates a 0.5-1% volume expansion of the tetrahedral structure as measured at 50 K and a minor displacement of the Cs cation toward the face of one of the six-membered rings. Analysis of the real-space pair-distribution function obtained from Fourier transformation of the diffraction pattern indicates significant correlated movement of the (Si,Al)-O pairs and large static disorder between Cs-O pairs. Analysis of the Cs K-edge XAS revealed substantial contributions from the Cs atomic X-ray absorption. This likely results from the exceedingly long Cs-O bond distances in the pollucite structure, which diminish the fine structure of the XAS os...

  8. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  9. Pseudo Jahn-Teller effect in oxepin, azepin, and their halogen substituted derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkhani, Ali Reza

    2017-09-01

    Oxepin and azepin are heterocyclic compounds with a seven-membered ring, which are present in the main skeleton of many anti-depressive drugs. Planar configuration instability due to the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) in oxepin, azepin and six their halogen substituted derivatives were investigated as an original PJTE study. Optimization and the following frequency calculations in these two series illuminated that all of these eight compounds were unstable in high-symmetry planar (with C 2 v symmetry) configuration and their structures were puckered to lower C s symmetry stable geometry. Moreover, the vibronic coupling interaction between 1 A 1 ground and the first 1 B 1 excited states via (1 A 1 + 1 A 1 ' + 1 B 1) ⊗ b 1 and (1 A 1 + 1 B 1 + 1 A 1 ' ) ⊗ b 1 PJTE problems were the reasons for the symmetry breaking phenomenon and non-planarity of the seven-member ring in those series. Finally, numerical fitting of the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) cross-sections along the b 1 puckering coordination was employed to estimate the vibronic coupling constants of PJTE problems for all the considered compounds.

  10. Effects of zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coatings on bone integration with implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-fang; Dong, Wen-jing; Jiang, Qiao-hong; He, Fu-ming; Wang, Xiao-xiang; Yang, Guo-li

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Zn-HA) coating, applied by an electrochemical process, on implant osseointegraton in a rabbit model. A Zn-HA coating or an HA coating was deposited using an electrochemical process. Surface morphology was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the coatings were examined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 78 implants were inserted into femurs and tibias of rabbits. After two, four, and eight weeks, femurs and tibias were retrieved and prepared for histomorphometric evaluation and removal torque (RTQ) tests. Rod-like HA crystals appeared on both implant surfaces. The dimensions of the Zn-HA crystals seemed to be smaller than those of HA. XRD patterns showed that the peaks of both coatings matched well with standard HA patterns. FTIR spectra showed that both coatings consisted of HA crystals. The Zn-HA coating significantly improved the bone area within all threads after four and eight weeks (P<0.05), the bone to implant contact (BIC) at four weeks (P<0.05), and RTQ values after four and eight weeks (P<0.05). The study showed that an electrochemically deposited Zn-HA coating has potential for improving bone integration with an implant surface.

  11. Palmitic acid substitution on cationic polymers for effective delivery of plasmid DNA to bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Vanessa; Tunis, Emily; Clements, Basak Acan; Olson, Cori; Kucharski, Cezary; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Uludag, Hasan

    2007-05-01

    Nonviral gene carriers are actively explored in gene therapy due to safety concerns of the viral carriers. To design effective gene carriers for modification of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), an important cell phenotype for clinical application of gene therapy, cationic polymers polyethyleneimine (PEI), and poly-L-Lysine (PLL) were substituted with palmitic acid (PA) via amide linkages. Depending on the reaction conditions, PEI and PLL was substituted with 2.2-5.2 and 13.4-16.2 PA per polymer chain. The PA substituted polymers displayed slightly lower binding efficiency towards a plasmid containing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP) in an agarose gel binding assay. The cell binding of PLL-PA, but not PEI-PA, was particularly enhanced, resulting in higher percentage of the cells displaying a significant polymer uptake. pEGFP delivery into the BMSC was also significantly increased with the PLL-PA (vs. PLL), but not PEI-PA (vs. PEI). The transfection efficiency of PLL-PA was significantly higher ( approximately fivefold) than the unmodified polymer. We conclude that PA substitution on PLL provides an effective carrier for transfection of primary cells derived from the bone marrow. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  13. Design, synthesis, and antimelanogenic effects of (2-substituted phenyl-1,3-dithiolan-4-ylmethanol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim DH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Do Hyun Kim,1 Su Jeong Kim,1 Sultan Ullah,1 Hwi Young Yun,1 Pusoon Chun,2 Hyung Ryong Moon1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 2College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae, South Korea Abstract: The authors designed and synthesized 17 (2-substituted phenyl-1,3-dithiolan-4-yl methanol (PDTM derivatives to find a new chemical scaffold, showing excellent tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. Their tyrosinase-inhibitory activities were evaluated against mushroom tyrosinase at 50 µM, and five of the PDTM derivatives (PDTM3, PDTM7–PDTM9, and PDTM13 were found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase more than kojic acid or arbutin, the positive controls. Of seventeen PDTMs, PDTM3 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 13.94±1.76 µM, with a 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl moiety, exhibited greatest inhibitory effects (kojic acid half-maximal inhibitory concentration 18.86±2.14 µM. Interestingly, PDTM compounds with no hydroxyl group, PDTM7–PDTM9, also had stronger inhibitory activities than kojic acid. In silico studies of interactions between tyrosinase and the five PDTMs suggested their binding affinities were closely related to their tyrosinase-inhibitory activities. Cell-based experiments performed using B16F10 mouse-skin melanoma cells showed that PDTM3 effectively inhibited melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity. A cell-viability study conducted using B16F10 cells indicated that the antimelanogenic effect of PDTM3 was not attributable to its cytotoxicity. Kinetic studies showed PDTM3 competitively inhibited tyrosinase, indicating binding to the tyrosinase-active site. We found that PDTM3 with a new chemical scaffold could be a promising candidate for skin-whitening agents, and that the 1,3-dithiolane ring could be used as a chemical scaffold for potent tyrosinase inhibition. Keywords: tyrosinase inhibitor, melanogenesis, 1,3-dithiolane, PDTM

  14. Gadolinium substitution effect on the thermomagnetic properties of Ni ferrite ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo, Silvia E., E-mail: sjacobo@fi.uba.edu [LAFMACEL-INTECIN, Facultad de Ingeniería, UBA. Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arana, Mercedes; Bercoff, Paula G. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. IFEG, CONICET. Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-10-01

    This work is focused on the structural and magnetic characterization of Gd-doped Ni ferrite nanoparticles and the preparation of a ferrofluid for applications in heat-transfer devices. For this purpose, spinel ferrites NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 1.88}Gd{sub 0.12}O{sub 4} were prepared by the self-combustion method. The substituted sample was obtained with a small amount of Gd inclusion and the excess appeared as GdFeO{sub 3}. The smallest nanoparticles of both samples were properly coated and dispersed in kerosene. Thermal conductivities of the produced ferrofluids were measured at 25 °C under an applied magnetic field. There is a significant enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the ferrofluid prepared with NiGd ferrite with respect to the one with Ni ferrite, in presence of a magnetic field. This effect is directly related to the well-known magnetocaloric effect of Gd. - Highlights: • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 1.88}Gd{sub 0.12}O{sub 4} were prepared by the self-combustion method. • Two organic ferrofluids were prepared with the smallest nanoparticles of both samples (~50 nm). • Increments in thermal conductivity are observed under low-intensity applied magnetic fields. • Gd induces magnetocaloric effects in NiGd-ferrite ferrofluids. • Thermal properties of NiGd ferrofluids can by optimized the by applying low magnetic fields.

  15. Glass ionomer cements: effect of strontium substitution on esthetics, radiopacity and fluoride release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S; Hassan, U; Billington, R W; Hill, R G; Anderson, P

    2014-03-01

    SrO and SrF2 are widely used to replace CaO and CaF2 in ionomer glasses to produce radiopaque glass ionomer cements (GIC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of this substitution on release of ions from GIC as well as its effect on esthetics (translucency) and radiopacity. Cements were produced from ionomer glasses with varying content of Sr, Ca and F. The cements were stored in dilute acetic acid (pH 4.0) for up to 7 days at 37°C. Thereafter, the cements were removed and the solution was tested for F(-), Sr(2+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+) release. Radiopacity and translucency were measured according to BS EN ISO 9917-1:2003. Ion release was linear to t(1/2) suggesting that this is a diffusion controlled mechanism rather than dissolution. The fluoride release from the cements is enhanced where some or all calcium is replaced by strontium. Radiopacity shows a strong linear correlation with Sr content. All cements were more opaque than the C0.70 0.55 standard but less opaque than the C0.70 0.90 standard which is the limit for the ISO requirement for acceptance. This study shows that the replacement of calcium by strontium in a glass ionomer glass produces the expected increase in radiopacity of the cement without adverse effects on visual properties of the cement. The fluoride release from the cements is enhanced where some or all calcium is replaced by strontium. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of saliva substitutes on oral status in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, L; Montaldo, P; Papa, A; Caramico, N; Toro, G

    2010-11-01

    To assess oral status in a sample of Type 2 diabetic patients before and after therapy with saliva substitutes and oral status in a control group of diabetic patients who were not given saliva substitutes. Salivary flow rate was determined in 134 patients (mean age 47.9 ± 2.9 years) with Type 2 diabetes. Mean salivary rate was significantly low compared with a healthy control group. The sample of 134 patients was randomly divided into two groups of 67 people each. One group was given immunologically active salivary substitutes for 6 months, the other group was given nothing. Each patient of the two groups underwent a dental and periodontal examination at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. As regards carious teeth and teeth loss, there was no statistical difference between the first group after 6 months of treatment with salivary substitutes and the control group (P>0.01). Salivary substitutes did not significantly reduce the periodontal disease (P>0.01). In the group treated with salivary substitutes, after 6 months of therapy, the average dental plaque index decreased from 2.3 ± 0.73 to 1.6 ± 0.56, patients with gingivitis decreased from 66 to 43% and patients with positive yeast counts decreased from 60 to 37%. These differences were statistically significant (Pdiabetes, in the case of hyposalivation, a therapy with immunologically active saliva substitutes can be of help in reducing the amount of plaque, gingivitis and positive yeast counts. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  17. EFFECTS OF HUMAN FOLLICULAR FLUID AND SYNTHETIC SERUM SUBSTITUTE ON HUMAN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND CELL CLEAVAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghiafeh Davoodi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of culture media able to mimic the preovulatory stage of follicular environment and support nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of oocyte is important for in-vitro fertilization (IVF programs. It seems that the best culture media for embryonic development and cell cleavage is the natural composition which surrounds the oocyte which has been used occasionally in human IVF programs. For further investigation of effects of natural media composition of human follicular fluid (HFF on embryo development, we compared the biochemical constituents of HFF with synthetic serum substitute (3S and their effects on embryo development and cell cleavage. From a total of 40 women with unexplained infertility, who attended for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in IVF center of Mirzakoochak Khan Hospital, we collected the HFF during oocyte pick-up in operation room. The chemical composition of HFF was compared to 3S medium culture to identify which natural components of follicular fluid might enhance embryo maturation in vitro. The results of comparison between HFF and 3S culture media indicated significant differences in biochemical component except for Na and bilirubin concentration and pH level (P<0.05 and significant differences between the rates of cell cleavage in 3S compared to HFF media (P<0.05. Furthermore the rate of embryo cell cleavage related to HFF is faster than 3S medium. There was no significant difference between the development of embryos in 3S and HFF media culture. Our data confirm the benefit of the use of HFF as a culture medium.

  18. Effects of structure and number of heteroatom on the π-π stacking inte-ractions of benzene with N-substituted coronenes: A theoretical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pouya Karimi; Mahmoud Sanchooli

    2014-01-01

    Stability of the π-π stacking interactions in the Ben||N-substituted-coronene complexes was stu-died using the computational quantum chemistry methods (where Ben is benzene and || denotes π-π stacking interaction, and N-substituted-coronene is coronene molecule which substituted with different number of N atoms). The results reveal simultaneous effects of structure and number of Heteroatom on the π-π stacking interactions with N-substituted-coronenes. Changing the number of Heteroatom N in N-...

  19. The effects of substitute multisensory feedback on task performance and the sense of presence in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milella, Ferdinando; Pinto, Carlo; Cant, Iain; White, Mark; Meyer, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Objective and subjective measures of performance in virtual reality environments increase as more sensory cues are delivered and as simulation fidelity increases. Some cues (colour or sound) are easier to present than others (object weight, vestibular cues) so that substitute cues can be used to enhance informational content in a simulation at the expense of simulation fidelity. This study evaluates how substituting cues in one modality by alternative cues in another modality affects subjective and objective performance measures in a highly immersive virtual reality environment. Participants performed a wheel change in a virtual reality (VR) environment. Auditory, haptic and visual cues, signalling critical events in the simulation, were manipulated in a factorial design. Subjective ratings were recorded via questionnaires. The time taken to complete the task was used as an objective performance measure. The results show that participants performed best and felt an increased sense of immersion and involvement, collectively referred to as ‘presence’, when substitute multimodal sensory feedback was provided. Significant main effects of audio and tactile cues on task performance and on participants' subjective ratings were found. A significant negative relationship was found between the objective (overall completion times) and subjective (ratings of presence) performance measures. We conclude that increasing informational content, even if it disrupts fidelity, enhances performance and user’s overall experience. On this basis we advocate the use of substitute cues in VR environments as an efficient method to enhance performance and user experience. PMID:29390023

  20. The effects of substitute multisensory feedback on task performance and the sense of presence in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Natalia; Milella, Ferdinando; Pinto, Carlo; Cant, Iain; White, Mark; Meyer, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Objective and subjective measures of performance in virtual reality environments increase as more sensory cues are delivered and as simulation fidelity increases. Some cues (colour or sound) are easier to present than others (object weight, vestibular cues) so that substitute cues can be used to enhance informational content in a simulation at the expense of simulation fidelity. This study evaluates how substituting cues in one modality by alternative cues in another modality affects subjective and objective performance measures in a highly immersive virtual reality environment. Participants performed a wheel change in a virtual reality (VR) environment. Auditory, haptic and visual cues, signalling critical events in the simulation, were manipulated in a factorial design. Subjective ratings were recorded via questionnaires. The time taken to complete the task was used as an objective performance measure. The results show that participants performed best and felt an increased sense of immersion and involvement, collectively referred to as 'presence', when substitute multimodal sensory feedback was provided. Significant main effects of audio and tactile cues on task performance and on participants' subjective ratings were found. A significant negative relationship was found between the objective (overall completion times) and subjective (ratings of presence) performance measures. We conclude that increasing informational content, even if it disrupts fidelity, enhances performance and user's overall experience. On this basis we advocate the use of substitute cues in VR environments as an efficient method to enhance performance and user experience.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical-theoretical analysis of compounds A-π-D. 1. Effect of alkyl-phenyl substituted amines in photophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E.; Montecinos, R.; Cattin, L.; Díaz, F. R.; del Valle, M. A.; Bernède, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    The study of new dipolar A-π-D molecules, which have an acceptor (A) and donor (D) charge joined by a conjugate bridge, have been an attention focus in the recent years due their different properties. In the current work, a molecular system has been modified in order to compare the effect on properties, such as quantum yield. Thus, two series were generated (alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted) to determine if molecules with tertiary asymmetric amines change their optical properties and whether quantum yield is affected. The different products have been characterized by several techniques such as UV-Vis spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, mass spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, their behavior in eight organic solvents, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide were experimentally and theoretically studied. The quantum yields were higher for the alkyl-substituted series. Theoretically, the dihedral angles formed between the tertiary amine and carbonyl group moieties have a correlation with quantum yield values, helping to explain why they are higher in non-polar solvents. Consequently, the maximum quantum yield was obtained with (E)-2-cyano-3-(5-((E)-2-(9,9-diethyl-7-(methyl(phenyl)amino)-9H-fluoren-2-yl) vinyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid (M8-1) in 1,4-dioxane, reaching 98.8%.

  2. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  3. Effect of off-center ion substitution in morphotropic lead zirconate titanate composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mohan K.; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Instan, Alvaro A.; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2017-05-01

    A detailed study of the effect of off-center donor ion (Sc3+) substitution on structural, microstructural, optical, dielectric, electrical, and ferroelectric properties of morphotropic composition of lead zirconate titanate electroceramics with the stoichiometric formula Pb0.85Sc0.10Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PSZT) and synthesized using a high energy solid-state reaction technique was carried out. Powder x-ray diffractometry was used to identify the stabilized tetragonal phase (space group P 4 m m ) with considerably reduced tetragonal strain, c /a = 1.005. An analysis of the thermal dependence of the Raman results indicated a smooth displacive (ferroelectric-paraelectric) phase transition as revealed by the observed disappearance of the soft modes A1 (1TO) and A1 (2TO) above 460 K. The dielectric response of Pt/PSZT/Pt metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors was probed over a wide range of thermal excursions (85-600 K) and ac signal frequencies (102-106 Hz). Thermally activated dynamic and static conduction processes indicate hopping conduction mechanism ( Ea c t ≤ 0.015 eV) and the formation of small polarons caused by the electron and/or hole-lattice (phonon) interaction ( Ea c t ≥ 0.1 eV) at low (100-300 K) and high temperatures (300-600 K), respectively. The reduction in remnant polarization obtained is in good agreement with the largely reduced tetragonal strain observed in this sample, ( Pr ∝ √{c /a -1 } ). DC conduction is dominated by Poole-Frenkel mechanism that assumes a Coulombic attraction between detrapped electrons and positively charged stationary defect species in the polycrystalline matrix.

  4. The effects of microporosity on osteoinduction of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, O; Coathup, M J; Nesbitt, A; Ho, C-Y; Hing, K A; Buckland, T; Campion, C; Blunn, G W

    2012-07-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductive ability of silicate substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) biomaterials was investigated in an ectopic ovine model. Implants with strut porosities of 22.5%, 32.0% and 46.0% were inserted into the parapsinalis muscle. At 8, 12 and 24 weeks histological sections were prepared. Sections were examined using backscattered scanning electron microscopy and un-decalcified histology. Bone area, implant area and bone-implant contact were quantified. At 8 weeks there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of bone area and implant area. However at 12 weeks, the amount of bone formation observed was significantly greater in SiCaP-46 (6.17 ± 1.51%) when compared with SiCaP-22.5 (1.33 ± 0.84%) p=0.035. Results also showed significantly increased amounts of bone-implant contact to the SiCaP-46 scaffold (3.30 ± 1.17%) compared with SiCaP-22.5 (0.67 ± 0.52%, p=0.043) at 8 weeks and 12 weeks; (SiCaP-46 (21.82 ± 5.59%) vs SiCaP-22.5 (3.06 ± 1.89%), p=0.012). At 24 weeks, bone formation and graft resorption had significantly increased in all groups so that the level of bone formation in the SiCaP-46 group had increased 75-fold to 30.05 ± 8.38%. Bone formation was observed in pores osteoinductive. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial substitution of sodium chloride in Toscana sausages and the effect on product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Seganfredo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High sodium intake has been linked with problems of hypertension and in Brazil, it still has above that recommended by the World Health Organization. Meat products contribute 20–30% of sodium intake in the diet, indicating the necessity of reducing the amount of sodium added. The aim of this study was to reduce the sodium content in Toscana sausages by partial replacement of sodium chloride with PuraQ Arome NA4 substitute, and to evaluate the effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters and sensory acceptability. Three formulations – one control (T1, and one with 20% (T2 and another with 30% (T3 sodium reduction compared with the control – were produced. For comparative purposes, the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters were determined. In the proposed formulations with 20% and 30% reduction, the sodium contents were 857.3 mg 100 g-1 (T2 and 790.3 mg 100 g-1 (T3, compared with 926.7 mg 100 g-1 in T1. The produced samples were in accordance with the physico-chemical (moisture, lipid, protein and calcium and microbiological (Salmonella, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and sulphite-reducing Clostridium and Coliforms at 45°C parameters stipulated by Brazilian law. The analysis of lightness and hue indicated that the sample T3 had a more intense red colour, while T1 had a less intense red colour. In the shear force evaluation, no difference was observed between the samples. The sample T2 was the most preferred in the ordering of preference test; however, in the hedonic scale, there was no difference between the means of sensory values for roast colour, aroma, texture, flavour and overall impression, indicating that all samples had adequate sensory acceptance. Acceptability levels were greater than 74.6% for all attributes evaluated in T1, T2 and T3.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the effect of sugar substitution on the antioxidant properties of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespade, Laure; Bercion, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    Natural flavonoids are secondary phenolic plant metabolites known for their bioactivity as antioxidants. The evaluation of this property is generally done by the estimation of their direct free radical-scavenging activity as hydrogen or electron donating compounds. This paper reviews experimental results available in the literature for a selection of flavonoids and compares them with calculated quantities characteristic of the hydrogen or electron donation. For that purpose, bond dissociation energies, ionization potentials and electron transfer enthalpies are computed by using DFT methods and the ONIOM procedure implemented in the ab initio program Gaussian. This process has been chosen because it can be extended to the study of large molecules. When acid dissociation and interaction with the solvent are taken into account, the results present very good concordance with experimental results, enlightening the complexity of the processes involved in the classical assays which measure the ability of compounds to scavenge the (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical cation (ABTS (+)) or the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH(·)). This study demonstrates the good accuracy of theoretical calculations in obtaining the relative energies involved in free radical scavenging abilities and its capacity for predictive behaviour. It also highlights the necessity to take into account the pK(a) of the compounds and the solvent interaction. The ability of the method to calculate the antioxidant properties of larger molecules are tested on glycosylated flavonoids and the effects of sugar substitution on the antioxidant properties of flavonoids are investigated, pointing out the importance of the charges on the oxygen atoms.

  7. Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia. Method A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006). Results Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals’ changing needs and preferences over time. Conclusion Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its

  8. Effect of the assignment of ancestral CpG state on the estimation of nucleotide substitution rates in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keightley Peter D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies in mammals often estimate nucleotide substitution rates within and outside CpG dinucleotides separately. Frequently, in alignments of two sequences, the division of sites into CpG and non-CpG classes is based simply on the presence or absence of a CpG dinucleotide in either sequence, a procedure that we refer to as CpG/non-CpG assignment. Although it likely that this procedure is biased, it is generally assumed that the bias is negligible if species are very closely related. Results Using simulations of DNA sequence evolution we show that assignment of the ancestral CpG state based on the simple presence/absence of the CpG dinucleotide can seriously bias estimates of the substitution rate, because many true non-CpG changes are misassigned as CpG. Paradoxically, this bias is most severe between closely related species, because a minimum of two substitutions are required to misassign a true ancestral CpG site as non-CpG whereas only a single substitution is required to misassign a true ancestral non-CpG site as CpG in a two branch tree. We also show that CpG misassignment bias differentially affects fourfold degenerate and noncoding sites due to differences in base composition such that fourfold degenerate sites can appear to be evolving more slowly than noncoding sites. We demonstrate that the effects predicted by our simulations occur in a real evolutionary setting by comparing substitution rates estimated from human-chimp coding and intronic sequence using CpG/non-CpG assignment with estimates derived from a method that is largely free from bias. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a common method of assigning sites into CpG and non CpG classes in pairwise alignments is seriously biased and recommends against the adoption of ad hoc methods of ancestral state assignment.

  9. Effects of Building Design Elements on Residential Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential thermal environment affects the life of residents in terms of their physical and mental health. Many studies have shown that building design elements affect the urban thermal environment. In this study, Nanjing City was used as the study area. A three-dimensional microclimate model was used to simulate and analyze the effects of four main factors, namely, building height, density, layout and green ratio, on thermal environment in residential areas. Results showed that 25% building density obtained a low average air temperature (ATa and average predicted mean vote (APMV during 24 h. Thus, a higher building height indicates a lower ATa and APMV and better outdoor comfort level. In addition, peripheral layout had the lowest ATa and APMV, followed by the determinant and point group layouts. The green ratio increased from 0% to 50% with a 10% step and the ATa and APMV decreased gradually. However, when the green ratio increased from 30% to 40%, ATa and APMV decreased most. The effects of building height, density and green ratio on the thermal environment in residential areas were interactive. The effects of building density, green ratio and layout on hourly air temperature and hourly predicted mean vote in daytime varied from these indicators during night time. How the four building design elements interact with thermal environment were probed from two aspects of air temperature and thermal comfort based on the validated ENVI-met, which is the element of novelty in this study. However, thermal comfort has rarely been considered in the past studies about urban outdoor thermal environment.

  10. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth ...

  11. Exploring the effect of experience use history and place bonding on resource substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Gerard T. Kyle; William E. Hammitt; James D. Absher

    2008-01-01

    Although place bonding has been a prominent aspect of human dimensions research for over 25 years, there remains a need to understand the construct's behavioral implications. One area that has received attention is the relationship between experience-use history (EUH), place bonding, and resource substitution. To further examine the relationships among these...

  12. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin...

  13. Pharmacological mechanisms in the cardiovascular effects of DCLHb, a hemoglobin based blood substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gulati (Anil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe search for a clinically useful blood substitute has been stimulated by the inherent limitations of the homologous blood transfusion system, particularly its sufficiency, safety and costs. Blood has been described as the "most complicated fluid in animals" (Winslow, 1992). An attempt

  14. Space can substitute for time in predicting climate-change effects on biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Jessica L.; Williams, John W.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-01-01

    “Space-for-time” substitution is widely used in biodiversity modeling to infer past or future trajectories of ecological systems from contemporary spatial patterns. However, the foundational assumption—that drivers of spatial gradients of species composition also drive temporal changes in diversity—rarely is tested. Here, we empirically test the space-for-time assumption by constructing orthogonal datasets of compositional turnover of plant taxa and climatic dissimilarity through time and across space from Late Quaternary pollen records in eastern North America, then modeling climate-driven compositional turnover. Predictions relying on space-for-time substitution were ∼72% as accurate as “time-for-time” predictions. However, space-for-time substitution performed poorly during the Holocene when temporal variation in climate was small relative to spatial variation and required subsampling to match the extent of spatial and temporal climatic gradients. Despite this caution, our results generally support the judicious use of space-for-time substitution in modeling community responses to climate change.

  15. Dairy Cattle Breeding Effectiveness Analysis under the Conditions of Import Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Yuri A.; Merkushova, Nina I.; Bakanach, Olga V.; Proskurina, Natalya V.; Sazhina, Natalia S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is inspired by the strategic importance of dairy farming to the national economy, which is especially evident in the context of the EU economic sanctions against the Russian Federation and carrying out the import substitution policy. First and foremost, this policy applies to food commodities, including milk.…

  16. Space can substitute for time in predicting climate-change effects on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Jessica L; Williams, John W; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Jackson, Stephen T; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-06-04

    "Space-for-time" substitution is widely used in biodiversity modeling to infer past or future trajectories of ecological systems from contemporary spatial patterns. However, the foundational assumption--that drivers of spatial gradients of species composition also drive temporal changes in diversity--rarely is tested. Here, we empirically test the space-for-time assumption by constructing orthogonal datasets of compositional turnover of plant taxa and climatic dissimilarity through time and across space from Late Quaternary pollen records in eastern North America, then modeling climate-driven compositional turnover. Predictions relying on space-for-time substitution were ∼72% as accurate as "time-for-time" predictions. However, space-for-time substitution performed poorly during the Holocene when temporal variation in climate was small relative to spatial variation and required subsampling to match the extent of spatial and temporal climatic gradients. Despite this caution, our results generally support the judicious use of space-for-time substitution in modeling community responses to climate change.

  17. Two-way substitution effects on inventory in configure-to-order production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    , or increasing storage capacityhave been proposed. Our study presents a practicalframework for quantifying the impact of a two-waysubstitution at different production stages and its impact oninventory utilization. In a case study we quantify the relationbetween component substitution, and inventory...

  18. Effects of substitutions at position 180 in the Escherichia coli RNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to investigate the role of His180 residue, located in the non-conserved region of the σ70 subunit of. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, two mutant variants of the protein with substitutions for either alanine or glutamic acid were constructed and purified using the IMPACT system. The ability of mutant σ70 subunits to ...

  19. Solvent effects on C=O stretching frequencies of some 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Famini, G.R.; Perjéssy, A.; Wilson, L.Y.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to model solute–solvent interactions, the C=O stretching frequencies of five 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones and four other carbonyl-containing compounds were measured for 30 common solvents. These were then correlated with four empirical parameter sets and one theoretical

  20. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical hop substitute from utazi (UTZ) Gongronema latifolium, bitter cola (BTC), Garcinia kola, bitter leaf (BTL), Vernonia amygdalina and a blend (1:1.41:2.89) of the three (HSB) respectively, were produced. Stability studies were carried out to predict their suitability for brewing after one to six months storage at 5 ± 1oC ...

  1. Effect of a home-made pollen substitute on honey bee colony development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, studies were conducted on a pollen substitute formulated for easy home preparation. Tests were done with free flying honey bee colonies. In 2001, pollen supply was restricted with pollen traps in 9 experimental colonies. Colonies were then equally divided among three treatments:

  2. Saliva substitutes in combination with highly concentrated fluorides and brushing: in vitro effects on enamel subsurface lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoppe, P; Siegel, A; Meyer-Lueckel, H

    2010-01-01

    Hyposalivation is often associated with high caries activity, in particular in patients undergoing irradiation in the head/neck area. Besides the use of saliva substitutes to relieve the oral symptoms, daily application of fluoride gels or toothpaste (5,000 μg F⁻/g) is recommended for caries prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate potentially remineralising effects of these fluoride agents in combination with saliva substitutes on enamel subsurface lesions. Demineralised bovine specimens were either stored in mineral water [control; saturation with respect to octacalcium phosphate (S(OCP)): 0.8], a demineralising saliva substitute (Glandosane; S(OCP): 0.3) or in a modified (with respect to S(OCP)) saliva substitute [Saliva natura (SN); S(OCP): 1.9] for 5 weeks (37°C). The following treatments were applied twice daily (11-13/group): no treatment (0), ProSchmelz fluoride gel (PS; 10 min application), Duraphat toothpaste (DP; 10 s; brushing with toothpaste/storage solution slurry), combination of DP+PS. Mineral parameters before/after storage were evaluated from microradiographs. Storage in Glandosane led to significant demineralisation (p fluoride agents neutralised the demineralising effect (p > 0.05). Storage in water alone resulted in no changes in mineral parameters (p > 0.05), whereas in combination with fluorides remineralisation could be shown (p fluorides were detected. Under the conditions chosen, the fluoride agents reduce the demineralising effects of Glandosane and promote the remineralisation of specimens stored in water. Remineralising effects of SN could not be enhanced by the fluorides. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The near ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of 2- and 3-substituted thiophenols: Geometric vs. electronic structure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Barbara; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Cipriani, Maicol; Hansen, Christopher S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2017-07-01

    The near ultraviolet spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics of two families of asymmetrically substituted thiophenols (2- and 3-YPhSH, with Y = F and Me) have been investigated experimentally (by H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translational spectroscopy) and by ab initio electronic structure calculations. Photoexcitation in all cases populates the 11ππ* and/or 11πσ* excited states and results in S-H bond fission. Analyses of the experimentally obtained total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra yield the respective parent S-H bond strengths, estimates of ΔE(A ˜ -X ˜ ), the energy splitting between the ground (X ˜ ) and first excited (A ˜ ) states of the resulting 2-(3-)YPhS radicals, and reveal a clear propensity for excitation of the C-S in-plane bending vibration in the radical products. The companion theory highlights roles for both geometric (e.g., steric effects and intramolecular H-bonding) and electronic (i.e., π (resonance) and σ (inductive)) effects in determining the respective parent minimum energy geometries, and the observed substituent and position-dependent trends in S-H bond strength and ΔE(A ˜ -X ˜ ). 2-FPhSH shows some clear spectroscopic and photophysical differences. Intramolecular H-bonding ensures that most 2-FPhSH molecules exist as the syn rotamer, for which the electronic structure calculations return a substantial barrier to tunnelling from the photoexcited 11ππ* state to the 11πσ* continuum. The 11ππ* ← S0 excitation spectrum of syn-2-FPhSH thus exhibits resolved vibronic structure, enabling photolysis studies with a greater parent state selectivity. Structure apparent in the TKER spectrum of the H + 2-FPhS products formed when exciting at the 11ππ* ← S0 origin is interpreted by assuming unintended photoexcitation of an overlapping resonance associated with syn-2-FPhSH(v33 = 1) molecules. The present data offer tantalising hints that such out-of-plane motion influences non-adiabatic coupling in the vicinity

  4. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  5. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) saliva substitute in the relief of xerostomia in elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Bozo, Irene; Ortega-Pinto, Ana; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Aitken Saavedra, Juan P; Salinas Flores, Olga; Lefimil Puente, Claudia; Lozano Moraga, Carla; Manríquez Urbina, José M; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) saliva substitute in the relief of xerostomia in older participants. In elders, xerostomia is a permanent and progressive condition that significantly affects their quality of life. The treatment for progressive xerostomia is currently restricted to palliative measures, and saliva substitutes are indicated. A lack of evidence on the effectiveness of the saliva substitutes in the relief of symptoms of xerostomia has been reported. Seventy-four elderly participants presenting xerostomia of diverse origin were selected. Herbal saliva substitute and carboxymethyl cellulose conventional saliva substitute were tested using a double-blind, randomised, cross-sectional clinical trial. Every participant of the study exhibited dry mouth sensation. A sensation of thick saliva was described in 59.5% of the participants. The need for liquid intake to swallow food, the sensation of difficulty in swallowing and the burning sensation in the tongue were observed in 54.1, 56.8 and 27.0% of the participants, respectively. The most prevalent diseases were hypertension, depressive symptoms and arthritis. Results of the clinical tests showed that the herbal saliva substitute produced a greater relief of dry mouth symptoms, thick saliva sensation and the sensation of difficulty in swallowing than the conventional substitute (Wilcoxon test p substitute was effective in relieving xerostomia symptoms in older participants of this study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of different substitution position on the switching behavior in single-molecule device with carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjuan; Han, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Peipei; Bian, Baoan; Wang, Yixiang

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of dihydroazulene (DHA) and vinylheptafulvene (VHF) molecule sandwiched between two carbon nanotubes using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function. The device displays significantly switching behavior between DHA and VHF isomerizations. It is found the different substitution position of F in the molecule influences the switching ratio of device, which is analyzed by transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian. The observed negative differential resistance effect is explained by transmission spectra and transmission eigenstates of transmission peak in the bias window. The observed reverse of current in VHF form in which two H atoms on the right side of the benzene ring of the molecule are replaced by F is explained by transmission spectra and molecule-electrode coupling with the varied bias. The results suggest that the reasonable substitution position of molecule may improve the switching ratio, displaying a potential application in future molecular circuit.

  8. Rapid Access to β-Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Ketones: Harnessing Inductive Effects in Wacker-Type Oxidations of Internal Alkenes

    KAUST Repository

    Lerch, Michael M.

    2014-07-18

    We present a practical trifluoromethyl-directed Wacker-type oxidation of internal alkenes that enables rapid access to β-trifluoromethyl-substituted ketones. Allylic trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes bearing a wide range of functional groups can be oxidized in high yield and regioselectivity. The distance dependence of the regioselectivity was established by systematic variation of the number of methylene units between the double bond and the trifluoromethyl group. The regioselectivity enforced by traditional directing groups could even be reversed by introduction of a competing trifluoromethyl group. Besides being a new powerful synthetic method to prepare fluorinated molecules, this work directly probes the role of inductive effects on nucleopalladation events. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of 7-O Substitutions on Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activities of Daidzein Analogues in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Payton-Stewart, Florastina; Elliott, Steven; Driver, Jennifer; Rhodes, Lyndsay V.; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Boue, Stephen M.; Collins-Burow, Bridgette M.; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Stevens, Cheryl; McLachlan, John A.; Wiese, Thomas E.; Burow, Matthew E.; Wang, Guangdi

    2010-01-01

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into antiestrogenic ligands by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of daidzein analogues have been designed and synthesized. When MCF-7 cells were treated with the analogues, those resulting from hydrogen substitution by isopropyl (3d), isobutyl (3f), cyclopentyl (3g), and pyrano- (2), inhibited cell proliferation, estrogen-induced transcriptional activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) regulated progesterone receptor (PgR) gene expression. However, methyl (3a) and ethyl (3b) substitutions of the hydroxyl proton only led to moderate reduction of the estrogenic activities. These results demonstrated the structural requirements for the transformation of daidzein from an ER agonist to an antagonist. The most effective analogue, 2 was found to reduce in vivo estrogen stimulated MCF-7 cell tumorigenesis using a xenograft mouse model. PMID:20669983

  10. Effectiveness of Multimedia Elements in Computer Supported Instruction: Analysis of Personalization Effects, Students' Performances and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Mark; Luo, XiaoHui

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of multimedia instruction at the college level by comparing the effectiveness of multimedia elements used in the computer supported learning with the cost of their preparation. Among the various technologies that advance learning, instructors and students generally identify interactive multimedia elements as…

  11. Study of the yttrium and zinc substitutions effects in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} compounds by transport measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignon, B. [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157 CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)], E-mail: pignon@univ-tours.fr; Autret-Lambert, C.; Ruyter, A. [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157 CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Decourt, R.; Bassat, J.M. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, UPR 9048 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux I, 87 Av. du Dr Schweizer, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Monot-Laffez, I.; Ammor, L. [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157 CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    The effects of yttrium Y and zinc Zn substitution on calcium Ca and cupper Cu sites in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} compounds have been investigated by resistivity measurements. At high temperature, after a superconducting transition, the electrical behaviour evolves from a metallic state in compounds with a weak Y concentration into a semi-conducting state (hopping conduction) in compounds with a large Y concentration. Similarly, the Zn substitution modifies the electrical behaviour from metallic to insulating with a much lower concentration comparatively to Y. In the two cases, the semi-conducting behaviour is described by hopping between localised states in the conduction band. This localization is explained by the random distribution of the doping elements which originates from the Y/Zn and Cu wave-functions overlap. The obtained results show the localization is improved in the case of Zn. Consequently, it is suggested that the direct substitution of Zn into the planes leads to a greater overlap. Moreover, the superconducting transition (critical temperature: T{sub C}) shows an irregular depression when Zn is substituted. According to an X-Ray diffraction study, this result can be interpreted by internal micro-strains in the structure.

  12. Effects of Zr-substitution on microstructure and properties of YCaVIG ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yinyin, E-mail: hyy300@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang Jian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Qiu Tai, E-mail: qiutai@njut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang Jiaqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Jin Yulong [Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology, Nanjing 210039 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Y{sub 2.6-x}Ca{sub 0.4+x}Zr{sub x}V{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 4.8-x}O{sub 12} (Zr{sub x}:YCaVIG) ferrite materials have been prepared by an oxide process. The phase formation and microstructure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The effects of Zr{sup 4+} substitution on phase compositions, sintering properties, microstructures and electromagnetic properties were investigated. The results indicate that all the sintered specimens with different Zr{sup 4+} contents show a single garnet structure. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} can gradually increase the lattice constant, and lower the sintering temperature and the theoretical density. With the increase of Zr{sup 4+} content, the dielectric loss (tan {delta}{sub {epsilon}}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) decrease and then slightly increase, which is due to the variation of the microstructure. But the saturation magnetization (4{pi}M{sub s}) shows the opposite variation compared to the former two properties. However, the dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) remains stable and remanence (B{sub r}) monotonically declines. Finally, the specimen of Y{sub 2.3}Ca{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 4.5}O{sub 12} sintered at 1350 Degree-Sign possesses the optimum electromagnetic properties: {epsilon}{sub r}=14.8, tan {delta}{sub {epsilon}}=1.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, 4{pi}M{sub s}=1638 Gs, B{sub r}=596 Gs, H{sub c}=0.75 Oe and {Delta}H (ferromagnetic resonance linewidth)=66 Oe. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared Zr{sub x}:YCaVIG ferrites by a traditional oxide process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of ZrO{sub 2} can lower the sintering temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electromagnetic properties can be improved with proper Zr{sup 4+} content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Zr{sub x}:YCaVIG ferrite with x=0.3 shows the optimum electromagnetic properties.

  13. Effect of ligand substitution on the exchange interactions in {Mn12}-type single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Kögerler, P.; Al-Saqer, M.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Harmon, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how the ligand substitution affects the intra-molecular spin exchange interactions, studying a prototypal family of single-molecule magnets comprising dodecanuclear cluster molecules [Mn12O12(COOR)16]. We identify a simple scheme based on accumulated Pauling electronegativity numbers (a.e.n.) of the carboxylate ligand groups (R). The redistribution of the electron density, controlled by a.e.n. of a ligand, changes the degree of hybridization between 3d electrons of manganese an...

  14. Substitution Effects on Reactivity of N-Acyl-2-amino-2-desoxyglucopyranoses. Quantum Chemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis Vektaris

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanical calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of 2-amino-2-desoxyglucopyranose (AG and the Nacetyl-, N-ethanoyl-, series of N-phthalimidoalkanoyl-AG. The total charge density, electrostatic potential, spatial distribution and positions of HOMO and LUMO of N-acyl-AGs with respect to their substitutes yield information on the reactivity of the molecules.

  15. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Rezik Azab Awad; Wafaa Mohammed Salama; Azza Mahmoud Farahat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated us...

  16. Sex differences in the effect of education on depression: resource multiplication or resource substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E; Mirowsky, John

    2006-09-01

    Does education improve psychological well-being more for one sex than for the other? Resource substitution theory hypothesizes that education improves well-being more for women, because socioeconomic disadvantage makes them depend more on education to achieve well-being. Resource multiplication implies the opposite, that education improves well-being more for men, because they get bigger labor market payoffs from it such as authority and earnings. Data from a 1995 survey of US adults with follow-ups in 1998 and 2001 support the resource substitution hypothesis. Depression decreases more steeply for women than for men as the level of education increases. The gender gap in depression essentially disappears among persons with a college degree or higher. Two mediating interactions appear to account for the convergence. Education increases work creativity more sharply for women than for men, thereby reducing depression. Education increases the sense of control for both sexes equally, but depression declines more steeply for women as sense of control increases. Growth curve analyses of depression vectors confirm the resource substitution pattern. The adulthood life course pattern of depression levels and changes depends more strongly on education for women than for men.

  17. Sustainable Effects of Small Hydropower Substituting Firewood Program in Majiang County, Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower substituting fuel (SHSF is an ecological environment protection program to improve regional ecosystems and alleviate poverty. However, the sustainability of SHSF programs remains controversial due to lingering doubts about its potential for socioeconomic development and its environmental impacts. The sustainability of SHSF was examined based on field investigations and household questionnaire surveys. The results were as follows: (1 Biomass of SHSF protected masson pine (Pinus massoniana and weeping cypress (Platycladus orientalis plantations were 11.06 t·ha−1 and 7.15 t·ha−1 higher than unprotected plantations, respectively. Furthermore, the differences in ecosystem biomass were mainly derived from arbor biomass. While the energy conversion efficiency based on field investigations was merely 1.28 kg (kWh−1, which was only 64% of the empirical value and 54% of the guideline for accounting for the ecological benefit of small hydropower substituting fuel. (2 Households’ total income in SHSF villages was higher than in households with access to a hydropower plant but no substituting fuel or households with no hydropower plant. (3 Most of the households had a positive attitude towards SHSF because of its cheaper electricity and associated ecological environmental improvements. Overall, our results suggest optimistic and sustainable prospects for the SHSF program; however, continued education and policy communications are needed to sustain program success.

  18. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H

    2010-09-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles with improved gene delivery related properties. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate was prepared using a simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used to characterize the samples. This characterization showed strontium and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate which resulted in nano size particles with low crystallinity, high specific surface area, positive surface charge, and a high dissolution rate. These improved properties could increase the DNA concentration on the vector as well as the endosomal escape of the complex that leads to higher transfection efficiency of this novel gene delivery vector.

  19. Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-02-01

    When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future.

  20. Substituent effects in 1-nitro-4-substituted bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives: inductive or field effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowski, Tadeusz M; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the NO2 group and 13 different substituents (BF2, BH2, CF3, CH3, CHO, CN, F, NH2, NMe2, NO2, NO, OH, OMe) were investigated computationally for bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) and benzene substituted at 1,4 and 1,3 positions in the ring. Three methods were employed to estimate the character and strength of the substituent effect: substituent effect stabilization energy (SESE), sigma/pi electron donor acceptor index (sEDA/pEDA) and substituent active region (cSAR) parameter. For the first time the sEDA/pEDA parameters were calculated not for the ring but for the NO2 group. All calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. For 1,4 derivatives, a direct comparison of slopes of linear regressions between BCO and benzene reveals a much better transmission of the substituent effect in the latter. The ratio of slopes (benzene over BCO) is always larger than 4. It follows that the resonance effects, which are absent in the BCO, dominate in this case. For 1,3 derivatives, because of much lower correlation coefficients, estimated standard deviations (ESD) were used to calculate the ratio instead of the slopes. For these systems the ratio is much closer to the unity, which indicates that only the sigma/through space effects are present and they are of similar magnitude in benzene and BCO. It follows from natural population analysis (NPA) charges that the substituent effect in the studied systems is due mainly to through-space interactions.

  1. Controlled substitution of soy protein for meat protein: effects on calcium retention, bone, and cardiovascular health indices in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Hunt, Janet R; Johnson, Luann K; Badger, Thomas M; Lykken, Glenn I

    2005-01-01

    In a controlled feeding study, the effects of substituting 25 g soy protein for meat on calcium retention and bone biomarkers were determined. Postmenopausal women (n = 13) ate two diets that were similar, except that, in one diet, 25 g high-isoflavone soy protein (SOY) was substituted for an equivalent amount of meat protein (control diet), for 7 wk each in a randomized crossover design. After 3 wk of equilibration, calcium retention was measured by labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole-body counting for 28 d. Urinary calcium and renal acid excretion were measured at wk 3, 5, and 7. Biomarkers of bone and cardiovascular health were measured at the beginning and end of each diet. Calcium was similarly retained during the control and SOY diets (d 28, percent dose, mean +/- pooled sd: 14.1 and 14.0 +/- 1.6, respectively). Despite a 15-20% lower renal acid excretion during the SOY diet, urinary calcium loss was unaffected by diet. Diet also did not affect any of the indicators of bone or cardiovascular health. Substitution of 25 g high isoflavone soy protein for meat, in the presence of typical calcium intakes, did not improve or impair calcium retention or indicators of bone and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women.

  2. Effect of glycerol concentrations on the mechanical properties of additive manufactured porous calcium polyphosphate structures for bone substitute applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheydaeian, Esmat; Vlasea, Mihaela; Woo, Ami; Pilliar, Robert; Hu, Eugene; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2017-05-01

    This article addresses the effects of glycerol (GLY) concentrations on the mechanical properties of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute structures manufactured using binder jetting additive manufacturing. To achieve this goal, nine types of water-based binder solutions were prepared with 10, 12.5, and 15 wt % GLY liquid-binding agent, mixed, respectively, with 0, 0.75, and 1.5 wt % ethylene glycol diacetate (EGD) flow enhancer. The print quality of each of the solutions was established quantitatively using an image processing algorithm. The print quality analysis narrowed down the solutions to three batches containing 1.5 wt % EGD and variable amount of GLY. These solutions were used to manufacture porous CPP bone substitute samples, which were characterized physically to determine shrinkage, porosity, microstructure, and compression strength. The 12.5 wt % GLY, 1.5 wt % EGD solution resulted in the highest mechanical strength after sintering (34.6 ± 5.8 MPa), illustrating similar mechanical properties when compared to previous studies (33.9 ± 6.3 MPa) of additively manufactured CPP bone substitutes using a commercially available binder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 828-835, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Contamination and Cleaning on Parachute Structural Textile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Throughout their lifecycle, parachute textiles come into contact with various other substances. This contact may occur during manufacturing and repair, storage and transportation, packing, or actual use. While this interaction does not always result in negative repercussions, it may cause a loss in material strength. This paper examines the strength degradation due to several contaminants as well as the effects of cleaning agents on common parachute materials. Materials tested were: Kevlar cord and webbing, Nylon broadcloth and webbing, and Vectran cord; all of these constitute the major structural elements for CPAS (Capsule Parachute Assembly System), the parachute system for the NASA Orion Crew Module. Contaminants tested were: sewing machine oil, dried stamping ink, dirt, basting glue, Sergene, and rust. Recommendations for cleaning (or not cleaning) these materials with respect to each of the contaminants are given in this paper, as well as recommendations for future tests.

  4. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armstrong, H.A.; Pearson, D.G.; Griselin, M.

    2001-01-01

    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from

  5. Effect of alloy elements on the anti-corrosion properties of low alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 3. Effect of alloy elements on the anti-corrosion properties of low alloy steel ... Effect of alloy elements on corrosion of low alloy steel was studied under simulated offshore conditions. The results showed that the elements Cu, P, Mo, W, V had evident effect on ...

  6. Effective Message Elements for Disclosures about Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Dannielle E; Boynton, Marcella H; Noar, Seth M; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer R; Ribisl, Kurt M; Stepanov, Irina; Nylander-French, Leena A; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-05-17

    Cigarette smoke contains at least 93 chemicals or "constituents" that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified as harmful or potentially harmful to human health. Our study sought to identify which constituent disclosure message elements are most effective in discouraging people from smoking. Three hundred eighty-eight current smokers ages 18 and older completed an online survey in February 2015. We randomized participants to respond to one of two sets of 13 toxic products that contain cigarette constituents and 25 health effects associated with cigarette constituents. Products that elicited the most discouragement were those with lower chances of exposure (e.g., explosives), followed by products with possible exposure (e.g., rat poison) and products with a high likelihood of exposure (e.g., floor cleaner). Awareness of toxic products that constituents are found in (pelements. Our study identified health effects and toxic products, especially cancers and rarely encountered toxic products, that may discourage smoking when included in disclosure messages. By constructing messages that communicate the harms associated with tobacco use by contextualizing those harms in terms of specific constituents, tobacco education messaging efforts may be increasingly successful.

  7. Effects of methyl substitution on the auto-ignition of C16 alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Lapuerta, Magín

    2015-12-18

    The auto-ignition quality of diesel fuels, quantified by their cetane number or derived cetane number (DCN), is a critical design property to consider when producing and upgrading synthetic paraffinic fuels. It is well known that auto-ignition characteristics of paraffinic fuels depend on their degree of methyl substitution. However, there remains a need to study the governing chemical functionalities contributing to such ignition characteristics, especially in the case of methyl substitutions, which have not been studied in detail. In this work, the auto-ignition of 2,6,10-trimethyltridecane has been compared with the reference hydrocarbons used for cetane number determination, i.e. n-hexadecane and heptamethylnonane, all of them being C16 isomers. Results from a constant-volume combustion chamber under different pressure and temperature initial conditions showed that the ignition delay time for both cool flame and main combustion events increased less from n-hexadecane to trimethyltridecane than from trimethyltridecane to heptamethylnonane. Additional experimental results from blends of these hydrocarbons, together with kinetic modelling, showed that auto-ignition times and combustion rates were correlated to the concentration of the functional groups indicative of methyl substitution, although not in a linear manner. When the concentration of these functional groups decreased, the first stage OH radical concentration increased and ignition delay times decreased, whereas when their concentration increased, H2O2 production was slower and ignition was retarded. Contrary to the ignition delay times, DCN was correlated linearly with functional groups, thus homogenizing the range of values and clarifying the differences between fuels.

  8. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  9. Effects of duckweed (Lemna minor) as dietary fishmeal substitute for silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus Bleeker)

    OpenAIRE

    Noor, J.; Hossain, M.A.; Bari, M.M.; Azimuddin, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    A 60-day long growth trial was conducted to evaluate the suitability of duckweed Lemna minor as dietary fish meal substitute for silver barb (Borbodes gonionotus Bleeker). Five iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 35% protein and each treatment had three replicates with 15 fish in each aquarium with a mean initial weight of 1.5 ± 0.2 g. Duckweed was used in the experiment to replace 10, 20, 30 and 35% of the dietary fish meal in diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Fish meal was use...

  10. The effect of the Medicare Part D benzodiazepine exclusion on the utilization patterns of benzodiazepines and substitute medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Kreling, David H

    2014-01-01

    Although the benzodiazepine exclusion policy in the U.S. Medicare Part D drug coverage program has been studied, little information is available on individual use and switching patterns between benzodiazepines and substitute medications. Patients voluntarily were continuing or stopping benzodiazepines or switching to substitute medications. These individual-level outcomes can provide information beneficial to providers and policymakers to better understand the intended and unintended consequences of exclusion policies. The objective was to determine the effect of the Medicare Part D benzodiazepine exclusion on the utilization patterns of benzodiazepines and substitute medications by a select group of Medicare beneficiaries for a year following implementation of the exclusion. This research focused on the examination of the within-person patterns of benzodiazepine use and factors associated with these patterns. A quasi-experimental, comparative study was used to analyze prescription patterns and multinomial regression models were applied to investigate factors predicting different benzodiazepine use patterns. Pharmacy dispensing data for continuously eligible Medicare beneficiaries with at least one benzodiazepine fill in 2005 were reduced to a comparison group of 216 individuals with continual coverage and an intervention group of 250 individuals who lost coverage for benzodiazepines. Four individual patients' drug use patterns, continuation, switch, fluid movement, and cessation were identified by sorting and arraying pharmacy dispensing data to apply systematic drug file review. Multinomial regression models were used to examine the impact of coverage, demographic, medical, economic, and pharmaceutical factors. Significantly more Medicare seniors who lost benzodiazepine coverage switched to potential substitute medications than those who continued to have coverage. Interestingly, 12 percent of affected seniors and 6 percent of unaffected seniors switched from and

  11. The effect of gallium substitution on the microstructure and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, N. Z. M., E-mail: zahirah24@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Y{sub 3}Fe{sub (5-y)}Ga{sub y}O{sub 12} (y = 0, 0.4, 1.4 and 2,4) thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and annealed for 2h in oxygen. The thin film’s characteristic were studied by an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD show that all films have the garnet phase structure. The grain size particles measured using FESEM were between 45.08 nm to 51.58 nm, and the thickness were between 42 nm to 90 nm. The magnetic properties measured using VSM showed that result was shown with hysteresis loop. The magnetization saturation decreased from 144.26 to 2.76 emu/cm{sup 3} with the increasing substitution gallium. The substitution for y = 2.4 was shown the saturation magnetization was very low. The coercivity increased 35 to 75 Oe due the the increasing grain size.

  12. Effect of La substitution on thermopower in Kondo lattice CeNiAl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, A., E-mail: ankow@ifmpan.poznan.pl; Falkowski, M.; Toliński, T.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the thermopower S(T) for Ce{sub 1−x}La{sub x}NiAl{sub 4} alloys have been studied. Thermopower of CeNiAl{sub 4} Kondo lattice system has larger value than for usual metals, reflecting enhanced electronic density of states near the Fermi level. In comparison to CeNiAl{sub 4}, the substitution of Ce by La drastically reduces the S(T) values. The S(T) dependence of Ce{sub 1−x}La{sub x}NiAl{sub 4} exhibits positive or negative peaks around 30–40 K. The peak position and its absolute value depend on the La content. The S(T) shows a strong temperature dependence at low temperatures, which is consistent with the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. Additionally, it is observed that the applied magnetic field slightly reduces the S(T) values. - Highlights: • Negative thermopower for CeNiAl{sub 4} after substituting Ce with La. • Heavy fermion behaviour at low temperatures. • Magnetic field reduces the thermopower values. • Predomination of the energy scale determined by the Kondo temperature.

  13. Selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their in vivo antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Wang; Hao, Hang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shengmin

    2016-04-01

    Absence of curative treatment creates urgent need for new strategies for unresectable hepatoma. Novel selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (SeHAN) were designed to serve as anticancer agent. The authors examined the nanoparticles by physicochemical techniques. The in vivo efficacy and toxicity of these nanoparticles were also investigated on a nude mice model of human hepatocellular carcinoma. The results showed that the selenite ions can be incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice facilely. They exhibited bundles of needles shape with a size of 160-200 nm. In the in vivo study, they showed better survival advantage. The overall survival rate of nude mice in the control, pure hydroxyapatite and SeHAN group were 50.00%, 76.92%, and 100.00% respectively. Blood biochemical studies showed that SeHAN group had significantly lower toxicities on the liver and kidney functions. Histopathological studies confirmed that massive tumor necrosis and calcium deposition were evident after SeHAN treatment. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay showed significantly reduced expression of the Ki-67, VEGF and MMP-9 protein in the SeHAN group. Taken together, these results suggest that the selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be a new type of promising anticancer agent to provide both survival advantage and lower toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  15. Effect of Zn and Ni substitution on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvana, S. [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ramalingam, H.B.; Vadivel, K. [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Udumalpet 642126, Tamilnadu (India); Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ayesh, Ahmad I. [Department of Math., Stat. and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-12-01

    Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Zn and Zn–Ni co-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method. The influence of doping concentration on phase and particle size of the nanoparticles was determined by X-ray diffraction. The XRD study reveals that the lattice constant and crystallite size of the samples decrease with the increase of doping concentration. The change in the band gap energy of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles influenced more by doping with Zn and Ni. The external morphology and particle size were recorded by SEM and TEM. The results indicated that Ni{sup 2+} ions would uniformly substituted into the Zn{sup 2+} sites of SnO{sub 2} lattice. The substitution of Ni creates a vital change in magnetic properties that has been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • Sn{sub 2-(x+y)} Ni{sub x}Zn{sub y}O{sub 2}, (x=y=0.07 to 0.10) nano particles are prepared by simple sol gel method. • X-ray diffraction data confirms the single phase rutile tetragonal structure. • The VSM was used to confirm, the codoping of (Ni, Zn) increases the magnetic moment of the sample prepared. • Inducing ferromagnetism in sample makes it suitable for future spintronics applications.

  16. Confidence in generic drug substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, R; Jiang, W; Huang, S-M; Geba, G

    2013-10-01

    Patients should have confidence that the generic drugs they are prescribed in the United States can be effectively substituted for the brand product or another generic product. Through new bioequivalence study designs for narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs and postapproval studies of generic substitution, the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) ongoing generic drug regulatory science activities are designed to ensure successful generic substitution for all drug products.

  17. Amido-Schiff base derivatives as colorimetric fluoride sensor: Effect of nitro substitution on the sensitivity and color change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    A series of Schiff bases synthesized by the condensation of benzohydrazide and -NO2 substituted benzaldehyde have been used as selective fluoride ion sensor. Test paper coated with these synthetic Schiff bases (test kits) can detect fluoride ion selectively with a drastic color change and detection can be achieved by just using the naked-eye without the help of any optical instrument. Interestingly, the position of -NO2 group in the amido Schiff bases has an effect on the sensitivity as well as on the change of color of species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the effects of partial substitution of Co for Fe in FINEMET and Nb-containing HITPERM alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Blazquez, J S; Conde, C F; Conde, A; Greneche, J M

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of partial substitution of Co for Fe on thermal stability, crystallization and magnetic properties of Co-containing FINEMET and HITPERM alloys series is presented. The difference in metalloid and Nb content between the two alloy series and the presence of Si in the nanocrystals in the case of FINEMET alloys appear as key parameters. A recrystallization process involving the alpha-Fe type phase in nanocrystalline alloys of both series is evident from thermomagnetic results as a significant decrease in magnetization at the second crystallization stage.

  19. Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Laura; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lentjes, Maria Antonetta; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas John; Forouhi, Nita Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study aimed to evaluate the association of types of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (soft drinks, sweetened-milk beverages, sweetened tea/coffee), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juice with incident type 2 diabetes and determine the effects of substituting non-SSB for SSB and the population-attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to total sweet beverages. Methods Beverage consumption of 25,639 UK-resident adults without diabetes at baseline (1993?199...

  20. Magnetic hysterysis evolution of Ni-Al alloy with Fe and Mn substitution by vacuum arc melting to produce the room temperature magnetocaloric effect material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@sci.ui.ac.id [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Setiawan, Jan [Center for Nuclear Fuel Tecnology-Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional, Tangerang Selatan 15310 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The development of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) material is done in order to reduce the damage of the ozone layer caused by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted into the air. The research dealing with synthesis of magnetocaloric materials based of Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure and by varying substitution some atoms of Ni with Fe and Al with Mn on Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure to become Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6}Mn{sub 32}Al{sub 18}. Vacuum Arc Melting (VAM) equipment is used to form the alloys on vacuum condition and by flowing argon gas atmosphere and then followed by annealing process for 72 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) reveals that crystallite structure of material is observed. We define that Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6} as X{sub 2}, Mn{sub 25} as Y, and Al{sub 18}Mn{sub 7} as Z. Based on the XRD result, we observed that the general formula X{sub 2}YZ is not changed. The PERMAGRAF measurement revealed that there exists of magnetic hysterysis. The hysterysis show that the magnetic structures of the system undego evolution from diamagnetic to soft ferromagnetic material which all of the compound have the same crystallite structure. This evolution indicated that the change in the composition has led to changes the magnetic composition. Mn is the major element that gives strong magnetic properties to the sample. When Mn partially replaced position of Al, the sample became dominant to be influenced to improve their magnetic properties. In addition, substitution a part of Ni by Fe in the composition reveals a pinning of the domain walls in the sample.

  1. Effect of abrupt substitution of gadobenate dimeglumine for gadopentetate dimeglumine on rate of allergic-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Dillman, Jonathan R; Cohan, Richard H; Hussain, Hero K; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; McHugh, Jonathan B; Ellis, James H

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of abruptly substituting gadobenate dimeglumine for gadopentetate dimeglumine on allergic-like reactions. The institutional review board approved and waived patient consent for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Allergic-like reactions related to gadolinium-based contrast media were assessed 2 years before and 3.5 years after gadobenate dimeglumine was substituted for gadopentetate dimeglumine. Reaction rates and severity were compared by using χ(2) tests, Fisher exact tests, odds ratios (ORs), and confidence intervals (CIs). Allergic-like reactions (137 mild, 19 moderate, and six severe) occurred in 162 (0.15%) of 105 607 injections of gadolinium-based contrast media (gadopentetate dimeglumine, 31 540; gadobenate dimeglumine, 66 152; other, 7915). Gadobenate dimeglumine was associated with significantly more overall (0.19% [123 of 66 152] vs 0.08% [24 of 31 540]; OR, 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8; P gadopentetate dimeglumine. The reaction rate for gadobenate dimeglumine peaked (maximum per quarter, 0.38% [16 of 4262]; minimum per quarter, 0.07% [three of 4237]) in the 2nd year after it replaced gadopentetate dimeglumine (maximum per quarter, 0.10% [four of 4122]; minimum per quarter, 0.05% [two of 4222]) and then declined in the 3rd year. The final gadobenate dimeglumine reaction rate (last 3 quarters, 0.12% [17 of 14 387]) did not significantly differ from the original baseline reaction rate with gadopentetate dimeglumine. After gadobenate dimeglumine was substituted for gadopentetate dimeglumine, a significant transient increase occurred in the frequency of reported allergic-like reactions that demonstrated a temporal pattern suggestive of the Weber effect (a transient increase in adverse event reporting that tends to peak in the 2nd year after a new agent or indication is introduced). © RSNA, 2012.

  2. Effective non-viral delivery of siRNA to acute myeloid leukemia cells with lipid-substituted polyethylenimines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanne Landry

    Full Text Available Use of small interfering RNA (siRNA is a promising approach for AML treatment as the siRNA molecule can be designed to specifically target proteins that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation in this disease. However, a clinical-relevant means of delivering siRNA molecules must be developed, as the cellular delivery of siRNA is problematic. Here, we report amphiphilic carriers combining a cationic polymer (2 kDa polyethyleneimine, PEI2 with lipophilic moieties to facilitate intracellular delivery of siRNA to AML cell lines. Complete binding of siRNA by the designed carriers was achieved at a polymer:siRNA ratio of ≈ 0.5 and led to siRNA/polymer complexes of ≈ 100 nm size. While the native PEI2 did not display cytotoxicity on AML cell lines THP-1, KG-1 and HL-60, lipid-modification on PEI2 slightly increased the cytotoxicity, which was consistent with increased interaction of polymers with cell membranes. Cellular delivery of siRNA was dependent on the nature of lipid substituent and the extent of lipid substitution, and varied among the three AML cell lines used. Linoleic acid-substituted polymers performed best among the prepared polymers and gave a siRNA delivery equivalent to better performing commercial reagents. Using THP-1 cells and a reporter (GFP and an endogenous (CXCR4 target, effective silencing of the chosen targets was achieved with 25 to 50 nM of siRNA concentrations, and without adversely affecting subsequent cell growth. We conclude that lipid-substituted PEI2 can serve as an effective delivery of siRNA to leukemic cells and could be employed in molecular therapy of leukemia.

  3. The effect of S-substitution at the O6-guanine site on the structure and dynamics of a DNA oligomer containing a G:T mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ann Moore

    Full Text Available The effect of S-substitution on the O6 guanine site of a 13-mer DNA duplex containing a G:T mismatch is studied using molecular dynamics. The structure, dynamic evolution and hydration of the S-substituted duplex are compared with those of a normal duplex, a duplex with S-substitution on guanine, but no mismatch and a duplex with just a G:T mismatch. The S-substituted mismatch leads to cell death rather than repair. One suggestion is that the G:T mismatch recognition protein recognises the S-substituted mismatch (GS:T as G:T. This leads to a cycle of futile repair ending in DNA breakage and cell death. We find that some structural features of the helix are similar for the duplex with the G:T mismatch and that with the S-substituted mismatch, but differ from the normal duplex, notably the helical twist. These differences arise from the change in the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the base pair. However a marked feature of the S-substituted G:T mismatch duplex is a very large opening. This showed considerable variability. It is suggested that this enlarged opening would lend support to an alternative model of cell death in which the mismatch protein attaches to thioguanine and activates downstream damage-response pathways. Attack on the sulphur by reactive oxygen species, also leading to cell death, would also be aided by the large, variable opening.

  4. Effectiveness of saliva substitute products in the treatment of dry mouth in the elderly: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, David W; Barbaro, John

    2005-01-01

    The aging population is susceptible to developing dry mouth (xerostomia). Elderly patients present all of the major risk factors to acquiring dry mouth which include systemic diseases and disorders, such as diabetes and depression, and the use of numerous medications, including anti-hypertensives and anti-depressants. The consequences of untreated dry mouth are severe limitations of masticatory function and speech, and increased risk of developing caries, periodontal diseases and fungal infections. Assessment of xerostomia, which includes a set of signs and symptoms that impact on the individual, can only be fully explored through a thorough medical history, intra-oral examination and recording the subjective views of patients. This study suggests a methodology for the assessment of xerostomia through a xerostomia questionnaire, which was used to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a saliva substitute product (Biotène) in the treatment of xerostomia in 20 elderly patients exhibiting both severe and moderate symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests revealed significant improvements in the number and severity of symptoms between the pre-test and the post-test groups. Biotène products were also found to be effective in the treatment of both severe and moderate symptoms of xerostomia. Biotène saliva substitutes are an acceptable and effective method of treatment for elderly people suffering from dry mouth.

  5. Substitution of Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer on Upland Sugarcane Cultivation and Its Effects on Plant Growth, Nutrient Content and Soil Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati, Nurhidayati; Basit, Abdul; Sunawan, Sunawan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulfate (AS) fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no f...

  6. Effects of Mn substitution on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sajid; Rahman, F.; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Mn substituted ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) with compositional formula Zn1-xMnxO where x=0.00, 0.01. 0.03 and 0.05 were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed the formation of single phase structure of all samples which is followed by UV-VIS technique. The lattice parameters 'a=b' and 'c' and Crystallite sizes were determined from XRD, it is found that they changes with the increase of Mn concentration, which suggests that doped Mn ions goes to Zn sites. The optical properties were studied by using UV-VIS technique and it is observed that the absorption edge varies with doped Mn content.

  7. Effect of substitutional defects on Kambersky damping in L1{sub 0} magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Victora, R. H., E-mail: victora@umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Kambersky damping, representing the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction, is calculated for L1{sub 0} FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd alloys versus chemical degree of order. When more substitutional defects exist in the alloys, damping is predicted to increase due to the increase of the spin-flip channels allowed by the broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that this corresponds to an enhanced density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level, owing to the rounding of the DOS with loss of long-range order. Both the damping and the DOS of the Co-based alloy are found to be less affected by the disorder. Pd-based alloys are predicted to have lower damping than Pt-based alloys, making them more suitable for high density spintronic applications.

  8. Effect of ferrocene-substituted porphyrin RL-91 on Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Rainer; Vojnovic, Sandra; Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Jux, Norbert; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Vasiljevic, Branka; Stankovic, Nada

    2014-08-01

    Ferrocene-substituted porphyrin RL-91 exhibits antifungal activity against opportune human pathogen Candida albicans. RL-91 efficiently inhibits growth of both planktonic C. albicans cells and cells within biofilms without photoactivation. The minimal inhibitory concentration for plankton form (PMIC) was established to be 100 μg/mL and the same concentration killed 80% of sessile cells in the mature biofilm (SMIC80). Furthermore PMIC of RL-91 efficiently prevents C. albicans biofilm formation. RL-91 is cytotoxic for human fibroblasts in vitro in concentration of 10 μg/mL, however it does not cause hemolysis in concentrations of up to 50 μg/mL. These findings open possibility for application of RL-91 as an antifungal agent for external antibiofilm treatment of medical devices as well as a scaffold for further development of porphyrin based systemic antifungals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of NHC-Backbone Substitution on Efficiency in Ruthenium-based Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Kevin M.; Bourg, Jean-Baptiste; Chung, Cheol K.; Virgil, Scott C.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A series of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with varying degrees of backbone and N-aryl substitution have been prepared. These complexes show greater resistance to decomposition through C–H activation of the N-aryl group, resulting in increased catalyst lifetimes. This work has utilized robotic technology to examine the activity and stability of each catalyst in metathesis, providing insights into the relationship between ligand architecture and enhanced efficiency. The development of this robotic methodology has also shown that, under optimized conditions, catalyst loadings as low as 25 ppm can lead to 100% conversion in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. PMID:19351207

  10. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Effect of neodymium substitutions on electromagnetic properties in low temperature sintered NiCuZn ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.P., E-mail: itria20161@itri.org.tw; Tung, M.J.; Ko, W.S.; Wang, Y.P.; Tong, S.Y.; Yang, M.D.

    2015-11-01

    Nd{sup 3+} ions substituted Ni{sub 0.37}Cu{sub 0.14}Zn{sub 0.52}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Nd{sup 3+} ions content=0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.6, 1.5 wt%) were prepared by the usual standard ceramic method at 1030 °C sintering temperature, and the composition dependence of the physical and magnetic properties has been investigated. SEM micrographs and EDX analysis revealed that it is no obvious impurities up to Nd{sup 3+} ions content wt%=0.04. For higher Nd{sup 3+} ions content samples (0.6 and 1.5 wt%), there are two kind of impurities Cu-rich and Nd-rich iron oxide phase. The saturation magnetization of the 0.01 wt% Nd{sup 3+}ions content sample is higher as result of that the A–B sites distance and YK-angles are shorter and smaller. The saturation magnetization of 0.04–1.5 wt% Nd{sup 3+} ion content sample are reduced, since the total magnetic moments of the AB site are decreased. For the 0.6 wt% sample, the Curie temperature increasing is as result of the Cu-rich iron oxide separating out. The maximum enhancements of permeability μ′ are improved to 11.2% (0.04 wt%) and 29.2% (0.6 wt%) at the 6.7 and 13.8 MHz, respectively. However, it is notice that small amount substitutions of Nd{sup 3+} increase the high frequency electromagnetic characteristics, can be applied to NFC technology and WPT technologies.

  12. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical properties of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine determined by the characteristics of their chemical structure. Influence of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate and amplitudes of isometric smooth muscle contraction in rats was investigated. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1828 demonstrated the similar inhibition effect on bradykinin-induced contraction of smooth muscle like competitive inhibitor des-arg9-bradykinin-acetate to bradykinin B2-receptors. MX-1626 demonstrated unidirectional changes of maximal normalized rate and force of smooth muscle that proportionally depended on bradykinin concentration in the range 10-10-10-6 M. MX-1828 has statistically significant decrease of normalized rate of smooth muscle contraction for bradykinin concentrations 10-10 and 10-9 M by 20.7 and 8.6%, respectively, but for agonist concentration 10-6 M, this parameter increased by 10.7% and amplitude was reduced by 29.5%. Compounds MX-2011, MX-1785 and MX-2004 showed no natural effect on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction. Compounds MX-1775, MX-1828, MX-1626 were selected for further research of their influence on kinin-kallikrein system and pain perception.

  13. Effects of Ge substitution on the structural and physical properties of CuFeO2 delafossite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka-in, Lerdkead; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2015-04-01

    Delafossite CuFe1-xGexO2 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) semiconductors were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The effects of Ge concentration on microstructural, optical, magnetic and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results reveal the delafossite structure of all the samples. The lattice spacing of CuFe1-xGexO2 decreased with increasing substitution of Ge at the Fe site. The optical properties measured at room temperature by UV-visible spectroscopy showed an absorption peak at 283 nm (4.38 eV). The corresponding direct optical band gap was found to decrease with increasing Ge content (from 3.69 eV for x = 0 to 3.61 eV for x = 0.10), exhibiting transparency in the visible region. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed that the Ge-doped CuFeO2 samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior. The Curie temperature suggests that ferromagnetism originates from CuFe1-xGexO2 matrices. The substitution of Fe3+ by Ge4+ produces a mixed effect on the magnetic properties of CuFeO2 delafossite oxide. The resistivity of CuFe0.99Ge0.01O2 was observed to be ˜0.1 Ω·cm at room temperature.

  14. Fairness heuristics and substitutability effects: inferring the fairness of outcomes, procedures, and interpersonal treatment when employees lack clear information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin; Ren, Run; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Johnson, Russell E

    2015-05-01

    Employees routinely make judgments of 3 kinds of justice (i.e., distributive, procedural, and interactional), yet they may lack clear information to do so. This research examines how justice judgments are formed when clear information about certain types of justice is unavailable or ambiguous. Drawing from fairness heuristic theory, as well as more general theories of cognitive heuristics, we predict that when information for 1 type of justice is unclear (i.e., low in justice clarity), people infer its fairness based on other types of justice with clear information (i.e., high in justice clarity). Results across 3 studies employing different designs (correlational vs. experimental), samples (employees vs. students), and measures (proxy vs. direct) provided support for the proposed substitutability effects, especially when inferences were based on clear interactional justice information. Moreover, we found that substitutability effects were more likely to occur when employees had high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure. We conclude by discussing the theoretical contributions and practical implications of our findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Solvent effects on kinetics of an heteroatomic nucleophilic substitution reaction in ionic liquid and molecular solvents mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Hadi; Pedervand, Mohsen; Sadeghzadeh-Darabi, Faramarz; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2013-12-01

    Rate constants, k A, for the aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2-chloro-3,5-dinitropyridine with aniline were determined in different compositions of 2-propanol mixed with hexane, benzene, and 2-methylpropan-2-ol and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([Emim][EtSO4]) with dimethyl sulfoxide at 25°C. The obtained rate constants of the reaction in pure solvents are in the following order: 2-methylpropan-2-ol > dimethyl sulfoxide > 2-propanol > hexane > benzene > [Emim][EtSO4]. Molecularmicroscopic solvent parameters corresponding to the selected binary mixtures were utilized to study the kinetics of a nucleophilic substitution reaction in order to investigate and compare the effects of the solvents on a chemical process. The influence of solvent parameters including normalized polarity ( E {/T N }), dipolarity/polarizability (π*), hydrogen bond donor acidity (α), and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity (β) on the second-order rate constants were investigated and multiple linear regressions gave much better results with regard to single parameter regressions. The dipolarity/polarizability of media has a positive effect in all mixtures regarding zwitterionic character of the reaction intermediate and the hydrogen bond acceptor basicity of the solvent by stabilizing of activated complex increases the reaction rate.

  16. Effects of the Addition of Ortho- and Para-NH2 Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins on the Structure of Nylon 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Díaz-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic tetrapyrrole macrocycles, such as porphyrins (H2P and phthalocyanines (H2Pc, exhibit interesting physicochemical properties suitable to be used in modern technology. For many applications, those species should be trapped or fixed inside graphite, hydrotalcites, silica, TiO2, or polymers. Methodologies for the optimization of the properties of porphyrins, trapped or fixed inside polymers, have been barely developed. Our research works in the development of methodologies for the optimization of incorporation and display of properties of tetrapyrrole macrocycles inside inorganic, polymeric, or hybrid networks. This paper shows some results about the effect of the spatial disposition of the amine (–NH2 groups attached on the periphery of substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, on the Nylon 66 structure and on the display of the physicochemical properties of the trapped macrocycles. Nylon 66 was synthesized from adipoyl chloride and hexamethylenediamine in presence of tetraphenylporphyrins substituted with –NH2 groups localized at the ortho- or para-positions of the phenyls. Cobalt complexes formation was used to quantify the amount of porphyrins in the polymer fibers. Characterization results show that the spatial position of amine groups of the porphyrins has important structural and textural effect on the Nylon 66 fibers and on the fluorescence of the porphyrins integrated into the fibers.

  17. Combined effects of Sr substitution and pressure on the ground states in CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöner, S.; Gati, E.; Köhler, S.; Wolf, B.; Tutsch, U.; Ran, S.; Torikachvili, M. S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Lang, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the combined effects of Sr substitution and hydrostatic pressure on the ground-state properties of CaFe2As2 . Measurements of the electrical resistance and magnetic susceptibility, both at ambient and finite pressure P ≤2 GPa, were performed on Ca1 -xSrxFe2As2 single crystals grown out of Sn flux. We find that by Sr substitution the transition temperature to the magnetic/structural phase is enhanced and therefore a higher pressure is needed to suppress the transition to lowest temperature. In addition, the transition to the collapsed tetragonal phase is found at a pressure, which is distinctly higher than in the pure compound. This implies that the stability ranges of both phases shift on the pressure-axis upon doping, but the latter one with a higher rate. These observations suggest the possibility of separating the two phase lines, which intersect already at elevated temperatures for x =0 and low Sr concentration levels. For x =0.177 , we find strong evidence that both phases remain separated down to the lowest temperature and that a zero-resistance state emerges in this intermediate pressure window. This observation indicates that Sr substitution combined with hydrostatic pressure provides another route for stabilizing superconductivity in CaFe2As2 . Our results are consistent with the notion that (i) preserving the fluctuations associated with the structural-magnetic transition to low temperatures is vital for superconductivity to form in this material and that (ii) the nonmagnetic collapsed tetragonal phase is detrimental for superconductivity.

  18. Study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities, kerma of alcohols, phantom and human organs, and tissues substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishwanath P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic numbers (ZPIeff and electron densities of eighteen alcohols such as wood alcohol, CH3OH; grain alcohol, C2H5OH; rubbing alcohol, C3H7OH; butanol, C4H9OH; amyl alcohol, C5H11OH; cetyl alcohol, C16H33OH; ethylene glycol, C2H4(OH2; glycerin, C3H5(OH3; PVA, C2H4O; erythritol, C4H6(OH4; xylitol, C5H7(OH5; sorbitol, C6H8(OH6; volemitol, C7H9(OH7; allyl alcohol, C3H5OH; geraniol, C10H17OH; propargyl alcohol, C3H3OH; inositol, C6H6(OH6, and menthol, C10H19OH have been calculated in the photon energy region of 1 keV-100 GeV. The estimated values have been compared with experimental values wherever possible. The comparison of ZPIeff of the alcohols with water phantom and PMMA phantom indicate that the ethylene glycol, glycerin, and PVA are substitute for PMMA phantom and PVA is substitute of water phantom. ZPIeff of alcohols have also been compared with human organs and tissues. Ethylene glycol, glycerin and PVA, allyl alcohol, and wood alcohols are found tissue substitutes for most of human organs. Kerma which is the product of the energy fluence and mass energy-absorption coefficient, have been calculated in the energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for the alcohols. The results show the kerma is more or less independent of energy above 100 keV.

  19. Effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Sahraoui and M. Hachicha

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... produced by the water influence moisture content and corrected ... Previous studies indicated that PXRF analysis was capable of detecting soil trace elements ..... determination of some heavy metals in soil using an x-ray ...

  20. Effects of alloying elements on the kinetics of austenitization from pearlite in Fe-C-M alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan; Enomoto, Masato; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Zhaodong; Zhang, Chi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of alloying elements on the kinetics of austenitization from pearlite structure were studied by computer simulation in Fe-C-M ternary alloys, where M is Mn, Cr, Si or Ni, assuming local equilibrium conditions at all transformation interfaces. A thin austenite film was assumed to nucleate at ferrite/cementite interfaces and grow in one dimension. The existence of a partition to no-partition transition temperature (PNTT) was rationalized. Above the PNTT, the growth rate of austenite is governed by the difference in carbon activity between austenite/cementite and ferrite/austenite interfaces; a substitutional element influences the reaction rate by affecting carbon activity. Below the PNTT, redistribution of M is necessary. The PNTT increases with the concentration of all alloy elements except Ni, which has a large segregation tendency in austenite from both ferrite and cementite, as well as repulsive interaction with carbon. The amount of overheating at PNTT from Ae1 increases in the order Si (∼Ni), Mn and Cr, essentially in agreement with a recently reported experiment.

  1. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  2. Weak preservation of local neutral substitution rates across mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karro John E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate at which neutral (non-functional bases undergo substitution is highly dependent on their location within a genome. However, it is not clear how fast these location-dependent rates change, or to what extent the substitution rate patterns are conserved between lineages. To address this question, which is critical not only for understanding the substitution process but also for evaluating phylogenetic footprinting algorithms, we examine ancestral repeats: a predominantly neutral dataset with a significantly higher genomic density than other datasets commonly used to study substitution rate variation. Using this repeat data, we measure the extent to which orthologous ancestral repeat sequences exhibit similar substitution patterns in separate mammalian lineages, allowing us to ascertain how well local substitution rates have been preserved across species. Results We calculated substitution rates for each ancestral repeat in each of three independent mammalian lineages (primate – from human/macaque alignments, rodent – from mouse/rat alignments, and laurasiatheria – from dog/cow alignments. We then measured the correlation of local substitution rates among these lineages. Overall we found the correlations between lineages to be statistically significant, but too weak to have much predictive power (r2 5%. These correlations were found to be primarily driven by regional effects at the scale of several hundred kb or larger. A few repeat classes (e.g. 7SK, Charlie8, and MER121 also exhibited stronger conservation of rate patterns, likely due to the effect of repeat-specific purifying selection. These classes should be excluded when estimating local neutral substitution rates. Conclusion Although local neutral substitution rates have some correlations among mammalian species, these correlations have little predictive power on the scale of individual repeats. This indicates that local substitution rates have changed

  3. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis, low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four yam (Dioscorea spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ayetigbo, Oluwatoyin E

    2017-05-01

    The effects of tempering (annealing), acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution on chemical and physicochemical properties of starches of four Nigerian yam cultivars were investigated. Crude fat and protein contents of the native starches decreased significantly after the modifications, while nitrogen-free extract increased significantly with acid hydrolysis and citric acid substitution. Acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution reduced the least concentration for gel formation of the starches from 4 to 2% w/v, but tempering had no effect. Swelling power of the starches reduced significantly, and water solubility increased significantly at 75 and 85 °C, especially with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution. However, tempering significantly reduced starch solubility in the four cultivars. Paste clarity of starches of white (29.17%), water (18.90%), yellow (30.90%) and bitter (10.57%) yams reduced significantly with tempering to 14.43, 11.83, 16.93 and 7.27%, but increased significantly with acid hydrolysis to 41.40, 35.37, 28.77 and 32.33%, and low-citric acid substitution to 36.60, 44.17, 50.67 and 14.33%, respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities and peak time of native starches reduced significantly with acid hydrolysis and low-citric acid substitution, however, tempering significantly increased their pasting temperature, peak time, setback and final viscosities.

  5. Prioritizing selection of new elements: on the time-course of the preview effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.

    2005-01-01

    The preview effect demonstrates that if observers in a visual search task are allowed a preview of a subset of elements before another subset of new elements is added, the first subset of elements does no longer compete for attentional selection. The aim of the present study was to investigate how

  6. SubVis: an interactive R package for exploring the effects of multiple substitution matrices on pairwise sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Barlowe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how proteins mutate is critical to solving a host of biological problems. Mutations occur when an amino acid is substituted for another in a protein sequence. The set of likelihoods for amino acid substitutions is stored in a matrix and input to alignment algorithms. The quality of the resulting alignment is used to assess the similarity of two or more sequences and can vary according to assumptions modeled by the substitution matrix. Substitution strategies with minor parameter variations are often grouped together in families. For example, the BLOSUM and PAM matrix families are commonly used because they provide a standard, predefined way of modeling substitutions. However, researchers often do not know if a given matrix family or any individual matrix within a family is the most suitable. Furthermore, predefined matrix families may inaccurately reflect a particular hypothesis that a researcher wishes to model or otherwise result in unsatisfactory alignments. In these cases, the ability to compare the effects of one or more custom matrices may be needed. This laborious process is often performed manually because the ability to simultaneously load multiple matrices and then compare their effects on alignments is not readily available in current software tools. This paper presents SubVis, an interactive R package for loading and applying multiple substitution matrices to pairwise alignments. Users can simultaneously explore alignments resulting from multiple predefined and custom substitution matrices. SubVis utilizes several of the alignment functions found in R, a common language among protein scientists. Functions are tied together with the Shiny platform which allows the modification of input parameters. Information regarding alignment quality and individual amino acid substitutions is displayed with the JavaScript language which provides interactive visualizations for revealing both high-level and low-level alignment

  7. SubVis: an interactive R package for exploring the effects of multiple substitution matrices on pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlowe, Scott; Coan, Heather B; Youker, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how proteins mutate is critical to solving a host of biological problems. Mutations occur when an amino acid is substituted for another in a protein sequence. The set of likelihoods for amino acid substitutions is stored in a matrix and input to alignment algorithms. The quality of the resulting alignment is used to assess the similarity of two or more sequences and can vary according to assumptions modeled by the substitution matrix. Substitution strategies with minor parameter variations are often grouped together in families. For example, the BLOSUM and PAM matrix families are commonly used because they provide a standard, predefined way of modeling substitutions. However, researchers often do not know if a given matrix family or any individual matrix within a family is the most suitable. Furthermore, predefined matrix families may inaccurately reflect a particular hypothesis that a researcher wishes to model or otherwise result in unsatisfactory alignments. In these cases, the ability to compare the effects of one or more custom matrices may be needed. This laborious process is often performed manually because the ability to simultaneously load multiple matrices and then compare their effects on alignments is not readily available in current software tools. This paper presents SubVis, an interactive R package for loading and applying multiple substitution matrices to pairwise alignments. Users can simultaneously explore alignments resulting from multiple predefined and custom substitution matrices. SubVis utilizes several of the alignment functions found in R, a common language among protein scientists. Functions are tied together with the Shiny platform which allows the modification of input parameters. Information regarding alignment quality and individual amino acid substitutions is displayed with the JavaScript language which provides interactive visualizations for revealing both high-level and low-level alignment information.

  8. SubVis: an interactive R package for exploring the effects of multiple substitution matrices on pairwise sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Heather B.; Youker, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how proteins mutate is critical to solving a host of biological problems. Mutations occur when an amino acid is substituted for another in a protein sequence. The set of likelihoods for amino acid substitutions is stored in a matrix and input to alignment algorithms. The quality of the resulting alignment is used to assess the similarity of two or more sequences and can vary according to assumptions modeled by the substitution matrix. Substitution strategies with minor parameter variations are often grouped together in families. For example, the BLOSUM and PAM matrix families are commonly used because they provide a standard, predefined way of modeling substitutions. However, researchers often do not know if a given matrix family or any individual matrix within a family is the most suitable. Furthermore, predefined matrix families may inaccurately reflect a particular hypothesis that a researcher wishes to model or otherwise result in unsatisfactory alignments. In these cases, the ability to compare the effects of one or more custom matrices may be needed. This laborious process is often performed manually because the ability to simultaneously load multiple matrices and then compare their effects on alignments is not readily available in current software tools. This paper presents SubVis, an interactive R package for loading and applying multiple substitution matrices to pairwise alignments. Users can simultaneously explore alignments resulting from multiple predefined and custom substitution matrices. SubVis utilizes several of the alignment functions found in R, a common language among protein scientists. Functions are tied together with the Shiny platform which allows the modification of input parameters. Information regarding alignment quality and individual amino acid substitutions is displayed with the JavaScript language which provides interactive visualizations for revealing both high-level and low-level alignment information. PMID:28674656

  9. Machine learning integration for predicting the effect of single amino acid substitutions on protein stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliloğlu Türkan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational prediction of protein stability change due to single-site amino acid substitutions is of interest in protein design and analysis. We consider the following four ways to improve the performance of the currently available predictors: (1 We include additional sequence- and structure-based features, namely, the amino acid substitution likelihoods, the equilibrium fluctuations of the alpha- and beta-carbon atoms, and the packing density. (2 By implementing different machine learning integration approaches, we combine information from different features or representations. (3 We compare classification vs. regression methods to predict the sign vs. the output of stability change. (4 We allow a reject option for doubtful cases where the risk of misclassification is high. Results We investigate three different approaches: early, intermediate and late integration, which respectively combine features, kernels over feature subsets, and decisions. We perform simulations on two data sets: (1 S1615 is used in previous studies, (2 S2783 is the updated version (as of July 2, 2009 extracted also from ProTherm. For S1615 data set, our highest accuracy using both sequence and structure information is 0.842 on cross-validation and 0.904 on testing using early integration. Newly added features, namely, local compositional packing and the mobility extent of the mutated residues, improve accuracy significantly with intermediate integration. For S2783 data set, we also train regression methods to estimate not only the sign but also the amount of stability change and apply risk-based classification to reject when the learner has low confidence and the loss of misclassification is high. The highest accuracy is 0.835 on cross-validation and 0.832 on testing using only sequence information. The percentage of false positives can be decreased to less than 0.005 by rejecting 10 per cent using late integration. Conclusion We find that in both

  10. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of elemental mercury in dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngim, C H; Foo, S C; Boey, K W; Jeyaratnam, J

    1992-11-01

    Neurobehavioural tests were performed by 98 dentists (mean age 32, range 24-49) exposed to elemental mercury vapour and 54 controls (mean age 34, range 23-50) with no history of occupational exposure to mercury. The dentists were exposed to an average personal air concentration time weighted average (TWA) of 0.014 (range 0.0007-0.042) mg/m3 for a mean period of 5.5 (range 0.7-24) years and had a mean blood mercury concentration of 9.8 (range 0.6-57) micrograms/l. In neurobehavioural tests measuring motor speed (finger tapping), visual scanning (trail making), visuomotor coordination and concentration (digit symbol), verbal memory (digit span, logical memory delayed recall), visual memory (visual reproduction, immediate and delayed recall), and visuomotor coordination speed (bender-gestalt time), the performance of the dentists was significantly worse than that of the controls. The dentists scored 3.9 to 38.9% (mean 13.9%) worse in these tests. In trail making, digit span, logical memory delayed recall, visual reproduction delayed recall, and bender-gestalt time test scores were more than 10% poorer. In each of the tests in which significant differences were found and in the block design time, the performance decreased as the exposed dose (product of the TWA of air mercury concentrations and the years of exposure) increased. These results raise the question as to whether the current threshold limit value of 0.050 mg/m3 (TWA) provides adequate protection against adverse effects of mercury.

  11. Economic Policy of Import Substitution: Institutional Conditions and Imperative of Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Ishchenko-Padukova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the theoretical and applied aspects of the economic policy of import substitution, the imperatives of its effectiveness, institutional conditions and prospects for the policy of import substitution in the Russian economy. Modern approaches to the policy of import substitution, which reflect the real macroeconomic processes and have a scientific and advisory capacity for forward movement of the national economic system and economics allow us to consider import substitution as an element of national economic development strategy, which shows the internal processes of production, consumption and state regulation mechanisms within certain trajectory of economic dynamics. The paper shows that the key to the implementation of the import substitution policy is to analyze the structural and institutional conditions that will ensure high rates of economic and social growth of the national economy. The main functions of the state policy in the implementation of import substitution are stimulating domestic demand and private investment in the modernization of national import-substitution industries, the formation of conditions for sustainable long-term development of domestic industrial complex as an alternative raw material economy. Determination of the economic policy of import substitution vector is an actual, complex problem that requires both structural management decisions, as well as new theoretical justification process of import substitution as an effective long-term national development strategy.

  12. The effect of Cu substitution on microstructure and thermoelectric properties of LaCoO3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Li, Jing-Feng; Li, Jian-Hui; Yao, Fang-Zhou

    2012-09-21

    La(Co, Cu)O(3-δ) ceramics were prepared by pressureless sintering of citrate precursor powders, and their thermoelectric properties were investigated with an emphasis on the influence of Cu doping and phase structure as well as microstructure. It was found that a secondary phase first appeared in the form of a network along the grain boundaries and then changed to dispersion with increasing Cu content, which effectively reduced the lattice thermal conductivity of the materials. The thermal conductivity was only 1.21 W m(-1) K(-1) for the sample LaCo(0.75)Cu(0.25)O(3-δ), being much lower as for the thermoelectric oxide materials. In addition, a small amount of Cu substitution for Co increased the electrical conductivity greatly and the absolute Seebeck coefficient, whose sign was also reversed from negative to positive. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of LaCoO(3-δ) oxides at low and middle temperatures can be remarkably enhanced by substituting Co with Cu.

  13. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  14. Effect of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana as a Substitute for Sugar on Physicochemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dietary Saffron Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years production and usage of functional food and drinks is one of the public and scientist’s interest. Since carbohydrates have been recognizedas the major calorie source in many food baskets, most attention has been focused on substitution of sucrose with non-caloric sweeteners. Although both natural and synthetic sweeteners have been used in the formulation of food stuffs, deep concern is raised regarding safety aspects of synthetic ones. Stevia is a natural suitable sweetener that is currently being used as a substitute for sugar in many dietary and functional foods and drinks. In the present study the effect of using stevia sugar as a replacement for sucrose in the preparation of saffron beverages was investigated. Accordingly, saffron syrup was prepared with 5 treatments in which100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% of stevia sugar replaced sucrose. Then, the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of saffron functional syrup were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing stevia brix level, density and viscosity increased but the syrups’ pH decreases. The best treatment was the sample containing 25% steviaand 75% sucrose that compared to other samples regarding sensory characteristics had a higher acceptance by consumer and regarding physicochemical and rheological characteristics more similar to the control sample.

  15. Tonemic Substitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezenwafor

    intonation tune of a sentence but enters as a distinctive factor into the lexical elements of the language”. In other words, tone distinguishes between the meanings ... drew attention to such non-significant tonal alternation. According to him, “The rules for such changes are perfectly regular. This type of tonal interchange does ...

  16. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: evelina.brannvall@ltu.se [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  17. Effect of Halogen Substitution on the Absorption and Emission Profile of Organometallic Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kiong Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study on the optical properties of methylamide lead mono- and hybrid-halide perovskite samples, from the perspective of its crystal structure, which were synthesized in ambient condition (temperature ∼26.6 °C, humidity ∼65%, a step toward industrial commercialization, were carried out. In this study, in-depth information on both crystal structure and optical properties of the methylamide lead halide perovskite was the main focus, including study of relationship between these two factors via real world experimentation. Increment in lattice stain can be observed when the bromide or chloride ions were substituted, resulting in higher lattice strain in hybrid-halide samples. The lattice strain provides kinetic energy to the electrons, facilitating the promotion of exciton which increased the number of photon emitted during recombination. However, increasing lattice strain results in the widening of the energy gap of the samples by shifting the energy level to a higher or lower level. The results provide some insight on the relationship between crystal structure and optical properties of perovskite which paces a route for future cross-factor experimentation under uncontrolled ambient environment, in an effort to unravel more underlying working mechanism of perovskite solar cells.

  18. Photophysical Properties of Benzoylgermane and para-Substituted Derivatives: Substituent Effects on Electronic Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Wolfram; Höfener, Sebastian; Klopper, Wim; Lamparth, Iris; Moszner, Norbert; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Unterreiner, Andreas-N

    2016-11-04

    In the present study, a selection of basic substitution patterns on benzoyl(trimethyl)germane was investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) to explore the influence on the stability and on the relative order of the lowest excited electronic states. The theoretical results are in agreement with absorption and fluorescence measurements. We show that electron-withdrawing groups decrease the energetic level of the lowest singlet and triplet state relative to the electron-pushing systems resulting in red-shifted radiative transitions (fluorescence). In the first triplet state electron-withdrawing groups lead to an increased dissociation barrier and a close approach with the singlet ground state before the transition state in the triplet state is reached, favoring radiationless ground-state recovery. The results are also in good agreement with empirical concepts of organic chemistry, therefore providing simple rules for synthetic strategies towards tuning the excited-state properties of benzoylgermanes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of particle size on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of manganese substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith, E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya, Swami Shivananda Higher Secondary School, Coimbatore- 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Kamzin, Aleksandr S. [Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute of RAS, St.-Petersburg 194026 (Russian Federation); Prakash, T. [Department of Science and Humanities, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Karumathampatti, Coimbatore-641 659, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-03-15

    Mn substituted NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles (Mn–NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized by the auto-combustion method. Their actions were carried out at different fuel ratios (50%, 75% and 100%). The nanoparticles have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average crystallite size of the synthesized and annealed samples was between 25 and 75 nm, which were found to be dependent on both fuel ratio and annealing temperatures. However, lattice parameters, interplanar spacing and grain size were controlled by varying the fuel ratio. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The saturation magnetization was computed and found to lie between 6 emu/g and 57 emu/g depending on the particle size of the studied sample. The coercivity was found to exhibit non-monotonic behavior with the particle size. Such behavior can be accounted for by the combination between surface anisotropy and thermal energies. The value of dielectric constant and dielectric loss was found to exhibit almost linear dependence on the particle size. - Highlights: • An auto-combustion method support to prepare less size of particles. • The excellent magnetic properties obtained by as-burnt samples. • Nature of the ferrite was affected with increasing annealing temperature.

  20. Ab initio study of effect of Co substitution on the magnetic properties of Ni and Pt-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Tufan, E-mail: tufanroyburdwan@gmail.com [Theory and Simulations Lab, HRDS, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Chakrabarti, Aparna [Theory and Simulations Lab, HRDS, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-04-25

    Using density functional theory based calculations, we have carried out in-depth studies of effect of Co substitution on the magnetic properties of Ni and Pt-based shape memory alloys. We show the systematic variation of the total magnetic moment, as a function of Co doping. A detailed analysis of evolution of Heisenberg exchange coupling parameters as a function of Co doping has been presented here. The strength of RKKY type of exchange interaction is found to decay with the increase of Co doping. We calculate and show the trend, how the Curie temperature of the systems vary with the Co doping. - Highlights: • We discuss the effects of Co doping on magnetic properties of Ni/Pt based Heusler alloys. • Indirect RKKY interaction is maximum for shape memory alloy like systems. • We predict Pt{sub 2}MnSn as a probable ferromagnetic shape memory alloy.

  1. N9-substituted aromatic cytokinins with negligible side effects on root development are an emerging tool for in vitro culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plíhal, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Natural cytokinins as well as the majority of their synthetic derivatives show negative effects on root growth and development. Changes in morphology, primarily linked to the inhibition of the cell division in the meristematic zone, are manifested as thickening and shortening of the primary root and impaired lateral root branching. Rational design of cytokinin derivatives can partially overcome these drawbacks and reduce the negative effects. Using our database of cytokinin derivatives, we selected several aromatic cytokinin analogs with modifications at the N9 atom of the adenine moiety. We found that tetrahydropyranyl and tetrahydrofuranyl substitutions at the N9 atom led to enhanced acropetal transport of the modified cytokinin, and both derivatives also showed weak anticytokinin activity. Consequently, changes in the distribution of the active cytokinin pool together with gradual metabolic conversion of the modified cytokinin to its free form prevent root growth inhibition that limits cytokinin utilization in micropropagation techniques.

  2. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  3. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  4. The effects of alloying elements on strength, hardenability, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were then air cooled before being cold rolled to ~0.9mm and annealed. Dual phase heat treatment was carried out at 755oC followed by quenching in water. Tensile and hardenability tests were carried out. Results showed that alloying elements in steel increased strength in the dual phase steels by amounts ranging ...

  5. Effects of quenching and partial quenching on penguin matrix elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golterman, Maarten; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2001-01-01

    In the calculation of non-leptonic weak decay rates, a "mismatch" arises when the QCD evolution of the relevant weak hamiltonian down to hadronic scales is performed in unquenched QCD, but the hadronic matrix elements are then computed in (partially) quenched lattice QCD. This mismatch arises

  6. Effect of Processing on the Elemental Composition of Selected Leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental composition of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum africana, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum subjected to different processing methods were investigated. Processing methods employed include oven drying, sun drying, fresh milling, steaming and a combination of these while the mineral ...

  7. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  8. Substituent and structural effects on the kinetics of the reaction of N-(substituted phenylmethylene-m- and -p-aminobenzoic acids with diazodiphenylmethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRATISLAV Z. JOVANOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants for the reaction of twenty-two N-(substituted phenyl methylene-m- and -p-aminobenzoic acids with diazodiphenylmethane were determined in absolute ethanol at 30 °C. The effects of substituents on the reactivity of the investigated compounds were interpreted by correlation of the rate constants with LFER equations. The results of quantum mechanical calculations of the mole cular structure together with experimental results gave a better insight into the effects of structure on the transmission of electronic effects of the substituents. New σ constants for substituted benzylideneamino group were calculated.

  9. Effects of substituting a portion of standard physiotherapy time with virtual reality games among community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Mohd Nordin, Nor Azlin; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah; Lim, Beng Kooi; Soh, Li Ching

    2013-12-13

    Evidence indicates that the continuation of therapy among community-dwelling stroke survivors improves physical function. Community rehabilitation programmes often face limitations in terms of resources. It is imperative to include new motivational interventions to encourage some level of non-clinician management. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in physical function and activities of daily living when substituting a portion of the standard physiotherapy time with virtual reality games among community-dwelling stroke survivors. In this controlled trial, the experimental group received 30 minutes of virtual reality balance games in addition to 90 minutes of standard physiotherapy. The control group continued with their two hours of routine standard physiotherapy. Both groups received 12 therapy sessions: two-hour sessions twice per week for six continuous weeks. Changes in physical function, activities of daily living and balance ability were assessed using the Timed Up and Go test, 30-second Sit to Stand test, Timed Ten-Metre Walk test, Six-Minute Walk test and the Barthel Index, and static balance was assessed using a probalance board. Twenty-eight participants completed post-intervention assessments. The results showed a significant within-subject effect on the Timed Up and Go test: F (1, 26) = 5.83, p = 0.02; and the 30-second Sit to Stand test; F (1, 26) = 13.50, p = 0.001. The between-subject effect was not significant (p > 0.05) for any of the outcome measurements. Substituting a portion of the standard physiotherapy time with virtual reality games was equally effective in maintaining physical function outcomes and activities of daily living among community-dwelling stroke survivors. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, ACTRN12613000478718.

  10. Effect of Transition Metal Substitution on the Structure and Properties of a Clathrate-Like Compound Eu7Cu44As23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Plokhikh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of substitutional solid solutions—Eu7Cu44−xTxAs23 (T = Fe, Co, Ni—based on a recently discovered clathrate-like compound (Eu7Cu44As23 were synthesized from the elements at 800 °C. Almost up to 50% of Cu can be substituted by Ni, resulting in a linear decrease of the cubic unit cell parameter from a = 16.6707(1 Å for the ternary compound to a = 16.3719(1 Å for the sample with the nominal composition Eu7Cu24Ni20As23. In contrast, Co and Fe can only substitute less than 20% of Cu. Crystal structures of six samples of different composition were refined from powder diffraction data. Despite very small differences in scattering powers of Cu, Ni, Co, and Fe, we were able to propose a reasonable model of dopant distribution over copper sites based on the trends in interatomic distances as well as on Mössbauer spectra for the iron-substituted compound Eu7Cu36Fe8As23. Ni doping increases the Curie temperature to 25 K with respect to the parent compound, which is ferromagnetically ordered below 17.5 K, whereas Fe doping suppresses the ferromagnetic ordering in the Eu sublattice.

  11. The effects of substituting Ag for In on the magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric properties of Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of substituting Ag for In on the structural, magnetocaloric, and thermomagnetic properties of Ni50Mn35In15−xAgx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 Heusler alloys was studied. The magnitude of the magnetization change at the martensitic transition temperature (TM decreased with increasing Ag concentration. Smaller magnetic entropy changes (ΔSM were observed for the alloys with larger Ag concentrations and the martensitic transition shifted to higher temperature. A shift of TM by about 25 K to higher temperature was observed for an applied hydrostatic pressure of P = 6.6 kbar with respect to ambient pressure. A large drop in resistivity was observed for large Ag concentration. The magnetoresistance was dramatically suppressed due to an increase in the disorder of the system with increasing Ag concentration. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are discussed.

  12. "Pnicogen bonds" or "chalcogen bonds": exploiting the effect of substitution on the formation of PSe noncovalent bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Chopra, Deepak

    2016-05-18

    In this article, we have analyzed the nature and characteristics of PSe noncovalent interactions by studying the effect of substitution on XH2PSeH2, H3PSeHX and XH2PSeHX (X= -H, -F, -CH3, -CF3, -Cl, -OH, -OCH3, -NH2, -NHCH3, and -CN) as our systems of interest at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Binding energy calculations depict that binding energy increases in the order XH2PSeH2 bonds. NBO analysis helped in categorizing these interactions into pnicogen and chalcogen bonds, depending on the strength of P(lp) to σ*(Se-X) orbitals or Se(lp) to σ*(P-X) orbitals.

  13. Q-value effects in the synthesis of superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeger, Reimar

    2010-07-02

    Superheavy elements (Z>or similar 104) only exist due to nuclear shell effects, which stabilize them against spontaneous fission (SF). Theoretical calculations predict these shell stabilization effects to reach a maximum at the closures of the next spherical proton and neutron shells, which are anticipated in the region between Z=114 and Z=126 and at N=184. More recent calculations, that also consider deformed nuclear shapes extended this picture and predicted deformed shell closures at Z=108 and at N=162, creating a region of enhanced stability around {sup 270}Hs, confirmed in recent Hs chemistry experiments by measuring the decay of {sup 270}Hs for the first time. Recently, the formation of deformed doubly-magic {sup 270}Hs in the 4n evaporation channel in the fusion reactions {sup 248}Cm({sup 26}Mg,4n), {sup 244}Pu({sup 30}Si,4n), {sup 238}U({sup 36}S,4n), and {sup 226}Ra({sup 48}Ca,4n) was studied theoretically using a two-parameter Smoluchowski equation. Simple entrance channel arguments make compound nucleus (CN) formation appear favorable for systems with larger mass asymmetry. However, due to a lower reaction Q value, the reactions {sup 238}U({sup 36}S,4n){sup 270}Hs and {sup 226}Ra({sup 48}Ca,4n){sup 270}Hs are predicted to have higher cross sections compared to the reactions {sup 248}Cm({sup 26}Mg,4n){sup 270}Hs and {sup 244}Pu({sup 30}Si,4n){sup 270}Hs. The aim of the research done in the framework of this thesis was to study the influence of the reaction (B-Q)-value on the yield of SHE produced in nuclear fusion reactions. Therefore the most promising reactions {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 226}Ra have been investigated and compared with the already measured reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm. The reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U was investigated at two beam energies. One correlated decay chain attributed to {sup 270}Hs was found at E{sup *}=51 MeV resulting in a cross section of 0.8{sub -0.7}{sup +2.6} pb. The reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 226}Ra was

  14. Effect of In substitution on structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, V., E-mail: manikandan570@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 13 (India); Vanitha, A. [Department of Physics, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 13 (India); Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 48 (India); Chandrasekaran, J. [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 20 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Peak shift is due to smaller ionic radius of Cu than In element. • Particle size is increased and also lattice constant increased and then decreased with respect to sintering temperature. • The average particle size is estimated in the range of 30–50 nm. - Abstract: Cu ferrite and In substituted Cu ferrite has been successfully synthesized (In{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; x = 0.0, 0.2) at pH 11 and sintered at 300 °C, 600 °C, 900 °C. From the XRD analysis, the ferrite phase is confirmed and particle size varied from 28 to 37 nm owing to sintering temperature. TEM microstructure confirms that samples having polycrystalline nature because of superimposition of bright spots. FT-IR spectra exhibit general behaviour of ferrite. The significant change of dielectric constant has been noticed from dielectric measurement while substitution of In element. The room temperature magnetic measurements demonstrate a solid impact of sintering temperature and In substitution on saturation magnetization and coercivity.

  15. Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Laura; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association of types of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (soft drinks, sweetened-milk beverages, sweetened tea/coffee), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juice with incident type 2 diabetes and determine the effects of substituting non-SSB for SSB and the population-attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to total sweet beverages. Beverage consumption of 25,639 UK-resident adults without diabetes at baseline (1993-1997) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study was assessed using 7-day food diaries. During 10.8 years of follow-up 847 incident type 2 diabetes cases were verified. In adjusted Cox regression analyses there were positive associations (HR [95% CI] per serving/day]) for soft drinks 1.21 (1.05, 1.39), sweetened-milk beverages 1.22 (1.05, 1.43) and ASB 1.22 (1.11, 1.33), but not for sweetened tea/coffee 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) or fruit juice 1.01 (0.88, 1.15). Further adjustment for adiposity attenuated the association of ASB, HR 1.06 (0.93, 1.20). There was a positive dose-response relationship with total sweet beverages: HR per 5% energy 1.18 (1.11, 1.26). Substituting ASB for any SSB did not reduce the incidence in analyses accounting for energy intake and adiposity. Substituting one serving/day of water or unsweetened tea/coffee for soft drinks and for sweetened-milk beverages reduced the incidence by 14%-25%. If sweet beverage consumers reduced intake to below 2% energy, 15% of incident diabetes might be prevented. The consumption of soft drinks, sweetened-milk beverages and energy from total sweet beverages was associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk independently of adiposity. Water or unsweetened tea/coffee appear to be suitable alternatives to SSB for diabetes prevention. These findings support the implementation of population-based interventions to reduce SSB consumption and increase the consumption of suitable alternatives.

  16. Effects of serum protein on ionic exchange between culture medium and microporous hydroxyapatite and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Katharina; Campion, Charlie; Buckland, Tom; Hing, Karin A

    2011-10-01

    It has been proposed that one of the underlying mechanisms contributing to the bioactivity of osteoinductive or osteoconductive calcium phosphates involves the rapid dissolution and net release of calcium and phosphate ions from the matrix as alternatively a precursor to subsequent re-precipitation of a bone-like apatite at the surface and/or to facilitate ion exchange in biochemical processes. In order to confirm and evaluate ion release from sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) and to examine the effect of silicate substitution into the HA lattice on ion exchange under physiological conditions we monitored Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-) and SiO(4)(4-) levels in Earl's minimum essential medium (E-MEM) in the absence (serum-free medium, SFM) or presence (complete medium, C-MEM) of foetal calf serum (FCM), with both microporous HA or 2.6 wt% silicate-substituted HA (SA) sintered discs under both static and semi-dynamic (SD) conditions for up to 28 days. In SFM, variation in Ca(2+) ion concentration was not observed with either disc chemistry or culture conditions. In C-MEM, Ca(2+) ions were released from SA under static and SD conditions whereas with HA Ca(2+) was depleted under SD conditions. PO(4)(3-) depletion occurred in all cases, although it was greater in C-MEM, particularly under SD conditions. SiO(4)(4-) release occurred from SA irrespective of medium or culture conditions but a sustained release only occurred in C-MEM under SD conditions. In conclusion we showed that under physiological conditions the reservoir of exchangeable ions in both HA and SA in the absence of serum proteins is limited, but that the presence of serum proteins facilitated greater ionic exchange, particularly with SA. These observations support the hypothesis that silicate substitution into the HA lattice facilitates a number of ionic interactions between the material and the surrounding physiological environment, including but not limited to silicate ion release, which may play a key role in determining

  17. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  18. Construction of high efficiency non-doped deep blue emitters based on phenanthroimidazole: remarkable substitution effects on the excited state properties and device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Shitong; Gao, Yu; Gao, Zhao; Chen, Yanming; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Ping; Yang, Bing; Chen, Ping; Ma, Yuguang; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-10-14

    Aryl-substituted phenanthroimidazoles (APIs) are beneficial due to their facile synthesis, thermal properties, high quantum yields, and exciton efficiencies obtained by a reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process. However, it is puzzling how to combine high quantum yields, exciton utilizing ratios and color purity with stable blue-emitting compounds via coupling. Here, BPPI and N-BPPI are utilized as model compounds for understanding C2- and N1-substitution effects via constructing dimers in each coupling position. By integrating the information obtained from DFT calculations, photophysical analysis, and OLED performance, valuable guidance was obtained. C2-substituted groups typically offer a large orbital overlap between the LE states with large oscillator strengths, and play an important role in the maximum peak area and quantum yields. N1-substituted groups contribute to enhanced orbital coupling and cause excitons to transform freely between different excited states. Unexpected results from the decreased barriers of the N1-coupled system included the loss of PL efficiency and increased emission spectral width, which are important for efficiency and color purity of deep blue emitters. The substitution effects are consistent with most reported results. Therefore, this work may be useful for the generation of non-doped deep blue electroluminescent API-based materials.

  19. Effect of a bulky lateral substitution by chlorine atom and methoxy group on self-assembling properties of lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanović, Maja, E-mail: maja.stojanovic@df.uns.ac.rs [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D.Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Bubnov, Alexej [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Obadović, Dušanka Ž. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D.Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Hamplová, Věra [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Cvetinov, Miroslav [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D.Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Kašpar, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Several chiral liquid crystalline materials derived from the lactic acid have been studied with the aim to establish the effect of bulky lateral substituents on their self-assembling properties. A chlorine atom and methoxy group have been used as lateral substituents in ortho position to ether group position on phenyl ring far from the chiral centre. All the studied materials possess tilted ferroelectric smectic C* phase in a broad temperature range. In dependence on the molecular structure namely type of lateral substituent and length of the chiral chain, the cholesteric mesophase, orthogonal paraelectric smectic A* and crystal mesophases have been detected. Lateral chlorine substitution results in decrease of both the clearing point and crystallisation temperature as well as in a distinct increase of spontaneous polarization. Bulky methoxy substitution slightly suppresses the spontaneous polarisation but strongly increases the melting point that results in monotropic peculiarity of the SmC* phase. Mesomorphic, spontaneous, structural and dielectric properties of the substituted compounds were established and compared to those of the non-substituted ones in order to contribute to better understanding of the structure–property relationship for such chiral self-assembling materials. - Highlights: • Chiral liquid crystalline materials derived from the lactic acid have been studied. • Effect of bulky lateral substituents on self-assembling properties has been established. • Bulky methoxy substitution suppresses spontaneous polarisation but increases the melting point. • The compounds might have a strong potential for many advanced electro-optic applications.

  20. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  1. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming

    2012-01-01

    . Significant new bone formation could be seen in vivo in all four groups and there were no significant differences between them. The PDLLA-reinforced substitute seems to be good alternative substitute material for bone healing in sheep. Further investigations should be performed to validate this novel...

  2. Effect of alloy elements on the anti-corrosion properties of low alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Effect of alloy elements on corrosion of low alloy steel was studied under simulated offshore condi- tions. The results showed that the elements Cu, P, Mo, W, V had evident effect on corrosion resistance in the atmosphere zone; Cu, P, V, Mo in the splash zone and Cr, Al, Mo in the submerged zone. Keywords.

  3. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The Commissioner...

  4. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  5. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  6. Investigating Effects of Screen Layout Elements on Interface and Screen Design Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Altaboli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent study suggested the use of the screen layout elements of balance, unity, and sequence as a part of a computational model of interface aesthetics. It is argued that these three elements are the most contributed terms in the model. In the current study, a controlled experiment was designed and conducted to systematically investigate effects of these three elements (balance, unity, and sequence on the perceived interface aesthetics. Results showed that the three elements have significant effects on the perceived interface aesthetics. Significant interactions were also found among the three elements. A regression model relating the perceived visual aesthetics to the three elements was constructed. When validating the model using standard questionnaire scores of real web pages, high correlations were found between the values computed by the model and scores of questionnaire items related to visual layout of the web pages, indicating that layout-based measures are good at assessing the classical dimension of website aesthetics.

  7. Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Blake, Miranda

    2013-08-01

    This study addresses the issue of whether voluntary industry regulation has altered companies' marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Australia since the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code on the Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes 1981. Print advertisements marketing breast-milk substitutes were systematically sampled from the Australian Women's Weekly (AWW) magazine and the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) for the 61 years from 1950 to 2010. Breast-milk substitute advertising in both the MJA and the AWW peaked and began declining before the introduction of the WHO Code in 1981. Although there was almost no infant formula advertising in AWW after 1975-79, other breast-milk substitute advertising has been increasing since 1992, in particular for baby food, toddler formula and food and brand promotion. Companies have adopted strategies to minimise the effects of the Code on sales and profit in Australia, including increasing toddler formula and food advertisements, increasing brand promotion to the public, and complying with more limited voluntary regulatory arrangements. Comprehensive regulation is urgently required to address changed marketing practices if it is to protect breastfeeding in Australia. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk

    2012-08-01

    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.

  9. Effect of the substitutional groups on the electrochemistry, kinetic of thermal decomposition and kinetic of substitution of some uranyl Schiff base complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Zahra; Nasrollahi, Rahele; Ranjkeshshorkaei, Mohammad; Firuzabadi, Fahimeh Dehghani [Shiraz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Chemistry Dept.; Dusek, Michal; Fejfarova, Karla [ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics

    2016-05-15

    Uranyl(VI) complexes, [UO{sub 2}(X-saloph)(solvent)], where saloph denotes N,N{sup '}-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine and X = NO{sub 2}, Cl, Me, H; were synthesized and characterized by 61H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry (TG), cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis (C.H.N) and X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography of [UO{sub 2}(4-nitro-saloph)(DMF)] revealed coordination of the uranyl by the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and one solvent molecule, resulting in seven-coordinated uranium. The complex of [UO{sub 2}(4-nitro-saloph)(DMF)] was also synthesized in nano form. Transmission electron microscopy image showed nano-particles with sizes between 30 and 35 nm. The TG method and analysis of Coats-Redfern plots revealed that the kinetics of thermal decomposition of the complexes is of the first-order in all stages. The kinetics and mechanism of the exchange reaction of the coordinated solvent with tributylphosphine was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The second-order rate constants at four temperatures and the activation parameters showed an associative mechanism for all corresponding complexes with the following trend: 4-Nitro > 4-Cl > H > 4-Me. It was concluded that the steric and electronic properties of the complexes were important for the reaction rate. For analysis of anticancer properties of uranyl Schiff base complexes, cell culture and MTT assay was carried out. These results showed a reduction of jurkat cell line concentration across the complexes.

  10. Entrance channel effects in superheavy element production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasirov Avazbek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between evaporation residue cross sections measured in the cold (X+208Pb, 209Bi and hot (48Ca+actinides fusion reactions can be related to the stage of compound nucleus (CN formation and/or to the stage of its survival against fission. The cold fusion reactions are favorable in synthesis of the superheavy elements (SHE with charge numbers Z < 112 in comparison with the hot fusion reactions due to small excitation energy and large fission barrier of the CN formed in these reactions. The strong decrease of the cross sections of the synthesis of the SHE Z = 113 in the cold fusion reactions in comparison with the ones in the hot fusion reactions is the result of the increase of hindrance to the CN formation in the cold fusion reactions. The origin of the intrinsic fusion barrier, B*fus, causing the strong decrease of the probability PCN in the cold fusion is discussed.

  11. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  12. Effect of Fe and Co substitution on the martensitic stability and the elastic, electronic, and magnetic properties of Mn2NiGa : Insights from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ashis; Ghosh, Sheuly; Ghosh, Subhradip

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effects of Fe and Co substitutions on the phase stability of the martensitic phase and mechanical, electronic, and magnetic properties of the magnetic shape memory system Mn2NiGa by first-principles density functional theory calculations. The evolution of these aspects upon substitution of Fe and Co at different crystallographic sites is investigated by computing the electronic structure, mechanical properties (tetragonal shear constant, Pugh ratio, and Cauchy pressure), and magnetic exchange parameters. We find that the austenite phase of Mn2NiGa gradually stabilizes with increase in concentration of Fe/Co due to the weakening of the minority spin hybridization of Ni and Mn atoms occupying crystallographically equivalent sites. The interplay between relative structural stability and the compositional changes is understood from the variations in the elastic moduli and electronic structures. We find that like in the Ni2MnGa -based systems, the elastic shear modulus C' can be considered as a predictor of composition dependence of martensitic transformation temperature Tm in substituted Mn2NiGa , thus singling it out as the universally acceptable predictor for martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga compounds over a wide composition range. The magnetic properties of Mn2NiGa are found to be greatly improved by the substitutions due to stronger ferromagnetic interactions in the compounds. The gradually weaker (stronger) Jahn-Teller distortion (covalent bonding) in the minority spin densities of states due to substitutions leads to a half-metallic-like gap in these compounds resulting in materials with high spin polarization when the substitutions are complete. The substitutions at the Ga site result in the two compounds Mn2NiFe and Mn2NiCo with very high magnetic moments and Curie temperatures. Thus, our work indicates that although the substitutions destroy the martensitic transformation and thus the possibility of realization of shape memory

  13. The Study of Substitution and Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Examination of the Effects of Alkane and Base Structure on Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment that compares product distribution obtained by either substitution or elimination utilizing alkyl bromides and methoxide, ethoxide, or t-butoxide as the base (or nucleophile) is described. The change in product distribution caused by steric effects of the base and substrate are readily apparent. Prior work on this experiment focused…

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF HORMONAL SUBSTITUTION THERAPY UPON THE PERIODONTAL STATUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS DURING PRE- AND POST-MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ursărescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study. To evaluate the bone mass loss in women, during menopause and post-menopause (a period associated with a deficit of estrogen and the effect of the substitution hormonal therapy. Materials and method. The experimental group included 46 female subjects, evaluated in the beginning of menopause and also at post-menopause, with and without hormonal substitution therapy (in the moment of the consultation. The periodontal clinical (probing depth, CPITN, index of gingival recession, index of dental mobility, index of furcation involvement and radiological indices were evaluated, on following the evolution of the periodontal status from the first consultation in the 3 years. Results. It has been demonstrated that, in patients with periodontitis, early onset menopause and the estrogen deficit, the frequency of gingival bleeding on probing and the clinical loss of attachment were higher, comparatively with the patients having followed a hormonal substitution therapy. Discussion. Apparently, estrogen has a protecting effect upon the periodontium and also upon the severity of the periodontal disease. More than that, the alveolar bone that may be affected by osteoporosis also contributes to the benefic effects of HT, in preventing osteoporosis, the risk of suffering the negative effects of edentation in postmenopause women who receive HT being lower. Conclusions. The present study evidenced the increased incidence of both gingivitis and periodontal pathology, of the ratio of edentation in women at menopause, while the absence of the hormonal substitution therapy seems to be associated with the severity of the periodontal disease.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions, Listed in the April 26, 2000, Final Rule, Effective May...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Restrictions, Listed in the April 26, 2000, Final Rule, Effective May 26, 2000 I Appendix I to Subpart G of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. I Appendix I to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions, Listed in the April 26, 2000...

  16. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix F to Subpart G of... - Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the January 26, 1999 Final Rule, Effective January 26, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the January 26, 1999 Final Rule, Effective January 26, 1999 F Appendix F to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of... OZONE Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. F Appendix F to Subpart G of...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix J to Subpart G of... - Substitutes listed in the January 29, 2002 Final Rule, effective April 1, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitutes listed in the January 29, 2002 Final Rule, effective April 1, 2002 J Appendix J to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment... Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. J Appendix J to Subpart G of Part 82...

  19. Effect of antimony substitution for niobium on the crystal structure, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgbemere, H E; Schneider, G A; Stegk, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The effect of antimony (Sb) substitution for niobium (Nb) on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramic was investigated with respect to the densification behaviour at different sintering temperatures, microstructure and electrical properties. A small amount of Sb5+ was added while simultaneously...

  20. Substitution of peat for municipal solid waste- and sewage sludge-based composts in nursery growing media: effects on growth and nutrition of the native shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostos, J C; López-Garrido, R; Murillo, J M; López, R

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effect of a partial substitution of peat for compost on the growth and nutrition of a native shrub (Pistacia lentiscus L.) was tested. Composts were prepared from pruning and municipal solid wastes or pruning waste and sewage sludge. For preparing growing media each compost was added at a rate of 40%, fresh pine bark at 20% or 40% and peat at 20%, 40% or 60%. Aqueous extracts from the substrates did not impair germination of cress (germination bioassay). In relation to plants growing in peat-based substrate (used as a control), plants of the compost-based substrates reached better growth and nutrition, especially when using the sewage sludge-based compost, and the P uptake was notably enhanced. The concentrations of trace elements were far lower than the ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. Detrimental effect derived from using fresh pine bark was not observed.

  1. Design of a randomized controlled double-blind crossover clinical trial to assess the effects of saliva substitutes on bovine enamel and dentin in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielbassa Andrej M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyposalivation is caused by various syndromes, diabetes, drugs, inflammation, infection, or radiotherapy of the salivary glands. Patients with hyposalivation often show an increased caries incidence. Moreover, hyposalivation is frequently accompanied by oral discomfort and impaired oral functions, and saliva substitutes are widely used to alleviate oral symptoms. However, preference of saliva substitutes due to taste, handling, and relief of oral symptoms has been discussed controversially. Some of the marketed products have shown demineralizing effects on dental hard tissues in vitro. This demineralizing potential is attributed to the undersaturation with respect to calcium phosphates. Therefore, it is important to modify the mineralizing potential of saliva substitutes to prevent carious lesions. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a possible remineralizing saliva substitute (SN; modified Saliva natura compared to a demineralizing one (G; Glandosane on mineral parameters of sound bovine dentin and enamel as well as on artificially demineralized enamel specimens in situ. Moreover, oral well-being after use of each saliva substitute was recorded. Methods/Design Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover, phase II/III in situ trial, volunteers with hyposalivation utilize removable dentures containing bovine specimens during the experimental period. The volunteers are divided into two groups, and are required to apply both saliva substitutes for seven weeks each. After both test periods, differences in mineral loss and lesion depth between values before and after exposure are evaluated based on microradiographs. The oral well-being of the volunteers before and after therapy is determined using questionnaires. With respect to the microradiographic analysis, equal mineral losses and lesion depths of enamel and dentin specimens during treatment with SN and G, and no differences in patients

  2. Can Animations Effectively Substitute for Traditional Teaching Methods? Part I: Preparation and Testing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Santos, Rhodora; Dano, Judith B.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    Two animations, one focused on the macroscopic phenomena and particulate conception of the three states of matter and the effects of heat on these states, and the other on solution formation and solubility were produced using Adobe Flash MX software. The first was designed for and tested on elementary school (3rd-5th grade) students. The second…

  3. Effect of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 250 Anak broiler chicks were used in a 28 days feeding trial in a completely randomized design, in a deep litter house to assess the effect of replacing feather meal (FEM) for fish meal (FM) on the performance of broiler chicks. Five replacement levels of the formulated feed: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of FEM ...

  4. Effect of Peripheral Substitution on the Performance of Subphthalocyanines in DSSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Maxence; Sarı, Fatma Aslıhan; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Torres, Tomás; Ince, Mine

    2016-04-20

    A series of six new subphthalocyanines (SubPcs) bearing an ethynylcarboxyphenyl anchoring unit and decorated with a variety of substituents at the peripheral position of the macrocycle have been synthesized in order to investigate the effect of the peripheral substituent on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Structure and Scintillation Properties of Cerium-Doped Barium Chloride Ceramics: Effects of Cation and Anion Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew; Bartle, Murray; Varoy, Chris; Raymond, Sebastiampillai; Williams, Grant

    2010-06-01

    Barium chloride has been doped with cerium chloride to form ceramic samples of composition Ba1-xCexCl2+x We find from the powder X-ray diffraction patterns that the compounds adopt the cubic fluorite structure for 0.06 translucent, and show a scintillation photopeak for 137Cs gamma rays which can be used to compute a light yield of 7200 photons/MeV. The scintillation decay is characterized by a time constant of 50 ns, compared to a Ce3+ photoluminescence lifetime of 26 ns. We also report the structural effects of alternative cation dopants, including Gd, Lu, Sm and Y, and find that only Gd results in the same structural stabilization, but when additionally Ce doped the scintillation efficiency is only 2600 ph/MeV with a long afterglow. The effects of bromine substitution for chlorine in Ba1-xCexCl2+x to form Ba1-xCexCl2-2xBr3x results in a material of near-cubic symmetry which is not transparent and does not show a photopeak, but for which the largest scintillation pulses correspond to an efficiency of 14,000 ph/MeV.

  6. Chemopreventive effects of synthetic C-substituted diindolylmethanes originating from cruciferous vegetables in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Leem, Dae-Ho; Kwon, Ki Han; Lee, Syng-Ook; Safe, Stephen; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2011-09-01

    Diindolylmethane (DIM), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have cancer chemopreventive effects. A series of synthetic C-substituted DIMs (C-DIMs) analogs was developed, including DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5, which exhibited better inhibitory activity in cancer cells than DIM. This study examined the effects of C-DIMs on the growth of human oral cancer cells. DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 decreased the number of viable KB cells and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and damage to mitochondrial membrane potential through the induction of death receptor 5 and the cleavage of Bid and caspase 8. Studies on the mechanism of action showed that the apoptotic cell death induced by DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 was mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, C-DIMs inhibited cell proliferation and induced PARP cleavage through death receptor 5 and CHOP in HEp-2 and HN22 cells. This provides the first evidence that synthetic C-DIMs originating from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  7. Effects of sodium substitutes on transient inward current and tension in guinea-pig and ferret papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlock, P; Katzung, B G

    1985-03-01

    We used ouabain-treated guinea-pig and ferret papillary muscles to study transient inward current (Iti), after-contractions, and tonic tension development during voltage-clamp pulses. Li, sucrose and choline were used isosmotically as Na substitutes to evaluate the effect of altering the Na equilibrium potential. We were unable to detect outward Iti at any potential up to +30 mV in normal or Na-depleted solutions. However, reduction of Na had a biphasic effect on Iti, initially increasing it and then reducing it at all clamp potentials from -50 to +20 mV. After-contractions were also initially increased and, in sufficiently Na-depleted solutions, decreased by reduction of extracellular Na. However, the peak in the after-contraction always occurred later than the increase in Iti and frequently coincided with the maximum suppression of the current. Complete suppression of after-contractions was not often achieved and always required more complete Na replacement than Iti suppression. Tonic tension responses were reduced by Na replacement, usually in synchrony with the reduction of Iti. The responses of Iti to Na replacement are consistent with a model of electrogenic Na-Ca exchange over the potential range positive to -50 mV. The responses deviate from the predictions of the model at more negative potentials. The results are consistent with the previous proposal that oscillatory changes in internal free Ca concentration underlie both Iti and after-contractions.

  8. Economic effects of immigrants on native and foreign-born workers: complementarity, substitutability, and other channels of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Hunt, G L

    1995-04-01

    The authors use Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) data constructed from 1980 census microdata files and other sources to estimate a structural model of native/foreign-born labor demand and labor supply which distinguishes the effects upon real wages of each type of labor and on the employment of natives. The authors specify, econometrically estimate, and simulate the structural model which incorporates not only a production structure channel through which immigrants influence area real wages and employment, but also demand and native labor supply channels. It is noted that while these are not the only channels through which immigrants may affect native workers, the model nonetheless constitutes a step in the direction of a general equilibrium approach. In the production structure channel, immigrants and natives are found to be substitutes in production. Immigration lowers foreign-born wage rates and leads to lower wages for natives. The negative effects of the production channel usually are ameliorated through the demand channel. Further, immigrants add to local demand through their earnings and potentially through non-labor income, while also lowering unit costs and local prices which enhances real incomes and potentially net exports, and thus the demands for local output and area labor. The author discusses findings of interest from the simulation results based upon an analysis of all areas.

  9. Maximizing the solar energy storage of di-substituted norbornadiene—quadricyclane system through electronic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessally, E.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research is a determination of solar energy storage in norbornadiene ( 1)—quadricyclane ( 2) sytem by two direct attachments of substituents at both carbon atoms of double bond C2=C3 in 1 and 2 at the B3 LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Two electron donating substituents, (pull-pull effect), X (X = -NH2, -OMe, Me, -F, -Cl, and -Br), directly attached at both carbon atoms of double bond C2=C3, increase the splitting of energy between 1 X and 2 X, inducing higher storage of solar energy in the system. Two electron withdrawing subsituents, (push-push effect) X (X = -NO2 and CF3), decrease the solar energy storage. Highest solar energy storage was devoted to pull-push substituents 1_{NH_2 - NO_2 }.

  10. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements

  11. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements

  12. 30 CFR 243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 243.12 May I substitute a...

  13. Effective Simulation of Delamination in Aeronautical Structures Using Shells and Cohesive Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  14. Strontium incorporation to optimize the antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver-substituted hydroxyapatite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhen; Cui, Zhenduo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zyli@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Shengli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liang, Yanqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yunde; Li, Xue; He, Xin; Yu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Renfeng [School of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Xianjin, E-mail: xjyang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Infection in primary total joint prostheses is attracting considerable attention. In this study, silver (Ag) was incorporated into hydroxyapatite (HA) using a hydrothermal method in order to improve its antimicrobial properties. Strontium (Sr) was added as a second binary element to improve the biocompatibility. The substituted HA samples were fixed on titanium (Ti) substrates by dopamine-assisted immobilization in order to evaluate their antibacterial and biological properties. The results showed that Ag and Sr were successfully incorporated into HA without affecting their crystallinity. Further, the antibacterial tests showed that all the Ag-substituted samples had good anti-bacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Despite their good antibacterial ability, the Ag-substituted samples showed evidence of cytotoxicity on MG63 cells, characterized by low cell density and poor spreadability. The addition of Sr to the Ag-substituted samples considerably reduced the cytotoxicity of Ag. Although the viability of the cells grown on the surfaces of co-substituted HA was not as high as that of the cells grown on the HA surfaces, it is believed that excellent antibacterial properties and good biological activity can be achieved by balancing the dosage of Sr and Ag. - Highlights: • Ag- and Sr-substituted HA was prepared by hydrothermal method. • Ag- and Sr-substituted HA coating was deposited on dopamine functionalized titanium. • Ag-substituted HA biofilm showed a remarkable antibacterial activity. • Sr could offset the side effects of Ag.

  15. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  16. [Effect of postmenopausal hormone substitution on the lipid profile and coagulation factors in female smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatović-Babić, Danijela; Beljić, Teodora; Drezgić, Milka; Trpković, Draginja; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Babić, Darko; Nikolić, Jagoda

    2002-01-01

    Postmenopause and smoking impair lipid profile, induce hypercoagulability and reduce fibrinolytic capacity [1, 2]. Postmenopause induced lipid changes can be reversed by oestrogen replacement [3]. Oestrogens also reduce fibrinogen level [4] and have beneficial effects on endothelium [5]. Although several studies showed that hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic diseases, procoagulant oestrogen activity has not clearly been demonstrated. It is well known that smoking accelerates oestrogen metabolism [6, 7], which may attenuate its beneficial effects. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference in beneficial effects of oestrogens between smokers and non-smokers in terms of coagulation process and lipids. The examination was a longitudinal, one-year, before/after therapeutic study, which included healthy postmenopausal women (FSH levels at least 40 U/l), 30 smokers and 32 non-smokers who were under 55 years of age and postmenopausal period shorter than 5 years. Women with surgically induced menopause received unopposed oral oestrogens, while those with spontaneous menopause were treated with combined oral oestrogen/progestogen therapy. Before entering the study and in three-months intervals total LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL were determined, as well as plasma fibrinogen, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Neither beneficial nor adverse effects of oestrogens on lipids and coagulation were observed during one-year follow-up in smokers, although subjects with longer smoking history had higher triglycerides levels after 12 months of therapy. On the contrary, oestrogen replacement reduced total and LDL cholesterol, and increased HDL cholesterol in non-smokers, with no change in triglycerides and VLDL level. A decrease in fibrinogen levels and coagulation activity, expressed by prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time, were also observed in hormone replacement therapy in

  17. Simulation of bonding effects in HRTEM images of light element materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kurasch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of multislice high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM simulation can be improved by calculating the scattering potential using density functional theory (DFT. This approach accounts for the fact that electrons in the specimen are redistributed according to their local chemical environment. This influences the scattering process and alters the absolute and relative contrast in the final image. For light element materials with well defined geometry, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers, the DFT based simulation scheme turned out to be necessary to prevent misinterpretation of weak signals, such as the identification of nitrogen substitutions in a graphene network. Furthermore, this implies that the HRTEM image does not only contain structural information (atom positions and atomic numbers. Instead, information on the electron charge distribution can be gained in addition.In order to produce meaningful results, the new input parameters need to be chosen carefully. Here we present details of the simulation process and discuss the influence of the main parameters on the final result. Furthermore we apply the simulation scheme to three model systems: A single atom boron and a single atom oxygen substitution in graphene and an oxygen adatom on graphene.

  18. Inhibition Effect of Substituted Thiadiazoles on Corrosion Activity of N80 Steel in HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of some prepared compounds, namely, thiadiazole derivatives, on N80 steel corrosion in 15% HCl solutions has been studied by using the weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the inhibition efficiency of the thiadiazole derivatives, namely, 2-amino-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-thiazole (AMPT, 2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiazole (APT, and 2-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-1,3,4-thiazole (ACPT, increases with the increase in concentration. Inhibition efficiency follows the order AMPT > APT > ACPT. The effect of temperature on the corrosion was investigated by the weight loss method, and some thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The inhibitive action may be attributed to the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the active sites of the metal surface following Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that thiadiazole derivatives act as mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The adsorption of thiadiazole derivatives on N80 surface exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions was confirmed using SEM and FT-IR spectra.

  19. The Effect of a Combination Saliva Substitute for the Management of Xerostomia and Hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiedra, R C; Gómez, G E; Sánchez, B P; Pereda, A A; Turner, M D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference between the combination agent of xylitol, beatine and olive oil in a chewable capsule versus the control agent of a sorbitol tablet in subjects with hyposalivation and xerostomia. The subjects had xerostomia over 3 months and a measured hyposalivation. The study was 3 weeks in duration, with 2 treatment phases of 1 week and a 7 day wash out period in between. At the end of each treatment phase, subjects returned for a follow up evaluation. At this visit they were given the subjective sensation questionnaire, as well as their unstimulated whole salivary flow and stimulated whole salivary flow were measured. There was a greater increase in the unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rate, although the results were not statistically significant. The subjective evaluation as measured by the questionnaire showed that both agents reduced the mean score as compared to the baseline, although only the findings in the active agent was statistically significant (p = 0.0015). The significant conclusions found in this study were that the active agent provided a significant subjective improvement in speech, swallowing, and decreased subjective xerostomia as compared to the control tablet. This combination agent has a significant effect on patients with subjective xerostomia but does not have a significant effect on objective hyposalivation.

  20. Effects of rare earth elements on callus growth, soluble protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lanthanum nitrate (La3+) and cerium nitrate (Ce4+) on Echinacea angustifolia callus growth and subculture were studied by the measurement of callus fresh weight, dry weight and time-course curve. The effects of La3+ on soluble protein content, peroxidase activity and shoot differentiation of callus were also ...

  1. Substitution effect on a hydroxylated chalcone: Conformational, topological and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Jean M. F.; Vaz, Wesley F.; de Andrade, Fabiano M.; Camargo, Ademir J.; Oliveira, Guilherme R.; Napolitano, Hamilton B.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of substituents on two hydroxylated chalcones was studied in this work. The first chalcone, with a dimethylamine group (HY-DAC) and the second, with three methoxy groups (HY-TRI) were synthesized and crystallized from ethanol on centrosymmetric space group P21/c. The geometric parameters and supramolecular arrangement for both structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction data were analyzed. The intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces with their respective 2D plot for quantification of each type of contact. Additionally, the observed interactions were characterized by QTAIM analysis, and DFT calculations were applied for theoretical vibrational spectra, localization and quantification of frontier orbitals and potential electrostatic map. The flatness of both structures was affected by the substituents, which led to different monoclinic crystalline packing. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies and homo-lumo gap confirmed the stability of the structures, while intermolecular interactions were confirmed by potential electrostatic map and QTAIM analysis.

  2. Nucleophilic substitution in ionizable Fischer thiocarbene complexes: steric effect of the alkyl substituent on the heteroatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Diego M; Zoloff Michoff, Martin E; de Rossi, Rita H; Granados, Alejandro M

    2015-03-28

    A detailed kinetic study has been carried out for the aminolysis of ionizable Fischer thiocarbene complexes (CO)5M[double bond, length as m-dash]C(SR)CH3 (M = Cr, W; R = iPr, nBu, cHex, tBu) with five primary amines and one secondary amine in aqueous acetonitrile solutions (50% MeCN-50% water (v/v)). The observed rate constants for the reaction with primary amines showed a first-order dependence on the amine concentration, while with morpholine, the rate constant has second-order dependence. The general base catalysis process was confirmed by the variation of the rate constants with the concentration of an external catalyst and the pH. The results agree with a stepwise mechanism where the nucleophilic addition to the carbene carbon to produce a tetrahedral intermediate (T±) is the first step, followed by a rapid deprotonation of to form the anion T- which leads to the products by general-acid catalysed leaving group (-SR) expulsion. In general, it was found that the chromium complexes are less reactive than the tungsten analogues. The obtained Brønsted parameters for the nucleophilic addition (βnuc) indicate that C-N bond formation has made little progress at the transition state. By using Charton's correlation, the role that the steric factor plays throughout the mechanism has been unraveled. The nucleophilic addition to the thiocarbenes is less sensitive to steric effects than the alkoxycarbenes regardless of the nature of the metal centre. Conversely, the steric effects on the general-base catalysis can be strong depending on the volume of the catalyst and the metal centre. On the basis of the structure-reactivity coefficients β and ψ and comparison with alkoxycarbene complexes, esters and thiolesters, insights into the main factors ruling the reactivity in terms of transition state imbalances are discussed.

  3. Tonemic Substitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezenwafor

    heredity or nature influence an individual‟s behaviour. (Mowbray and Rodger 276). In psychology, different schools ... time of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and yes, even ... influences behaviour, effect and cause of behaviour, “but also people in interaction develop culture, they alter it, they ...

  4. The Effect of Degree of Substitution of Cationic Starch on Multi-layer Formation of Ionic Starches in Recycled Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza rudi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer self-assembly technique is a novel method in nanotechnology for modifcation of the surface properties of solid materials. Among these materials cellulosic fbers can undergo surface changes by formation of polyelectrolyte multi-layers (PEM using layer-by-layer method. In this study, the effect of degree of substitution of cationic starch on multi-layer build up of cationic and anionic starches and on the bonding ability of the waste corrugated container (OCC recycled fber with layer-by-layer  technique was  investigated. Experiments were  conducted  at pH≈7.5 and 750 rpm stirring rate in a dynamic drainage jar (DDJ for 10 min deposition time to  construct 1  to 8  consecutive  layers. The handsheets  at 60 g/m2 on weight basis were made with untreated and  layer-by-layer  treated fbers and  their strengths have been evaluated. The results showed that the interbonding ability indices of fbers such as  tensile  index and  internal bonding  improved signifcantly with multi-layering of cationic starch. However, there was no meaningful change in quality of the specimens formed. Compared to the untreated fbers, the tensile index of cationic starch increased by 129% at 7th layer with DS≈0.045 and internal bonding increased by 400% at the 5th  layer. Moreover, with  regard  to  different  degrees  of  substitution  of  starch,  the increasing  trend  in properties was observed;  in which DS≈0.018  for  lower number of layers and DS≈0.045 for higher number of layers. In the frst case, more starch of lower DS was needed to neutralize the charge of the fber surface but in the second case greater charge balance of two polymers resulted in further adsorption and greater stability of cationic starch layer, and consequently higher strength has been achieved for the obtained paper.

  5. Defining collaborative elements in an effective and efficient collaboration in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Wandahl, Søren

    2018-01-01

    through experimental construction projects and debates and, on this basis, demanded and released guidelines for public and publicly funded construction projects. In the quest of defining collaborative elements, previous efforts have been reviewed, thus, identifying most successful initiatives and the used...... collaborative elements. These elements will be included in a study where they will go through a verification process. The themes derived from a contraction of the identified aspects in collaboration through the past two decades in the Danish construction industry were examined to conclude on which of the themes...... are actually encompassed in effective and efficient collaboration. This verification process will generate collaborative elements. There will be a fixed focus on which of the themes and elements that is theoretically included in an effective and efficient collaboration and how these relate to practical...

  6. Effect of radurization on the storage life of pollen substitutes utilized in the feeding of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymas, B. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland)); Przybyl, A. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    In spite of treatment under high pressure and in elevated temperature, the pollen substitutes are not free from microbial contamination, and the pasteurizing effect may be achieved through the use of gamma irradiation. In the case of feed for honey bees, the dose of 5 KGy resulted in decrease of bacterial contamination by 2-3 log cycles. The problem whether such treatment could influence the nutritive value of two protein-rich feeds for honey bees, was the scope of this work. Two protein feeds were used for the feeding studies. The feeds had the following composition: powder milk, casein, Torula fodder yeasts, extruded maize, potato pulp, maltodextrin, sunflower oil, vitamin mixture, milk acid. Besides, feed I contained blood meal and ground rape, while feed II contained fish meal and soya meal instead. On the basis of the experiment, it was found that extruded and radurized protein feeds, after one-years storage at 6 C, did not lose their nutritive value. (orig./vhe)

  7. Cholera toxin A1 residues single alanine substitutional mutation and effect on activity with stimulatory G protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a well-known gastrointestinal infection. The cholera toxin is an important pathological substance in pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea. Cholera toxin is composed of catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a homopentameric cell-binding B subunit. In enterocyte, cholera toxin will attach to GM1 ganglioside receptors on the apical membrane and causes retrograde vesicular trafficking to endoplasmic reticulum. At endoplasmic reticulum, cholera toxin A1 is released from the rest of the toxin into cytoplasm. The cholera toxin A1 interacts will catalyze ADP ribosylation of subunits of stimulatory G protein resulting a persistent activation of adenylate cyclase and an elevation of intracellular cAMP which further result in diarrhea. The single alanine substitutional mutation can result in the reduction of the interaction activity between cholera toxin A1 and stimulatory G protein. In this study, the four well-known mutations, H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109, of cholera toxin A1 is focused. The author hereby calculates for the reaction energy for the reaction between cholera toxin A1 and stimulatory G protein in naïve case and mutated case. To calculate, the standard bonding energy calculation technique in mutation analysis was used. It can be seen that aberrant in reaction energy in each studied mutation is different and can imply the different effect on activity with stimulatory G protein.

  8. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calorie restriction (CR on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.

  9. Inference of Distribution of Fitness Effects and Proportion of Adaptive Substitutions from Polymorphism Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, Paula; Mollion, Maéva; Glémin, Sylvain; Bataillon, Thomas

    2017-09-25

    The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) encompasses the fraction of deleterious, neutral and beneficial mutations. It conditions the evolutionary trajectory of populations, as well as the rate of adaptive molecular evolution (α). Inferring DFE and α from patterns of polymorphism, as given through the site frequency spectrum (SFS) and divergence data, has been a longstanding goal of evolutionary genetics. A widespread assumption shared by previous inference methods is that beneficial mutations only contribute negligibly to the polymorphism data. Hence, a DFE comprising only deleterious mutations tends to be estimated from SFS data, and a is then predicted by contrasting the SFS with divergence data from an outgroup. We develop a hierarchical probabilistic framework that extends previous methods to infer DFE and a from polymorphism data alone. We use extensive simulations to examine the performance of our method. While an outgroup is still needed to obtain an unfolded SFS, we show that both a DFE comprising both deleterious and beneficial mutations, and a can be inferred without using divergence data. We also show that not accounting for the contribution of beneficial mutations to polymorphism data leads to substantially biased estimates of the DFE and a. We compare our framework with one of the most widely used inference methods available and apply it on a recently published chimpanzee exome data set. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  10. Effect of chromium substitution on crystal and lattice structure of soft manganese zinc ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anand; Varshney, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Chromium-doped manganese-zinc ferrite samples were prepared by solid-state reaction route to probe the effect of chromium ion on the crystal and lattice structure of mixed manganese-zinc ferrite. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that Mn0.5Zn0.5-xCrxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) ferrite has polycrystalline cubic spinel structure with some secondary phase of α-Fe2O3. The Raman spectra reveal four Raman active phonon modes in the measurement range of 200-750 cm-1 with small shift in Raman modes towards higher wave number. The average particle size for Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 is found to be 37.28 nm which reduces to 33.64 nm for Mn0.5Cr0.5Fe2O4. As the ion doping of chromium increases, the modes of vibration are found to shift towards higher wavelength and blueshift is attributed to the higher ionic radii of Cr2+ as compared to Zn2+.

  11. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  12. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on demineralized bone matrix and biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ahmed; Sándor, George K B; Brkovic, Bozidar B M; Peel, Sean; Kim, Yong Deok; Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Evans, A Wayne; Clokie, Cameron M L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on the healing of critical-sized defects that were grafted with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with Pluronic F127 (F127) to form a gel or putty, or a commercially available biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), mixed either with blood or F127 to form a putty. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 animals each. Bilateral 15-mm calvarial defects were created in the parietal bones of each animal, resulting in 40 critical-sized defects. Group I defects were grafted with either DBM putty or DBM gel. Group II defects were grafted with either BCP or BCP putty. Five animals from each group received HBO treatment (100% oxygen, at 2.4 ATA) for 90 minutes per day 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The other 5 animals in each group served as a normobaric (NBO) controls, breathing only room air. All animals were humanely killed at 6 weeks. The calvariae were removed and analyzed by micro computed tomography (mCT) and histomorphometry. mCT analysis indicated a higher bone mineral content (BMC, P TMD) in the BCP- than in the DBM-filled defects (P oxygen therapy resulted in a slight increase in new bone in DBM-grafted defects and much larger reduction in fibrous tissue and matching increases in marrow in BCP-grafted defects, possibly through increased promotion of angiogenesis. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the amphiboles: Isotope effects of cation substitutions in minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Valley, J.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of coexisting amphiboles in rocks and the likelihood of concurrent isotope closure allows equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations among the amphiboles to be recovered from natural samples. Oxygen isotope analyses of mineral separates using laser fluorination show that coexisting amphiboles increasingly partition {sup 18}O in the order: hornblende {much_lt} gedrite < cummingtonite {le} anthophyllite. The observed fractionations at {approximately}575 C are: {Delta}(Ged-Hbl) = 0.8%, {Delta}(Cum-Hbl) = 0.9, {Delta}(Cum-Ged) = 0.2, {Delta}(Ath-Ged) = 0.3, and {Delta}(Ath-Hbl) > 0.9. Previously published data for hornblende, actinolite, glaucophane, and garnet show that {Delta}(Act-Hbl) {approximately} 0.2, {Delta}(Gin-Grt) {much_gt} 1, and {Delta}(Hbl-Grt) {approximately} 0. Thus, glaucophane strongly partitions {sup 18}O relative to the calcic amphiboles. The fractionation between two amphiboles of arbitrary composition can be predicted from the known fractionations for mica endmembers, pyroxene endmembers, and exchange components. Applications of the exchange component method reproduce measured amphibole fractionations to within {+-}0.1 to {+-}0.2%, whereas other predictive methods cause misfit for typical metamorphic hornblende of {ge}0.5% at 575 C. Although the isotope effects of cation exchanges may be small at high-T, they magnify dramatically for minerals formed in surficial, diagenetic, and low-T metamorphic environments. Different composition clays are predicted to have equilibrium {delta}{sup 18}O differences of 2--9%. If the isotope fractionation can be determined for one mineral endmember, then calibrated exchanges allow accurate prediction of the isotope fractionations for intermediate compositions of most ortho-, ring-, chain-, and sheet-silicates.

  14. Co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB (PCB 153) and methylmercury enhances developmental neurotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A.; Eriksson, P. [Dept. Environment. Toxicol., Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    In our environment there are innumerable hazardous contaminants. Many of these compounds are the well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCB and DDT. Another persistent agent in our environment is methylmercury (MeHg). These agents are known to be neurotoxic in laboratory animals and humans. Fetuses and neonates are known to be high-risk groups for exposure to these agents. A naturally occurring circumstance is the exposure to a combination of different persistent compounds. The knowledge of interaction between different toxic agents during development is sparse. In several studies we have shown that low-dose exposure of environmental toxic agents such as PCBs, DDT, BFRs (brominated flame retardants) as well as well-known neurotoxic agents such as nicotine, organophosphorous compounds and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), during the ''BGS'', in neonatal mice can lead to disruption of the adult brain function, and to an increased susceptibility to toxic agents as adults. Our studies concerning developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to single PCB congeners have shown that some orthosubstituted PCBs (such as PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 153) and some co-planar PCBs (such as PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169) cause derangement of adult behaviour that can worsen with age. Furthermore, the cholinergic receptors in the brain were also found to be affected8. Just recently we have seen that neonatal co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), together with a brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE 99), can enhance developmental neurotoxic effects when the exposure occurs during a critical stage of neonatal brain development. The present study was carried out in order to see whether PCB and MeHg could interact to cause enhanced developmental neurotoxic effects on spontaneous behaviour and habituation capability when given to neonatal mice.

  15. Finite element analysis of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in head impacts against roads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OIKAWA, Shoko; NAKADATE, Hiromichi; ZHANG, Yuelin; UENO, Takahiro; AOMURA, Shigeru; MATSUI, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    ...% of cyclist fatalities in 2015 (ITARDA, 2016). The purpose of this study is to estimate head injuries for cyclists and quantify the effectiveness of a bicycle helmet by performing finite element (FE...

  16. Binary and ternary new water soluble copper(II) complexes of L-tyrosine and substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines: Effect of substitution on DNA interactions and cytotoxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Duygu; Aydın, Rahmiye; Vatan, Özgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Gençkal, Hasene Mutlu; Zorlu, Yunus; Cavaş, Tolga

    2015-06-01

    Binary and ternary water soluble copper(II) complexes - [Cu(nphen)2(H2O)](NO3)2·H2O (1), [Cu(phen)2(H2O)](NO3)2 (2), [Cu(nphen)(L-tyr)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O (3), [Cu(phen)(tyr)(H2O)] NO3·2H2O (4) - and diquarternary salts of nphen and phen (nphen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and tyr = L-tyrosine) have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these compounds have been investigated by thermal denaturation measurements, absorption and emission spectroscopy. The supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA cleavage activity of these compounds has been explored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against MCF-7, Caco-2, A549 cancer cells and BEAS-2B healthy cells was also studied by using XTT method. The complexes 1-4 exhibit significant high cytotoxicity with low IC50 values in compared with cisplatin. The effect of the substituents of phen and coordinated amino acid in the above complexes are presented and discussed.

  17. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2017-09-13

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  18. Effects of simulation parameters on residual stresses for laser shock peening finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Hee [Korea Military Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joung Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    By using finite element analysis, we proposed an applicable finite element method of laser shock peening (LSP) and discussed various parameters, such as solution time, stability limit, dynamic yield stress, peak pressure, pressure pulse duration, laser spot size, and multiple LSP. The effects of parameters related to the finite element simulation of the LSP process on the residual stresses of 35CD4 30HRC steel alloy are discussed. Parametric sensitivity analyses were performed to establish the optimum processing variables of the LSP process. In addition, we evaluated the effects of initial residual stress, such as welding-induced residual stress field.

  19. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  20. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bhattacharyya; J. Schenk; G. Rantitsch; C. Thaler; H. Stocker

    2015-01-01

    The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Ra...

  1. Reading's non-negotiables elements of effective reading instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This book can be used as a guide for program design and evaluation, as well as a source of ideas and (re)assurances for those currently engaged in the ongoing pursuit of effective literacy instruction for every reader, every day.

  2. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  3. Determination Effective Elements of Continuing Interprofessional Education Models

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Safabakhsh; Alireza Irajpour; Nikoo Yamani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traditional continuing education (CE) approaches have limited impact on patient management and outcomes. Continuing interprofessional education is an innovated educational approach that can improve patient care and outcomes related to health care. There is a need to provide guidance to continuing education professionals in the development, implementation, and evaluation of continuing interprofessional education activities. Objectives: This study attempted to identity effective ele...

  4. 9777 A REVIEW OF EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Some more examples where fruit quality increased due K application are presented in Table 3. All the increase in quality as describe in this section can be attributed to the involvement of K in synthesis and movement of different products to their sinks [6]. A condensed review on the effect of K on fruits and vegetable quality ...

  5. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review article highlights the key factors that need consideration in planning an effective nutrition education programme for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in resource-poor settings. Type 2 diabetes is increasing to epidemic levels globally. Low socio-economic status is associated with poorer health outcomes and a ...

  6. Effective combination of bone substitute and screws in the jail technique: a biomechanical study of tibial depression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doht, Stefanie; Lehnert, Teresa; Frey, Sönke; Fehske, Kai; Jansen, Hendrik; Blunk, Torsten; Meffert, Rainer Heribert

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new drillable calcium phosphate cement (Norian drillable Synthes GmbH) as a bone substitute either alone or in combination with screws in the jail technique (Petersen et al. Unfallchirurg Mar 109(3):219-234, 2006; Petersen et al. Unfallchirurg Mar 109(3):235-244, 2006) with regard to the primary stability in lateral tibial depression fractures. Lateral depression fractures of the tibial plateau were created in a biomechanical fracture model. After reduction they were stabilised with bone substitute (group one), bone substitute with additional four screws in the jail technique (group two) or four screws only (group three). Displacement under cyclic loading, stiffness and maximum load in load-to-failure tests were determined. The groups with the bone substitute showed a lower displacement of the depressed articular fragment under cyclical loading and a higher stiffness. The maximum load was higher for the groups with screws. Only the combination of bone substitute and screws prevented secondary loss of reduction and, at the same time, provided enough stability under maximum load.

  7. Effects of rare earth elements on callus growth, soluble protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... medicinal plants native of North America, was introduced into China in ... 10 days and then moved to light conditions with a 12 h photoperiod of 25 µmol/m2 ·s .... ion might produce different effects on cell growth through changing the ... 1.0 mg/l La3+ or Ce4+ treatment appeared color changed from green to ...

  8. Rat model for dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: glycine substitution reduces collagen VII stability and shows gene-dosage effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nyström

    Full Text Available Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a severely disabling hereditary skin fragility disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, a specialized adhesion component of the dermal-epidermal junction zone. Both recessive and dominant forms are known; the latter account for about 40% of cases. Patients with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa exhibit a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild localized to generalized skin manifestations. Individuals with the same mutation can display substantial phenotypic variance, emphasizing the role of modifying genes in this disorder. The etiology of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa has been known for around two decades; however, important pathogenetic questions such as involvement of modifier genes remain unanswered and a causative therapy has yet to be developed. Much of the failure to make progress in these areas is due to the lack of suitable animal models that capture all aspects of this complex monogenetic disorder. Here, we report the first rat model of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Affected rats carry a spontaneous glycine to aspartic acid substitution, p.G1867D, within the main structural domain of collagen VII. This confers dominant-negative interference of protein folding and decreases the stability of mutant collagen VII molecules and their polymers, the anchoring fibrils. The phenotype comprises fragile and blister-prone skin, scarring and nail dystrophy. The model recapitulates all signs of the human disease with complete penetrance. Homozygous carriers of the mutation are more severely affected than heterozygous ones, demonstrating for the first time a gene-dosage effect of mutated alleles in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. This novel viable and workable animal model for dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa will be valuable for addressing molecular disease mechanisms, effects of modifying genes, and development of novel molecular therapies for patients

  9. Are the long-term effects of mesobrowsers on woodland dynamics substitutive or additive to those of elephants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Christopher A. J.; Duffy, Kevin J.; Page, Bruce R.; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-09-01

    The large spectrum of existing literature on browser-woodland dynamics, both from savanna and temperate biomes, converges towards concluding that all browsers importantly impact woody plants. In this context a crucial question in the current debate about reintroducing elephant culling, is whether the long-term effects of elephants and mesobrowsers are similar. If the two groups impact the same woody species in the same habitats, sufficiently high biomass-densities of mesobrowsers may, following removal of elephants, continue to heavily impact earlier life-history stages of the same suite of woody plants that elephant impacted, preventing these species from maturing. Thus, as existing mature trees die from natural causes and fade from the system, a similar end-point for woodland structure and composition is achieved. We reviewed 49 years of literature on the savanna browser guild, performing a meta-analysis on the disparate data on the guild's woody plant species use (3677 records) and habitat use (894 records). Mesobrowsers' and elephants' extensive overlap in habitat use and staple woody species diet, together with evidence of their influencing each others' abundance and of their dietary separation increasing with resource depletion, implies that the two groups impact the same core woody species in the same habitats. It therefore seems probable that high biomass-density mesobrowsers may have a long-term substitutive effect to that of elephant on woodland dynamics. Consequently management wanting a particular state of savanna woodland, should consider the biomass-density of both groups, rather than just focus on the system's perceived keystone species. Such principles may also apply to temperate and other systems.

  10. The Effect of Two Amino acid Residue Substitutions via RNA Editing on Dark-operative Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in the Black Pine Chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Haruki; Kusumi, Junko; Yamakawa, Hisanori; Fujita, Yuichi

    2017-05-24

    Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a key enzyme to produce chlorophyll in the dark. Among photosynthetic eukaryotes, all three subunits chlL, chlN, and chlB are encoded by plastid genomes. In some gymnosperms, two codons of chlB mRNA are changed by RNA editing to codons encoding evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. However, the effect of these substitutions on DPOR activity remains unknown. We first prepared cyanobacterial ChlB variants with amino acid substitution(s) to mimic ChlB translated from pre-edited mRNA. Their activities were evaluated by measuring chlorophyll content of dark-grown transformants of a chlB-lacking mutant of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya boryana that was complemented with pre-edited mimic chlB variants. The chlorophyll content of the transformant cells expressing the ChlB variant from the fully pre-edited mRNA was only one-fourth of the control cells. Co-purification experiments of ChlB with Strep-ChlN suggested that a stable complex with ChlN is greatly impaired in the substituted ChlB variant. We then confirmed that RNA editing efficiency was markedly greater in the dark than in the light in cotyledons of the black pine Pinus thunbergii. These results indicate that RNA editing on chlB mRNA is important to maintain appropriate DPOR activity in black pine chloroplasts.

  11. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile accumulated a wealth of experience, e.g. in the development of research on health care services, guidelines and the implementation of quality assurance measures. Implementing substitution treatment with concomitant effects and treatment elements such as drug history-taking, dosage setting, co-use of other psychoactive substances (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, management of 'difficult patient populations', and integration into the social environment has been arranged successfully. Also psychosocial counseling programmes adjuvant to substitution treatment have been established and, in the framework of a pilot project on heroin-based treatment, standardised manuals were developed. Research on allocating opioid users to the 'right' form of therapy at the 'right' point in time is still a challenge, though the pilot project 'heroin-based treatment' brought experience with patients who do not benefit from methadone treatment. There is also expertise in the treatment of specific co-morbidity such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and psychiatric disorders. The promotion and involvement of self-help groups plays an important part in the process of successful substitution treatment.

  12. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile accumulated a wealth of experience, e.g. in the development of research on health care services, guidelines and the implementation of quality assurance measures. Implementing substitution treatment with concomitant effects and treatment elements such as drug history-taking, dosage setting, co-use of other psychoactive substances (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine), management of 'difficult patient populations', and integration into the social environment has been arranged successfully. Also psychosocial counseling programmes adjuvant to substitution treatment have been established and, in the framework of a pilot project on heroin-based treatment, standardised manuals were developed. Research on allocating opioid users to the 'right' form of therapy at the 'right' point in time is still a challenge, though the pilot project 'heroin-based treatment' brought experience with patients who do not benefit from methadone treatment. There is also expertise in the treatment of specific co-morbidity such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and psychiatric disorders. The promotion and involvement of self-help groups plays an important part in the process of successful substitution treatment. PMID:17270059

  13. Strontium substitution in apatitic CaP cements effectively attenuates osteoclastic resorption but does not inhibit osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Wagner, A S; Kokesch-Himmelreich, J; Bernhardt, A; Rohnke, M; Wenisch, S; Gelinsky, M

    2016-06-01

    Strontium ions were discovered to exert a dual effect on bone turnover, namely an inhibition of cell-driven bone resorption and a simultaneous stimulation of new bone tissue formation. A variety of strontium containing calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPC) have been developed to benefit from both effects to locally support the healing of osteoporotic bone defects. While the stimulating effect of strontium modification on bone forming cells has been demonstrated in a number of studies, this study focuses on the inhibition and/or reduction of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption by a strontium substituted calcium phosphate bone cement (SrCPC). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of different Sr(2+)-concentrations as well as on the surface of SrCPC disks. Osteoclastogenesis of PBMC was shown to be merely unaffected by medium Sr(2+)-concentrations comparable to those released from SrCPC in vitro (0.05-0.15mM). However, an altering effect of 0.1mM strontium on the cytoskeleton of osteoclast-like cells was shown. In direct contact to SrCPC disks, these cells exhibited typical morphological features and osteoclast markers on both RNA and protein level were formed. However, calcium phosphate resorption was significantly decreased on strontium-containing cements in comparison to a strontium-free control. This was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of strontium that increased with substrate strontium content as demonstrated by Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). This study illustrates that SrCPC do not inhibit osteoclastogenesis but significantly attenuate osteoclastic substrate resorption in vitro. Strontium ions have been shown to promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption. Therefore strontium is successfully used in the treatment of osteoporosis and also inspired the development of strontium-containing strontium/calcium phosphate bone cements (Sr

  14. Effect of substitution of oat hulls for traditional fiber source on digestion and performance of fattening rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangzhan, S; Xiang, J; Caixia, Z; Zhaohui, F; Fuchang, L

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of oat hulls (OH) to substitute traditional fiber (a mixture of rice hulls and mugwort (RHM) leaf) in the diets of fattening rabbits by examining on its effect on the growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients, gastrointestinal tract development, cecum fermentation and carcass traits. A total of 160 mixed sex Hyla commercial meat rabbits (40/treatment) were used to study the effects of including OH in the diet from 30 to 80 days of age. A control diet based on RHM and containing 175.2 g crude fiber and 169.7 g CP/kg was included. Growth performance and CTTAD of nutrients were recorded from day 35 to day 80 and day 74 to day 80, respectively, whereas gastrointestinal tract development, cecum fermentation and carcass traits were determined at day 80. Increasing concentrations of OH in the diet increased average daily feed intake (P=0.0018), but have no effects on average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05). Moreover, the 150 g/kg OH diet decreased the relative weight of full cecum and cecal content (P0.05). The concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, acetic and butyric acids were greater in rabbits fed the lower levels of OH (0 to 100 g/kg) compared with higher rate (150 g/kg; P0.05). Furthermore, no significant effect on the ratios of acetic/(propionic+butyric) was observed (P>0.05). Hot carcass weight, pH (45 min, 24 h), lightness, redness, yellowness, 24-h drip loss of longissimus lumborum muscles were not affected by diet OH (P>0.05). However, dressing out percentage increased with higher (150 g/kg) inclusion of OH. It is concluded that OH can be included in rabbit diets at levels up to 100 g/kg, but negative effect on digestion and performance were observed with the increasing of OH (150 g/kg).

  15. The effect of dead elements on the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachutka, Jaromir; Dolezal, Ladislav; Kollmann, Christian; Klein, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of multiple dead elements in an ultrasound probe on the accuracy of Doppler ultrasound measurements. For this work, we used a specially designed ultrasound imaging system, the Ultrasonix Sonix RP, that provides the user with the ability to disable selected elements in the probe. Using fully functional convex, linear, and phased array probes, we established a performance baseline by measuring the parameters of a laminar parabolic flow profile. These same parameters were then measured using probes with 1 to 10 disabled elements. The acquired velocity spectra from the functional probes and the probes with disabled elements were then analyzed to determine the overall Doppler power, maximum flow velocity, and average flow velocity. Color Flow Doppler images were also evaluated in a similar manner. The analysis of the Doppler spectra indicates that the overall Doppler power as well as the detected maximum and average velocities decrease with the increasing number of disabled elements. With multiple disabled elements, decreases in the detected maximum and average velocities greater than 20% were recorded. Similar results were also observed with Color Flow Doppler measurements. Our results confirmed that the degradation of the ultrasound probe through the loss of viable elements will negatively affect the quality of the Doppler-derived diagnostic information. We conclude that the results of Doppler measurements cannot be considered accurate or reliable if there are four or more contiguous dead elements in any given probe.

  16. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  17. Docking Studies and α-Substitution Effects on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of β-Hydroxy-β-arylpropanoic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan O. Juranić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Six β-hydroxy-β-aryl propanoic acids were synthesised using a modification of Reformatsky reaction which has already been reported. These acids belong to the aryl propanoic acid class of compounds, structurally similar to the NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and an anti-inflammatory activity is thus expected. The aim of this work was to determine anti-inflammatory activity, examine gastric tolerability, and to carry out molecular docking experiments to identify potential COX-2 inhibitors among the β-hydroxy-β-aryl propanoic acids, and to elucidate the effect α-methyl substitution on the anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity and gastric tolerability were determined on rats using carragenan induced paw oedema method, and docking studies were carried out using Autodock v4.0.1. The range of ED50 values is between 127 µmol/kg and 15 µmol/kg, while the result for ibuprofen is 51.7 µmol/kg. Only slight hyperaemia or few petechiae were spotted on rat’s stomach. The results indicate that all compounds possess significant anti-inflammatory activity after oral administration, and that 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-3,3-diphenyl-propanoic acid has greatest activity, surpassing that of ibuprofen, a standard NSAID. Another compound, 3-hydroxy-3,3-diphenylpropanoic acid, shows activity matching that of ibuprofen, and is non-chiral and is proven to be non-toxic. The most of investigated compounds have interactions with P3 anchor site like COX-2 selective inhibitors. No tested substances or ibuprofen produced any significant gastric lesions.

  18. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p product formation. Enzymes can increase the gut fermentation activity and improve the SBM proteic value. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Substitute family care

    OpenAIRE

    Petrů, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis focuses on substitute family care in the Czech Republic and its importance for the child. The theoretical part defines the basic terms, describes history and the forms of substitute family care. It also deals with the process of placing a child in substitute family care, the preparation of foster parents and the legislation regulating substitute family care. The practical part is based on qualitative research in families with children in foster and tutelary care, in famili...

  20. Effect of structural transition on magnetic and dielectric properties of La and Mn co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kar, Manoranjan, E-mail: mano@iitp.ac.in

    2014-12-15

    Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.000–0.300) ceramics prepared by the tartaric acid modified sol–gel technique have been studied to analyze the effect of composition driven structural transition on the magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}). It was found that the co-substitution of La and Mn at Bi and Fe sites leads to suppression of impurity phases (Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} and Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 40}) which generally appear in BiFeO{sub 3}. The quantitative crystallographic phase analysis has been carried out by double phase Rietveld analysis of all the XRD patterns which indicates the existence of compositional driven crystal structure transformation from rhombohederal (space group R3c) to the orthorhombic (space group Pbnm) with the increase in substitution concentration. The 5% co-substituted sample exhibit high remnant magnetization i.e. about 15 times that of BiFeO{sub 3} which is due to the suppression of cycloid spin structure and enhanced canting angle of antiferromagnetically ordered spins caused by the crystal lattice distortion. However, further increase in substitution results in the reduction of remnant magnetization and coercivity due to the appearance of complete antiferromagnetic ordering in the orthorhombic structure because of the significant contribution from the crystallographic phase of Pbnm space group (as obtained from double phase Rietveld analysis). The frequency independent higher dielectric constant and lower dielectric loss were observed for 5% co-substitution. Hence, this particular composition may be interesting for device applications. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refined XRD patterns of Bi{sub 0.950}L{sub 0.050}Fe{sub 0.950}Mn{sub 0.050}O{sub 3} sample. The two rows of Bragg positions are for R3c and Pbnm space groups respectively and corresponding wt% of crystallographic phases have been quantified using this refinement. - Highlights: • Secondary phase formation has been

  1. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  2. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  3. Effect of microalloying elements on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered constructional steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingshen; Huang, Leqing; Di, Guobiao; Wang, Yanfeng; Yang, Yongda; Ma, Changwen

    2017-09-01

    The effects of microalloying elements Nb, V and Ti on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered steel were studied. Results showed that the addition of microalloying elements led to the formation of bainite and increased strength, while the austenization and ferrite transformation temperature was barely affected, i.e. 10°C. Microalloying elements shortened the incubation time for bainite transformation by refinement of austenite grain, and decreased the hardenability by forming carbides and therefore reducing the carbon content of super-cooled austenite. Either of them promoted the bainite transformation. The better tempering stability was ascribed to the as hot-rolled bainite microstructure and secondary carbide precipitation during tempering.

  4. The effect of partial substitution of pork back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts on chemical composition, texture profile and sensorial properties of meatloaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dănuţ MOCANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of the partial substitution of the pork back fat with different vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, walnut and sunflower and walnuts on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory characteristics of meatloaves. The dry matter and ash content of meatloaf with vegetable oils and walnuts were higher than the control sample (P < 0.05. The cooking loss, energy values and lipid oxidation for the samples with walnuts and vegetable oils were lower than the control sample. The meatloaf sample containing walnuts and sea buckthorn oil had the highest total antioxidant capacity. The partial substitution of pork back fat showed a positive effect on textural and sensorial characteristics. Results reveal that the incorporation of vegetable oils and walnuts has successfully reduced the animal fat content in the finite products while improving the quality characteristics.

  5. Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F.S.L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The

  6. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  7. Effect of pore size and cross-linking of a novel collagen-elastin dermal substitute on wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; Damink, L.O.; Middelkoop, E.; Eummelen, L.; Buhren, A.V.; Ulrich, M.M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen-elastin (CE) scaffolds are frequently used for dermal replacement in the treatment of full-thickness skin defects such as burn wounds. But little is known about the optimal pore size and level of cross-linking. Different formulations of dermal substitutes with unidirectional pores were

  8. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Finite elements and fluid dynamics. [instability effects on solution of nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, G.

    1975-01-01

    Difficulties concerning a use of the finite element method in the solution of the nonlinear equations of fluid dynamics are partly related to various 'hidden' instabilities which often arise in fluid calculations. The instabilities are typically due to boundary effects or nonlinearities. It is shown that in certain cases these instabilities can be avoided if certain conservation laws are satisfied, and that the latter are often intimately related to finite elements.

  10. Culture-Free Leadership Effectiveness Versus Moderators of Leadership Behavior: An Extension and Test of Kerr and Jermier's “Substitutes for Leadership” Model in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiing-Lih Farh; Podsakoff, Philip M; Bor-Shiuan Cheng

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether several situation variables serve as moderators of the effects of leader reward and punishment behaviors for Taiwanese workers. Contrary to what would be expected from Kerr and Jermier's (1978) substitutes for leadership model, none of the situational variables was found to reverse (1) the positive relationship between leader contingent reward behavior and subordinate performance or satisfaction, or (2) the generally negative relationship between lea...

  11. Mechanism of the Fischer reaction. Effect of electronic factors on the kinetics of the rearrangement of m-substituted cyclohexanone arylhydrazones to tetrahydrocarbazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przheval' skii, N.M.; Kostromina, L.Yu.; Grandberg, I.I.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of the thermal and acid-catalyzed Fischer indolization of m-substituted cyclohexanone arylhydrazones were studied. It was shown that substituents with different natures (-CH/sub 3/, -Cl) and the polarity of the solvent have little effect on the rate of the rearrangement. The results obtained were interpreted within the framework of the concerted mechanism for the formation of the carbon-carbon bond ((3,3)-sigmatropic rearrangement).

  12. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on trace element stoichiometry in five grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiangping; Weiner, Jacob; Wang, Ruzhen; Luo, Wentao; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Heyong; Xu, Zhuwen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yuge; Jiang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plants under the two environmental change factors in a semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia. We measured concentrations of trace elements in soil and in foliage of five common herbaceous species including 3 forbs and 2 grasses. In addition, bioaccumulation factors (BAF, the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism and the chemical concentration in the growth substrate) and foliar Fe:Mn ratio in each plant was calculated. Our results showed that soil available Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations increased under N addition and were negatively correlated with both soil pH and cation exchange capacity. Water addition partly counteracted the positive effects of N addition on available trace element concentrations in the soil. Foliar Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations increased but Fe concentration decreased with N addition, resulting in foliar elemental imbalances among Fe and other selected trace elements. Water addition alleviated the effect of N addition. Forbs are more likely to suffer from Mn toxicity and Fe deficiency than grass species, indicating more sensitivity to changing elemental bioavailability in soil. Our results suggested that soil acidification due to N deposition may accelerate trace element cycling and lead to elemental imbalance in soil-plant systems of semi-arid grasslands and these impacts of N deposition on semi-arid grasslands were affected by water addition. These findings indicate an important role for soil trace elements in maintaining ecosystem functions associated with atmospheric N deposition and changing precipitation regimes in the future.

  13. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; -, Tanyeri P; -, Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  14. Effects of substituting nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses for physicians concerning healthcare for the ageing population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovink, Marleen H; Persoon, Anke; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Van Vught, Anneke J A H; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Laurant, Miranda G H

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of substituting nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses for physicians in long-term care facilities and primary healthcare for the ageing population (primary aim) and to describe what influences the implementation (secondary aim). Healthcare for the ageing population is undergoing major changes and physicians face heavy workloads. A solution to guarantee quality and contain costs might be to substitute nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses for physicians. A systematic literature review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, Web of Science; searched January 1995-August 2015. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted independently by two reviewers. Outcomes collected: patient outcomes, care provider outcomes, process of care outcomes, resource use outcomes, costs and descriptions of the implementation. Data synthesis consisted of a narrative summary. Two studies used a randomized design and eight studies used other comparative designs. The evidence of the two randomized controlled trials showed no effect on approximately half of the outcomes and a positive effect on the other half of the outcomes. Results of eight other comparative study designs point towards the same direction. The implementation was influenced by factors on a social, organizational and individual level. Physician substitution in healthcare for the ageing population may achieve at least as good patient outcomes and process of care outcomes compared with care provided by physicians. Evidence about resource use and costs is too limited to draw conclusions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Trace elements in floodplain soils - effects of redox conditions on the mobility of trace elements and volatilization of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Hindersmann, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Floodplains are characterized by periodic flooding and their soils can contain high concentrations of trace elements. The flooding events lead to varying oxygen contents in the soil. This is accompanied with varying redox conditions that are expressed by strongly fluc-tuating redox potentials. This study investigated the influence of flooding events on the mo-bilization of the trace elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc, as ...

  16. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical "pollution" elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP.

  17. Effect of water degradation on the Zn{sup 2+} substituted YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, G.L. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007 (India)]. E-mail: glbhalla@physics.du.ac.in

    2005-07-15

    Non-magnetic Zn{sup 2+}, with varying molar concentration x (0 < x < 0.1), is substituted in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} at Cu(2) site. The samples are treated with deionised water for 16 h. The degradation effect on both the untreated and water treated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 7-{delta}} samples is studied by employing temperature dependence resistance measurements, oxygen content and determination of unit cell parameters through X-ray diffraction. The results show that Zn{sup 2+} substitution, unlike the Sr{sup 2+} or the Al{sup 3+}, does not control or prevent degradation of the superconducting samples rather it enhances with increasing concentration of zinc.

  18. Study of cationic substitutions mechanisms in the superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} and of its effects on structure and magnetic properties: case of zinc and of nickel; Etude des mecanismes de substitutions cationiques dans le supraconducteur YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} et de leurs effets sur la structure et les proprietes magnetiques: cas du zinc et du nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, R.

    1996-02-01

    Substitution of zinc nonmagnetic impurities in copper site of conductive planes in the compound YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} constitute a probe for studying the magnetism role in superconductivity apparition. This zinc substitution effects are put in evidence by neutrons and X-rays diffraction. Neel temperature of zinc substituted isolating compounds is lowered, this is attributed to zinc dilution effect of the bidimensional antiferromagnetic structure. Curie-Weiss type magnetic comportment in planes copper site, and the screening of the structural effects by the doping substitution indicate a reduction of the charges carriers. Nickel substitution induces along the c axis an important reduction of the lattice parameter, and a doubling of the magnetic lattice. This is attributed to nickel partial substitution in copper sites non affecting the charges transfer. (A.B.). 219 refs.

  19. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  20. A-site substitution effect of perovskite-type cobalt and manganese oxides on two-step water splitting reaction for solar hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Takumi; Mori, Kohei

    2017-06-01

    The perovskite type metal oxides (ABO3: A and B are metal elements) are attractive material for the two-step water splitting process to produce solar hydrogen, because the diversity of perovskite compound with substitution of metal ion makes its reducibility changeable. The perovskite-type cobalt and manganese oxides are prepared with substitution of metal ion in the A-site, and the performance of two-step water splitting reaction is investigated. The LaCoO3 and Ca0.45Sr0.4La0.15MnO3-δ, containing more trivalent metal ions in the A-site of perovskite structure, are most promising materials for solar hydrogen production. It is found that the two-step water-splitting reaction with Ca0.45Sr0.4La0.15MnO3-δ of the perovskite-type manganese oxide proceed stoichiometrically and Ca0.45Sr0.4La0.15MnO3-δ can produce much H2 gas (4cm3/g-sample) at the reduction temperature of 1400 °C.

  1. Determining the effect of Ru substitution on the thermal stability of CeFe[subscript 4-x]Ru[subscript x]Sb[subscript 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Jessica A.; Walker, James D.S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. (Saskatchewan)

    2011-11-14

    The ternary, rare-earth filled (RE) Skutterudites (REM{sub 4}Pn{sub 12}; M = Fe-Os; Pn = P-Sb) have been proposed for use in high-temperature thermoelectric devices to convert waste heat to useful power. CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} has been one of the most popular materials proposed for this application; however, it oxidizes at relatively low temperatures. The thermal stability of Skutterudites can be enhanced by selective substitution of the constituent elements and Eu(Fe,Ru){sub 4}Sb{sub 12} variants have been found to oxidize at temperatures above that of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. Unfortunately, these materials have poor thermoelectric properties. In this study, the thermal stability of CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} was examined depending on the value of x. (These compounds have similar thermoelectric properties to those of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}.) It has been found by use of TGA and XANES that the temperature at which point CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} oxidizes increases with greater Ru substitution. XANES was also used to confirm the general charge assignment of Ce{sup 3+}Fe{sub 4-x}{sup 2+}Ru{sub x}{sup 2+}Sb{sub 12}{sup 1-}.

  2. Determining the effect of Ru substitution on the thermal stability of CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Jessica A.; Walker, James D. S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2011-11-01

    The ternary, rare-earth filled (RE) Skutterudites (REM 4Pn12; M = Fe-Os; Pn = P-Sb) have been proposed for use in high-temperature thermoelectric devices to convert waste heat to useful power. CeFe 4Sb 12 has been one of the most popular materials proposed for this application; however, it oxidizes at relatively low temperatures. The thermal stability of Skutterudites can be enhanced by selective substitution of the constituent elements and Eu(Fe,Ru) 4Sb 12 variants have been found to oxidize at temperatures above that of CeFe 4Sb 12. Unfortunately, these materials have poor thermoelectric properties. In this study, the thermal stability of CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12 was examined depending on the value of x. (These compounds have similar thermoelectric properties to those of CeFe 4Sb 12.) It has been found by use of TGA and XANES that the temperature at which point CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12 oxidizes increases with greater Ru substitution. XANES was also used to confirm the general charge assignment of Ce 3+Fe 4- x2+Ru x2+Sb 121-.

  3. Effect of double-hyperconjugation on the apparent donor ability of sigma-bonds: insights from the relative stability of delta-substituted cyclohexyl cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabugin, Igor V; Manoharan, Mariappan

    2004-12-24

    A combination of electronic, structural, and energetic analyses shows that a somewhat larger intrinsic donor ability of the C-H bonds compared to that of C-C bonds can be overshadowed by cooperative hyperconjugative interactions with participation of remote substituents (double hyperconjugation or through-bond interaction). The importance of double hyperconjugation was investigated computationally using two independent criteria: (a) relative total energies and geometries of two conformers ("hyperconjomers") of delta-substituted cyclohexyl cations (b) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of electronic structure and orbital interactions in these molecules. Both criteria clearly show that the apparent donor ability of C-C bonds can vary over a wide range, and the relative order of donor ability of C-H and C-C bonds can be easily inverted depending on molecular connectivity and environment. In general, relative donor abilities of sigma bonds can be changed by their through-bond communication with remote substituents and by greater polarizability of C-X bonds toward heavier elements. These computational results can be confirmed by experimental studies of conformational equilibrium of delta-substituted cyclohexyl cations.

  4. Effect of Trace Elements (Boron and Lead) on the Properties of Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankamma, Kandula

    2014-04-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to correlate the "Effect of trace elements (B and Pb) on the tensile strength, hardness and microstructure of gray cast iron". These elements have a significant effect on the properties and microstructure of gray cast iron. These elements are deliberately added to study their effect on properties and microstructure. Boron up to 0.02 % in gray cast iron showed an improvement in tensile strength and hardness values. While beyond this amount it shows a decreasing trend, due to the formation of type B and type D graphitic structure. Lead in gray cast iron shows a decreasing trend in tensile strength and hardness values, even if present in trace amount, due to the formation of spiky or mesh type graphite.

  5. Effects of the substitution of amino acid residues, through chemical synthesis, on the conformation and activity of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Adão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides make up an assorted group of molecules which contain from 12 to 50 amino acid residues and which may be produced by microorganisms, plants and animals. From the discovery that these biomolecules are lethal to bacteria, inhibiting the pathogenic organism’s growth, and are also related to innate and adapted defense mechanisms, the investigation of such molecules came to be an emergent research field, in which more than 1800 antimicrobial peptides have so far been discovered throughout the last three decades. These molecules are potential representatives of a new generation of antibiotic agents and the main motivation for such use is their activity against a wide variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. An important class of comprising some of these peptides may be found in anurans, from which it has been isolated, a considerable number of antimicrobial peptides with diverse sequences and structures, including linear and dimeric ones. In this work monomeric chains (CH1 e CH2 of the heterodimeric antimicrobial peptide distinctin (isolated in 1999 from Phyllomedusa distincta anurans, as well as its mutated monomers (CH1-S and CH2-S and the heterodimer itself were synthesized. The distinctin is the peptide with two chains of different sequences (Table 1 bound each other by disulfide bond from the cystein residues constituting the heterodimer. To investigate the effects on the biological activity by amino acids substitution at normal distinctin CH1 and CH2 chains, both were synthesized as well as their similar chains (CH1-S and CH2-S in which the cystein (Fig.1 a residues of each chain were changed by serin residues (Fig. 1 b. The new chains were named mutants. The synthesis was carried out in solid phase, using Fmoc strategy. The heterodimer distinctin was obtained from CH1 and CH2 chains coupling through cystein residues air oxidation. The results from HPLC

  6. Effect of Ca substitution on some physical properties of nano-structured and bulk Ni-ferrite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assar, S.T., E-mail: soha_talaat@yahoo.com; Abosheiasha, H.F.

    2015-01-15

    Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10) were prepared by citrate precursor method. A part of these samples was sintered at 600 °C for 2 h in order to keep the particles within the nano-size while the other part was sintered at 1000 °C to let the particles to grow to the bulk size. The effect of Ca{sup 2+} ion substitution in nickel ferrite on some structural, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties was investigated. All samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A two probe method was used to measure the dc electrical conductivity whereas the photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to determine the thermal diffusivity of the samples. To interpret different experimental results for nano and bulk samples some cation distributions were assumed based on the VSM and XRD data. These suggested cation distributions give logical explanations for other experimental results such as the observed values of the absorption bands in FTIR spectra and the dc conductivity results. Finally, in the thermal measurements it was found that increasing the Ca{sup 2+} ion content causes a decrease in the thermal diffusivity of both nano and bulk samples. The explanation of this behavior is ascribed to the phonon-phonon scattering. - Highlights: • The physical properties of both nano and bulk samples of Ni-Ca ferrites were investigated. • Cation distribution plays a vital role in tailoring the physical properties of all the samples. • The dc conductivity of the nanosamples is higher than their bulk counterparts. • Increasing Ca{sup 2+} content enhances M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and σ{sub dc} of the bulk samples over their nanocounterparts. • The behavior of thermal diffusivity of the samples attributed to the phonon-phonon scattering.

  7. Exploring the Effects of the Pb(2+) Substitution in MAPbI3 on the Photovoltaic Performance of the Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Lyubov A; Anokhin, Denis V; Gerasimov, Kirill L; Dremova, Nadezhda N; Troshin, Pavel A

    2016-11-03

    Here we report a systematic study of the Pb(2+) substitution in the hybrid iodoplumbate MAPbI3 with a series of elements affecting optoelectronic, structural, and morphological properties of the system. It has been shown that even partial replacement of lead with Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), In(3+), Bi(3+), Sn(4+), and Ti(4+) results in a significant deterioration of the photovoltaic characteristics. On the contrary, Hg-containing hybrid MAPb1-xHgxI3 salts demonstrated a considerably improved solar cell performance at optimal mercury loading. This result opens up additional dimension in the compositional engineering of the complex lead halides for designing novel photoactive materials with advanced optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties.

  8. Effects of Substitution on Solid-State Fluorescence in 9-Aryl-9-methyl-9H-9-silafluorenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Yamanoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic groups were incorporated into 9H-9-silafluorene units at the 9-position (mono-9H-silafluorenes and 9,9′-positions (di-9H-9-silafluorenes. The aryl substituents showed weak conjugation to the 9H-9-silafluorene for 9-aryl substituted ones 1–7 and a 9,9′-phenylene substituted one (compound 8 and they exhibited similar absorption and emission spectra. The 9H-9-silafluorene 10 containing a 5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophenyl group showed a significantly red-shifted absorption and fluorescence maxima in the solid-state. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies found J-type aggregated structures formed by intermolecular CH–π interactions (ca. 2.6–2.7 Å. Density functional theory (DFT, time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT, and configuration interaction single (CIS calculations were conducted to explain the observed optical properties.

  9. Effect of vanadium substitution on structural and electrical properties of sol-gel grown nanostructured zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boricha, Hetal; Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Gadani, Keval; Rathod, K. N.; Shrimali, V. G.; Udeshi, Bhagyashree; Keshvani, M. J.; Joshi, A. D.; Pandya, D. D.; Solanki, P. S.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    In the present communication, we report the results on the structural and electrical studies on nanostructured pure (ZnO) and Vanadium (V) doped Zn0.95V0.05O samples synthesized using low cost Sol-Gel technique. To understand the structural properties and their dependence on V substitution, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was carried out for both the samples understudy. XRD results reveal the single phasic wurtzite nature of both the samples showing hexagonal unit cell structure. A minor phase of ZnV2O6 is observed in V doped ZnO sample. Improved dielectric permittivity, enhanced ac conductivity (σac) and suppression in impedance have been discussed on the basis of structural modifications by the substitution of V in ZnO, enhanced charge carrier concentration, charge carrier polarization and correlated barrier hopping due to the localized state.

  10. The effect of a biphasic injectable bone substitute on the interface strength in a rabbit knee prosthesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In joint prosthetic surgery, various methods are used to provide implant stability. We used an injectable bone substitute, composed of calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite, as bone defect filler to stabilize a tibia prosthesis in an experimental rabbit model. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the stability of prosthetic fixation with and without the use of an injectable bone substitute. Methods Sixteen rabbits were used and the tibia prostheses were implanted bilaterally, one side with the prosthesis alone and the other side with the prosthesis and calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite (Cerament™). The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups and euthanized after 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. The prosthesis was extracted measuring the pull-out force in an Instron tester, and the bone surrounding the former prosthesis site was analyzed by histology, histomorphometry, and micro-computed tomography. Results At 6 weeks no difference in maximum pull-out force was found between the prostheses fixed with or without Cerament™. At 12 weeks the maximum pull-out force for the prostheses with Cerament™ was significantly higher than that for the prostheses without Cerament™ (p = 0.04). The maximum pull-out force at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that at 6 weeks for the prostheses fixed with Cerament™ (p = 0.03) but not for the prostheses without. Conclusion We conclude that early prosthesis-bone interface strength is not influenced by a bone substitute. However, during remodeling, the bone substitute might provide improved mechanical support for the prosthesis. The results support further studies of the use of injectable calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite in fixation of prosthetic joint implants. PMID:23899023

  11. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  12. What affects the effect of 2'-alkoxy modifications? 1. Stabilization effect of 2'-methoxy substitutions in uniformly modified DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, E A; Freier, S M

    1998-05-12

    The thermostability of hybrid duplexes with uniformly 2'-methoxy modified DNA strands (D'R and RD'), their unmodified DNA:RNA counterparts (DR and RD), and corresponded RNA:RNA (RR) duplexes for six sequences with different GC and deoxypyrimidine (dPy) content was measured. The linear correlation between the total stabilization effect of 2'-methoxy modifications (Delta DeltaG(o)37(D'R-DR)) and the relative stability of corresponding unmodified hybrids compared to the RR counterparts (Delta DeltaG(o)37(RR-DR)) suggests that the initial conformational and the thermodynamic state of the "parent" unmodified hybrid governs the effect of 2'-methoxy (and may be other 2'-alkoxy) modifications whose mechanism of action includes an S --> N conformational shift resulting in an RNA-like A-form duplex. We also found a correlation between the "hydrophobic" part of the total effect (Delta DeltaG(o)37(D'R-RR)) and the dA fraction in the modified DNA strand, suggesting that the "hydrophobic" effect of the 2'-methoxy groups results mainly from intraresidue steric effects increasing rigidity of the modified sugar rings. The correlations observed enabled us to predict the stability of hybrids with 2'-methoxy modified DNA strands for any sequence except for sequences with (dU)10 and (dA)10 strings.

  13. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Louk WH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. Methods A systematic review of reviews of the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs was conducted for the domains of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and nutrition. The literature search spanned the time period between 1995 and October 2006 and included three databases, websites of review centers and backward search. Fifty-five reviews and meta-analyses met predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A standardized data extraction form was used, with detailed attention to effective elements pertaining to program goals, development, content, methods, facilitator, components and intensity. Two assessors rated the quality of reviews as strong, moderate or weak. We included only strong and moderate reviews in two types of analysis: one based on interpretation of conflicting results, the other on a specific vote-counting rule. Results Thirty six reviews were rated strong, 6 moderate, and 13 weak. A multitude of effective elements was identified in the included reviews and many elements were similar for two or more domains. In both types of analysis, five elements with evidence from strong reviews were found to be similar for all three domains: use of theory; addressing social influences, especially social norms; addressing cognitive-behavioral skills; training of facilitators; and multiple components. Two additional elements had positive results in all domains with the rule-based method of analysis, but had inconclusive results in at least one domain with

  14. A molecular mechanics study of the effect of substitution in position 1 on the conformational space of the oxytocin/vasopressin ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowska, Monika; Liwo, Adam; Shenderovich, Mark D.; Liepiņa, Inta; Golbraikh, Alexander A.; Grzonka, Zbigniew; Tempczyk, Anna

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the substitution in position 1 on the low-energy conformations of the oxytocin/vasopressin 20-membered ring was investigated by means of molecular mechanics. Three representative substitutions were considered: β'-mercapto-β,β-dimethyl)propionic acid (Dmp), (β'-mercapto-β,β-cyclopentamethylene)propionic acid (Cpp), both forming strong antagonists, and (α,α-dimethyl-β-mercapto)propionic acid (α-Dmp), forming analogs of strongly reduced biological activity, with the β-mercaptopropionic (Mpa) residue taken as reference. Both ECEPP/2 (rigid valence geometry) and AMBER (flexible valence geometry) force fields were employed in the calculations. Three basic types of backbone conformations were taken into account which are distinguished by the type of β-turn at residues 3 and 4: β1/βIII, βII, and βI'/βIII', all types containing one or two intra-annular hydrogen bonds. The allowed (ring-closed) disulfide-bridge conformations were searched by an algorithm formulated in terms of scanning the disulfide-bridge torsional angle Cβ-S-S-Cβ. The ECEPP/2 and AMBER energies of the obtained conformations were found to be in reasonable agreement. Two of the low-energy conformers of the [Mpa1]-compound agreed very well with the cyclic part of the two conformers found in the crystal structure of [Mpa1]-oxytocin. An analysis of the effect of β-substitution on relative energies showed that the conformations with the N-C'-CH2-CH2 (ψ'1) and C'-CH2-CH2-S (ϰ'1) angles of the first residue around (-100°, 60°) and (100°, -60°) are not affected; this in most cases implies a left-handed disulfide bridge. In the case of α-substitution the allowed values of ψ'1 are close to ± 60°. This requirement, being in contradiction to the one concerning β-substitution, could explain the very low biological activity of the α-substituted analogs. The conformational preferences of substituted compounds can largely be explained by the analysis of local interactions

  15. Excitation energies, singlet-triplet energy gaps, spin-orbit matrix elements and heavy atom effects in BOIMPYs as possible photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy: a computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Bruna Clara; Mazzone, Gloria; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia; Toscano, Marirosa

    2018-01-24

    Bis(borondifluoride)-8-imidazodipyrromethene (BOIMPY) based molecules show interesting photophysical properties. We have undertaken a computational study at DFT and TDDFT levels of theory with the aim of verifying if the non-fluorescent BOIMPYs meet those properties necessary to be proposed as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In particular, we have computed the absorption wavelengths, the singlet-triplet energy gaps and the spin-orbit matrix elements. The effect of halogen atom substitution (Br, I), in different amounts and positions in the BOIMPY skeleton, on the photophysical properties, has been elucidated. Some possible pathways for the population of the lowest triplet state have been examined and rationalized on the basis of Kasha rules. The results indicate that many of the studied systems can be indicated as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

  16. Effect of partial substitution of wheat flour by soybean meal in technological and sensory characteristics of cupcakes for children of school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Paucar-Menacho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of wheat flour by soybean meal (HS in the technological and sensory characteristics of cupcakes, in order to develop a high-protein food for school-age students. Common wheat flour was replaced with four different percentages of HS: 5% (F1, 10% (F2, 15% (F3 and 20% (F4, these were compared with a control sample with 0% (F0 of HS. The technological characteristics evaluated were weight loss, water activity (Aw, instrumental color, bulk and texturometria samples, for 12 days. The results showed that the substitution of HS improves firmness of cupcakes and helps moisture retention, a substitution until F2 was not significantly different from F0. A test to 45 panelists with a hedonic scale for sensory evaluation was used; three sensory characteristics (color, flavor and texture and purchase intent were evaluated. The cupcakes with HS presented significant differences in color in relation to F0; the results indicated that this ingredient could replace wheat flour F0 up to 10%, without significantly altering its sensory quality. As for the intention to purchase, F2 obtained a score of 4.20 ± 0.53 on a scale of 5 points, which does not differ significantly from F0.

  17. The effect of Mn substitution on the structure and magnetic properties of Se(Cu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x})O{sub 3} solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla, R [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Duran, A [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rosales, M I [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Moran, E [Laboratorio Complutense de Altas Presiones and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Alario-Franco, M A [Laboratorio Complutense de Altas Presiones and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2003-04-02

    The effects of Mn substitution on the structure and magnetic properties of the SeMO{sub 3} (M = Cu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}) solid solution have been studied. Rietveld refinements of the x-ray diffraction patterns of these samples indicate that the manganese ions occupy copper sites. This replacement induces significant changes in the M-O bond lengths that give rise to abrupt decreases of the [M-O{sub 6}] octahedral distortion. In contrast, the M-O(1)-M and M-O(2)-M bond angles remain essentially constant. The magnetic behaviour of this solid solution was studied in the temperature range of 2 K < T < 300 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse magnetic susceptibility is well described by the Curie-Weiss law at high temperatures, in the composition range studied. We found that the substitution of Mn for Cu induces a sharp drop in the saturation moment of SeCuO{sub 3}. At about 10% of Mn there is a change from positive to negative Weiss constant {theta}{sub W} that is mainly due to the [M-O{sub 6}] octahedral distortion introduced by the substitution of the larger Mn ions in the structure. The M- H isotherms show a weak ferromagnetism at about 52 K in SeMnO{sub 3}.

  18. Effects of Single Amino Acid Substitution on the Biophysical Properties and Biological Activities of an Amphipathic α-Helical Antibacterial Peptide Against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Tan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An antimicrobial peptide, known as V13K, was utilized as the framework to study the effects of charge, hydrophobicity and helicity on the biophysical properties and biological activities of α-helical peptides. Six amino acids (Lys, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala, and Leu were individually used to substitute the original hydrophobic valine at the selected sixteenth location on the non-polar face of V13K. The results showed that the single amino acid substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of peptide analogs as monitored by RP-HPLC, but did not cause significant changes on peptide secondary structures both in a benign buffer and in a hydrophobic environment. The biological activities of the analogs exhibited a hydrophobicity-dependent behavior. The mechanism of peptide interaction with the outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. We demonstrated that this single amino acid substitution method has valuable potential for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides with enhanced activities.

  19. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn37In13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni50-xCrxMn37In13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni50Mn37In13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (TM. This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (TC, making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC values at TM and TC increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni45Cr5Mn37In13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni48Cr2Mn37In13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near TM for Ni48Cr2Mn37In13.

  20. A-Site (MCe) Substitution Effects on the Structures and Properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haixue; Li, Chengen; Zhou, Jiaguang; Zhu, Weimin; He, Lianxin; Song, Yuxin

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effect of A-site compound substitution on the structures and properties of Ca0.8(MCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 (M denotes Li, Na and K) ceramics. The samples were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. Sintering characteristics of Ca0.8(MCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 and CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics were discussed. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the three modified CBT-based compounds show a single phase of bismuth oxide layer type structure with m=4. The hysteresis loops of polarization versus electric field of the four compounds were also measured. A-site compound substitution improves the piezoelectric properties and the high-temperature resistivity of these materials. A-site (LiCe) and (KCe) substitution not only improves the Curie temperature but also decreases the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (TK\\varepsilon). Among the three modified ceramics, only the Curie temperature of Ca0.8(NaCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 is lower than that of CaBi4Ti4O15; however, its TK\\varepsilon is the lowest. As a result, all the three modified CBT-based ceramics were found to be excellent high-temperature piezoelectric materials.

  1. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of Cu2 + substitution in spin-orbit coupled Sr2Ir1 -xCuxO4 : Structure, magnetism, and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Imtiaz Noor; Dhaka, R. S.; Pramanik, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Sr2Ir O4 is an extensively studied spin-orbit coupling induced insulator with antiferromagnetic ground state. The delicate balance between competing energy scales plays a crucial role for its low-temperature phase and the route of chemical substitution has often been used to tune these different energy scales. Here, we report an evolution of structural, magnetic, and electronic properties in doped Sr2Ir1 -xCuxO4 (x ≤0.2 ). The substitution of Cu2 + (3 d9 ) for Ir4 + (5 d5 ) acts for electron doping, though it tunes the related parameters such as spin-orbit coupling, electron correlation, and Ir charge state. Moreover, both Ir4 + and Cu2 + has single unpaired spin, though it occupies different d orbitals. With Cu substitution, the system retains its original structural symmetry but the structural parameters show systematic changes. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements show that Ir4 + equivalently converts to Ir5 + and a significant enhancement in the density of states has been observed at the Fermi level due to the contribution from the Cu 3 d orbitals, which supports the observed decrease in the resistivity with Cu substitution. While the long-range magnetic ordering is much weakened and the highest-doped sample shows almost paramagneticlike behavior, the overall system remains insulator. Analysis of the resistivity data shows a mode of charge conduction in the whole series follows a two-dimensional variable-range-hopping model, but the range of validity varies with temperature. The whole series of samples exhibits negative magnetoresistance at low temperature, which is considered to be a signature of a weak-localization effect in a spin-orbit coupled system, and its evolution with Cu appears to follow the variation of resistivity with x .

  3. Effect of player substitutions on the intensity of second-half soccer match play. DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n2p183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soccer matches are conducted by coaches who usually make all player substitutions allowed. Therefore, it is extremely important to study these substitutions and their effects on the intensity of effort required from players. To date, no published studies have reported on this topic using heart rate (HR as an intensity parameter. The objective of this study was to compare effort intensity (EI of soccer players in the following situations: 1 first half (FH-EI; 2 second half (SH-EI; 3 second half with substitutions(SHS-EI. Forty-five male soccer players (18.5±1.2 years old, 74.25±5.79 kg, 182.6±8.55 cm, 9.56±2.47% body fat, 56.3±4.3 mLO2/kg/min were evaluated during 29 official games. EI was considered as the mean HR, expressed as the percentage of each player’s maximal HR (%HRmax and as the time spent in each intensity zone (Z according to %HRmax (Z1<70%; Z2 70-85%; Z3 85-90%; Z4 90-95%; Z5 95-100%. FH-EI (86.3±3.3%HRmax was higher than SH-EI (80.6±4.4%HRmax and SHS-EI (83.6±2.8%HRmax. SHS-EI was higher than SH-EI (p<0.05. Time spent in high-intensity zones was lower in SH-EI than in FH-EI, buthigher in SHS-EI when compared to SH-EI (p<0.05. It was concluded that the decrease in EI in the second half of soccer matches was attenuated by substitutions made at halftime, as evidenced by a longer time spent in high-intensity zones when compared to SH-EI.

  4. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  5. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  6. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...

  7. Efficient synthesis of substituted dihydrotetraazapentacenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillan, Claire; Brisset, Hugues; Siri, Olivier

    2008-09-18

    We describe a versatile and very efficient synthesis of previously unknown substituted 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacenes (DHTAPs). A structural study by NMR spectroscopy showed that the conjugated pi-system of the pentacyclic skeleton rearranges depending on the electronic effect of the substituent(s).

  8. Contour integration and aging: the effects of element spacing, orientation alignment and stimulus duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudaia, Eugenie; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract contours in cluttered visual scenes, which is a crucial step in visual processing, declines with healthy aging, but the reasons for this decline are not well understood. In three experiments, we examined how the effect of aging on contour discrimination varies as a function of contour and distracter inter-element spacing, collinearity, and stimulus duration. Spiral-shaped contours composed of Gabors were embedded within a field of distracter Gabors of uniform density. In a four alternative forced-choice task, younger and older subjects were required to report the global orientation of the contour. In Experiment 1, the absolute contour element spacing varied from two to eight times the Gabor wavelength and contour element collinearity was disrupted with five levels of orientation jitter. Contour discrimination accuracy was lower in older subjects, but the effect of aging did not vary with contour spacing or orientation jitter. Experiment 2 found that decreasing stimulus durations from 0.8 to 0.04 s had a greater effect on older subjects' performance, but only for less salient contours. Experiment 3 examined the effect of the background on contour discrimination by varying the spacing and orientation of the distracter elements for contours with small and large absolute spacing. As in Experiment, the effect of aging did not vary with absolute contour spacing. Decreasing the distracter spacing, however, had a greater detrimental effect on accuracy in older subjects compared to younger subjects. Finally, both groups showed equally high accuracy when all distracters were iso-oriented. In sum, these findings suggest that aging does not affect the sensitivity of contour integration to proximity or collinearity. However, contour integration in older adults is slower and is especially vulnerable when distracters are denser than contour elements. PMID:23801978

  9. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  10. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  11. Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical conductivity and phosphorus availability of one clay soil. ... Soil water content was held close to field capacity and green house temperature was kept to 25 ± 5°C. Before the experiment, the physicochemical properties of soil and chemical properties of the compost ...

  12. Effectiveness of the random sequential absorption algorithm in the analysis of volume elements with nanoplatelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontefisso, Alessandro; Zappalorto, Michele; Quaresimin, Marino

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a study of the Random Sequential Absorption (RSA) algorithm in the generation of nanoplatelet Volume Elements (VEs) is carried out. The effect of the algorithm input parameters on the reinforcement distribution is studied through the implementation of statistical tools, showing...

  13. Effect of Mn2+ substitution on structural, magnetic, electric and dielectric properties of Mg-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, U. R.; Chaudhari, N. D.; Kambale, R. C.; Patil, J. Y.; Suryavanshi, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, Mn substituted Mg-Zn spinel ferrites having general formula Zno.4Mg0.6-xMnxFe2O4 (0≤x≤0.30) have been synthesized by oxalate precursor chemical method and investigated their structural, magnetic and electric properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to study the crystal structure of synthesized materials. XRD study reveals the formation of polycrystalline cubic spinel lattice structure without any impurity phase having crystallite size in the range from 39.97 nm to 45.62 nm. Scanning electron micrographs revealed, increase in grain size (D) with increase in Mn2+ content up to x=0.10; then it decreases for x>0.10. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Zn2+ and O2- ions as per the stoichiometry. The magnetic moment (nB), with Mn2+ substitution is found to increase initially up to x=0.10 and then it deceases with further Mn2+ substitution. The observed variation in the magnetic moment (nB) is explained by considering the variation of saturation magnetization, anisotropy constant, density values and exchange interaction. The d.c. electrical resistivity decreased with increase in temperature in accordance with semiconducting behavior. Furthermore, the conductivity was found to obey the Arrhenius relation with a change in slope at critical temperature (i.e. the Curie temperature). The increase in d.c. resistivity is attributed to the hindering of Verwey mechanism between Fe2+⇔Fe3+ ions and Mn2+⇔Mn3+. The dielectric constant (ε‧) measurement revealed the dielectric dispersion behavior in accordance with the Maxwell-Wagner model and Koops phenomenological theory, which is responsible for conduction and polarization. The dielectric characteristics (ε‧, ε″ and tan δ) exhibit dispersion due to Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization. The values of dielectric constant (ε‧) and a.c. resistivity (ρac) exhibit highest magnitude at x=0.10 and decreases further with Mn2+ substitution.

  14. The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Akkawi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, Rabih; Olabi, Ammar; Toufeili, Imad; Daroub, Hamza; Younis, Tarek; Ajib, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between increased dietary sodium intake and chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Potassium chloride is the most widely used salt substitute for sodium chloride in different processed foods. Akkawi cheese, commonly consumed as fresh cheese, has a semi-hard curd, chalky color, firm texture and salty flavor. The effect of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on the chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and mature Akkawi cheese was investigated. Salt treatment (NaCl reduction) had a significant effect on pH, lactic acid, sodium and potassium contents of cheeses. Texture profile analysis revealed a significant effect of salt treatment on adhesiveness, chewiness and hardness of cheese. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between salt treatments, specifically between control (100% NaCl) and (70% NaCl, 30% KCl) samples. Descriptive analysis showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on bitterness, crumbliness and hardness, whereas the age of cheese was significant for color and fermented flavor. Salt treatment had no effect on acceptability variables for all experimental 2-week Akkawi samples. The above results suggest that a 30% substitution of NaCl by KCl (70% NaCl, 30% KCl brine) is acceptable. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. [Effects of rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecotoxicity to Holotrichia parallela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiting; Jiang, Junqi; Chen, Jie; Zou, Yunding; Zhang, Xincai

    2006-01-01

    By the method of OECD filter paper contact, this paper studied the effects of applied rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela in bean field. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments and the control in soil fauna species, quantity of main species, and diversity index. Urgent and chronic toxic test showed that the differences between the treatments and the control were not significant. It was suggested that within the range of test dosages, rare earth elements had little ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela, and did not change the soil fauna community structure.

  16. Effect of trimethylsilyl substitution on the chemical properties of triarylphosphines and their corresponding metal-complexes: solubilising effect in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Francisco; Galindo, Agustin; Rosa, Vitor; Aviles, Teresa

    2004-08-21

    The donor strengths of the following triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar')(Ar = Ar'= 4-Me(3)SiC(6)H(4), 1b; 4-Me(3)CC(6)H(4), 1d; 4-F(3)CC(6)H(4), 1e; Ar = C(6)H(5), Ar'= 4-Me(3)SiC(6)H(4), 1c) have been evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The measurements of the J(P-Se) coupling constants of the corresponding synthesised selenides Se=P(Ar)(2)(Ar'), 2b,c and the DFT calculation of the energies of the phosphine lone-pair (HOMO) reveal insignificant influence on the electronic properties of the substituted phosphines when the trimethylsilyl group is attached to the aryl ring, in marked contrast to the strong electronic effect of the trifluoromethyl group. These triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar') reacted with (eta5-C(5)H(5))Co(CO)(2), (eta5-C(5)H(5))Co(CO)I(2) or PdCl(2) to yield the new compounds (eta5-C(5)H(5))Co(CO)[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 3b,d; (eta5-C(5)H(5))CoI(2)[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 4b-e; and PdCl(2)[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')](2), 5b,c respectively. These complexes have been characterized and their spectroscopic properties compared with those reported for the known triphenylphosphine complexes. Again, the contrast of the (31)P NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts or C-O or M-Cl stretching frequencies, when applied, does not show an important electronic effect on the metal complex of the trimethylsilyl substituted phosphines with respect to P(C(6)H(5))(3) derivatives. Solubility measurements of complexes 3a and 3b in scCO(2) were performed. We conclude that Me(3)Si groups on the triarylphosphine improve the solubility of the corresponding metal complex in scCO(2).

  17. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and trace elements on perioperative nutritional status in elective surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Iwasaka, Hideo; Shiihara, Keisuke; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kubo, Nobuhiro; Fujitomi, Yutaka; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    In order to enhance postoperative recovery, preoperative consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) drinks has been used to suppress metabolic fluctuations. Trace elements such as zinc and copper are known to play an important role in postoperative recovery. Here, we examined the effects of preoperatively consuming a CHO drink containing zinc and copper. Subjects were 122 elective surgery patients divided into two groups (overnight fasting and CHO groups); each group was further divided into morning or afternoon surgery groups. Subjects in the CHO group consumed 300 mL of a CHO drink the night before surgery, followed by 200 ml before morning surgery or 700 ml before afternoon surgery (> or =2 hours before anesthesia induction). Blood levels of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), retinol-binding protein, zinc, and copper were determined. One subject in the CHO group was excluded after refusing the drink. There were no adverse effects from the CHO drink. NEFA levels increased in the fasting groups. Although zinc levels increased in the CHO group immediately after anesthesia induction, no group differences were observed the day after surgery. Preoperative consumption of a CHO drink containing trace elements suppressed preoperative metabolic fluctuations without complications and prevented trace element deficiency. Further beneficial effects during the perioperative period can be expected by adding trace elements to CHO supplements.

  18. Effect of meshing element on J-integral value for homogenous crown fracture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.; Ariffin, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the meshing strategy schemes to solve the inconsistency of J-integral value for stress intensity factor (SIF) evaluation using finite element (FE) analysis. The effect of meshing element types on homogenous crown fracture behavior is investigated using developed ANSYS APDL code. For simplicity of the analysis, complex geometry of the dental crown was simplified into four point bending model. Two-dimensional FE single edge notch four-point bending model on In-Ceram Alumina was implemented in this study. A series of convergence analysis was performed to reveal the effect of various element types and combination quadrilateral and triangular elements on J-Integral for 10 contours. The meshing region was divided by two; non-critical part was set as global region and the critical part which is the pre-cracked area was set as local region. The effect of meshing size and combination of meshing shape were observed. For validation, the results of SIF through FE analysis using J-Integral have been compared and proved to have the good agreement with published theoretical result. It can be concluded that the smallest the meshing size at local region, the highest the number of contour of integration can be drawn.

  19. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Heavy Elements in Soil Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of soil sediment targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission spectrum was detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle 7500 — Multichannel Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, and electron temperature. Four heavy elements V, Pb, Mn and Co were determined in the obtained spectra. The LTE and optically thin plasma conditions were verified for the produced plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of the spectral lines of the heavy elements in the soil sediments. The electron temperature does not change with concentration. For environmental applications, the obtained results showed the capability of the proposed LIBS setup with the portable Mechelle 7500 spectrometer to be applied in-situ for real-time measurements of the variation of the matrix elemental composition of soil sediments by following up only a single element as a marker for the composition of the soil sediment without need of analysis of the other elements.

  20. Effects of land use and parent materials on trace elements accumulation in topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Cheng-Long; He, Teng-Bing; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lu, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of parent material and land use on the concentration of trace elements in the agricultural topsoil of Guizhou Province, China, a total of 584 agricultural topsoil samples were collected in a typical region. The results indicate that the contents of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in agricultural soils were greater than in the uncultivated soils, and the paddy fields exhibited higher contents of trace elements than dry lands. The enrichments of most trace elements in agricultural topsoil derived from carbonate rock were more serious. In paddy fields, Cd, Cr, and As showed positive relationships with soil organic matter ( 0.05). Lead and Hg formed the second component in principal component analysis (PCA) and were closely related to pH and clay content. In dry lands, the trace elements were well correlated with pH, C/N, and clay ( properties, especially in dry lands. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Effect of Cu2+ substitution on the magnetic properties of co-precipitated Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, K. S.; Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Ramesh, P. N.; Meena, S. S.; Potukuchi, D. M.; Sastry, D. L.

    2017-05-01

    Spinel ferrite nanoparticles with chemical equation NixCu0.1Zn0.9-xFe2O4 (x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) have been synthsized using co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at a temperature of 200 °C for 2h. The results of XRD, FE-SEM and VSM studies are reported. XRD patterns confirm the formation of cubic spinel phase of ferrite samples along with small amount of a secondary phase of α-Fe2O3 whose concentration decreases as Ni2+ concentration increases. The crystallite sizes (in the range of 7.5-13.9 nm) increase and the lattice parameter decreases with increase in Ni2+ ion concentration. These values are comparable to those of NiZn ferrite without Cu substitution. It has been observed that there is a considerable reduction in saturation magnetisation (Ms). This and differences in other magnetic parameters are attributed to considerable changes in cation distribution or core shell interactions of NiZn ferrite with 10 mole% Cu substitution in the place of Zn.

  2. Synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders and application of the central composite design for determination of its antimicrobial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Antonović, Dušan G.; Jokić, Bojan M.; Zec, Slavica P.; Tanasković, Sladjana T.; Raičević, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biomaterials based on fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite are potentially attractive for orthopedic and dental implant applications. The new synthesis of fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite samples were done by neutralization, which consists of adding the solution of HF and H3PO4 in suspension of Ca(OH)2. Characterization studies from XRD, SEM and FTIR spectra showed that crystals are obtained with apatite structure and those particles of all samples are nano size, with an average length of 80 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. The central composite design was used in order to determine the optimal conditions for the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized samples. In order to evaluate the influence of operating parameters on the percent of viable cell reduction of Streptococcus mutans, three independent variables were chosen: exposure time, pH of saline and floride concentration in apatite samples. The experimental and predicted antimicrobial activities were in close agreement. Antimicrobial activity of the samples increases with the increase of fluoride concentration and the decreased pH of saline. The maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved at the initial pH of 4.

  3. General trends for the effect of ionic substitution on the band gap of MAPbX3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dechun; Huang, Fuqiang; Li, Shenggang; Mi, Qixi

    2017-09-01

    Perovskites are diverse materials to explore for advanced functional applications, but experimental or computational characterization of individual perovskite compositions is inefficient considering nearly endless possible combinations of the constituent ions. We analyze the band edges of a semiconducting perovskite by constructing electronic wavefunctions based on orbital symmetries, and then extract such information as electron wavevectors, band-edge transition, and chemical bonding. Using MAPbX3 (MA = methylammonium; X = Br, I), CsCdBr3, CsCaBr3, and TMASn(N3)3 (TMA = tetramethylammonium) as prototypical perovskites, we propose a set of trends on whether ionic substitution changes MAPbX3 from a direct band gap to an indirect one. Compositions containing an s2 metal cation and a (pseudo)halide are found to exhibit a direct band gap as MAPbX3 does. The broad applicability of these trends, verified by an extensive range of perovskite compositions, indicates that pseudohalide perovskites should be explored for novel functional materials, and that substitution of Pb2+ in MAPbI3 by non-s2 metal cations will probably deteriorate the optoelectronic properties of MAPbI3.

  4. Clinical effectiveness of combining platelet rich fibrin with alloplastic bone substitute for the management of combined endodontic periodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term "endo-perio" lesion has been proposed to describe the destructive lesion resulting from inflammatory products found in varying degrees in both the periodontium and the pulpal tissues. In most of the cases, clinical symptoms disappear following successful endodontic therapy. However failure after conventional root canal treatment calls for surgical intervention. A 35 year old male patient with endo-perio lesion in right maxillary lateral incisor was treated with platelet rich fibrin (PRF and alloplastic bone substitute after conventional endodontic therapy. At the end of 6 months there was gain in clinical attachment, increased radiographic bone fill and reduction in probing depth which was maintained till 18 month follow-up. Present case report aims to evaluate the efficacy of PRF and alloplastic bone substitute in the management of intrabony defect associated with endo-perio lesion in maxillary lateral incisor because the healing potential of PRF and bone graft has not been widely studied in endodontics. The use of PRF allows the clinician to optimize tissue remodelling, wound healing and angiogenesis by the local delivery of growth factors and proteins. The novel technique described here enables the clinician to be benefited from the full regenerative capacity of this autologous biologic material.

  5. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect......In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0...

  6. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars......, respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...

  7. Sustainability and substitutability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-02-01

    Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.

  8. Finite Element Modelling of the Effects of Average Grain Size and Misorientation Angle on the Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sanusi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises an investigation using finite element analysis to study the behaviour of nanocrystalline grain structures during Equal Channel Angular Press (ECAP processing of metals. The effects of average grain size and misorientation angle on the deformation are examined in order to see how microstructural features might explain the observed increase in strength of nanocrsytalline metals. While this approach forms a convenient starting as it offers a simple way of including grain size effects and grain misorientation to which we could add additional phenomena through developing the material model used to describe the anisotropy and techniques that would automatically re-mesh the refined grain structure produced under severe plastic deformation. From this, it can be concluded that these additional techniques incorporated into the finite element model produced effects that correspond to observed behaviour in real polycrystals.

  9. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  10. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  11. Effects of Bentonite on p-Methoxybenzyl Acetate: A Theoretical Model for Oligomerization via an Electrophilic-Substitution Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salmón

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tonsil Actisil FF, a commercial bentonitic clay, promotes the formation of a series of electrophilic-aromatic-substitution products from para-methoxybenzyl acetate in carbon disulfide. The molecules obtained correspond to linear isomeric dimers, trimers, tetramers and a pentamer, according to their spectroscopic data. A clear indication of the title mechanistic pathway for the oligomerization growth was obtained from the analysis of a set of computational-chemistry calculations using the density-functional-theory level B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p. The corresponding conclusions were based on the computed dipole moments, the HOMO/LUMO distributions, and a natural-populations analysis of the studied molecules.

  12. Epistasis effects of multiple ancestral-consensus amino acid substitutions on the thermal stability of glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. NT3060.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yasuhisa; Abe, Asuka; Tamura, Takashi; Kishimoto, Takahide; Sogabe, Atsushi; Akanuma, Satoshi; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Imada, Katsumi; Inagaki, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Thermostable variants of the Cellulomonas sp. NT3060 glycerol kinase have been constructed by through the introduction of ancestral-consensus mutations. We produced seven mutants, each having an ancestral-consensus amino acid residue that might be present in the common ancestors of both bacteria and of archaea, and that appeared most frequently at the position of 17 glycerol kinase sequences in the multiple sequence alignment. The thermal stabilities of the resulting mutants were assessed by determining their melting temperatures (Tm), which was defined as the temperature at which 50% of the initial catalytic activity is lost after 15 min of incubation, as well as when the half-life of the catalytic activity occurs at a temperature of 60°C (t1/2). Three mutants showed increased stabilities compared to the wild-type protein. We then produced five more mutants with multiple amino acid substitutions. Some of the resulting mutants showed thermal stabilities much greater than those expected given the stabilities of the respective mutants with single mutations. Therefore, the effects of mutations are not always simply additive and some amino acid substitutions, which do not affect or only slightly improve stability when individually introduced into the protein, show substantial stabilizing effects in combination with other mutations. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Indium Substitution Effect on the Topological Crystalline Insulator Family (Pb1−xSnx1−yInyTe: Topological and Superconducting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidan Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs have been of great interest in the area of condensed matter physics. We investigated the effect of indium substitution on the crystal structure and transport properties in the TCI system (Pb1−xSnx1−yInyTe. For samples with a tin concentration x ≤ 50 % , the low-temperature resisitivities show a dramatic variation as a function of indium concentration: with up to ∼2% indium doping, the samples show weak-metallic behavior similar to their parent compounds; with ∼6% indium doping, samples have true bulk-insulating resistivity and present evidence for nontrivial topological surface states; with higher indium doping levels, superconductivity was observed, with a transition temperature, T c , positively correlated to the indium concentration and reaching as high as 4.7 K. We address this issue from the view of bulk electronic structure modified by the indium-induced impurity level that pins the Fermi level. The current work summarizes the indium substitution effect on (Pb,SnTe, and discusses the topological and superconducting aspects, which can be provide guidance for future studies on this and related systems.

  14. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Buscail, Camille; Alles, Benjamin; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL)-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods. Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample), with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%); with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%), with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates) to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively. The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  15. The 5-CNL Front-of-Pack Nutrition Label Appears an Effective Tool to Achieve Food Substitutions towards Healthier Diets across Dietary Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Julia

    Full Text Available Front-of-pack (FOP nutrition labels are considered helpful tools to help consumers making healthier food choices, thus improving their diet. In France, the implementation of a FOP nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL-is currently under consideration. Our objective was to investigate dietary profiles in a French adult population using the 5-CNL, and to assess its potential impact in improving the diet through substitution of foods.Subjects included in the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who had completed three 24-h dietary records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mutually exclusive clusters of individuals were identified using the percentage of energy derived from foods of each of the 5-CNL colours as input variables. Three scenarios of substitution of foods for healthier alternative using the 5-CNL were tested. Food group and dietary intakes, socio-demographic and lifestyle data were compared across clusters using ANOVAs or Chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified three mutually exclusive dietary profiles: 'Healthy' (N = 28 095, 29.3% of the sample, with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole cereals and fish; 'Western' (N = 33 386, 34.8%; with high consumption of sweetened beverages, breakfast cereal, cheese, fatty and sugary foods; 'Traditional' (N = 34 461, 35.1%, with high consumption of potatoes, bread, meat and dairy desserts. Overall, substitutions strategies led to an increase in the number of subjects reaching the recommended intakes in energy, macro and micronutrients. Increases were particularly high in the 'Western' pattern for lipids and saturates intakes: from 16.2% reaching the recommended amount for lipids (13.5% for saturates to 60.6% and 85.7% respectively.The use of the 5-CNL as an indicator of food choice meaningfully characterizes clusters of dietary habits and appears as an effective tool to help improving the nutritional quality of the diet.

  16. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  17. Effects of elemental sulfur and sulfur-containing waste on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Influence of sulfur fertilization on corn (Zea mays L.) plant growth and phosphorus uptake in a calcareous soil. Yüzüncü Yıl University, J. Natural Appl. Sci. 7(1): 37-42. Erdal I, Kepenek K, Kızılgoz I (2006). Effect of elemental sulphur and sulphur containing waste on the iron nutrition of strawberry plants.

  18. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of a three-month football training program on some trace elements in the serum in male kids aged between eight and twelve years. The study registered eight boys whose mean age was 10.25 ± 0.75 years, mean height was 138.63 ± 3.28 cm and mean weight was 32.13 ...

  19. Effects of sea surface warming on elemental cycling in a pelagic system

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlers, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the effects of climate change-induced sea surface warming on elemental cycling in a pelagic system. Human activities, e.g. burning of fossil fuels, changes in land-use practices and deforestation, are changing Earth’s climate at an unprecedented rate in its history. While the ocean mitigates the progress of climate change by taking up and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and heat, thus acting as a natural climate buffer, these anthropogenic perturbation...

  20. The Effect of Ligament Modeling Technique on Knee Joint Kinematics: A Finite Element Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiapour, Ata M.; Kaul, Vikas; Kiapour, Ali; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis has become an increasingly popular technique in the study of human joint biomechanics, as it allows for detailed analysis of the joint/tissue behavior under complex, clinically relevant loading conditions. A wide variety of modeling techniques have been utilized to model knee joint ligaments. However, the effect of a selected constitutive model to simulate the ligaments on knee kinematics remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effec...

  1. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FOLLICULAR FLUID AND THEIR EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Kolesárová; Marcela Capcarová

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution plays an important role in affecting the internal milieu of animals and humans. The amount of trace elements in the environment is generally low, but these chemicals can interfere with physiological systems. Thus, the health and welfare of individuals could be compromised by exposure to environmental levels of pollutants. In order to understand risk and effects of carious chemicals on the animal and human organism, the input of pollutants into biological systems has to...

  2. Effects of ground fires on element dynamics in mountainous coniferous forest in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Näthe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as fires are a natural phenomenon of forested ecosystems, having a different impact on (micro- climate (e.g. emissions of gases and aerosols, ecology (destruction of flora and fauna and nutrient cycles especially in the soils. Forest fires alter the spatial distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil, binding forms (organic vs. inorganic and availability (water solubility of organic substances and nutrients. The effects of fires on chemical, biological and physical soil properties in forested ecosystems have been intensively studied in the last decades, especially in the Mediterranean area and North America. However, differences in fire intensity, forest type (species, age and location (climate, geological substrate, nutrient status lead to divergent results. Furthermore, only a few case studies focused on the effects of ground fires in hilly landscapes, on the vertical and lateral water-driven fluxes of elements (C, N, nutrients, as well as on the input of fire-released terrestrial nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this study will evaluate the effects of low-severity fires on nutrient cycling in a coniferous forest in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system. At three spatially independent sites three paired plots (control and manipulated were chosen at a forested site in Thuringia, Germany. All plots are similar in the vegetation cover and pedogenetic properties.In relation to control sites, this study will examine the effects of low-severity fires on:a the mobilization of organic carbon and nutrients (released from ash material and the forest floor via leachate and erosion paths,b the binding form (inorganic/organic of elements and organic compounds, and c the particle size fraction (DOM/POM of elements and organic compounds.The goal of this study is a better understanding of the impact of forest fires on element cycling and release in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system, supposedly driven by

  3. Anomalous Pd substitution effects in the thermoelectric oxide NaCo sub 2 sub - sub x Pd sub x O sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Kitawaki, R

    2002-01-01

    We prepared a set of polycrystalline samples of the thermoelectric oxide NaCo sub 2 sub - sub x Pd sub x O sub 4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2), and investigated the Pd substitution effects on transport phenomena. The effects are so drastic that just 5-10% Pd ions reduce the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient to one third of the values for x = 0, and increase the magnitude of the Hall coefficient by three times. A semi-quantitative analysis has revealed that the x = 0.2 sample has much smaller effective mass and carrier concentration than the x = 0.05 sample. This is difficult to explain within a rigid-band picture, and is qualitatively consistent with a strong-correlation picture applied to the Ce-based heavy-fermion systems.

  4. Moessbauer Study of Multiple Substitutions in YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M.; Patel, N. V.; Mehta, P. K.; Somayajulu, D. R. S. [M.S. University, Physics Department (India)

    2001-11-15

    Moessbauer studies of multiple substitutions in YBCO with general formula (Y{sub 1-Z}Ca{sub Z})Ba{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1-X-Y}Fe{sub Y}M{sub X}){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} are reported. XRD has been used to find out the lattice parameters. All the samples show a single tetragonal phase formation. Iodometric titration is done to estimate the oxygen content. The present study discusses the effect of multiple substitutions of 3d-ions like Ni, Zn, Co, Mn, Cr in YBCO and the effect of various substitutions on charge balancing, oxygen content and site occupancy.

  5. Enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect in rare earth substituted nanostructured cobalt ferrite thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avazpour, L.; Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 13876-71557 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The nanostructured rare earth doped Co-ferrite thin film was synthesized by the sol–gel method. • The coercivity of as high as 1.8 kOe is achieved for 20% substituted cobalt ferrite. • The average particle diameter of particulate film is decreasing by increasing substitute content. • Kerr spectra of films shifted to higher energies. • Kerr rotation angle increased to 1.65° for 0.1 Eu doped thin film. - Abstract: A series of rare-earth (RE)-doped nanocrystalline Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and RE: Nd, Eu) thin films were prepared on silicon substrates by a sol–gel process, and the influences of different RE{sup 3+} ions on the microstructure, magnetism and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect of the deposited films were investigated. Also this research presents the optimization process of cobalt ferrite thin films deposited via spin coating, by studying their structural and morphological properties at different thicknesses (200, 350 nm) and various heat treatment temperatures 300–850 °C. Nanoparticulate polycrystalline thin film were formed with heat treatment above 400 °C but proper magnetic properties due to well crystallization of the film were achieved at about 650 °C. AFM results indicated that the deposited thin films were crack-free exhibiting a dense nanogranular structure. The root-mean square (RMS) roughness of the thin films was in the range of 0.2–3.2 nm. The results revealed that both of the magnetism and magneto optical Kerr (MOKE) spectra of Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films could be mediated by doping with various RE ions. The Curie temperature of substituted samples was lower than pristine cobalt ferrite thin films. In MOKE spectra both dominant peaks were blue shifted with addition of RE ions. For low concentration dopant the inter-valence charge transfer related rotation was enhanced and for higher concentration dopant the crystal field rotation peak was enhanced

  6. n'-(substituted phenyl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    cyano-3-methyl thioacrylyl)-N'-(substituted phenyl)urea (5). Benzylamine attacked double bond to form a transition state in which the orientation of benzylamino and ester carbonyl is cis because of the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen.

  7. NOVEL PHOSPHAZENE-SUBSTITUTED SILOXANES AND SILANES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEGRAMPEL, JC; JEKEL, AP; PUYENBROEK, R; ARLING, TJ; FRANSEN, W; MEETSMA, A; WUBBELS, JH

    1993-01-01

    Cyclophosphazene-substituted siloxanes and silanes are prepared by the method of hydrosilylation, starting from allyl-derivatized cyclophosphazenes and hydrosiloxanes or hydrosilanes in the presence of a platinum catalyst. Steric and electronic effects govern the course of the reaction.

  8. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  9. Effects of rare earth elements on growth and metabolism of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements (REEs are a set of 17 chemical elements. They include the lanthanide series from lanthanum (La to lutetium (Lu, scandium (Sc, and yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Although REEs are used widely in industry and agriculture in China for a long time, there has been increasing interest in application of REEs to medicinal plants in recent years. In this paper, we summarize researches in the past few decades regarding the effects of REEs on the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, total biomass, and the production of its secondary metabolites, as well as their effects on the absorption of minerals and metals by medicinal plants. By compilation and analysis of these data, we found that REEs have promoting effects at low concentrations and negative effects at comparatively high concentrations. However, most studies focused only on a few REEs, i.e., La, cerium (Ce, neodymium (Nd and europium (Eu, and they made main emphasis on their effects on regulation of secondary metabolism in tissue-cultured plants, rather than cultivated medicinal plants. Advanced research should be invested regarding on the effects of REEs on yields of cultivated plants, specifically medicinal plants.

  10. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Kavita H; Ames, Meghan; Hsin-Jen, Chen; Feeney, Mary Jo; Wang, Youfa; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2013-12-01

    Reducing energy density (ED) of the diet is an important strategy for controlling obesity. This 1-year, randomized clinical trial examined the effect of substituting mushrooms for red meat ('mushroom diet'), compared to a standard diet ('meat diet'), on weight loss and maintenance among 73 obese adults (64 women, 9 men). The subjects completed anthropometric measurements and 7-day food records four times during a standardized weight loss and maintenance regimen. At the end of the 1-year trial, compared to participants on the standard diet, participants on the mushroom diet (n=36) reported lower intakes of energy (mean ± [SE]=-123 ± 113 kcals) and fat (-4.25 ± 6.88 g), lost more pounds and percentage body weight (-7.03 ± 3.34 lbs, 3.6%), achieved lower body mass index (-1.53 ± 0.36), waist circumference (-2.6 ± 3.5 in.) and percent total body fat (-0.85 ± 0.53), and had lower systolic and diastolic pressure (-7.9 and -2.5 mmHg); their lipid profile and inflammatory markers also improved. After initial weight loss, subjects following the mushroom diet maintained that loss well. Those who completed the full 12-month trial still weighed a mean of 7 lbs less than baseline. Thus, encouraging adults to substitute mushrooms for red meat was a useful strategy for enhancing weight loss, weight maintenance, and health parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of two novel amino acid substitutions on the penicillin binding properties of the PBP5 C‑terminal from Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengjiang; Niu, Haiying; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Lishe; Wang, Zhanli

    2015-10-01

    The low‑affinity penicillin‑binding protein (PBP)5 is responsible for resistance to β‑lactam antibiotics in Enterococcus faecium. (E. faecium). In order to evaluate more fully the potential of this species for the development of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, the present study aimed to examine the extent of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) variations in a collection of clinical E. faecium isolates. In the present study, the C‑terminal domain of PBP5 (PBP5‑CD) of 13 penicillin‑resistant clinical isolates of E. faecium were sequenced and the correlation between penicillin resistance and particular amino acid changes were analyzed. The present study identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, two novel substitutions (Tyr460Phe and Ala462Thr or Val462Thr) of E. faecium PBP5‑CD. The covalent interaction between penicillin and PBP5‑CD was also investigated using homology modeling and molecular docking methods. The theoretical calculation revealed that Phe460 and Thr462 were involved in penicillin binding, suggesting that substitutions at these positions exert effects on the affinity for penicillin, and this increased affinity translates into lower resistance in vitro.

  12. Currency Substitution and Financial Innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo E. Guidotti

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the domestic effects as well as the international transmission of financial innovation. The analysis is carried out in a cash-in-advance model with two currencies and tw o goods in which income velocity is variable because of inventory-type considerations in the determination of the demand for money. The discussion emphasizes the role of currency substitution, which occur s through the interaction between the two monies in affecting the tota l amount of time devoted to tra...

  13. Effect of Ce-substitution on structural, morphological, magnetic and DC electrical resistivity of Co-ferrite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammo, Tulu Wegayehu; Murali, N.; Sileshi, Yonatan Mulushoa; Arunamani, T.

    2018-02-01

    Partially substituted spinel structured CoFe2-xCexO4 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) samples have been synthesized using the sol-gel autocombustion route. Stoichiometric amounts of metal nitrates and citric acid were mixed in double distilled water to get homogeneously mixed solutions which were then heated to burn and result in samples for the next two-step annealing procedures. Structural and phase characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been carried out; and a pure spinel structured samples with lattice parameters increasing with the increase of Ce concentration levels have been obtained. The lattice parameters were calculated to be in the range of 8.42774-8.4744 Å. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) microstructure characterizations revealed clear grain structures of the so synthesized samples with grain sizes decreasing with Ce. Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) characterization measured in the wave number ranges of 400-4000 cm-1 showed the cation vibrations and stretching at characteristic frequency of 668-418 cm-1. The DC resistivity measurements confirmed a decrease in the resistivity of the samples with the increase of Ce concentration and with the increase of temperature in all of the samples synthesized. Room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer measurement revealed the magnetic properties of the samples with decreasing magnetic parameters as Ce concentration increases.

  14. Effect of substituted gelling agents from pomegranate peel on colour, textural and sensory properties of pomegranate jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Hidouri, Hayfa; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2018-01-15

    A series of pomegranate jams were prepared from a Tunisian ecotype (Tounsi) with different amounts of sugar (10, 20 and 30%) and low-methoxylated pectin (0.2, 0.7 and 1.2%). The most appreciated formulation was that contaning 30% sugars and 0.2% pectin. Then, commercial pectin was substituted by other gelling agents (pomegranate peel powders dried at 50°C vs lyophilized, pectin and fibre extracted from pomegranate peel) for the preparation of pomegranate peel-based jams. The elaborated jams were evaluated for physichochemical, colour, texture and sensory characteristics. Results revealed that the jam (JPP2) elaborated with 0.2% pectin extracted from pomegranate peel exhibited similar overall acceptability to that prepared with commercial pectin. However, it was more acceptable than other pomegranate peel-based jams, which was related to a better appreciation of sweetness and colour. According to the colour and texture measurements, this sample (JPP2) was more reddish and less firm than other samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Substitution and pressure effect on superconducting properties of Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}AlSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleanu, Andreea; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Badica, Petre [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work reports on the substitution of Na{sup +} with Ca{sup 2+} in the ternary alkali-metal silicide superconductor NaAlSi. The superconducting transition of NaAlSi takes place at a critical temperature T{sub c} of 7 K. The superconducting properties of CaAlSi were reported to the distortion of the AlSi-layers. The Si bonding network thus plays an important role for the superconducting characteristics. CaAlSi shows a superconducting transition at a T{sub c} of 8.0 K. Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} cations have equal ionic radii but Ca provides an additional electron. The observation of the superconducting properties in dependence of electron-doping of Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}AlSi is shown. The superconducting properties of Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}AlSi were measured using SQUID magnetometry.

  16. Effect of Erbium substitution on temperature and field dependence of thermally activated flux flow resistance in Bi-2212 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladhi, D.; Mandal, P.; Sahoo, R.C.; Giri, S.K.; Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-12-01

    Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) regime of Er doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3) polycrystalline systems have been investigated using magneto-transport measurements up to 70 kOe magnetic field. High quality single phase samples have been prepared by standard solid state reaction method. The activation energy or pinning strength (U{sub 0}) have been calculated using thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model by linear fitting from the semi-logarithmic curve of ln ρ vs 1/T. It has been observed that activation energy (U{sub 0}) decreases with Er substitution and U{sub 0} follows power law dependence with magnetic field for all three samples. Irreversibility lines (IL) have been drawn from the magneto-transport data for all three samples and it is observed that IL shifts to lower temperature with higher Er concentration. It is confirmed from the above results that pinning strength becomes weaker with Er doping. Finally, the variation of U{sub 0} have been shown with temperature by re-plotting –T(ln (ρ/ρ{sub 100})) vs T for three samples showing non-linear dependence with temperature.

  17. Frequency enhancement in coupled noisy excitable elements: effects of network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Yin; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2013-07-01

    Coupled excitable elements in the presence of noise can exhibit oscillatory behavior with non-trivial frequency dependence as the coupling strength of the system increases. The phenomenon of frequency enhancement (FE) occurs in some coupling regime, in which the elements can oscillate with a frequency higher than their uncoupled frequencies. In this paper, details of the FE are investigated by simulations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with different network topologies. It is found that the characteristics of FE, such as the maximal enhancement coupling, enhancement level etc, are functions of the network topology and spatial dimensions. The effect of excitability and the spatio-temporal patterns during FE are investigated to provide an intuitive picture for the enhancement mechanism. Interestingly, some of these characteristics of FE can be described by scaling laws; suggesting the existence of universality in the FE phenomenon. The relevance of these results to biological rhythms are also discussed.

  18. Effect of Al Substitution on Structural, Magnetic, and Magnetocaloric Properties of Er6Fe23−xAlx (x = 0 and 3 Intermetallic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jemmali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Er6Fe23−xAlx (x = 0 and 3 intermetallic compounds have been studied systematically. Samples were prepared using the arc furnace by annealing at 1073 K for one week. Rietveld analysis of XRD shows the formation of pure crystalline phase with cubic Fm-3m structure. Refinement results show that the unit cell volume decreases with increasing Al content. The Curie temperature Tc of the prepared samples was found to be strongly dependent on the aluminum content. This reduces magnetization and the ferrimagnetic phase transition temperature (Tc from 481 K (for x = 0 to 380 K (for x = 3, is due to the substitution of magnetic element (Fe by non-magnetic atoms (Al. With the increase of the Al content, a decrease in the values of magnetic entropy is observed. The magnitude of the isothermal magnetic entropy (|∆SM| at the Tc decreases from 1.8 J/kg·K for x = 0 to 0.58 J/kg·K for x = 3 for a field change 14 kOe. Respectively, the relative cooling power (RCP decreases with increasing Al content reaching 42 Jkg−1 for x = 0 to 28 Jkg−1 for x = 3.

  19. Effect of partial substitution of nickel by tin, aluminum, manganese and palladium on the properties of LaNi5-type metal hydride alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elki C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports studies on the electrochemical behavior of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys, formed by LaNi(5-xZx, where Z is a metallic element partially replacing Ni, which included Sn, Al, Mn, and Pd. In the case of Mn, some AB6-type structures were also considered. Substitution of a small fraction of Ni by Al, Sn, and Mn (x @ 0.3 leads to an increase of the hydrogen storage capability (HSC, while for Pd there is a decrease of this property. Generally all alloys presenting larger initial HSC exhibit lower stability. A decrease of the hydrogen equilibrium pressure as a function of Mn content is observed for the AB5 alloys and this is related to an increase of the crystalline unit cell volume. Electrochemical impedance measurements show a significant increase of the hydration/dehydration reaction kinetics due to a raise on the active area as a function of the charge/discharge cycle number. It is also seen that the alloys presenting larger HSC are those showing smaller activation energies for the hydrogen oxidation reaction.

  20. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  1. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Oral, Rahime

    2015-05-01

    In the recent decades, rare earth elements (REE) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial and medical applications, and in agriculture. Relatively scarce information has been acquired to date on REE-associated biological effects, from studies of bioaccumulation and of bioassays on animal, plant and models; a few case reports have focused on human health effects following occupational REE exposures, in the present lack of epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed groups. The literature is mostly confined to reports on few REE, namely cerium and lanthanum, whereas substantial information gaps persist on the health effects of other REE. An established action mechanism in REE-associated health effects relates to modulating oxidative stress, analogous to the recognized redox mechanisms observed for other transition elements. Adverse outcomes of REE exposures include a number of endpoints, such as growth inhibition, cytogenetic effects, and organ-specific toxicity. An apparent controversy regarding REE-associated health effects relates to opposed data pointing to either favorable or adverse effects of REE exposures. Several studies have demonstrated that REE, like a number of other xenobiotics, follow hormetic concentration-related trends, implying stimulatory or protective effects at low levels, then adverse effects at higher concentrations. Another major role for REE-associated effects should be focused on pH-dependent REE speciation and hence toxicity. Few reports have demonstrated that environmental acidification enhances REE toxicity; these data may assume particular relevance in REE-polluted acidic soils and in REE mining areas characterized by concomitant REE and acid pollution. The likely environmental threats arising from REE exposures deserve a new line of research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern organic chemistry and molecular modeling technologies simplify the search for potential inhibitors of various receptor systems and biological processes. The one of the directions is the development of analgesics of broad spectrum and low toxicity. It is important to search for inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that regulates many functions: inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, vascular tone, smooth muscle contraction and other. Derivatives of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones have a unique spatial conformation that allows one to simulate β-structures of bioactive peptides. The functional activity of compounds is determined by properties of their peripheral chemical radicals. We analyzed the effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones derivatives on the normalized maximal rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of the stomach in the presence of calcium channel blockers: verapamil (1 μM, gadolinium (300 μM and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (0.1 μM. The levels of bradykinin and 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones in incubation solution were 10–6 M. Data processing on dynamics of contraction was performed according to the method of Burdyha and Kosterin. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1925 reduced maximal normalized rate (Vn of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of Gd3+ by 21.2% and 31.0% respectively. Compound MX-1925 increased Vn of relaxation by 11.6%. A similar effect is typical for MX-2011, where there is an increase by 34.6%. In the presence of verapamil this compound additionally decreased Vn contraction by 20.5%. Substances MX-1775, MX-2004 and MX-1925 restored maximal normalized rate of relaxation to original values of bradykinin-induced contraction. In the presence of 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate MX-1775 additionally reduced Vn of contractions by 7.5%. 3-substituted 1,4-benzo­diazepine-2-ones did not change the maximal

  3. [Field observation on the effect of low-sodium and high-potassium salt substitute on blood pressure in the rural community-based population in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-hui; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Dong, Jing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ji-yu; Su, Jun-ying; Tang, Jun-li; Xu, Ai-qiang

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the effect of commercial low-sodium and high-potassium salt substitutes on blood pressure in the rural community-based population in China. We conducted a quasi-experiment on 411 adults, who were 30 to 60 years of age, in 2 rural communities from Laiwu city in Shandong province of China on data from blood pressure screening. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: high blood pressure (HBP) and non-HBP (NHBP). Both groups and their family members took a low-sodium and high-potassium salt substitute for 3 months to replace the normal salt in their bodies. Blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium were measured regularly in the 2 groups. There was a continuously decreasing trend for BP at the end of the first month. Three months later, the mean BP decreased by 7.4 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa, t = 10.096, P = 0.000) for SBP and 3.8 mm Hg (t = 8.017, P = 0.000) for DBP in the HBP group, when compared to a 1.2 mm Hg (t = 2.507, P = 0.007) decrease on SBP and 1.0 mm Hg (t = 2.987, P = 0.002) on DBP in the NHBP group. The mean urinary sodium had a decrease of 15.5 mmol/24 h (t = 1.803, P = 0.037), but the urinary potassium increased by 4.2 mmol/24 h (t' = 2.132, P = 0.018). The result of urinary sodium appeared to be as follows: potassium ratio (Na(+)/K(+)) decreased by 1.2 (t = 2.786, P = 0.003) in the HBP group. However, in NHBP group, the mean urinary sodium decreased by 1.7 mmol/24 h (t = 0.211, P = 0.417) and urinary potassium increased by 3.7 mmol/24 h (t' = 2.207, P = 0.015), together with the decrease of Na(+)/K(+) by 0.7 (t = 1.818, P = 0.036). Results from our study clearly demonstrated that the intake of low-sodium and high-potassium salt substitute could effectively reduce the BP with good compliance among adults in the rural community-based population in China. This was an effective but non-medical method to prevent and control the high blood pressure.

  4. Effect of heterogeneity on the quantitative determination of trace elements in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weritz, Friederike; Schaurich, Dieter; Taffe, Alexander; Wilsch, Gerd

    2006-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used for quantitative measurement of trace elements, e.g. sulfur and chlorine, in concrete. Chloride and sulfate ions have a large effect on the durability of concrete structures, and quantitative measurement is important for condition assessment and quality assurance. Concrete is a highly heterogeneous material in composition and grain-size distribution, i.e. the spatial distribution of elements. Calibration plots were determined by use of laboratory-made reference samples consisting of pressings of cement powder, hydrated cement, cement mortar, and concrete, in which the heterogeneity of the material is increasing because of the aggregates. Coarse aggregate and cement paste are distinguishable by the intensity of the Ca spectral lines. More advanced evaluation is necessary to account for the effect of the fine aggregate. The three series of reference samples enable systematic study of the effects of heterogeneity on spectral intensity, signal fluctuation, uncertainty, and limits of detection. Spatially resolved measurements and many spectra enable statistical evaluation of the data. The heterogeneity has an effect on measurement of the sulfur and chlorine content, because both occur mainly in the cement matrix. Critical chloride concentrations are approximately 0.04% (m/m). The chlorine spectral line at 837.6 nm is evaluated. The natural sulfur content of concrete is approximately 0.1% (m/m). The spectral line at 921.3 nm is evaluated. One future application may be simultaneous determination of the amount of damaging trace elements and the cement content of the concrete.

  5. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on structural, optical and magnetic properties of barium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, N.V.; Dung, N.T. [Department of Physics and Technology, Thai Nguyen University of Science, Thai Nguyen City (Viet Nam); Phong, P.T., E-mail: ptphong.nh@khanhhoa.edu.vn [Department of Natural Sciences, Nha Trang Pedagogic College, 1- Nguyen Chanh Street, Nha Trang City, Khanh Hoa Province (Viet Nam); Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University-Gyeongju, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Ja, E-mail: lij@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Dongguk University-Gyeongju, 707 Suckjang-dong, Gyeongju-Si, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Multiferroic BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.12) materials were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The influence of Fe on the crystalline structure, the electronic structure, the optical properties and the magnetic property of BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} samples were investigated. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman and UV–vis spectra showed that the structure of the material sensitively depends on Fe dopant content, x, and transforms gradually from the tetragonal (P4mm) phase to the hexagonal (P6{sub 3}/mmc) one with increasing x. The photoluminescence emission of BaTi{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} was attributed to structural disorder. All of the samples exhibit both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature. The relaxor like behavior was observed for all samples. The magnetization at a magnetic field of 1 T abnormally depends on x, increases up to 0.1 then decreases monotonously afterward. This anomaly in the magnetic behavior can be explained in terms of the changes in the oxidation state of ions such as the Fe{sup 3+}-to-Fe{sup 4+} and/or Ti{sup 4+}-to-Ti{sup 3+} change induced by oxygen vacancies. The substitution of Fe into Ti sites also causes the changes in the conductivity of the material and impurity (acceptor) levels in the band gap, which can be evident from the absorption spectra, and time-dependent leakage current measured at room temperature.

  7. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The effect of substituting alternative grains in the diet on the nutritional profile of the gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A R; Ng, D L; Dave, E; Ciaccio, E J; Green, P H R

    2009-08-01

    The only treatment for coeliac disease is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Several studies have reported nutritional deficiencies in individuals on a gluten-free diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the nutritional profile of gluten-free diet could be improved through the use of alternative grains. A retrospective review of diet history records by a celiac specialist dietitian were used to establish a 'standard' gluten-free dietary pattern. An 'alternative' gluten-free dietary pattern was developed that substituted naturally gluten-free grains or gluten-free products made from 'alternative' flours (oats, high fibre gluten-free bread and quinoa) in the standard pattern. A paired t-test was performed to identify statistical significance between the 'alternative' and standard gluten-free dietary pattern. Analysis of standard pattern indicated that 38% of meals and snacks contained no grain or starch choice. Of those meals that contained a grain or starch component, rice was the grain chosen 44% of the time. The inclusion of alternative grains or grain products provided a higher nutrient profile compared to the standard gluten-free dietary pattern (P = 0.002). Several nutrients; protein (20.6 g versus 11 g), iron (18.4 mg versus 1.4 mg), calcium (182 mg versus 0 mg) and fibre (12.7 g versus 5 g) were significantly increased by changing the grain or starch component in the dietary pattern. The B vitamin content (riboflavin, niacin and folate) was improved, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.125). The inclusion of alternative grain-based products increased the nutrient profile of the gluten-free dietary pattern significantly.

  9. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  10. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on the Elemental composition of the flour moth Ephestia kuhniella z

    OpenAIRE

    Souka, Soheir; Ashry, Hoda; Abdu, R. M.; El Sawaf, Bahira; Abbasy, Somaya

    1994-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the elemental composition of larvae, pupae and adults stages of the flour moth Ephestia kuhniella after irradiation of eggs to the sterilizing dose was studied. The elemental composition as well as the concentration level of elements detected in the different stages are summarized in the following: تناول البحث دراسة العناصر الرئيسية والنادرة في الأطوار المختلفة لحشرة فراشة الدقيق وتأثير الجرعة المعقمة من أشعة جاما على هذه العناصر . وذلك بهدف تفهم دور هذه ال...

  12. Effect of Superficial Atmospheric Corrosion Upon the Internal Stresses in Structural Steel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monel Leiba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A research program is presented showing the stress status determined by the corrosion phenomenon inside a specimen of a structural steel element. Several stains are studied their diameters ranging from 1~mm to 6~mm and thickness of the corroded layer under 0.5~mm. The physical modeling is the result of testing in laboratory the phenomenon of superficial atmospheric corrosion and the numerical modeling was developed under a FEM program, ALGOR. A number of 3,200 finite elements of BRICK type were created and the evolution of normal and tangential stresses was scrutinized under the process of loosing elementary material transformed into scrap. Stresses in the damaged sphere were graphically put into evidence and determined with accuracy due to the performances of the program, showing the local perturbations and the pattern of stress concentrators. The studies showed the importance of reproducing with both physical and mathematical methods the intricate mechanism and sometimes unpredictable effects of corrosion phenomenon upon the structural steel elements.

  13. Effect of intrusive and retraction forces in labial and lingual orthodontics: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lingual orthodontics differs in biomechanics as compared to labial system and has biomechanical advantages. Although theoretical approaches have explained the differences between labial and lingual orthodontics, the finite element method (FEM may be better suited to analyze these differences. This study analyzes the effect of vertical and horizontal forces together on the tooth using FEM. Materials and Methods: An extracted right maxillary central incisor was radiographed and was used to create a solid model using ANSYS. The geometric model was converted into a finite element model with the help of ANSYS software. The model consists of 27,000 elements and 30,000 nodes. Two force vectors (vertical and horizontal were applied labially and lingually at 3 different heights- 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm from the incisal edge. Results: In the labial system, the net force vector passes through the center of resistance (CR and brings about intrusion. The net force vector in lingual orthodontics does not pass through the center of resistance and produces lingual tipping of the incisors. Conclusion: Intrusion and retraction forces bring about tipping of incisors in lingual orthodontics. The same amount of intrusion and retraction forces brings about intrusion of incisors in labial orthodontics. Therefore, direction and amount of forces should be carefully and judiciously applied after taking into consideration the resultant biomechanical differences.

  14. Effect of Rare Earth Elements Burning Loss on Microstructure and Properties in TbDyFe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Zhong-hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate low vacuum experimental environment,Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.91 alloy round bars were prepared through melting with Tb, Dy and Fe elements, directional solidification and heat treatment in low vacuum environment. The magnetostriction of the alloy rods was tested. The microstructures and the causes of defects in the alloy were investigated. The results indicate that under the low vacuum experimental environment, there are plenty of twin dendritic lamellar microstructures and ordinary twin microstructures are generated in alloy, among which the mechanical properties and "jump" effect of twin dendritic lamellar structures are good, while the ordinary twins are bad to the magnetostrictive property in the alloy. REFe2 and REFe3 coupling phase is the main phase in the matrix, the burning loss of rare earth elements lead variations in chemical composition, resulting coupling growth with REFe3 phase and REFe2 phase. The thermal stress and the burning loss of rare earth elements segregate at grain boundaries resulting in the presence of micro-cracks and micro-holes. These microstructures and defects generate bad impact on mechanical properties and magnetostriction of TbDyFe alloy rods.

  15. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  16. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  17. Effect of Adding Elements on Microstructure of Mg-3Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Bin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of alloy Mg-3Si(mass fraction/%, same as below after successive additions with different elements of Zn, Nd, Gd and Y was observed and the microstructure evolution was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show the primary Mg2Si particles co-exist with eutectic Mg2Si particles in binary alloy Mg-Si. With minor addition of Zn element, only primary Mg2Si can be found in ternary Mg-3Si-3Zn system while eutectic Mg2Si particles disappear. In quaternary alloy Mg-2.0Nd-3.0Zn-3.0Si, the addition of Nd element can effectively refine the primary Mg2Si particles and form some Mg41Nd5 particles. After continuous adding of Gd and Y elements into quaternary system, Gd5Si3 and YSi particles increase significantly in the alloy Mg-8.0Gd-4.0Y-2.0Nd-3.0Zn-3.0Si, while volume fraction of primary Mg2Si decrease significantly. Thermo-Calc calculation predicts that the Gibbs free energy for primary particles Gd5Si3, YSi is lower, and therefore Gd, Y atom and Si are more likely to form compounds. In Mg-8Gd-4Y-2Nd-3Zn-3Si alloy, room temperature Gibbs free energy for primary particles Mg2Si, Gd5Si3, YSi is -9.56×104, -8.72×104, -2.83×104J/mol, respectively, and the mass fraction of these particles is 8.07%, 5.27%, 1.40% respectively.

  18. [Effects of LED spectrum combinations on the absorption of mineral elements of hydroponic lettuce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Mmanake Beauty, Morewane

    2014-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which spectrum proportion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant growth. Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP -AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450, 660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Mo, the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7. 8, 4. 2, 4. 0 and 3. 7 times more than that under FL; (2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10. 309 mg g-1 and 32. 6 microg g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue; (3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL; (4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumulations of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce.

  19. Effects of methionine containing paracetamol formulation on serum vitamins and trace elements in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, A A; Anetor, J I; Oparinde, D P; Adeniyi, F A A

    2010-11-28

    Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a number of pathological conditions. It also alters plasma levels of many vital elements and molecules. This study was designed to identify if the alteration observed for antioxidant vitamins and minerals especially at sub-toxic and toxic levels of exposure in our earlier study of 24-hour exposure period may warrant trace elements supplementation. This was investigated by carrying out a 48-hour study to test the ability of a living organism to restore homeostasis of these vital molecules and elements. The levels of antioxidant minerals and vitamins were estimated in the serum samples obtained from adult male Wistar rats exposed to paracetamol tablets. At 100 mg\\kg BW (body weight) vitamin A, niacin, riboflavin, selenium and manganese were not significantly different from the control group. Moreover at 350 mg\\kg, all these indices except zinc were not significantly different in the exposed group compared with controls whereas at 1000 mg\\kg level of exposure manganese, selenium and vitamin E were not significantly decreased at the end of 48 hours of exposure but copper, niacin and vitamin A were significantly increased in the exposed group compared with the controls. These results suggest that with time the body may be capable of bringing about restoration of the levels of some of these elements\\vitamins. This was more evident at 350 mg\\kg level of exposure than a higher dose of 1000 mg\\kg level.

  20. Seeing 'where' through the ears: effects of learning-by-doing and long-term sensory deprivation on localization based on image-to-sound substitution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory substitution devices for the blind translate inaccessible visual information into a format that intact sensory pathways can process. We here tested image-to-sound conversion-based localization of visual stimuli (LEDs and objects in 13 blindfolded participants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Subjects were assigned to different roles as a function of two variables: visual deprivation (blindfolded continuously (Bc for 24 hours per day for 21 days; blindfolded for the tests only (Bt and system use (system not used (Sn; system used for tests only (St; system used continuously for 21 days (Sc. The effect of learning-by-doing was assessed by comparing the performance of eight subjects (BtSt who only used the mobile substitution device for the tests, to that of three subjects who, in addition, practiced with it for four hours daily in their normal life (BtSc and BcSc; two subjects who did not use the device at all (BtSn and BcSn allowed assessment of its use in the tasks we employed. The impact of long-term sensory deprivation was investigated by blindfolding three of those participants throughout the three week-long experiment (BcSn, BcSn/c, and BcSc; the other ten subjects were only blindfolded during the tests (BtSn, BtSc, and the eight BtSt subjects. Expectedly, the two subjects who never used the substitution device, while fast in finding the targets, had chance accuracy, whereas subjects who used the device were markedly slower, but showed much better accuracy which improved significantly across our four testing sessions. The three subjects who freely used the device daily as well as during tests were faster and more accurate than those who used it during tests only; however, long-term blindfolding did not notably influence performance. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the results demonstrate that the device allowed blindfolded subjects to increasingly know where something was by listening, and indicate that practice in naturalistic conditions