The Finite Element Numerical Modelling of 3D Magnetotelluric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ligang Cao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The ideal numerical simulation of 3D magnetotelluric was restricted by the methodology complexity and the time-consuming calculation. Boundary values, the variation of weighted residual equation, and the hexahedral mesh generation method of finite element are three major causes. A finite element method for 3D magnetotelluric numerical modeling is presented in this paper as a solution for the problem mentioned above. In this algorithm, a hexahedral element coefficient matrix for magnetoelluric finite method is developed, which solves large-scale equations using preconditioned conjugate gradient of the first-type boundary conditions. This algorithm is verified using the homogeneous model, and the positive landform model, as well as the low resistance anomaly model.
A CFD numerical model for the flow distribution in a MTR fuel element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Santos, Pedro Henrique Di Giovanni; Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de; Torres, Walmir Maximo; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Angelo, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Previously, an instrumented dummy fuel element (DMPV-01), with the same geometric characteristics of a MTR fuel element, was designed and constructed for pressure drop and flow distribution measurement experiments at the IEA-R1 reactor core. This dummy element was also used to measure the flow distribution among the rectangular flow channels formed by element fuel plates. A CFD numerical model was developed to complement the studies. This work presents the proposed CFD model as well as a comparison between numerical and experimental results of flow rate distribution among the internal flow channels. Numerical results show that the model reproduces the experiments very well and can be used for the studies as a more convenient and complementary tool. (author)
A CFD numerical model for the flow distribution in a MTR fuel element
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Santos, Pedro Henrique Di Giovanni; Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de; Torres, Walmir Maximo; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Prado, Adelk de Carvalho, E-mail: acprado@ipen.br, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: dpedro_digiovanni_s@hotmail.com, E-mail: fabio@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br, E-mail: abelchior@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Angelo, Edvaldo, E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelo, Gabriel, E-mail: gangelo@fei.edu.br [Fundacao Educacional Inaciana (FEI), Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
Previously, an instrumented dummy fuel element (DMPV-01), with the same geometric characteristics of a MTR fuel element, was designed and constructed for pressure drop and flow distribution measurement experiments at the IEA-R1 reactor core. This dummy element was also used to measure the flow distribution among the rectangular flow channels formed by element fuel plates. A CFD numerical model was developed to complement the studies. This work presents the proposed CFD model as well as a comparison between numerical and experimental results of flow rate distribution among the internal flow channels. Numerical results show that the model reproduces the experiments very well and can be used for the studies as a more convenient and complementary tool. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ochoa-Avendaño
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending beams are simulated, where the cracking pattern calculated with the proposed numerical model is similar to experimental result. The advantages of the proposed model compared to discrete crack approaches with interface elements can be the implementation simplicity, the numerical stability, and the very low computational cost. The simulation with greater values of the initial stiffness of the link elements does not affect the discontinuity path and the stability of the numerical solution. The exploded mesh procedure presented in this model avoids a complex nonlinear analysis and regenerative or adaptive meshes.
Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg
of a constitutive model for soil is based on a profound knowledge of the soil behaviour upon loading. In the present study it is attempted to get a better understanding of the soil behaviour bv performing a number of triaxial compression tests on sand. The stress-strain behaviour of sand depends strongly......This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...... and subsequently dilates during shear. The change in the volumetric behaviour of the soil skeleton is commonly referred to as the characteristic state. The stress ratio corresponding to the characteristic state is independent of the mean normal effective stress and the relative density, but depends on the stress...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Majchrzak
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
A numerical strategy for finite element modeling of frictionless asymmetric vocal fold collision
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granados, Alba; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Brunskog, Jonas
2016-01-01
. Theoretical background and numerical analysis of the finite-element position-based contact model are presented, along with validation. A novel contact detection mechanism capable to detect collision in asymmetric oscillations is developed. The effect of inexact contact constraint enforcement on vocal fold...
Numerical model to predict microstructure of the heat treated of steel elements
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T. Domański
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In work the presented numerical models of tool steel hardening processes take into account thermal phenomena and phase transformations. Numerical algorithm of thermal phenomena was based on the Finite Elements Methods of the heat transfer equations. In the model of phase transformations, in simulations heating process continuous heating (CHT was applied, whereas in cooling process continuous cooling (CCT of the steel at issue. The phase fraction transformed (austenite during heating and fractions during cooling of ferrite, pearlite or bainite are determined by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formulas. The nescent fraction of martensite is determined by Koistinen and Marburger formula or modified Koistinen and Marburger formula. In the simulations of hardening was subject the fang lathe of cone (axisymmetrical object made of tool steel.
Numerical Modeling of Cavitating Venturi: A Flow Control Element of Propulsion System
Majumdar, Alok; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In a propulsion system, the propellant flow and mixture ratio could be controlled either by variable area flow control valves or by passive flow control elements such as cavitating venturies. Cavitating venturies maintain constant propellant flowrate for fixed inlet conditions (pressure and temperature) and wide range of outlet pressures, thereby maintain constant, engine thrust and mixture ratio. The flowrate through the venturi reaches a constant value and becomes independent of outlet pressure when the pressure at throat becomes equal to vapor pressure. In order to develop a numerical model of propulsion system, it is necessary to model cavitating venturies in propellant feed systems. This paper presents a finite volume model of flow network of a cavitating venturi. The venturi was discretized into a number of control volumes and mass, momentum and energy conservation equations in each control volume are simultaneously solved to calculate one-dimensional pressure, density, and flowrate and temperature distribution. The numerical model predicts cavitations at the throat when outlet pressure was gradually reduced. Once cavitation starts, with further reduction of downstream pressure, no change in flowrate is found. The numerical predictions have been compared with test data and empirical equation based on Bernoulli's equation.
Krejsa, M.; Brozovsky, J.; Mikolasek, D.; Parenica, P.; Koubova, L.
2018-04-01
The paper is focused on the numerical modeling of welded steel bearing elements using commercial software system ANSYS, which is based on the finite element method - FEM. It is important to check and compare the results of FEM analysis with the results of physical verification test, in which the real behavior of the bearing element can be observed. The results of the comparison can be used for calibration of the computational model. The article deals with the physical test of steel supporting elements, whose main purpose is obtaining of material, geometry and strength characteristics of the fillet and butt welds including heat affected zone in the basic material of welded steel bearing element. The pressure test was performed during the experiment, wherein the total load value and the corresponding deformation of the specimens under the load was monitored. Obtained data were used for the calibration of numerical models of test samples and they are necessary for further stress and strain analysis of steel supporting elements.
Hindle, D.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Kley, J.; Kopp, H.
2012-04-01
We develop a coupled numerical model for fluid flow in deforming sedimentary basins. We combine a distinct element method for large deformations of crustal materials, with a finite element method for fluid flow according to a diffusion type equation. The key question in such a model is how to simulate evolving permeabilities due to upper and possibly middle crustal deformation, and the coupled issue of how localisation of deformation in faults and shear zones is itself influenced by fluid flow and fluid pressure and vice versa. Currently our knowledge of these issues is restricted, even sketchy. There are a number of hypotheses, based partly on geological and isotope geochemical observations, such as "seismic pumping" models, and fluid induced weak décollement models for thrust sheet transport which have gained quite wide acceptance. Observations around thrusts at the present day have also often been interpreted as showing deformation induced permeability. However, combining all the physics of these processes into a numerical simulation is a complicated task given the ranges of, in particular time scales of the processes we infer to be operating based on our various observations. We start this task by using an elastic fracture relationship between normal stresses across distinct element contacts (which we consider to be the equivalent of discrete, sliding fractures) and their openness and hence their transmissivity. This relates the mechanical state of the distinct element system to a discrete permeability field. Further than that, the geometry of the mechanical system is used to provide boundary conditions for fluid flow in a diffusion equation which also incorporates the permeability field. The next question we address is how to achieve a feedback between fluid pressures and deformation. We try two approaches: one treats pore space in the DEM as real, and calculates the force exerted locally by fluids and adds this to the force balance of the model; another
Dong, Chen; Sun, Shuyu; Taylor, Glenn A.
2011-01-01
A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods; i.e., the mixed finite-element (MFE) method and the finite-volume method. Adaptive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Pei, R; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2007-04-15
A finite element method code based on the critical state model is proposed to solve the AC loss problem in YBCO coated conductors. This numerical method is based on a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable. The AC loss problems have been investigated both in self-field condition and external field condition. Two numerical approaches have been introduced: the first model is configured on the cross-section plane of the YBCO tape to simulate an infinitely long superconducting tape. The second model represents the plane of the critical current flowing and is able to simulate the YBCO tape with finite length where the end effect is accounted. An AC loss measurement has been done to verify the numerical results and shows a good agreement with the numerical solution.
Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ainslie, M.D., E-mail: mda36@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T.J.; Coombs, T.A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2010-11-01
This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge's superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, R.A.; Gastal, F.P.S.L.; Filho, A.C.
2005-01-01
Unbounded prestressed concrete has a growing importance all over the world and may be an useful technique for the structures involved in the construction of nuclear facilities. The absence of bonding means no strain compatibility so that equations developed for reinforced concrete are no longer valid. Practical estimates about the ultimate stress in the unbounded tendons may be obtained with empirical or numerical methods only. In order to contribute to the understanding on the behaviour of unbounded prestressed concrete members, a numerical model has been developed using a hybrid type finite element formulation for planar frame structures. Instead of short elements, as in the conventional finite element formulation, long elements may be used, improving computational efficiency. A further advantage is that the curvature variation within the element is obtained with higher accuracy if compared to the traditional formulation. This feature is important for unbounded tendons since its stresses depend on the whole member deformation. Second order effects in the planar frame are considered with either Updated or Partially Updated Lagrangian approaches. Instantaneous and time dependent behaviour as well as cyclic loads are considered too. Comparison with experimental results for prestressed concrete beams shows the adequacy of the proposed model. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, M.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE
2013-08-01
Polymer flooding, as an EOR method, has become one of the most important driving forces after water flooding. The conventional believe is that polymer flooding can only improve sweep efficiency, but it has no contribution to residual oil saturation reduction. However, experimental studies indicated that polymer solution can also improve displacement efficiency and decrease residual oil saturation. To get a better understanding of the mechanism to increase the microscopic sweep efficiency and the displacement efficiency, theoretical studies are required. In this paper, we studied the viscoelasticity effect of polymer by using a numerical simulator, which is based on Finite Element Analysis. Since it is showed experimentally that the first normal stress difference of viscoelastic polymer solution is higher than the second stress difference, the Oldroyd-B model was selected as the constitutive equation in the simulation. Numerical modelling of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluids is notoriously difficult. Standard Galerkin finite element methods are prone to numerical oscillations, and there is no convergence as the elasticity of fluid increases. Therefore, we use a stabilised finite element model. In order to verify our model, we first built up a model with the same geometry and fluid properties as presented in literature and compared the results. Then, with the tested model we simulated the effect of viscoelastic polymer fluid on dead pores in three simplified pore structures, which are contraction structure, expansion structure and expansion-contraction structure. Correspondingly, the streamlines and velocity contours of polymer solution, with different Reynolds numbers (Re) and Weissenberg numbers (We), flowing in these three structures are showed. The simulation results indicate that the viscoelasticity of polymer solution is the main contribution to increase the micro-scale sweep efficiency. With higher elasticity, the velocity of polymer solution is getting bigger at
Numerical simulation of potato slices drying using a two-dimensional finite element model
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Beigi Mohsen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the process of potato slices drying. For simulating the moisture transfer in the samples and predict the dehydration curves, a two-dimensional finite element model was developed and programmed in Compaq Visual Fortran, version 6.5. The model solved the Fick’s second law for slab in a shrinkage system to calculate the unsteady two-dimensional moisture transmission in rectangular coordinates (x,y. Moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient were determined by minimizing the sum squares of residuals between experimental and numerical predicted data. Shrinkage kinetics of the potato slices during dehydration was determined experimentally and found to be a linear function of removed moisture. The determined parameters were used in the mathematical model. The predicted moisture content values were compared to the experimental data and the validation results demonstrated that the dynamic drying curves were predicted by the methodology very well.
A numerical strategy for finite element modeling of frictionless asymmetric vocal fold collision.
Granados, Alba; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Brunskog, Jonas; Visseq, Vincent; Erleben, Kenny
2017-02-01
Analysis of voice pathologies may require vocal fold models that include relevant features such as vocal fold asymmetric collision. The present study numerically addresses the problem of frictionless asymmetric collision in a self-sustained three-dimensional continuum model of the vocal folds. Theoretical background and numerical analysis of the finite-element position-based contact model are presented, along with validation. A novel contact detection mechanism capable to detect collision in asymmetric oscillations is developed. The effect of inexact contact constraint enforcement on vocal fold dynamics is examined by different variational methods for inequality constrained minimization problems, namely, the Lagrange multiplier method and the penalty method. In contrast to the penalty solution, which is related to classical spring-like contact forces, numerical examples show that the parameter-independent Lagrange multiplier solution is more robust and accurate in the estimation of dynamical and mechanical features at vocal fold contact. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the temporal integration schemes in relation to the contact problem, the results suggesting an advantage of highly diffusive schemes. Finally, vocal fold contact enforcement is shown to affect asymmetric oscillations. The present model may be adapted to existing vocal fold models, which may contribute to a better understanding of the effect of the nonlinear contact phenomenon on phonation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maras Michal
1997-06-01
Full Text Available Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modelling the dynamic force acting on the conveyor belt. In the conclusions of the paper there are given table and graphical results of the numerical modelling aimed at solving the problems connected with the damaging of a conveyor belt. By numerical modelling, in this case the finite element method, in the given way can be realized the parametric studies with changing values of input parameters, especially: - stretching force, - thickness of cover layers of the conveyor belt and strain properties of the rubber, - parameters of the steel cord of the conveyor belt.
Numerical modeling assistance system in finite element analysis for the structure of an assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Norihiro; Nishida, Akemi; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko
2015-01-01
The objective of structural analysis and seismic response analysis are well recognized and utilized as one of sophisticated analysis tools for design objects in the nuclear engineering. The way to design nuclear facilities is always in compromising with many index, such as costs, performance, robustness and so on, but the most important issues is the safety. It is true the structural analysis and seismic response analysis plays an important role to insure the safety, since it is well known that Japan is always facing to the earthquake. In this paper, a numerical analysis's controlling and managing system is implemented on a supercomputer, which controls the modelling process and data treating for structural robustness, although a numerical analysis's manager only controls a structural analysis by finite element method. The modeling process is described by the list of function ID and its procedures in a data base. The analytical modeling manager executes the process by order of the lists for simulation procedures. The manager controls the intention of an analysis by changing the analytical process one to another. Modeling process was experimentally found that may subject to the intention of designing index. The numerical experiments were carried out with static analyses and dynamic analyses. The results of its experiment introduce reasonable discussion to understand the accuracy of simulation. In the numerical experiments, K, supercomputer is utilized by using parallel computing resource with the controlling and managing system. The structural analysis and seismic response analysis are done by the FIEST, finite element analysis for the structure of an assembly, which carries out the simulation by gathering components. As components are attached to one another to build an assembly, and, therefore, the interactions between the components due to differences in material properties and their connection conditions considerably affect the behavior of an assembly. FIESTA is
Numerical Simulation of Recycled Concrete Using Convex Aggregate Model and Base Force Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yijiang Peng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available By using the Base Force Element Method (BFEM on potential energy principle, a new numerical concrete model, random convex aggregate model, is presented in this paper to simulate the experiment under uniaxial compression for recycled aggregate concrete (RAC which can also be referred to as recycled concrete. This model is considered as a heterogeneous composite which is composed of five mediums, including natural coarse aggregate, old mortar, new mortar, new interfacial transition zone (ITZ, and old ITZ. In order to simulate the damage processes of RAC, a curve damage model was adopted as the damage constitutive model and the strength theory of maximum tensile strain was used as the failure criterion in the BFEM on mesomechanics. The numerical results obtained in this paper which contained the uniaxial compressive strengths, size effects on strength, and damage processes of RAC are in agreement with experimental observations. The research works show that the random convex aggregate model and the BFEM with the curve damage model can be used for simulating the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of RAC.
A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation
Pathmanathan, P; Gavaghan, D; Whiteley, J
2009-01-01
Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.
A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation
Pathmanathan, P
2009-05-01
Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.
Numerical Modeling and Mechanical Analysis of Flexible Risers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available ABAQUS is used to create a detailed finite element model for a 10-layer unbonded flexible riser to simulate the riser’s mechanical behavior under three load conditions: tension force and internal and external pressure. It presents a technique to create detailed finite element model and to analyze flexible risers. In FEM model, all layers are modeled separately with contact interfaces; interaction between steel trips in certain layers has been considered as well. FEM model considering contact interaction, geometric nonlinearity, and friction has been employed to accurately simulate the structural behavior of riser. The model includes the main features of the riser geometry with very little simplifying assumptions. The model was solved using a fully explicit time-integration scheme implemented in a parallel environment on an eight-processor cluster and 24 G memory computer. There is a very good agreement obtained from numerical and analytical comparisons, which validates the use of numerical model here. The results from the numerical simulation show that the numerical model takes into account various details of the riser. It has been shown that the detailed finite element model can be used to predict riser’s mechanics behavior under various load cases and bound conditions.
Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements
Sun, Shuyu
2012-07-27
Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Dong, Chen
2011-01-01
A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods; i.e., the mixed finite-element (MFE) method and the finite-volume method. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocity fields for both the fractures and matrix, which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The finite-volume method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms, respectively. The temporary evolution for the pressure distributions, streamline fields, and concentration profiles are obtained for six different arrangements of fractures. The results clearly show the distorted concentration effects caused by the ordered and disordered (random) patterns of the fractures and illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model. © 2011 by Begell House Inc.
Numerical analysis of creep brittle rupture by the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, O.J.A.; Owen, D.R.J.
1983-01-01
In this work an implicit algorithm is proposed for the numerical analysis of creep brittle rupture problems by the finite element method. This kind of structural failure, typical in components operating at high temperatures for long periods of time, is modelled using either a three dimensional generalization of the Kachanov-Rabotnov equations due to Leckie and Hayhurst or the Monkman-Grant fracture criterion together with the Linear Life Fraction Rule. The finite element equations are derived by the displacement method and isoparametric elements are used for the spatial discretization. Geometric nonlinear effects (large displacements) are accounted for by an updated Lagrangian formulation. Attention is also focussed on the solution of the highly stiff differential equations that govern damage growth. Finally the numerical results of a three-dimensional analysis of a pressurized thin cylinder containing oxidised pits in its external wall are discussed. (orig.)
Adaptive numerical modeling of dynamic crack propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adouani, H.; Tie, B.; Berdin, C.; Aubry, D.
2006-01-01
We propose an adaptive numerical strategy that aims at developing reliable and efficient numerical tools to model dynamic crack propagation and crack arrest. We use the cohesive zone theory as behavior of interface-type elements to model crack. Since the crack path is generally unknown beforehand, adaptive meshing is proposed to model the dynamic crack propagation. The dynamic study requires the development of specific solvers for time integration. As both geometry and finite element mesh of the studied structure evolve in time during transient analysis, the stability behavior of dynamic solver becomes a major concern. For this purpose, we use the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method, well-known to provide a natural framework to manage meshes that evolve in time. As an important result, we prove that the space-time discontinuous Galerkin solver is unconditionally stable, when the dynamic crack propagation is modeled by the cohesive zone theory, which is highly non-linear. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, Felipe Lopes; Pinto, Joao Pedro C.T.A.
2013-01-01
The 4 th generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) most popular concept uses a graphite-moderated and helium cooled core with an outlet gas temperature of approximately 1000 deg C. The high output temperature allows the use of the process heat and the production of hydrogen through the thermochemical iodine-sulfur process as well as highly efficient electricity generation. There are two concepts of VHTR core: the prismatic block and the pebble bed core. The prismatic block core has two popular concepts for the fuel element: multihole and annular. In the multi-hole fuel element, prismatic graphite blocks contain cylindrical flow channels where the helium coolant flows removing heat from cylindrical fuel rods positioned in the graphite. In the other hand, the annular type fuel element has annular channels around the fuel. This paper shows the numerical evaluations of prismatic multi-hole and annular VHTR fuel elements and does a comparison between the results of these assembly reactors. In this study the analysis were performed using the CFD code ANSYS CFX 14.0. The simulations were made in 1/12 fuel element models. A numerical validation was performed through the energy balance, where the theoretical and the numerical generated heat were compared for each model. (author)
Magnetic materials and 3D finite element modeling
Bastos, Joao Pedro A
2014-01-01
Magnetic Materials and 3D Finite Element Modeling explores material characterization and finite element modeling (FEM) applications. This book relates to electromagnetic analysis based on Maxwell’s equations and application of the finite element (FE) method to low frequency devices. A great source for senior undergraduate and graduate students in electromagnetics, it also supports industry professionals working in magnetics, electromagnetics, ferromagnetic materials science and electrical engineering. The authors present current concepts on ferromagnetic material characterizations and losses. They provide introductory material; highlight basic electromagnetics, present experimental and numerical modeling related to losses and focus on FEM applied to 3D applications. They also explain various formulations, and discuss numerical codes.
Numerical experiment on finite element method for matching data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Kumakura, Toshimasa; Yoshimura, Koichi.
1993-03-01
Numerical experiments are presented on the finite element method by Pletzer-Dewar for matching data of an ordinary differential equation with regular singular points by using model equation. Matching data play an important role in nonideal MHD stability analysis of a magnetically confined plasma. In the Pletzer-Dewar method, the Frobenius series for the 'big solution', the fundamental solution which is not square-integrable at the regular singular point, is prescribed. The experiments include studies of the convergence rate of the matching data obtained by the finite element method and of the effect on the results of computation by truncating the Frobenius series at finite terms. It is shown from the present study that the finite element method is an effective method for obtaining the matching data with high accuracy. (author)
Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board
A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik
1999-01-01
In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling in Maritime Geomechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Martín Stickle
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical framework to model the foundation of marine offshore structures is presented. The theoretical model is composed by a system of partial differential equations describing coupling between seabed solid skeleton and pore fluids (water, air, oil,... combined with a system of ordinary differential equations describing the specific constitutive relation of the seabed soil skeleton. Once the theoretical model is described, the finite element numerical procedure to achieve an approximate solution of the overning equations is outlined. In order to validate the proposed theoretical and numerical framework the seaward tilt mechanism induced by the action of breaking waves over a vertical breakwater is numerically reproduced. The results numerically attained are in agreement with the main conclusions drawn from the literature associated with this failure mechanism.
Physical model of Nernst element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou
1998-08-01
Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)
Numerical simulation of subwoofer array congurations using the Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xavier Banyuls-Juan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Teaching in the Master of Acoustic Engineering includes contents that require the modeling of acoustic systems of two types: simple systems through analytical theory and complex models using simulation techniques. In the present work, we describe an example of complex acoustic sources modeling using the finite element method: subwoofer sound radiation in different configurations. Numerical simulations in the frequency domain can calculate the radiation pattern of systems that do not have a simple analytical solution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksson, Per; Gudmundson, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
2009-01-01
A framework of finite element equations for strain gradient plasticity is presented. The theoretical framework requires plastic strain degrees of freedom in addition to displacements and a plane strain version is implemented into a commercial finite element code. A couple of different elements...... of quadrilateral type are examined and a few numerical issues are addressed related to these elements as well as to strain gradient plasticity theories in general. Numerical results are presented for an idealized cell model of a metal matrix composite under shear loading. It is shown that strengthening due...... to fiber size is captured but strengthening due to fiber shape is not. A few modelling aspects of this problem are discussed as well. An analytic solution is also presented which illustrates similarities to other theories....
Numerical Integration Techniques for Curved-Element Discretizations of Molecule–Solvent Interfaces
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.; Willis, David J.; Lippow, Shaun M.; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K.
2012-01-01
Surface formulations of biophysical modeling problems offer attractive theoretical and computational properties. Numerical simulations based on these formulations usually begin with discretization of the surface under consideration; often, the surface is curved, possessing complicated structure and possibly singularities. Numerical simulations commonly are based on approximate, rather than exact, discretizations of these surfaces. To assess the strength of the dependence of simulation accuracy on the fidelity of surface representation, we have developed methods to model several important surface formulations using exact surface discretizations. Following and refining Zauhar’s work (J. Comp.-Aid. Mol. Des. 9:149-159, 1995), we define two classes of curved elements that can exactly discretize the van der Waals, solvent-accessible, and solvent-excluded (molecular) surfaces. We then present numerical integration techniques that can accurately evaluate nonsingular and singular integrals over these curved surfaces. After validating the exactness of the surface discretizations and demonstrating the correctness of the presented integration methods, we present a set of calculations that compare the accuracy of approximate, planar-triangle-based discretizations and exact, curved-element-based simulations of surface-generalized-Born (sGB), surface-continuum van der Waals (scvdW), and boundary-element method (BEM) electrostatics problems. Results demonstrate that continuum electrostatic calculations with BEM using curved elements, piecewise-constant basis functions, and centroid collocation are nearly ten times more accurate than planartriangle BEM for basis sets of comparable size. The sGB and scvdW calculations give exceptional accuracy even for the coarsest obtainable discretized surfaces. The extra accuracy is attributed to the exact representation of the solute–solvent interface; in contrast, commonly used planar-triangle discretizations can only offer improved
Numerical and spectral investigations of novel infinite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barai, P.; Harari, I.; Barbonet, P.E.
1998-01-01
Exterior problems of time-harmonic acoustics are addressed by a novel infinite element formulation, defined on a bounded computational domain. For two-dimensional configurations with circular interfaces, the infinite element results match Quell both analytical values and those obtained from. other methods like DtN. Along 1uith the numerical performance of this formulation, of considerable interest are its complex-valued eigenvalues. Hence, a spectral analysis of the present scheme is also performed here, using various infinite elements
Rehman, Asad; Ali, Ishtiaq; Qamar, Shamsul
An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme.
Finite element modeling of nanotube structures linear and non-linear models
Awang, Mokhtar; Muhammad, Ibrahim Dauda
2016-01-01
This book presents a new approach to modeling carbon structures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes using finite element methods, and addresses the latest advances in numerical studies for these materials. Based on the available findings, the book develops an effective finite element approach for modeling the structure and the deformation of grapheme-based materials. Further, modeling processing for single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in detail.
Numerical modeling of foam flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheddadi, Ibrahim
2010-01-01
Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)
Mathematical model of thermal and mechanical steady state fuel element behaviour TEDEF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinic, N.; Kostic, Z.; Josipovic, M.
1987-01-01
In this paper a numerical model of thermal and thermomechanical behaviour of a cylindrical metal uranium fuel element is described. Presented are numerical method and computer program for solving the stationary temperature field and thermal stresses of a fuel element. The model development is a second phase of analysis of these phenomena, and may as well be used for analysing power nuclear reactor fuel elements behaviour. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rousseau, J.
2009-07-01
That study focuses on concrete structures submitted to impact loading and is aimed at predicting local damage in the vicinity of an impact zone as well as the global response of the structure. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) seems particularly well suited in this context for modeling fractures. An identification process of DEM material parameters from macroscopic data (Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strength, fracture energy, etc.) will first be presented for the purpose of enhancing reproducibility and reliability of the simulation results with DE samples of various sizes. Then, a particular interaction, between concrete and steel elements, was developed for the simulation of reinforced concrete. The discrete elements method was validated on quasi-static and dynamic tests carried out on small samples of concrete and reinforced concrete. Finally, discrete elements were used to simulate impacts on reinforced concrete slabs in order to confront the results with experimental tests. The modeling of a large structure by means of DEM may lead to prohibitive computation times. A refined discretization becomes required in the vicinity of the impact, while the structure may be modeled using a coarse FE mesh further from the impact area, where the material behaves elastically. A coupled discrete-finite element approach is thus proposed: the impact zone is modeled by means of DE and elastic FE are used on the rest of the structure. An existing method for 3D finite elements was extended to shells. This new method was then validated on many quasi-static and dynamic tests. The proposed approach is then applied to an impact on a concrete structure in order to validate the coupled method and compare computation times. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudewills, A.
2005-11-01
Construction of deep underground structures disturbs the initial stress field in the surrounding rock. This effect can generate microcracks and alter the hydromechanical properties of the rock salt around the excavations. For the long-term performance of an underground repository in rock salt, the evolution of the 'Excavation Disturbed Zone' (EDZ) and the hydromechanical behaviour of this zone represent important issues with respect to the integrity of the geological and technical barriers. Within the framework of the NF-PRO project, WP 4.4, attention focuses on the mathematical modelling of the development and evolution of the EDZ in the rock near a disposal drift due to its relevance on the integrity of the geological and technical barriers. To perform this task, finite-element codes containing a set of time- and temperature-dependent constitutive models have been improved. A new viscoplastic constitutive model for rock salt that can describe the damage of the rock has been implemented in the finite-element codes available. The model parameters were evaluated based on experimental results. Additionally, the long-term evolution of the EDZ around a gallery in a salt mine at about 700 m below the surface was analysed and the numerical results were compared with in-situ measurements. The calculated room closure, stress distribution and the increase of rock permeability in the EDZ were compared with in-situ data, thus providing confidence in the model used. (orig.)
Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort
Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iulian Rosu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft tires rolling on a steel drum. The rotating drum facility allows to apply variable velocities beyond the take off limits, at fixed skidding angles and loadings. The rolling conditions, vertical loading, velocity and cornering conditions were adopted to correspond to the real conditions of an aircraft tire running or skidding on a flat runway. In the experimental part, the influence of skidding angle, velocity and loading on the thermal evolution of the tire tread were investigated. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a pneumatic radial tire structure was performed taking into account the hyper-viscoelastic rubber behavior, with heating mechanisms developed by the inelastic deformation and by friction. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of an aircraft tire rolling on a steel drum were carried out using Abaqus/Standard finite element solver. The comparison of the temperature distribution on the tire tread between numerical results and the experimental data shows the same overall tendencies. The good correlation between numerical and experimental data shows that numerical simulation could predict the thermal evolution of the tire in critical situations. The authors would like to mention that for confidentiality reason, certain numerical data could not be revealed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Rehman
Full Text Available An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme. Keywords: Dusty gas flow, Solid particles, Upwind schemes, Rarefaction wave, Shock wave, Contact discontinuity
Numerical modelling of laser rapid prototyping by fusion wire deposit
Arbaoui , Larbi; Masse , J.E.; Barrallier , Laurent; Mocellin , Katia
2010-01-01
International audience; A finite element model has been developed to simulate an innovative laser rapid prototyping process. Several numerical developments have been implemented in order to simulate the main steps of the rapid prototyping process: injection, heating, phase change and deposit. The numerical model also takes into account different phenomena: surface tension in the liquid state, asborptivity and plasma effects during materiallaser interaction. The threedimensional model is based...
Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics
Sovinec, C. R.
2016-08-01
Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.
Discrimination of numerical proportions: A comparison of binomial and Gaussian models.
Raidvee, Aire; Lember, Jüri; Allik, Jüri
2017-01-01
Observers discriminated the numerical proportion of two sets of elements (N = 9, 13, 33, and 65) that differed either by color or orientation. According to the standard Thurstonian approach, the accuracy of proportion discrimination is determined by irreducible noise in the nervous system that stochastically transforms the number of presented visual elements onto a continuum of psychological states representing numerosity. As an alternative to this customary approach, we propose a Thurstonian-binomial model, which assumes discrete perceptual states, each of which is associated with a certain visual element. It is shown that the probability β with which each visual element can be noticed and registered by the perceptual system can explain data of numerical proportion discrimination at least as well as the continuous Thurstonian-Gaussian model, and better, if the greater parsimony of the Thurstonian-binomial model is taken into account using AIC model selection. We conclude that Gaussian and binomial models represent two different fundamental principles-internal noise vs. using only a fraction of available information-which are both plausible descriptions of visual perception.
Numerical models for differential problems
Quarteroni, Alfio
2017-01-01
In this text, we introduce the basic concepts for the numerical modelling of partial differential equations. We consider the classical elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic linear equations, but also the diffusion, transport, and Navier-Stokes equations, as well as equations representing conservation laws, saddle-point problems and optimal control problems. Furthermore, we provide numerous physical examples which underline such equations. We then analyze numerical solution methods based on finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral methods and domain decomposition methods, and reduced basis methods. In particular, we discuss the algorithmic and computer implementation aspects and provide a number of easy-to-use programs. The text does not require any previous advanced mathematical knowledge of partial differential equations: the absolutely essential concepts are reported in a preliminary chapter. It is therefore suitable for students of bachelor and master courses in scientific disciplines, an...
Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lucht, Tore
2009-01-01
A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...
Grzebieluch, Wojciech; Będziński, Romuald; Czapliński, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Urszula
2017-07-01
The FEM is often used in investigations of dentin loading conditions; however, its anisotropy is mostly neglected. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anisotropy and the elastic properties of an equivalent homogenous material model of human dentin as well as to compare isotropic and anisotropic dentin FE-models. Analytical and numerical dentin homogenization according to Luciano and Barbero was performed and E-modulus (E), Poisson's ratios (v) G-modulus (G) were calculated. The E-modulus of the dentin matrix was 28.0 GPa, Poisson's ratio (v) was 0.3; finite element models of orthotropic and isotropic dentin were created, loaded and compared using Ansys® 14.5 and CodeAster® 11.2 software. Anisotropy of the dentin ranged from 6.9 to 35.2%. E-modulus and G-modulus were as follows: E1 = 22.0-26.0 GPa, E2/E3 = 15.7-23.0 GPa; G12/G13 = 6.96-9.35 GPa and G23 = 6.08-8.09 GPa (highest values in the superficial layer). In FEM analysis of the displacement values were higher in the isotropic than in the orthotropic model, reaching up to 16% by shear load, 37% by compression and 23% in the case of shear with bending. Strain values were higher in the isotropic model, up to 35% for the shear load, 31% for compression and 35% in the case of shear with bending. The decrease in the volumetric fraction and diameter of tubules increased the G and E values. Anisotropy of the dentin applied during FEM analysis decreased the displacements and strain values. The numerical and analytical homogenization of dentin showed similar results.
Vivio, Francesco; Fanelli, Pierluigi; Ferracci, Michele
2018-03-01
In aeronautical and automotive industries the use of rivets for applications requiring several joining points is now very common. In spite of a very simple shape, a riveted junction has many contact surfaces and stress concentrations that make the local stiffness very difficult to be calculated. To overcome this difficulty, commonly finite element models with very dense meshes are performed for single joint analysis because the accuracy is crucial for a correct structural analysis. Anyhow, when several riveted joints are present, the simulation becomes computationally too heavy and usually significant restrictions to joint modelling are introduced, sacrificing the accuracy of local stiffness evaluation. In this paper, we tested the accuracy of a rivet finite element presented in previous works by the authors. The structural behaviour of a lap joint specimen with a rivet joining is simulated numerically and compared to experimental measurements. The Rivet Element, based on a closed-form solution of a reference theoretical model of the rivet joint, simulates local and overall stiffness of the junction combining high accuracy with low degrees of freedom contribution. In this paper the Rivet Element performances are compared to that of a FE non-linear model of the rivet, built with solid elements and dense mesh, and to experimental data. The promising results reported allow to consider the Rivet Element able to simulate, with a great accuracy, actual structures with several rivet connections.
Elements of matrix modeling and computing with Matlab
White, Robert E
2006-01-01
As discrete models and computing have become more common, there is a need to study matrix computation and numerical linear algebra. Encompassing a diverse mathematical core, Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB examines a variety of applications and their modeling processes, showing you how to develop matrix models and solve algebraic systems. Emphasizing practical skills, it creates a bridge from problems with two and three variables to more realistic problems that have additional variables. Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB focuses on seven basic applicat
Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability
Wakefield, D.
Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Masson, R.
2015-01-01
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)
Numerical modelling of steel arc welding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamide, M.
2008-07-01
Welding is a highly used assembly technique. Welding simulation software would give access to residual stresses and information about the weld's microstructure, in order to evaluate the mechanical resistance of a weld. It would also permit to evaluate the process feasibility when complex geometrical components are to be made, and to optimize the welding sequences in order to minimize defects. This work deals with the numerical modelling of arc welding process of steels. After describing the industrial context and the state of art, the models implemented in TransWeld (software developed at CEMEF) are presented. The set of macroscopic equations is followed by a discussion on their numerical implementation. Then, the theory of re-meshing and our adaptive anisotropic re-meshing strategy are explained. Two welding metal addition techniques are investigated and are compared in terms of the joint size and transient temperature and stresses. The accuracy of the finite element model is evaluated based on experimental results and the results of the analytical solution. Comparative analysis between experimental and numerical results allows the assessment of the ability of the numerical code to predict the thermomechanical and metallurgical response of the welded structure. The models limitations and the phenomena identified during this study are finally discussed and permit to define interesting orientations for future developments. (author)
Numerical solution of critical state in superconductivity by finite element software
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Z; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2006-12-15
A numerical method is proposed to analyse the electromagnetic behaviour of systems including high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in time-varying external fields and superconducting cables carrying AC transport current. The E-J constitutive law together with an H-formulation is used to calculate the current distribution and electromagnetic fields in HTSCs, and the magnetization of HTSCs; then the forces in the interaction between the electromagnet and the superconductor and the AC loss of the superconducting cable can be obtained. This numerical method is based on solving the partial differential equations time dependently and is adapted to the commercial finite element software Comsol Multiphysics 3.2. The advantage of this method is to make the modelling of the superconductivity simple, flexible and extendable.
Numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladi, G.Y.
1978-01-01
The numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening plastic constitutive model is documented. A brief review of the model is presented first to facilitate the understanding of its numerical implementation. This model is formulated in terms of 'pseudo' stress invariants, so that the incremental stress-strain relationship can be readily incorporated into existing finite-difference or infinite-element computer codes. The anisotropic model reduces to its isotropic counterpart without any changes in the mathematical formulation or in the numerical implementation (algorithm) of the model. A typical example of the model and its behavior in uniaxial strain and triaxial compression is presented. (Auth.)
Soil remediation by heat injection: Experiments and numerical modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betz, C.; Emmert, M.; Faerber, A. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)] [and others
1995-03-01
In order to understand physical processes of thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction methods in porous media the isothermal, multiphase formulation for the numerical model MUFTE will be extended by a non-isothermal, multiphase-multicomponent formulation. In order to verify the numerical model, comparison with analytical solutions for well defined problems will be carried out. To identify relevant processes and their interactions, the results of the simulation will be compared with well controlled experiments with sophisticated measurement equipment in three different scales. The aim is to compare the different numerical solution techniques namely Finite Element versus Integral Finite Difference technique as implemented in MUFTE and TOUGH2 [9] respectively.
Discrete/Finite Element Modelling of Rock Cutting with a TBM Disc Cutter
Labra, Carlos; Rojek, Jerzy; Oñate, Eugenio
2017-03-01
This paper presents advanced computer simulation of rock cutting process typical for excavation works in civil engineering. Theoretical formulation of the hybrid discrete/finite element model has been presented. The discrete and finite element methods have been used in different subdomains of a rock sample according to expected material behaviour, the part which is fractured and damaged during cutting is discretized with the discrete elements while the other part is treated as a continuous body and it is modelled using the finite element method. In this way, an optimum model is created, enabling a proper representation of the physical phenomena during cutting and efficient numerical computation. The model has been applied to simulation of the laboratory test of rock cutting with a single TBM (tunnel boring machine) disc cutter. The micromechanical parameters have been determined using the dimensionless relationships between micro- and macroscopic parameters. A number of numerical simulations of the LCM test in the unrelieved and relieved cutting modes have been performed. Numerical results have been compared with available data from in-situ measurements in a real TBM as well as with the theoretical predictions showing quite a good agreement. The numerical model has provided a new insight into the cutting mechanism enabling us to investigate the stress and pressure distribution at the tool-rock interaction. Sensitivity analysis of rock cutting performed for different parameters including disc geometry, cutting velocity, disc penetration and spacing has shown that the presented numerical model is a suitable tool for the design and optimization of rock cutting process.
The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.
2005-01-01
In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....
A Finite Element Model for convection-dominatel transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmo, E.G.D. do; Galeao, A.C.N.R.
1987-08-01
A new Protev-Galerkin Finite Element Model which automatically incorporates the search for the appropriate upwind direction is presented. It is also shown that modifying the Petrov-Galerkin weightin functions associated with elements adjascent to downwing boudaries effectively eliminates numerical oscillations normally obtained near boundary layers. (Author) [pt
Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S
2011-01-01
Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices. © 2011 IEEE
Numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladi, G.Y.
1977-01-01
This paper documents the numerical implementation of a model, specifically a transverse-isotropic, inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model. A brief overview of the mathematical formulation of the model is presented to facilitate the understanding of its numerical implementation. The model is based on incremental flow theories for materials which have time- and temperature-independent properties and which are capable of undergoing small plastic as well as small elastic strain at each loading increment. In addition, the model is written in terms of 'pseudo' stress invariants so that the incremental anisotropic stress-strain relationship can be readily incorporated into existing finite-difference or finite-element computer codes. The isotropic version of the model is retrieved without any changes in the mathematical formulation or in the numerical implementation (algorithm) of the model. Various methods exist for incorporating inelastic constitutive models into computer programs. The method presented in this paper is appropriate for both finite-difference and finite-element codes, and is applicable for solving static as wall as dynamic problems. This method expresses the material constitutive properties as a matrix of coefficients, C (generalized tangent moduli), which relates incremental stresses to incremental strains. It possesses desirable convergence properties. In either finite-difference or finite-element applications the input quantities are the initial stress components, obtained at the end of the previous strain increment, and the new strain increments. The output quantities are the new values of the stress components
Kaltenbacher, Manfred
2015-01-01
Like the previous editions also the third edition of this book combines the detailed physical modeling of mechatronic systems and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element (FE) method. Thereby, the basic chapter concerning the Finite Element (FE) method is enhanced, provides now also a description of higher order finite elements (both for nodal and edge finite elements) and a detailed discussion of non-conforming mesh techniques. The author enhances and improves many discussions on principles and methods. In particular, more emphasis is put on the description of single fields by adding the flow field. Corresponding to these field, the book is augmented with the new chapter about coupled flow-structural mechanical systems. Thereby, the discussion of computational aeroacoustics is extended towards perturbation approaches, which allows a decomposition of flow and acoustic quantities within the flow region. Last but not least, applications are updated and restructured so that the book meets mode...
Hamanaka, Ryo; Yamaoka, Satoshi; Anh, Tuan Nguyen; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki
2017-11-01
Although many attempts have been made to simulate orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method, most were limited to analyses of the initial displacement in the periodontal ligament and were insufficient to evaluate the effect of orthodontic appliances on long-term tooth movement. Numeric simulation of long-term tooth movement was performed in some studies; however, neither the play between the brackets and archwire nor the interproximal contact forces were considered. The objectives of this study were to simulate long-term orthodontic tooth movement with the edgewise appliance by incorporating those contact conditions into the finite element model and to determine the force system when the space is closed with sliding mechanics. We constructed a 3-dimensional model of maxillary dentition with 0.022-in brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire. Forces of 100 cN simulating sliding mechanics were applied. The simulation was accomplished on the assumption that bone remodeling correlates with the initial tooth displacement. This method could successfully represent the changes in the moment-to-force ratio: the tooth movement pattern during space closure. We developed a novel method that could simulate the long-term orthodontic tooth movement and accurately determine the force system in the course of time by incorporating contact boundary conditions into finite element analysis. It was also suggested that friction is progressively increased during space closure in sliding mechanics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ostachowicz, W; Kudela, P
2010-01-01
A Spectral Element Method is used for wave propagation modelling. A 3D solid spectral element is derived with shape functions based on Lagrange interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points. This approach is applied for displacement approximation suited for fundamental modes of Lamb waves as well as potential distribution in piezoelectric transducers. The novelty is the model geometry extension from flat to curved elements for application in shell-like structures. Exemplary visualisations of waves excited by the piezoelectric transducers in curved shell structure made of aluminium alloy are presented. Simple signal analysis of wave interaction with crack is performed. The crack is modelled by separation of appropriate nodes between elements. An investigation of influence of the crack length on wave propagation signals is performed. Additionally, some aspects of the spectral element method implementation are discussed.
Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaervinen, J.; Nieminen, R. [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)
1996-12-31
A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)
Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaervinen, J; Nieminen, R [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)
1997-12-31
A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Štambuk-Cvitanović
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Assuming the necessity of analysis, diagnosis and preservation of existing valuable stone masonry structures and ancient monuments in today European urban cores, numerical modelling become an efficient tool for the structural behaviour investigation. It should be supported by experimentally found input data and taken as a part of general combined approach, particularly non-destructive techniques on the structure/model within it. For the structures or their detail which may require more complex analyses three numerical models based upon finite elements technique are suggested: (1 standard linear model; (2 linear model with contact (interface elements; and (3 non-linear elasto-plastic and orthotropic model. The applicability of these models depend upon the accuracy of the approach or type of the problem, and will be presented on some characteristic samples.
Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering
Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel
2003-01-01
This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.
SPLAI: Computational Finite Element Model for Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruzana Ishak
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor network refers to a group of sensors, linked by a wireless medium to perform distributed sensing task. The primary interest is their capability in monitoring the physical environment through the deployment of numerous tiny, intelligent, wireless networked sensor nodes. Our interest consists of a sensor network, which includes a few specialized nodes called processing elements that can perform some limited computational capabilities. In this paper, we propose a model called SPLAI that allows the network to compute a finite element problem where the processing elements are modeled as the nodes in the linear triangular approximation problem. Our model also considers the case of some failures of the sensors. A simulation model to visualize this network has been developed using C++ on the Windows environment.
Long Fibre Composite Modelling Using Cohesive User's Element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozak, Vladislav; Chlup, Zdenek
2010-01-01
The development glass matrix composites reinforced by unidirectional long ceramic fibre has resulted in a family of very perspective structural materials. The only disadvantage of such materials is relatively high brittleness at room temperature. The main micromechanisms acting as toughening mechanism are the pull out, crack bridging, matrix cracking. There are other mechanisms as crack deflection etc. but the primer mechanism is mentioned pull out which is governed by interface between fibre and matrix. The contribution shows a way how to predict and/or optimise mechanical behaviour of composite by application of cohesive zone method and write user's cohesive element into the FEM numerical package Abaqus. The presented results from numerical calculations are compared with experimental data. Crack extension is simulated by means of element extinction algorithms. The principal effort is concentrated on the application of the cohesive zone model with the special traction separation (bridging) law and on the cohesive zone modelling. Determination of micro-mechanical parameters is based on the combination of static tests, microscopic observations and numerical calibration procedures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, J; Johnson, S
2007-12-03
The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.
Sudarmaji; Rudianto, Indra; Eka Nurcahya, Budi
2018-04-01
A strong tectonic earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 Richter scale has been occurred in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 26, 2006. The earthquake has caused severe damage in Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The understanding of seismic response of earthquake among ground shaking and the level of building damage is important. We present numerical modeling of 3D seismic wave propagation around Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java using spectral-element method on MPI-GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computer cluster to observe its seismic response due to the earthquake. The homogeneous 3D realistic model is generated with detailed topography surface. The influences of free surface topography and layer discontinuity of the 3D model among the seismic response are observed. The seismic wave field is discretized using spectral-element method. The spectral-element method is solved on a mesh of hexahedral elements that is adapted to the free surface topography and the internal discontinuity of the model. To increase the data processing capabilities, the simulation is performed on a GPU cluster with implementation of MPI (Message Passing Interface).
He, Qiaolin
2011-06-01
In this article we discuss the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard system modeling the motion of the contact line separating two immiscible incompressible viscous fluids near a solid wall. The method we employ combines a finite element space approximation with a time discretization by operator-splitting. To solve the Cahn-Hilliard part of the problem, we use a least-squares/conjugate gradient method. We also show that the scheme has the total energy decaying in time property under certain conditions. Our numerical experiments indicate that the method discussed here is accurate, stable and efficient. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
NUMERICAL MODELLING AND EXPERIMENTAL INFLATION VALIDATION OF A BIAS TWO-WHEEL TIRE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CHUNG KET THEIN
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric study on the development of a computational model for bias two-wheel tire through finite element analysis (FEA. An 80/90- 17 bias two-wheel tire was adopted which made up of four major layers of rubber compound with different material properties to strengthen the structure. Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model was applied to represent the behaviour of incompressible rubber compound. A 3D tire model was built for structural static finite element analysis. The result was validated from the inflation analysis. Structural static finite element analysis method is suitable for evaluation of the tire design and improvement of the tire behaviour to desired performance. Experimental tire was inflated at various pressures and the geometry between numerical and experimental tire were compared. There are good agreements between numerical simulation model and the experiment results. This indicates that the simulation model can be applied to the bias two-wheel tire design in order to predict the tire behaviour and improve its mechanical characteristics.
Numerical solution of multi group-Two dimensional- Adjoint equation with finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poursalehi, N.; Khalafi, H.; Shahriari, M.; Minoochehr
2008-01-01
Adjoint equation is used for perturbation theory in nuclear reactor design. For numerical solution of adjoint equation, usually two methods are applied. These are Finite Element and Finite Difference procedures. Usually Finite Element Procedure is chosen for solving of adjoint equation, because it is more use able in variety of geometries. In this article, Galerkin Finite Element method is discussed. This method is applied for numerical solving multi group, multi region and two dimensional (X, Y) adjoint equation. Typical reactor geometry is partitioned with triangular meshes and boundary condition for adjoint flux is considered zero. Finally, for a case of defined parameters, Finite Element Code was applied and results were compared with Citation Code
Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McWilliam, Michael K; Crawford, Curran
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane
Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...
Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation
Tomas, Ignacio
This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a
Finite element modeling of stress corrosion cracking for electromagnetic nondestructive evaluations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.; Yusa, N.; Hashizume, H.
2012-01-01
This paper discusses appropriate numerical model for a stress corrosion crack (SCC) from the viewpoint of anisotropy of their conductivity. Two SCCs, which are introduced into a plate of type 316 stainless steel, are considered. Finite element simulations are carried out to evaluate the conductivity. In the simulations, the cracks are modeled as a region with a constant width on the basis of the destructive tests. The results show the conductivity on direction of width has large effect to the accuracy of numerical modeling of SCC, whereas the conductivities on direction of length and depth almost do not have remarkable effects. The results obtained by this study indicate that distribution of conductivity along the surface of a crack would be more important than the anisotropy in modeling SCCs in finite element simulations
Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Moon Kyu
2007-01-01
The inhomogeneity of crystalline or amorphous unit cells of material is treated by the numerical boundary element method. This paper is especially about the effect of perturbed refractive index (or potential energy) of a material on the light intensity inside a layered microsphere when it is irradiated by monochromatic unpolarized plane light wave. The resultant light intensities on the particle surface show noise-like fluctuations depending on various parameters such as the material refractive indices, the light wavelength, the particle and core size, the numerical surface element size, etc. Both the numerical results and the experiments from a few other groups agree that large light absorption occurs just in a small wavelength range
Direct numerical simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the spectral element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xu; Tan Duowang
2009-01-01
A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady three-dimensional high-order spectral element method code. The numerical model used consists of Navier-Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation. The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory. Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code, including instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers. These results indicate that turbulent structures of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of simulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows. (authors)
A constitutive model and numerical simulation of sintering processes at macroscopic level
Wawrzyk, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Nosewicz, Szymon; Rojek, Jerzy
2018-01-01
This paper presents modelling of both single and double-phase powder sintering processes at the macroscopic level. In particular, its constitutive formulation, numerical implementation and numerical tests are described. The macroscopic constitutive model is based on the assumption that the sintered material is a continuous medium. The parameters of the constitutive model for material under sintering are determined by simulation of sintering at the microscopic level using a micro-scale model. Numerical tests were carried out for a cylindrical specimen under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure. Results of macroscopic analysis are compared against the microscopic model results. Moreover, numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental results. The simulations and preparation of the model are carried out by Abaqus FEA - a software for finite element analysis and computer-aided engineering. A mechanical model is defined by the user procedure "Vumat" which is developed by the first author in Fortran programming language. Modelling presented in the paper can be used to optimize and to better understand the process.
Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi
2018-04-01
Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.
Towards improved modeling of steel-concrete composite wall elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecchio, Frank J.; McQuade, Ian
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Improved analysis of double skinned steel concrete composite containment walls. → Smeared rotating crack concept applied in formulation of new analytical model. → Model implemented into finite element program; numerically stable and robust. → Models behavior of shear-critical elements with greater ease and improved accuracy. → Accurate assessments of strength, deformation and failure mode of test specimens. - Abstract: The Disturbed Stress Field Model, a smeared rotating crack model for reinforced concrete based on the Modified Compression Field Theory, is adapted to the analysis of double-skin steel-concrete wall elements. The computational model is then incorporated into a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis algorithm. Verification studies are undertaken by modeling various test specimens, including panel elements subject to uniaxial compression, panel elements subjected to in-plane shear, and wall specimens subjected to reversed cyclic lateral displacements. In all cases, the analysis model is found to provide accurate calculations of structural load capacities, pre- and post-peak displacement responses, post-peak ductility, chronology of damage, and ultimate failure mode. Minor deficiencies are found in regards to the accurate portrayal of faceplate buckling and the effects of interfacial slip between the faceplates and the concrete. Other aspects of the modeling procedure that are in need of further research and development are also identified and discussed.
Seismic behavior of an Italian Renaissance Sanctuary: Damage assessment by numerical modelling
Clementi, Francesco; Nespeca, Andrea; Lenci, Stefano
2016-12-01
The paper deals with modelling and analysis of architectural heritage through the discussion of an illustrative case study: the Medieval Sanctuary of Sant'Agostino (Offida, Italy). Using the finite element technique, a 3D numerical model of the sanctuary is built, and then used to identify the main sources of the damages. The work shows that advanced numerical analyses could offer significant information for the understanding of the causes of existing damage and, more generally, on the seismic vulnerability.
Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)
2000-05-01
Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)
Direct Numerical Simulation of the Rayleigh−Taylor Instability with the Spectral Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Zhang; Duo-Wang, Tan
2009-01-01
A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady three-dimensional high-order spectral element method code. The numerical model used consists of Navier–Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation. The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory. Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code, including instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers. These results indicate that turbulent structures of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of simulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Invernizzi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews some recent numerical applications for the interpretation and exploitation of acoustic emission (AE monitoring results obtained from historical masonry structures and materials. Among possible numerical techniques, the finite element method and the distinct method are considered. The analyzed numerical models cover the entire scale range, from microstructure and meso-structure, up to full-size real structures. The micro-modeling includes heterogeneous concrete-like materials, but mainly focuses on the masonry texture meso-structure, where each brick and mortar joint is modeled singularly. The full-size models consider the different typology of historical structures such as masonry towers, cathedrals and chapels. The main difficulties and advantages of the different numerical approaches, depending on the problem typology and scale, are critically analyzed. The main insight we can achieve from micro and meso numerical modeling concerns the scaling of AE as a function of volume and time, since it is also able to simulate the b-value temporal evolution as the damage spread into the structure. The finite element modeling of the whole structure provides useful hints for the optimal placement of the AE sensors, while the combination of AE monitoring results is crucial for a reliable assessment of structural safety.
Analysis of pipe mitred bends using beam models - by finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salles, A.C.S.L. de.
1984-01-01
The formulation of a recently proposed displacement based straight pipe element for the analysis of pipe mitred bends is summarized in this work. The element kinematics includes axial, bending, torsional and ovalisation displacements, all varying cubically along the axis of the element. Interaction effects between angle adjoined straight pipe section are modeled including the appropriate additional strain terms in the stiffness matrix formulation and by using a penalty procedure to enforce continuity of pipe skin flexural rotations at the common helical edge. The element model capabilities are ilustrated in some sample analysis and the results are compared with other available experimental, analytical or more complex numerical models. (Author) [pt
Numerical model for dendritic solidification of binary alloys
Felicelli, S. D.; Heinrich, J. C.; Poirier, D. R.
1993-01-01
A finite element model capable of simulating solidification of binary alloys and the formation of freckles is presented. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Numerical simulations are shown in which an NH4Cl-H2O mixture and a Pb-Sn alloy melt are cooled. The solidification process is followed in time. Instabilities in the process can be clearly observed and the final compositions obtained.
Zhou, Xunfei; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen
2017-05-01
After years of development, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) has become the most popular technique in commercial 3D printing due to its cost effectiveness and easy-to-operate fabrication process. Mechanical strength and dimensional accuracy are two of the most important factors for reliability of FDM products. However, the solid-liquid-solid state changes of material in the FDM process make it difficult to monitor and model. In this paper, an experimental model was developed to apply cost-effective infrared thermography imaging method to acquire temperature history of filaments at the interface and their corresponding cooling mechanism. A three-dimensional finite element model was constructed to simulate the same process using element "birth and death" feature and validated with the thermal response from the experimental model. In 6 of 9 experimental conditions, a maximum of 13% difference existed between the experimental and numerical models. This work suggests that numerical modeling of FDM process is reliable and can facilitate better understanding of bead spreading and road-to-road bonding mechanics during fabrication.
Numerical sedimentation particle-size analysis using the Discrete Element Method
Bravo, R.; Pérez-Aparicio, J. L.; Gómez-Hernández, J. J.
2015-12-01
Sedimentation tests are widely used to determine the particle size distribution of a granular sample. In this work, the Discrete Element Method interacts with the simulation of flow using the well known one-way-coupling method, a computationally affordable approach for the time-consuming numerical simulation of the hydrometer, buoyancy and pipette sedimentation tests. These tests are used in the laboratory to determine the particle-size distribution of fine-grained aggregates. Five samples with different particle-size distributions are modeled by about six million rigid spheres projected on two-dimensions, with diameters ranging from 2.5 ×10-6 m to 70 ×10-6 m, forming a water suspension in a sedimentation cylinder. DEM simulates the particle's movement considering laminar flow interactions of buoyant, drag and lubrication forces. The simulation provides the temporal/spatial distributions of densities and concentrations of the suspension. The numerical simulations cannot replace the laboratory tests since they need the final granulometry as initial data, but, as the results show, these simulations can identify the strong and weak points of each method and eventually recommend useful variations and draw conclusions on their validity, aspects very difficult to achieve in the laboratory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, H.; Isha, H.
1981-01-01
The paper is concerned with the displacement-assumed-finite elements by applying the reduced numerical integration technique in structural problems. The first part is a general consideration on the technique. Its purpose is to examine a variational interpretation of the finite element displacement formulation with the reduced integration technique in structural problems. The formulation is critically studied from a standpoint of the natural stiffness approach. It is shown that these types of elements are equivalent to a certain type of displacement and stress assumed mixed elements. The rank deficiency of the stiffness matrix of these elements is interpreted as a problem in the transformation from the natural system to a Cartesian system. It will be shown that a variational basis of the equivalent mixed formulation is closely related to the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. It is presented that for simple elements, e.g. bilinear quadrilateral plane stress and plate bending there are corresponding mixed elements from the functional. For relatively complex types of these elements, it is shown that they are equivalent to localized mixed elements from the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. In the second part, typical finite elements with the reduced integration technique are studied to demonstrate this equivalence. A bilinear displacement and rotation assumed shear beam element, a bilinear displacement assumed quadrilateral plane stress element and a bilinear deflection and rotation assumed quadrilateral plate bending element are examined to present equivalent mixed elements. Not only the theoretical consideration is presented but numerical studies are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of these elements in practical analysis. (orig.)
Numerical modelling of coupled fluid, heat, and solute transport in deformable fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, T.; Reid, J.A.K.
1987-01-01
This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element code, MOTIF (model of transport in fractured/porous media), developed to model the coupled processes of groundwater flow, heat transport, brine transport, and one-species radionuclide transport in geological media. Three types of elements are available: a 3D continuum element, a planar fracture element that can be oriented in any arbitrary direction in 3D space or pipe flow in 3D space, and a line element for simulating fracture flow in 2D space or pipe flow in 3D space. As a quality-assurance measure, the MOTIF code was verified by comparison of its results with analytical solutions and other published numerical solutions
Modeling fragmentation with new high order finite element technology and node splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olovsson Lars
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The modeling of fragmentation has historically been linked to the weapons industry where the main goal is to optimize a bomb or to design effective blast shields. Numerical modeling of fragmentation from dynamic loading has traditionally been modeled by legacy finite element solvers that rely on element erosion to model material failure. However this method results in the removal of too much material. This is not realistic as retaining the mass of the structure is critical to modeling the event correctly. We propose a new approach implemented in the IMPETUS AFEA SOLVER® based on the following: New High Order Finite Elements that can easily deal with very large deformations; Stochastic distribution of initial damage that allows for a non homogeneous distribution of fragments; and a Node Splitting Algorithm that allows for material fracture without element erosion that is mesh independent. The approach is evaluated for various materials and scenarios: -Titanium ring electromagnetic compression; Hard steel Taylor bar impact, Fused silica Taylor bar impact, Steel cylinder explosion, The results obtained from the simulations are representative of the failure mechanisms observed experimentally. The main benefit of this approach is good energy conservation (no loss of mass and numerical robustness even in complex situations.
Spectral-element Method for 3D Marine Controlled-source EM Modeling
Liu, L.; Yin, C.; Zhang, B., Sr.; Liu, Y.; Qiu, C.; Huang, X.; Zhu, J.
2017-12-01
As one of the predrill reservoir appraisal methods, marine controlled-source EM (MCSEM) has been widely used in mapping oil reservoirs to reduce risk of deep water exploration. With the technical development of MCSEM, the need for improved forward modeling tools has become evident. We introduce in this paper spectral element method (SEM) for 3D MCSEM modeling. It combines the flexibility of finite-element and high accuracy of spectral method. We use Galerkin weighted residual method to discretize the vector Helmholtz equation, where the curl-conforming Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev (GLC) polynomials are chosen as vector basis functions. As a kind of high-order complete orthogonal polynomials, the GLC have the characteristic of exponential convergence. This helps derive the matrix elements analytically and improves the modeling accuracy. Numerical 1D models using SEM with different orders show that SEM method delivers accurate results. With increasing SEM orders, the modeling accuracy improves largely. Further we compare our SEM with finite-difference (FD) method for a 3D reservoir model (Figure 1). The results show that SEM method is more effective than FD method. Only when the mesh is fine enough, can FD achieve the same accuracy of SEM. Therefore, to obtain the same precision, SEM greatly reduces the degrees of freedom and cost. Numerical experiments with different models (not shown here) demonstrate that SEM is an efficient and effective tool for MSCEM modeling that has significant advantages over traditional numerical methods.This research is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900).
Numerical model of phase transformation of steel C80U during hardening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Domański
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The article concerns numerical modelling of the phase transformations in solid state hardening of tool steel C80U. The transformations were assumed: initial structure – austenite, austenite – perlite, bainite and austenite – martensite. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics based on continuous heating diagram (CHT and continuous cooling diagram (CCT. The dilatometric tests on the simulator of thermal cycles were performed. The results of dilatometric tests were compared with the results of the test numerical simulations. In this way the derived models for evaluating phase content and kinetics of transformations in heating and cooling processes were verified. The results of numerical simulations confirm correctness of the algorithm that were worked out. In the numerical example the simulated estimation of the phase fraction in the hardened axisimmetrical element was performed.
Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouai, N M [Nuclear engineering department faculty of engineering Al-fateh universty, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)
1995-10-01
Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs.
Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouai, N. M.
1995-01-01
Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs
Reactor fuel element heat conduction via numerical Laplace transform inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, Barry D.; Furfaro, Roberto
2001-01-01
A newly developed numerical Laplace transform inversion (NLTI) will be presented to determine the transient temperature distribution within a nuclear reactor fuel element. The NLTI considered in this presentation has evolved to its present state over the past 10 years of application. The methodology adopted is one that relies on acceleration of the convergence of an infinite series towards its limit. The inversion will be applied to the prediction of the transient temperature distribution within an MTR type nuclear fuel element through a novel formulation of the solution to the transformed heat conduction equation. (author)
Reactor fuel element heat conduction via numerical Laplace transform inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganapol, Barry D.; Furfaro, Roberto [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: ganapol@cowboy.ame.arizona.edu
2001-07-01
A newly developed numerical Laplace transform inversion (NLTI) will be presented to determine the transient temperature distribution within a nuclear reactor fuel element. The NLTI considered in this presentation has evolved to its present state over the past 10 years of application. The methodology adopted is one that relies on acceleration of the convergence of an infinite series towards its limit. The inversion will be applied to the prediction of the transient temperature distribution within an MTR type nuclear fuel element through a novel formulation of the solution to the transformed heat conduction equation. (author)
Numerical Modelling Of Thermal And Structural Phenomena In Yb:YAG Laser Butt-Welded Steel Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kubiak M.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The numerical model of thermal and structural phenomena is developed for the analysis of Yb:YAG laser welding process with the motion of the liquid material in the welding pool taken into account. Temperature field and melted material velocity field in the fusion zone are obtained from the numerical solution of continuum mechanics equations using Chorin projection method and finite volume method. Phase transformations in solid state are analyzed during heating and cooling using classical models of the kinetics of phase transformations as well as CTA and CCT diagrams for welded steel. The interpolated heat source model is developed in order to reliably reflect the real distribution of Yb:YAG laser power obtained by experimental research on the laser beam profile.
Numerical Modeling of Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph
In the present work, multiphysics numerical modeling is carried out to predict the performance of a liquid-gas fin and tube heat exchanger design. Three-dimensional (3D) steady-state numerical model using commercial software COMSOL based on finite element method (FEM) is developed. The study...... associates conjugate heat transfer phenomenon with the turbulent flow to describe the variable temperature and velocity profile. The performance of heat exchanger design is investigated in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, Colburn j-factor, flow resistance factor, and efficiency...... between fin and tube. The present numerical model predicts the performance of the heat exchanger design, therefore, can be applied to existing waste heat recovery systems to improve the overall performance with optimized design and process-dependent parameters....
Physicochemical and numerical modeling of electrokinetics in inhomogenous matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel
A physicochemical model has been proposed based on the Nernst-Planck-Poisson system. The model includes the transport of water through the porous media, the monitoring of the degree of saturation, the pH value and the porosity throughout the domain; and a comprehensive set of chemical and electrochemical reactions...... is mainly based on a finite elements method for the integration of the transient system of partial differential equations coupled with a Newton-Raphson method for computing chemical equilibrium. During the development of the proposed physicochemical and numerical model, different electrokinetic systems have...
Boundary element method for modelling creep behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarina Masood; Shah Nor Basri; Abdel Majid Hamouda; Prithvi Raj Arora
2002-01-01
A two dimensional initial strain direct boundary element method is proposed to numerically model the creep behaviour. The boundary of the body is discretized into quadratic element and the domain into quadratic quadrilaterals. The variables are also assumed to have a quadratic variation over the elements. The boundary integral equation is solved for each boundary node and assembled into a matrix. This matrix is solved by Gauss elimination with partial pivoting to obtain the variables on the boundary and in the interior. Due to the time-dependent nature of creep, the solution has to be derived over increments of time. Automatic time incrementation technique and backward Euler method for updating the variables are implemented to assure stability and accuracy of results. A flowchart of the solution strategy is also presented. (Author)
Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators
Kaltenbacher, Manfred
2007-01-01
Focuses on the physical modeling of mechatronic sensors and actuators and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This book discusses the physical modeling as well as numerical computation. It also gives a comprehensive introduction to finite elements, including their computer implementation.
On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.
1979-01-01
This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)
Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.B. Mazo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir
A novel numerical model for estimating the collapse pressure of flexible pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogueira, Victor P.P.; Antoun Netto, Theodoro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia], e-mail: victor@lts.coppe.ufrj.br
2009-07-01
As the worldwide oil and gas industry operational environments move to ultra-deep waters, failure mechanisms in flexible pipes such as instability of the armor layers under compression and hydrostatic collapse are more likely to occur. Therefore, it is important to develop reliable numerical tools to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur in flexible pipes. This work presents a representative finite element model of flexible pipe capable to reproduce its pre and post-collapse behavior under hydrostatic pressure. The model, developed in the scope of this work, uses beam elements and includes nonlinear kinematics and material behavior influences. The dependability of the numerical results is assessed in light of experimental tests on flexible pipes with 4 inches and 8 inches nominal diameter available in the literature (Souza, 2002). The applied methodology provided coherent values regarding the estimation of the collapse pressures and results have shown that the proposed model is capable to reproduce experimental results. (author)
Numerical modeling of a nuclear production reactor cooling lake
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamm, L.L.; Pepper, D.W.
1987-01-01
A finite element model has been developed which predicts flow and temperature distributions within a nuclear reactor cooling lake at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Numerical results agree with values obtained from a 3-D EPA numerical lake model and actual measurements obtained from the lake. Because the effluent water from the reactor heat exchangers discharges directly into the lake, downstream temperatures at mid-lake could exceed the South Carolina DHEC guidelines for thermal exchanges during the summer months. Therefore, reactor power was reduced to maintain temperature compliance at mid-lake. Thermal mitigation measures were studied that included placing a 6.1 m deep fabric curtain across mid-lake and moving the reactor outfall upstream. These measurements were calculated to permit about an 8% improvement in reactor power during summer operation
Ochoa-Avendaño, J.; Garzon-Alvarado, D. A.; Linero, Dorian L.; Cerrolaza, M.
2017-01-01
This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending...
Cohesive Zone Model Based Numerical Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure Push-Out Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Push-out tests were widely used to determine the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures. The finite element method was one efficient alternative to push-out testing. This paper focused on a simulation analysis of the interface between concrete slabs and steel girder flanges as well as the interface of the shear connectors and the surrounding concrete. A cohesive zone model was used to simulate the tangential sliding and normal separation of the interfaces. Then, a zero-thickness cohesive element was implemented via the user-defined element subroutine UEL in the software ABAQUS, and a multiple broken line mode was used to define the constitutive relations of the cohesive zone. A three-dimensional numerical analysis model was established for push-out testing to analyze the load-displacement curves of the push-out test process, interface relative displacement, and interface stress distribution. This method was found to accurately calculate the shear capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors. The numerical results showed that the multiple broken lines mode cohesive zone model could describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the interface between steel and concrete and that a discontinuous deformation numerical simulation could be implemented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Koyama, Tomofumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nakama, Shigeo; Fujita, Tomoo
2013-01-01
DECOVALEX-2011 is an international cooperation project for enhancing the numerical models of radioactive waste repositories. In DECOVALEX-2011 project, the failure mechanism during excavation and heating processes observed in the Aespoe pillar stability experiment, which was carried out at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, were simulated using Finite Element Method. When the calibrated parameters were used, simulation results agree qualitatively well with the experimental results. Therefore, it can be said that the spalling phenomenon is expressible even by the application with the continuum model by the use of the suitable parameters. (author)
Numerical solution of recirculating flow by a simple finite element recursion relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pepper, D W; Cooper, R E
1980-01-01
A time-split finite element recursion relation, based on linear basis functions, is used to solve the two-dimensional equations of motion. Recirculating flow in a rectangular cavity and free convective flow in an enclosed container are analyzed. The relation has the advantage of finite element accuracy and finite difference speed and simplicity. Incorporating dissipation parameters in the functionals decreases numerical dispersion and improves phase lag.
Numerical modeling of thermal fatigue cracks from the viewpoint of eddy current testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusa, Noritaka; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Virkkunen, Iikka; Kemppainen, Mika
2012-01-01
This study discusses a suitable numerical modeling of a thermal fatigue crack from the viewpoint of eddy current testing. Five artificial thermal fatigue cracks, introduced into type 304L austenitic stainless steel plates with a thickness of 25 mm, are prepared; and eddy current inspections are carried out to gather signals using an absolute type pancake probe and a differential type plus point probe. Finite element simulations are then carried out to evaluate a proper numerical model of the thermal fatigue cracks. In the finite element simulations, the thermal fatigue cracks are modeled as a semi-elliptic planar region on the basis of the results of the destructive tests. The width and internal conductivity are evaluated by the simulations. The results of the simulations reveal that the thermal fatigue cracks are regarded as almost nonconductive when the internal conductivity is assumed to be uniform inside. (author)
UNIFIED MODELS OF ELEMENTS OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON EQUATIONS IN PHASE COORDINATES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.N. Vepryk
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The models of electrical machines in the phase coordinates, the universal algorithm for the simulation of separate elements in a d-q coordinates system and in a phase-coordinates system are proposed. Methodology. Computer methods of investigation of transients in electrical systems are based on a compilation of systems of differential equations and their numerical integration solution methods. To solve differential equations an implicit method of numerical integration was chosen. Because it provides to complete structural simulation possibility: firstly developing models of separate elements and then forming a model of the complex system. For the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic transients in the elements of the electrical systems has been accepted the implicit Euler-Cauchy method, because it provides a higher precision and stability of the computing processes. Results. In developing the model elements identified two groups of elements: - Static elements and electrical machines in the d-q coordinates; - Rotating electrical machines in phase coordinates. As an example, the paper provides a model of synchronous and asynchronous electric machines in the d-q coordinates system and the phase coordinate system. The generalization algorithm and the unified notation form of equations of elements of an electrical system are obtained. It provides the possibility of using structural methods to develop a mathematical model of power systems under transient conditions. Practical value. In addition, the using of a computer model allows to implement multivariant calculations for research and study of factors affecting the quantitative characteristics of the transients.
A high-order multiscale finite-element method for time-domain acoustic-wave modeling
Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Chung, Eric T.
2018-05-01
Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.
Numerical Investigation of Slab-Column Connection by Finite Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akram, T.; Shaikh, M.A.; Memon, A.A.
2007-01-01
The flat slab-on-column construction subjected to high transverse stresses concentrated at the slab-column connection can lead to a non-ductile, sudden and brittle punching failure and results in the accidental collapse of flat slab buildings. The major parameters affecting the slab-column connection are the concrete strength, slab thickness, slab reinforcement and aspect ratio of column. The application of numerical methods based on the finite element theory for solving practical tasks allow to perform virtual testing of structures and explore their behavior under load and other effects in different conditions taking into account the elastic and plastic behavior of materials, appearance and development of cracks and other damages (disintegrations), and finally to simulate the failure mechanism and its consequences. In this study, the models are developed to carry out the finite element analysis of slab- column connection using ADINA (Automatic Dynamic Incremental Nonlinear Analysis) by varying the slab thickness and slab confining reinforcement and to investigate their effect on the deflection and load carrying capacity. Test results indicate that by increasing the slab thickness, the deflection and the load carrying capacity of slab-column connection increases, more over, by increasing the slab confining reinforcement, the deflection decreases where as the load carrying capacity increases. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leandro Ferreira Friedrich
Full Text Available Abstract Fiber-matrix interface performance has a great influence on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite. This influence is mainly presented during fiber pullout from the matrix. As fiber pullout process consists of fiber debonding stage and pullout stage which involve complex contact problem, numerical modeling is a best way to investigate the interface influence. Although many numerical research works have been conducted, practical and effective technique suitable for continuous modeling of fiber pullout process is still scarce. The reason is in that numerical divergence frequently happens, leading to the modeling interruption. By interacting the popular finite element program ANSYS with the MATLAB, we proposed continuous modeling technique and realized modeling of fiber pullout from cement matrix with desired interface mechanical performance. For debonding process, we used interface elements with cohesive surface traction and exponential failure behavior. For pullout process, we switched interface elements to spring elements with variable stiffness, which is related to the interface shear stress as a function of the interface slip displacement. For both processes, the results obtained are very good in comparison with other numerical or analytical models and experimental tests. We suggest using the present technique to model toughening achieved by randomly distributed fibers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda
This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... manipulations are developed to satisfy the more complicated boundary conditions, and a model of a condenser microphone with a coupled membrane is developed. The model is tested against measurements of ¼ inch condenser microphones and analytical calculations. A detailed discussion of the results is given....
Calibration and verification of numerical runoff and erosion model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabrić Ognjen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the field and laboratory measurements, and analogous with development of computational techniques, runoff and erosion models based on equations which describe the physics of the process are also developed. Based on the KINEROS2 model, this paper presents basic modelling principles of runoff and erosion processes based on the St. Venant's equations. Alternative equations for friction calculation, calculation of source and deposition elements and transport capacity are also shown. Numerical models based on original and alternative equations are calibrated and verified on laboratory scale model. According to the results, friction calculation based on the analytic solution of laminar flow must be included in all runoff and erosion models.
Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1980-07-01
A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied
Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite element model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, G.T.
1980-07-01
A surface impoundment model in finite element (SIMFE) is presented to enable the simulation of flow circulations and pollutant transport and dispersion in natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs or ponds with any number of islands. This surface impoundment model consists of two sub-models: hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models. Both submodels are simulated by the finite element method. While the hydrodynamic model is solved by the standard Galerkin finite element scheme, the pollutant transport model can be solved by any of the twelve optional finite element schemes built in the program. Theoretical approximations and the numerical algorithm of SIMFE are described. Detail instruction of the application are given and listing of FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given. One is for an idealized system with a known solution to show the accuracy and partial validation of the models. The other is applied to Prairie Island for a set of hypothetical input data, typifying a class of problems to which SIMFE may be applied.
Numerical models for fluid-grains interactions: opportunities and limitations
Esteghamatian, Amir; Rahmani, Mona; Wachs, Anthony
2017-06-01
In the framework of a multi-scale approach, we develop numerical models for suspension flows. At the micro scale level, we perform particle-resolved numerical simulations using a Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain approach. At the meso scale level, we use a two-way Euler/Lagrange approach with a Gaussian filtering kernel to model fluid-solid momentum transfer. At both the micro and meso scale levels, particles are individually tracked in a Lagrangian way and all inter-particle collisions are computed by a Discrete Element/Soft-sphere method. The previous numerical models have been extended to handle particles of arbitrary shape (non-spherical, angular and even non-convex) as well as to treat heat and mass transfer. All simulation tools are fully-MPI parallel with standard domain decomposition and run on supercomputers with a satisfactory scalability on up to a few thousands of cores. The main asset of multi scale analysis is the ability to extend our comprehension of the dynamics of suspension flows based on the knowledge acquired from the high-fidelity micro scale simulations and to use that knowledge to improve the meso scale model. We illustrate how we can benefit from this strategy for a fluidized bed, where we introduce a stochastic drag force model derived from micro-scale simulations to recover the proper level of particle fluctuations. Conversely, we discuss the limitations of such modelling tools such as their limited ability to capture lubrication forces and boundary layers in highly inertial flows. We suggest ways to overcome these limitations in order to enhance further the capabilities of the numerical models.
FEMWATER: a finite-element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.
1980-10-01
Upon examining the Water Movement Through Saturated-Unsaturated Porous Media: A Finite-Element Galerkin Model, it was felt that the model should be modified and expanded. The modification is made in calculating the flow field in a manner consistent with the finite element approach, in evaluating the moisture-content increasing rate within the region of interest, and in numerically computing the nonlinear terms. With these modifications, the flow field is continuous everywhere in the flow regime, including element boundaries and nodal points, and the mass loss through boundaries is much reduced. Expansion is made to include four additional numerical schemes which would be more appropriate for many situations. Also, to save computer storage, all arrays pertaining to the boundary condition information are compressed to smaller dimension, and to ease the treatment of different problems, all arrays are variably dimensioned in all subroutines. This report is intended to document these efforts. In addition, in the derivation of finite-element equations, matrix component representation is used, which is believed more readable than the matrix representation in its entirety. Two identical sample problems are simulated to show the difference between the original and revised models
Mechanical Interaction in Pressurized Pipe Systems: Experiments and Numerical Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Simão
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The dynamic interaction between the unsteady flow occurrence and the resulting vibration of the pipe are analyzed based on experiments and numerical models. Waterhammer, structural dynamic and fluid–structure interaction (FSI are the main subjects dealt with in this study. Firstly, a 1D model is developed based on the method of characteristics (MOC using specific damping coefficients for initial components associated with rheological pipe material behavior, structural and fluid deformation, and type of anchored structural supports. Secondly a 3D coupled complex model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, using a Finite Element Method (FEM, is also applied to predict and distinguish the FSI events. Herein, a specific hydrodynamic model of viscosity to replicate the operation of a valve was also developed to minimize the number of mesh elements and the complexity of the system. The importance of integrated analysis of fluid–structure interaction, especially in non-rigidity anchored pipe systems, is equally emphasized. The developed models are validated through experimental tests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongliang Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrofracturing technology of perforated horizontal well has been widely used to stimulate the tight hydrocarbon reservoirs for gas production. To predict the hydraulic fracture propagation, the microseismicity can be used to infer hydraulic fractures state; by the effective numerical methods, microseismic events can be addressed from changes of the computed stresses. In numerical models, due to the challenges in accurately representing the complex structure of naturally fractured reservoir, the interaction between hydraulic and pre-existing fractures has not yet been considered and handled satisfactorily. To overcome these challenges, the adaptive finite element-discrete element method is used to refine mesh, effectively identify the fractures propagation, and investigate microseismic modelling. Numerical models are composed of hydraulic fractures, pre-existing fractures, and microscale pores, and the seepage analysis based on the Darcy’s law is used to determine fluid flow; then moment tensors in microseismicity are computed based on the computed stresses. Unfractured and naturally fractured models are compared to assess the influences of pre-existing fractures on hydrofracturing. The damaged and contact slip events were detected by the magnitudes, B-values, Hudson source type plots, and focal spheres.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiumara, Alessandro; Gourdain, Nicolas; Chapin, Vincent; Senter, Julien; Bury, Yannick
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An experimental campaign including pressure measurements, oil visualizations and PIV was performed on a scale wingsail. • Unsteady RANS simulations were carried out on the wingsail scale model reproducing also the wind tunnel domain. • The geometrical slot parameters affect the circulation around the main element influencing the pressure distribution on it. - Abstract: The rigid wingsail is a propulsion system, utilized in sailing competitions in order to enhance the yacht performance in both upwind and downwind conditions. Nevertheless, this new rig is sensitive to upstream flow variations, making its steering difficult. This issue suggests the need to perform a study on wingsail aerodynamics. Thus this paper reports some investigations done to better understand the flow physics around a scaled model of an America’s Cup wingsail, based on a two-element AC72 profile. First a wind tunnel test campaign was carried out to generate a database for aerodynamic phenomena analyses and CFD validation. Unsteady RANS simulations were performed to predict and validate the flow characteristics on the wingsail, in the wind tunnel test conditions. The wind tunnel domain was fully modeled, in order to take into account the facility confinement effects. Numerical simulations in freestream and wind tunnel conditions were then compared with experimental data. This analysis shows the necessity to consider the wind tunnel walls when experimental and numerical data are compared. Numerical simulations correctly reproduce the flow field for low-to-moderate flow angles. However, discrepancies on the pressure distribution increase when the boundary layer starts to separate from the wingsail. In this regard, the flow generated by the slot between both elements of the wingsail is of paramount importance. This slot flow is analyzed in details through PIV measurements and numerical simulations. While the numerical simulation correctly predicts the jet flow itself, it only
The finite-difference and finite-element modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moszo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Pazak, P.; Balazovijech, M.
2006-01-01
Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion is an irreplaceable tool in investigation of the Earth's structure, processes in the Earth, and particularly earthquake phenomena. Among various numerical methods, the finite-difference method is the dominant method in the modeling of earthquake motion. Moreover, it is becoming more important in the seismic exploration and structural modeling. At the same time we are convinced that the best time of the finite-difference method in seismology is in the future. This monograph provides tutorial and detailed introduction to the application of the finite-difference, finite-element, and hybrid finite-difference-finite-element methods to the modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion. The text does not cover all topics and aspects of the methods. We focus on those to which we have contributed. (Author)
Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. F.R. SANTOS
Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.
Mathematic study and numerical implantation of the Vlasov-Darwin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnendrucker, E.
1994-12-01
Numerical simulation of some phenomena in plasma physics, or more generally in electromagnetism, can be more easily done using approximate models of Maxwell equations such as the Darwin model in which the transverse part of the displacement current in the Ampere equation is neglected, or such as the static model in which the time derivatives are neglected. In this note, the Darwin model is presented first, and then an asymptotic analysis of Maxwell equations is given with limit conditions of perfect conductor on one part of the side, and Silver-Muller absorbing conditions on the other part. This allows to obtain a variational formulation for the Darwin model which is a good approximation of Maxwell equations. A variational formulation for the quasi-static model is also obtained. In a second part this implantation is described using a 2-D finite element method coupled with a particulate method for the Vlasov equations which leads to numerical results allowing a determination of the different models application. (J.S.). 2 refs
Zirari, M.; Abdellah El-Hadj, A.; Bacha, N.
2010-03-01
A finite element method is used to simulate the deposition of the thermal spray coating process. A set of governing equations is solving by a volume of fluid method. For the solidification phenomenon, we use the specific heat method (SHM). We begin by comparing the present model with experimental and numerical model available in the literature. In this study, completely molten or semi-molten aluminum particle impacts a H13 tool steel substrate is considered. Next we investigate the effect of inclination of impact of a partially molten particle on flat substrate. It was found that the melting state of the particle has great effects on the morphologies of the splat.
Numerical Cerebrospinal System Modeling in Fluid-Structure Interaction.
Garnotel, Simon; Salmon, Stéphanie; Balédent, Olivier
2018-01-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume in the aqueduct is widely used to evaluate CSF dynamics disorders. In a healthy population, aqueduct stroke volume represents around 10% of the spinal stroke volume while intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume represents 90%. The amplitude of the CSF oscillations through the different compartments of the cerebrospinal system is a function of the geometry and the compliances of each compartment, but we suspect that it could also be impacted be the cardiac cycle frequency. To study this CSF distribution, we have developed a numerical model of the cerebrospinal system taking into account cerebral ventricles, intracranial subarachnoid spaces, spinal canal and brain tissue in fluid-structure interactions. A numerical fluid-structure interaction model is implemented using a finite-element method library to model the cerebrospinal system and its interaction with the brain based on fluid mechanics equations and linear elasticity equations coupled in a monolithic formulation. The model geometry, simplified in a first approach, is designed in accordance with realistic volume ratios of the different compartments: a thin tube is used to mimic the high flow resistance of the aqueduct. CSF velocity and pressure and brain displacements are obtained as simulation results, and CSF flow and stroke volume are calculated from these results. Simulation results show a significant variability of aqueduct stroke volume and intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume in the physiological range of cardiac frequencies. Fluid-structure interactions are numerous in the cerebrospinal system and difficult to understand in the rigid skull. The presented model highlights significant variations of stroke volumes under cardiac frequency variations only.
A simplified model for TIG-dressing numerical simulation
Ferro, P.; Berto, F.; James, M. N.
2017-04-01
Irrespective of the mechanical properties of the alloy to be welded, the fatigue strength of welded joints is primarily controlled by the stress concentration associated with the weld toe or weld root. In order to reduce the effects of such notch defects in welds, which are influenced by tensile properties of the alloy, post-weld improvement techniques have been developed. The two most commonly used techniques are weld toe grinding and TIG dressing, which are intended to both remove toe defects such as non-metallic intrusions and to re-profile the weld toe region to give a lower stress concentration. In the case of TIG dressing the weld toe is re-melted to provide a smoother transition between the plate and the weld crown and to beneficially modify the residual stress redistribution. Assessing the changes to weld stress state arising from TIG-dressing is most easily accomplished through a complex numerical simulation that requires coupled thermo-fluid dynamics and solid mechanics. However, this can be expensive in terms of computational cost and time needed to reach a solution. The present paper therefore proposes a simplified numerical model that overcomes such drawbacks and which simulates the remelted toe region by means of the activation and deactivation of elements in the numerical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrilho, Leo A.; Dotto, Rosvita M.; Gouvea, Jayme P. de
2000-01-01
The stresses in the components of fuel elements in operation have been calculated by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, using programmes specifically developed for this are. However, worldwide useful software as Excel and ANSYS have resources that make them an alternative with advantages for those computing. In this context, the stress and displacements were calculated in the guide thimbles of a fuel element in normal operation in the reactor under static loads, through analytic and numeric models, which results are comparable to that obtained with the actual INB's methodology. The discussion of the results exposes the peculiarity of a pick of compression stress in a segment of the guide thimble which is accentuated during low power operations. Suggestions for the relief of these high stresses are proposed for future studies. (author)
NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF DEEP DRAWING PROCESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan YILDIZ
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlstrom, S.W.; Foote, H.P.; Arnett, R.C.; Cole, C.R.; Serne, R.J.
1977-05-01
The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model is a generic computer code, currently in its third generation, that was developed to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. This model was designed to use the water movement patterns produced by the unsaturated and saturated flow models coupled with dispersion and soil-waste reaction submodels to predict contaminant transport. This report documents the theorical foundation and the numerical solution procedure of the current (third) generation of the MMT Model. The present model simulates mass transport processes using an analog referred to as the Discrete-Parcel-Random-Walk (DPRW) algorithm. The basic concepts of this solution technique are described and the advantages and disadvantages of the DPRW scheme are discussed in relation to more conventional numerical techniques such as the finite-difference and finite-element methods. Verification of the numerical algorithm is demonstrated by comparing model results with known closed-form solutions. A brief error and sensitivity analysis of the algorithm with respect to numerical parameters is also presented. A simulation of the tritium plume beneath the Hanford Site is included to illustrate the use of the model in a typical application. 32 figs
Dynamics Modeling and Analysis of Local Fault of Rolling Element Bearing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingli Cui
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear vibration model of rolling element bearings with 5 degrees of freedom based on Hertz contact theory and relevant bearing knowledge of kinematics and dynamics. The slipping of ball, oil film stiffness, and the nonlinear time-varying stiffness of the bearing are taken into consideration in the model proposed here. The single-point local fault model of rolling element bearing is introduced into the nonlinear model with 5 degrees of freedom according to the loss of the contact deformation of ball when it rolls into and out of the local fault location. The functions of spall depth corresponding to defects of different shapes are discussed separately in this paper. Then the ode solver in Matlab is adopted to perform a numerical solution on the nonlinear vibration model to simulate the vibration response of the rolling elements bearings with local fault. The simulation signals analysis results show a similar behavior and pattern to that observed in the processed experimental signals of rolling element bearings in both time domain and frequency domain which validated the nonlinear vibration model proposed here to generate typical rolling element bearings local fault signals for possible and effective fault diagnostic algorithms research.
Efficient Finite Element Models for Calculation of the No-load losses of the Transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamran Dawood
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Different transformer models are examined for the calculation of the no-load losses using finite element analysis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses are used for the simulation of the transformer. Results of the finite element method are also compared with the experimental results. The Result shows that 3-dimensional provide high accuracy as compared to the 2 dimensional full and half model. However, the 2-dimensional half model is the less time-consuming method as compared to the 3 and 2-dimensional full model. Simulation time duration taken by the different models of the transformer is also compared. The difference between the 3-dimensional finite element method and experimental results are less than 3%. These numerical methods can help transformer designers to minimize the development of the prototype transformers.
A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Jun
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH and finite element (FE method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH–FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.
Numerical modelling of new rockfall interception nets
von Boetticher, Albrecht; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna
2010-05-01
The design and certification of effective rockfall protection barriers is mainly achieved through 1:1 prototype testing. In order to reduce development costs of a prototype it is recommended that pre-studies using numerical simulations are performed. A large component to modelling rockfall protection systems is the numerical simulation of the nets. To date there exist several approaches to model the different mesh types such as ring nets or diagonal meshes (Nicot 1999, Cazzani et al. 2002, Volkwein 2004). However, the consideration of chain link meshes has not yet been realised. Chain link meshes are normally found as standard fence structures. However, they also exist in setups using high-strength steel and wire bundles. These variants show an enormous capacity to retain loads e.g. rockfalls, and at the same time are very efficient due to their low demand of steel material. The increasing application of chain link mesh in barrier systems requires an accurate model is available to complete prototype studies. A new approach now aims to perform a Finite Element simulation of such chain link meshes. The main challenge herein is to achieve the net deformation behaviour that is observed in field tests also in the simulation. A simulation using simple truss elements would not work since it neglects the out-of-plane-height of the mesh construction providing important reserves for local and global high deformations. Thus addressing this, a specially developed Discrete Element is able to reconstruct the mechanical behaviour of the single chain wire (bundles). As input parameters it utilises typical properties such as longitudinal and transversal mesh widths, and break loads resulting from in-plane-tension tests and steel strength. The single chain elements then can be combined to a complete mesh (e.g. 130 x 65 mm, 3 - 4 mm wire with a strength of 1770 N-mm2). Combining these elements with a supporting structure consisting of posts, ropes and energy absorbers, enables the
Prediction of qualitative parameters of slab steel ingot using numerical modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Tkadlečková
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the verification of casting and solidification of heavy slab ingot weighing 40 t from tool steel by means of numerical modelling with use of a finite element method. The pre-processing, processing and post-processing phases of numerical modelling are outlined. Also, the problems with determination of the thermodynamic properties of materials and with determination of the heat transfer between the individual parts of the casting system are discussed. The final porosity, macrosegregation and the risk of cracks were predicted. The results allowed us to use the slab ingot instead of the conventional heavy steel ingot and to improve the ratio, the chamfer and the external shape of the wall of the new design of the slab ingot.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengzhan Huang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Several stabilized finite element methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem based on the lowest equal-order finite element pair are numerically investigated. They are penalty, regular, multiscale enrichment, and local Gauss integration method. Comparisons between them are carried out, which show that the local Gauss integration method has good stability, efficiency, and accuracy properties, and it is a favorite method among these methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem.
Calibration of a finite element composite delamination model by experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaiotti, M.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the mechanical behavior under in plane compressive loading of thick and mostly unidirectional glass fiber composite plates made with an initial embedded delamination. The delamination is rectangular in shape, causing the separation of the central part of the plate into two...... distinct sub-laminates. The work focuses on experimental validation of a finite element model built using the 9-noded MITC9 shell elements, which prevent locking effects and aiming to capture the highly non linear buckling features involved in the problem. The geometry has been numerically defined...
Near-fault earthquake ground motion prediction by a high-performance spectral element numerical code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paolucci, Roberto; Stupazzini, Marco
2008-01-01
Near-fault effects have been widely recognised to produce specific features of earthquake ground motion, that cannot be reliably predicted by 1D seismic wave propagation modelling, used as a standard in engineering applications. These features may have a relevant impact on the structural response, especially in the nonlinear range, that is hard to predict and to be put in a design format, due to the scarcity of significant earthquake records and of reliable numerical simulations. In this contribution a pilot study is presented for the evaluation of seismic ground-motions in the near-fault region, based on a high-performance numerical code for 3D seismic wave propagation analyses, including the seismic fault, the wave propagation path and the near-surface geological or topographical irregularity. For this purpose, the software package GeoELSE is adopted, based on the spectral element method. The set-up of the numerical benchmark of 3D ground motion simulation in the valley of Grenoble (French Alps) is chosen to study the effect of the complex interaction between basin geometry and radiation mechanism on the variability of earthquake ground motion
A Computationally-Efficient Numerical Model to Characterize the Noise Behavior of Metal-Framed Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arun Arjunan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Architects, designers, and engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically-efficient metal-framed walls, minimizing acoustic bridging. Therefore, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation complying with ISO 10140 are needed at a design stage. In order to achieve this, a numerical model consisting of two fluid-filled reverberation chambers, partitioned using a metal-framed wall, is to be simulated at one-third-octaves. This produces a large simulation model consisting of several millions of nodes and elements. Therefore, efficient meshing procedures are necessary to obtain better solution times and to effectively utilise computational resources. Such models should also demonstrate effective Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI along with acoustic-fluid coupling to simulate a realistic scenario. In this contribution, the development of a finite element frequency-dependent mesh model that can characterize the sound insulation of metal-framed walls is presented. Preliminary results on the application of the proposed model to study the geometric contribution of stud frames on the overall acoustic performance of metal-framed walls are also presented. It is considered that the presented numerical model can be used to effectively visualize the noise behaviour of advanced materials and multi-material structures.
A delta-rule model of numerical and non-numerical order processing.
Verguts, Tom; Van Opstal, Filip
2014-06-01
Numerical and non-numerical order processing share empirical characteristics (distance effect and semantic congruity), but there are also important differences (in size effect and end effect). At the same time, models and theories of numerical and non-numerical order processing developed largely separately. Currently, we combine insights from 2 earlier models to integrate them in a common framework. We argue that the same learning principle underlies numerical and non-numerical orders, but that environmental features determine the empirical differences. Implications for current theories on order processing are pointed out. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Rapid installation of numerical models in multiple parent codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.
1996-10-01
A set of``model interface guidelines``, called MIG, is offered as a means to more rapidly install numerical models (such as stress-strain laws) into any parent code (hydrocode, finite element code, etc.) without having to modify the model subroutines. The model developer (who creates the model package in compliance with the guidelines) specifies the model`s input and storage requirements in a standardized way. For portability, database management (such as saving user inputs and field variables) is handled by the parent code. To date, NUG has proved viable in beta installations of several diverse models in vectorized and parallel codes written in different computer languages. A NUG-compliant model can be installed in different codes without modifying the model`s subroutines. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort potentially reducing the cost of installing and sharing models.
Kettle, L. M.; Mora, P.; Weatherley, D.; Gross, L.; Xing, H.
2006-12-01
Simulations using the Finite Element method are widely used in many engineering applications and for the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). Computational models based on the solution of PDEs play a key role in earth systems simulations. We present numerical modelling of crustal fault systems where the dynamic elastic wave equation is solved using the Finite Element method. This is achieved using a high level computational modelling language, escript, available as open source software from ACcESS (Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator), the University of Queensland. Escript is an advanced geophysical simulation software package developed at ACcESS which includes parallel equation solvers, data visualisation and data analysis software. The escript library was implemented to develop a flexible Finite Element model which reliably simulates the mechanism of faulting and the physics of earthquakes. Both 2D and 3D elastodynamic models are being developed to study the dynamics of crustal fault systems. Our final goal is to build a flexible model which can be applied to any fault system with user-defined geometry and input parameters. To study the physics of earthquake processes, two different time scales must be modelled, firstly the quasi-static loading phase which gradually increases stress in the system (~100years), and secondly the dynamic rupture process which rapidly redistributes stress in the system (~100secs). We will discuss the solution of the time-dependent elastic wave equation for an arbitrary fault system using escript. This involves prescribing the correct initial stress distribution in the system to simulate the quasi-static loading of faults to failure; determining a suitable frictional constitutive law which accurately reproduces the dynamics of the stick/slip instability at the faults; and using a robust time integration scheme. These dynamic models generate data and information that can be used for earthquake forecasting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Barbosa Mangueira
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Models based on the continuous damage theory present good responses in representing the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures with loss of strength and stiffness of the material. However, damage theory is rarely employed in the analysis of masonry structures and numerical simulations are currently performed mostly by Finite Element Method formulations. A computational program was designed to determine the numerical parameters of a damage model of the physical properties of masonry components, solid clay brick and mortar. The model was formulated based on the composition of tensile and compressive surface strengths in the plane stress state. The numerical parameters, the corresponding curves of the activation surfaces and the evolution of the surfaces are presented. The results were fed into the computational program based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM for the simulation of masonry walls, and two types of masonry were simulated. The results confirm the good performance of the model and the program based on the BEM.
Lateral strength force of URM structures based on a constitutive model for interface element
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.H. Akhaveissy
Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical implementation of a new proposed interface model for modeling the behavior of mortar joints in masonry walls. Its theoretical framework is fully based on the plasticity theory. The Von Mises criterion is used to simulate the behavior of brick and stone units. The interface laws for contact elements are formulated to simulate the softening behavior of mortar joints under tensile stress; a normal linear cap model is also used to limit compressive stress. The numerical predictions based on the proposed model for the behavior of interface elements correlate very highly with test data. A new explicit formula based on results of proposed interface model is also presented to estimate the strength of unreinforced masonry structures. The closed form solution predicts the ultimate lateral load of unreinforced masonry walls less error percentage than ATC and FEMA-307. Consequently, the proposed closed form solution can be used satisfactorily to analyze unreinforced masonry structures.
NEESROCK: A Physical and Numerical Modeling Investigation of Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure
Applegate, K. N.; Wartman, J.; Keefer, D. K.; Maclaughlin, M.; Adams, S.; Arnold, L.; Gibson, M.; Smith, S.
2013-12-01
Worldwide, seismically induced rock-slope failures have been responsible for approximately 30% of the most significant landslide catastrophes of the past century. They are among the most common, dangerous, and still today, least understood of all seismic hazards. Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure: Mechanisms and Prediction (NEESROCK) is a major research initiative that fully integrates physical modeling (geotechnical centrifuge) and advanced numerical simulations (discrete element modeling) to investigate the fundamental mechanisms governing the stability of rock slopes during earthquakes. The research is part of the National Science Foundation-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEES) program. With its focus on fractures and rock materials, the project represents a significant departure from the traditional use of the geotechnical centrifuge for studying soil, and pushes the boundaries of physical modeling in new directions. In addition to advancing the fundamental understanding of the rock-slope failure process under seismic conditions, the project is developing improved rock-slope failure assessment guidelines, analysis procedures, and predictive tools. Here, we provide an overview of the project, present experimental and numerical modeling results, discuss special considerations for the use of synthetic rock materials in physical modeling, and address the suitability of discrete element modeling for simulating the dynamic rock-slope failure process.
Trantow, Thomas
The Bering-Bagley Glacial System (BBGS) is the largest glacier system outside of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, and is the Earth's largest surge-type glacier. Surging is one of three types of glacial acceleration and the least understood one. Understanding glacial acceleration is paramount when trying to explain ice discharge to the oceans and the glacial contribution to sea-level rise, yet there are currently no numerical glacial models that account for surging. The recent 2011-2013 surge of the BBGS provides a rare opportunity to study the surge process through observations and the subsequent data analysis and numerical modeling. Using radar, altimeter, and image data collected from airborne and satellite missions, various descriptions of ice geometry are created at different times throughout the surge. Using geostatistical estimation techniques including variography and ordinary kriging, surface and bedrock Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) are derived. A time series analysis of elevation change during the current surge is then conducted and validated using a complete error analysis along with airborne observations. The derived DEMs are then used as inputs to a computer simulated model of glacier dynamics in the BBGS. Using the Finite Element software Elmer/Ice, a full-Stokes simulation, with Glen's flow law for temperate ice, is created for numerical experiments. With consideration of free surface evolution, glacial hydrology and surface mass balance, the model is able to predict a variety of field variables including velocity, stress, strain-rate, pressure and surface elevation change at any point forward in time. These outputs are compared and validated using observational data such as CryoSat-2 altimetry, airborne field data, imagery and previous detailed analysis of the BBGS. Preliminary results reveal that certain surge phenomena such as surface elevation changes, surge progression and locations at which the surge starts, can be recreated using the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Hongzhu; Čuma, Martin; Zhdanov, Michael
2015-01-01
This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom signific......This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom...... significantly. The linear system of finite element equations is solved using parallel direct solvers which are robust for ill-conditioned systems and efficient for multiple source electromagnetic (EM) modeling. We also introduce a novel approach to compute the scalar components of the electric field from...... the tangential components along each edge based on field redatuming. The method can produce a more accurate result as compared to conventional approach. We have applied the developed algorithm to compute the EM response for a typical 3D anisotropic geoelectrical model of the off-shore HC reservoir with complex...
Maras Michal; Hatala Jozef; Marasová Daniela
1997-01-01
Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modellin...
A finite element model for the quench front evolution problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Folescu, J.; Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Carmo, E.G.D. do.
1985-01-01
A model for the rewetting problem associated with the loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor is proposed. A variational formulation for the time-dependent heat conduction problem on fuel rod cladding is used, and appropriate boundary conditions are assumed in order to simulate the thermal interaction between the fuel rod cladding and the fluid. A numerical procedure which uses the finite element method for the spatial discretization and a Crank-Nicolson-like method for the step-by-step integration is developed. Some numerical results are presented showing the quench front evolution and its stationary profile. (Author) [pt
An effective finite element model for the prediction of hydrogen induced cracking in steel pipelines
Traidia, Abderrazak; Alfano, Marco; Lubineau, Gilles; Duval, Sé bastien; Sherik, Abdelmounam M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive finite element model for the numerical simulation of Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) in steel pipelines exposed to sulphurous compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The model is able to mimic the pressure
FEMWASTE: a Finite-Element Model of Waste transport through porous saturated-unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.
1981-04-01
A two-dimensional transient model for the transport of dissolved constituents through porous media originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been expanded and modified. Transport mechanisms include: convection, hydrodynamic dispersion, chemical sorption, and first-order decay. Implementation of quadrilateral iso-parametric finite elements, bilinear spatial interpolation, asymmetric weighting functions, several time-marching techniques, and Gaussian elimination are employed in the numerical formulation. A comparative example is included to demonstrate the difference between the new and original models. Results from 12 alternative numerical schemes of the new model are compared. The waste transport model is compatible with the water flow model developed at ORNL for predicting convective Darcy velocities in porous media which may be partially saturated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Parkinson
2014-09-01
Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.
Harmon, Michael; Gamba, Irene M.; Ren, Kui
2016-12-01
This work concerns the numerical solution of a coupled system of self-consistent reaction-drift-diffusion-Poisson equations that describes the macroscopic dynamics of charge transport in photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells with reactive semiconductor and electrolyte interfaces. We present three numerical algorithms, mainly based on a mixed finite element and a local discontinuous Galerkin method for spatial discretization, with carefully chosen numerical fluxes, and implicit-explicit time stepping techniques, for solving the time-dependent nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. We perform computational simulations under various model parameters to demonstrate the performance of the proposed numerical algorithms as well as the impact of these parameters on the solution to the model.
Jafari, Azadeh; Deville, Michel O.; Fiétier, Nicolas
2008-09-01
This study discusses the capability of the constitutive laws for the matrix logarithm of the conformation tensor (LCT model) within the framework of the spectral elements method. The high Weissenberg number problems (HWNP) usually produce a lack of convergence of the numerical algorithms. Even though the question whether the HWNP is a purely numerical problem or rather a breakdown of the constitutive law of the model has remained somewhat of a mystery, it has been recognized that the selection of an appropriate constitutive equation constitutes a very crucial step although implementing a suitable numerical technique is still important for successful discrete modeling of non-Newtonian flows. The LCT model formulation of the viscoelastic equations originally suggested by Fattal and Kupferman is applied for 2-dimensional (2D) FENE-CR model. The Planar Poiseuille flow is considered as a benchmark problem to test this representation at high Weissenberg number. The numerical results are compared with numerical solution of the standard constitutive equation.
An Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element method for modeling crack growth in creeping materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee Hae Sung.
1991-01-01
This study is concerned with the development of finite-element-solution methods for analysis of quasi-static, ductile crack growth in history-dependent materials. The mixed Eulerian-Langrangian description (ELD) kinematic model is shown to have several desirable properties for modeling inelastic crack growth. Accordingly, a variational statement based on the ELD for history-dependent materials is developed, and a new moving-grid finite-element method based on the variational statement is presented. The moving-grid finite-element method based on the variational statement is presented. The moving-grid finite-element method is applied to the analysis of transient, quasi-static, mode-III crack growth in creeping materials. A generalized Petrov-Galerkin method (GPG) is developed that simultaneously stabilizes the statement to admit L 2 basis functions for the nonlinear strain field. Quasi-static, model-III crack growth in creeping materials under small-scale-yielding (SSY) conditions is considered. The GPG/ELD moving-grid finite-element formulation is used to model a transient crack-growth problem. The GPG/ELD results compare favorably with previously-published numerical results and the asymptotic solutions
A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation
Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2010-01-01
We propose an efficient scheme to absorb reflections from the model boundaries in numerical solutions of wave equations. This scheme divides the computational domain into boundary, transition, and inner areas. The wavefields within the inner and boundary areas are computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation, respectively. The wavefields within the transition area are determined by a weighted combination of the wavefields computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation to obtain a smooth variation from the inner area to the boundary via the transition zone. The results from our finite-difference numerical modeling tests of the 2D acoustic wave equation show that the absorption enforced by this scheme gradually increases with increasing width of the transition area. We obtain equally good performance using pseudospectral and finite-element modeling with the same scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that use of 10 grid points for absorbing edge reflections attains nearly perfect absorption. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation
Liu, Yang
2010-03-01
We propose an efficient scheme to absorb reflections from the model boundaries in numerical solutions of wave equations. This scheme divides the computational domain into boundary, transition, and inner areas. The wavefields within the inner and boundary areas are computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation, respectively. The wavefields within the transition area are determined by a weighted combination of the wavefields computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation to obtain a smooth variation from the inner area to the boundary via the transition zone. The results from our finite-difference numerical modeling tests of the 2D acoustic wave equation show that the absorption enforced by this scheme gradually increases with increasing width of the transition area. We obtain equally good performance using pseudospectral and finite-element modeling with the same scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that use of 10 grid points for absorbing edge reflections attains nearly perfect absorption. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Efficient Computation of Info-Gap Robustness for Finite Element Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Williams, Brian J.
2012-01-01
A recent research effort at LANL proposed info-gap decision theory as a framework by which to measure the predictive maturity of numerical models. Info-gap theory explores the trade-offs between accuracy, that is, the extent to which predictions reproduce the physical measurements, and robustness, that is, the extent to which predictions are insensitive to modeling assumptions. Both accuracy and robustness are necessary to demonstrate predictive maturity. However, conducting an info-gap analysis can present a formidable challenge, from the standpoint of the required computational resources. This is because a robustness function requires the resolution of multiple optimization problems. This report offers an alternative, adjoint methodology to assess the info-gap robustness of Ax = b-like numerical models solved for a solution x. Two situations that can arise in structural analysis and design are briefly described and contextualized within the info-gap decision theory framework. The treatments of the info-gap problems, using the adjoint methodology are outlined in detail, and the latter problem is solved for four separate finite element models. As compared to statistical sampling, the proposed methodology offers highly accurate approximations of info-gap robustness functions for the finite element models considered in the report, at a small fraction of the computational cost. It is noted that this report considers only linear systems; a natural follow-on study would extend the methodologies described herein to include nonlinear systems.
Analysis of automotive rolling lobe air spring under alternative factors with finite element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Pak Kin; Xie, Zhengchao; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Tao; He, Feng
2014-01-01
Air springs are widely used in automotive suspensions for their superior performance in terms of low friction motion, adjustable load carrying capacity and user-friendly ride height control. However, it has posed great difficulties in constructing an accurate model as well as the analysis of the influence of alternative factors, such as cord angle, cord diameter and initial pressure. In this paper, a numerical model of the rolling lobe air spring (RLAS) is built by using finite element method and compared with an existing analytical model. An experiment with respect to the vertical stiffness of the RLAS is carried out to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Evaluation result reveals that the existing analytical model cannot represent the performance of the RLAS very well, whereas the accuracy of the numerical model is very good. With the verified numerical model, the impacts of many alternative factors on the characteristics of the RLAS are analyzed. Numerical results show that the newly proposed model is reliable to determine the vertical characteristic and physical dimensions of the RLAS under the alternative factors.
Gallo, A.; Arana, A.; Oyanguren, A.; García, G.; Barbero, A.; Larrañaga, J.; Ulacia, I.
2013-07-01
In this work the properties of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) and their behavior have been numerically modeled. Moreover, their applications very often require modeling not only of the TEM but also of the working environment and the product in which they will be working. A clear example is the fact that TEMs are very often installed with heat-dissipating elements such as fans, heat sinks, and heat exchangers; thus, the module will only work according to the heat dissipation conditions that these external sources can provide in a certain environment. In this context, analytic approaches, even though they have been proved to be useful, do not provide enough, accurate information in this regard. Therefore, numerical modeling has been identified as a powerful tool to improve detailed designs of thermoelectric solutions. This paper presents numerical simulations of a TEM in different working conditions, as well as with different commercial dissipation devices. The objective is to obtain the characteristic curve of a TEM using a valid numerical model that can be introduced into larger models of different applications. Also, the numerical model of the module and different cooling devices is provided. Both of them are compared against real tested modules, so that the deviation between them can be measured and discussed. Finally, the TEM is introduced into a manufacturing application and results are discussed to validate the model for further use.
Finite element simulation of nanoindentation tests using a macroscopic computational model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khelifa, Mourad; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain
2014-01-01
The aim of this work was to develop a numerical procedure to simulate nanoindentation tests using a macroscopic computational model. Both theoretical and numerical aspects of the proposed methodology, based on the coupling of isotropic elasticity and anisotropic plasticity described with the quadratic criterion of Hill are presented to model this behaviour. The anisotropic plastic behaviour accounts for the mixed nonlinear hardening (isotropic and kinematic) under large plastic deformation. Nanoindentation tests were simulated to analyse the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloy. The predicted results of the finite element (FE) modelling are in good agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the accuracy level of the suggested FE method of analysis. The effects of some technological and mechanical parameters known to have an influence during the nanoindentation tests were also investigated.
Malakpoor, K.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.
2007-01-01
The swelling and shrinkage of biological tissues are modelled by a four-component mixture theory [J.M. Huyghe and J.D. Janssen, Int. J. Engng. Sci. 35 (1997) 793-802; K. Malakpoor, E.F. Kaasschieter and J.M. Huyghe, Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues.
Virgo, Simon; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Urai, Janos L.
2016-04-01
Crack-seal veins form in a complex interplay of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes. Their formation and cyclic growth involves brittle fracturing and dilatancy, phases of increased fluid flow and the growth of crystals that fill the voids and reestablish the mechanical strength. Existing numerical models of vein formation focus on selected aspects of the coupled process. Until today, no model exists that is able to use a realistic representation of the fracturing AND sealing processes, simultaneously. To address this challenge, we propose the bidirectional coupling of two numerical methods that have proven themselves as very powerful to model the fundamental processes acting in crack-seal systems: Phase-field and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The phase-field Method was recently successfully extended to model the precipitation of quartz crystals from an aqueous solution and applied to model the sealing of a vein over multiple opening events (Ankit et al., 2013; Ankit et al., 2015a; Ankit et al., 2015b). The advantage over former, purely kinematic approaches is that in phase-field, the crystal growth is modeled based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles. Different driving forces for microstructure evolution, such as chemical bulk free energy, interfacial energy, elastic strain energy and different transport processes, such as mass diffusion and advection, can be coupled and the effect on the evolution process can be studied in 3D. The Discrete Element Method was already used in several studies to model the fracturing of rocks and the incremental growth of veins by repeated fracturing (Virgo et al., 2013; Virgo et al., 2014). Materials in DEM are represented by volumes of packed spherical particles and the response to the material to stress is modeled by interaction of the particles with their nearest neighbours. For rocks, in 3D, the method provides a realistic brittle failure behaviour. Exchange Routines are being developed that
Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar
2013-01-01
Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer
Numerical solution of a model for a superconductor field problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsop, L.E.; Goodman, A.S.; Gustavson, F.G.; Miranker, W.L.
1979-01-01
A model of a magnetic field problem occurring in connection with Josephson junction devices is derived, and numerical solutions are obtained. The model is of mathematical interest, because the magnetic vector potential satisfies inhomogeneous Helmholtz equations in part of the region, i.e., the superconductors, and the Laplace equation elsewhere. Moreover, the inhomogeneities are the guage constants for the potential, which are different for each superconductor, and their magnitudes are proportional to the currents flowing in the superconductors. These constants are directly related to the self and mutual inductances of the superconducting elements in the device. The numerical solution is obtained by the iterative use of a fast Poisson solver. Chebyshev acceleration is used to reduce the number of iterations required to obtain a solution. A typical problem involves solving 100,000 simultaneous equations, which the algorithm used with this model does in 20 iterations, requiring three minutes of CPU time on an IBM VM/370/168. Excellent agreement is obtained between calculated and observed values for the inductances
The brush model - a new approach to numerical modeling of matrix diffusion in fractured clay stone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lege, T.; Shao, H.
1998-01-01
A special approach for numerical modeling of contaminant transport in fractured clay stone is presented. The rock matrix and the fractures are simulated with individual formulations for FE grids and transport, coupled into a single model. The capacity of the rock matrix to take up contaminants is taken into consideration with a discrete simulation of matrix diffusion. Thus, the natural process of retardation due to matrix diffusion can be better simulated than by a standard introduction of an empirical parameter into the transport equation. Transport in groundwater in fractured clay stone can be simulated using a model called a 'brush model'. The 'brush handle' is discretized by 2-D finite elements. Advective-dispersive transport in groundwater in the fractures is assumed. The contaminant diffuses into 1D finite elements perpendicular to the fractures, i.e., the 'bristles of the brush'. The conclusion is drawn that matrix diffusion is an important property of fractured clay stone for contaminant retardation. (author)
Finite element modelling for fatigue stress analysis of large suspension bridges
Chan, Tommy H. T.; Guo, L.; Li, Z. X.
2003-03-01
Fatigue is an important failure mode for large suspension bridges under traffic loadings. However, large suspension bridges have so many attributes that it is difficult to analyze their fatigue damage using experimental measurement methods. Numerical simulation is a feasible method of studying such fatigue damage. In British standards, the finite element method is recommended as a rigorous method for steel bridge fatigue analysis. This paper aims at developing a finite element (FE) model of a large suspension steel bridge for fatigue stress analysis. As a case study, a FE model of the Tsing Ma Bridge is presented. The verification of the model is carried out with the help of the measured bridge modal characteristics and the online data measured by the structural health monitoring system installed on the bridge. The results show that the constructed FE model is efficient for bridge dynamic analysis. Global structural analyses using the developed FE model are presented to determine the components of the nominal stress generated by railway loadings and some typical highway loadings. The critical locations in the bridge main span are also identified with the numerical results of the global FE stress analysis. Local stress analysis of a typical weld connection is carried out to obtain the hot-spot stresses in the region. These results provide a basis for evaluating fatigue damage and predicting the remaining life of the bridge.
Liu, Quansheng; Jiang, Yalong; Wu, Zhijun; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Qi
2018-04-01
In this study, a two-dimensional Voronoi element-based numerical manifold method (VE-NMM) is developed to analyze the granite fragmentation process by a single tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutter under different confining stresses. A Voronoi tessellation technique is adopted to generate the polygonal grain assemblage to approximate the microstructure of granite sample from the Gubei colliery of Huainan mining area in China. A modified interface contact model with cohesion and tensile strength is embedded into the numerical manifold method (NMM) to interpret the interactions between the rock grains. Numerical uniaxial compression and Brazilian splitting tests are first conducted to calibrate and validate the VE-NMM models based on the laboratory experiment results using a trial-and-error method. On this basis, numerical simulations of rock fragmentation by a single TBM cutter are conducted. The simulated crack initiation and propagation process as well as the indentation load-penetration depth behaviors in the numerical models accurately predict the laboratory indentation test results. The influence of confining stress on rock fragmentation is also investigated. Simulation results show that radial tensile cracks are more likely to be generated under a low confining stress, eventually coalescing into a major fracture along the loading axis. However, with the increase in confining stress, more side cracks initiate and coalesce, resulting in the formation of rock chips at the upper surface of the model. In addition, the peak indentation load also increases with the increasing confining stress, indicating that a higher thrust force is usually needed during the TBM boring process in deep tunnels.
Die Moran, Andres; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Tassi, Pablo; Herouvet, Jean-Michel
2014-05-01
Bank erosion is a key process that may cause a large number of economic and environmental problems (e.g. land loss, damage to structures and aquatic habitat). Stream bank erosion (toe erosion and mass failure) represents an important form of channel morphology changes and a significant source of sediment. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2-D) numerical models have become valuable tools for investigating flow and sediment transport in open channels at large temporal and spatial scales. However, the implementation of mass failure process in 2D numerical models is still a challenging task. In this paper, a simple, innovative algorithm is implemented in the Telemac-Mascaret modeling platform to handle bank failure: failure occurs whether the actual slope of one given bed element is higher than the internal friction angle. The unstable bed elements are rotated around an appropriate axis, ensuring mass conservation. Mass failure of a bank due to slope instability is applied at the end of each sediment transport evolution iteration, once the bed evolution due to bed load (and/or suspended load) has been computed, but before the global sediment mass balance is verified. This bank failure algorithm is successfully tested using two laboratory experimental cases. Then, bank failure in a 1:40 scale physical model of the Rhine River composed of non-uniform material is simulated. The main features of the bank erosion and failure are correctly reproduced in the numerical simulations, namely the mass wasting at the bank toe, followed by failure at the bank head, and subsequent transport of the mobilised material in an aggradation front. Volumes of eroded material obtained are of the same order of magnitude as the volumes measured during the laboratory tests.
Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.
Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M
1998-02-01
The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.
Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading
Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.
2015-06-01
Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.
Contribution to finite element modelling of airfoil aeroelastic instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horáček J.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear equations of motion for a flexibly supported rigid airfoil with additional degree of freedom for controlling of the profile motion by a trailing edge flap are derived for large vibration amplitudes. Preliminary results for numerical simulation of flow-induced airfoil vibrations in a laminar incompressible flow are presented for the NACA profile 0012 with three-degrees of freedom (vertical translation, rotation around the elastic axis and rotation of the flap. The developed numerical solution of the Navier – Stokes equations and the Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian approach enable to consider the moving grid for the finite element modelling of the fluid flow around the oscillating airfoil. A sequence of numerical simulation examples is presented for Reynolds numbers up to about Re~10^5, when the system loses the aeroelastic stability, and when the large displacements of the profile and a post-critical behaviour of the system take place.
A Floating Node Method for the Modelling of Discontinuities Within a Finite Element
Pinho, Silvestre T.; Chen, B. Y.; DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Baiz, P. M.; Tay, T. E.
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the accurate numerical representation of complex networks of evolving discontinuities in solids, with particular emphasis on cracks. The limitation of the standard finite element method (FEM) in approximating discontinuous solutions has motivated the development of re-meshing, smeared crack models, the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the Phantom Node Method (PNM). We propose a new method which has some similarities to the PNM, but crucially: (i) does not introduce an error on the crack geometry when mapping to natural coordinates; (ii) does not require numerical integration over only part of a domain; (iii) can incorporate weak discontinuities and cohesive cracks more readily; (iv) is ideally suited for the representation of multiple and complex networks of (weak, strong and cohesive) discontinuities; (v) leads to the same solution as a finite element mesh where the discontinuity is represented explicitly; and (vi) is conceptually simpler than the PNM.
Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils
Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.
2013-01-01
Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom
Paulina Krolo; Davor Grandić; Mladen Bulić
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is the development of the two different numerical techniques for the preloading of bolts by the finite element method using the software Abaqus Standard. Furthermore, this paper gave detailed guidelines for modelling contact, method for solving the numerical error problems such as numerical singularity error and negative eigenvalues due to rigid body motion or the problem of the extensive elongation of bolts after pretension which is occurring during the analysis. The be...
Sun, Guo-Qin; Sun, Feng-Yang; Cao, Fang-Li; Chen, Shu-Jun; Barkey, Mark E.
2015-11-01
The numerical simulation of tensile fracture behavior on Al-Cu alloy friction stir-welded joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. The parameters of the GTN model were studied in each region of the friction stir-welded joint by means of inverse identification. Based on the obtained parameters, the finite element model of the welded joint was built to predict the fracture behavior and tension properties. Good agreement can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the location of the tensile fracture and the mechanical properties.
An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerken, Jobie M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
1999-12-01
A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some
Development of numerical concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabine Peucker
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The development of numerical concepts is described from infancy to preschool age. Infants a few days old exhibit an early sensitivity for numerosities. In the course of development, nonverbal mental models allow for the exact representation of small quantities as well as changes in these quantities. Subitising, as the accurate recognition of small numerosities (without counting, plays an important role. It can be assumed that numerical concepts and procedures start with insights about small numerosities. Protoquantitative schemata comprise fundamental knowledge about quantities. One-to-one-correspondence connects elements and numbers, and, for this reason, both quantitative and numerical knowledge. If children understand that they can determine the numerosity of a collection of elements by enumerating the elements, they have acquired the concept of cardinality. Protoquantitative knowledge becomes quantitative if it can be applied to numerosities and sequential numbers. The concepts of cardinality and part-part-whole are key to numerical development. Developmentally appropriate learning and teaching should focus on cardinality and part-part-whole concepts.
Malekan, Mohammad; Barros, Felício B.
2017-12-01
Generalized or extended finite element method (G/XFEM) models the crack by enriching functions of partition of unity type with discontinuous functions that represent well the physical behavior of the problem. However, this enrichment functions are not available for all problem types. Thus, one can use numerically-built (global-local) enrichment functions to have a better approximate procedure. This paper investigates the effects of micro-defects/inhomogeneities on a main crack behavior by modeling the micro-defects/inhomogeneities in the local problem using a two-scale G/XFEM. The global-local enrichment functions are influenced by the micro-defects/inhomogeneities from the local problem and thus change the approximate solution of the global problem with the main crack. This approach is presented in detail by solving three different linear elastic fracture mechanics problems for different cases: two plane stress and a Reissner-Mindlin plate problems. The numerical results obtained with the two-scale G/XFEM are compared with the reference solutions from the analytical, numerical solution using standard G/XFEM method and ABAQUS as well, and from the literature.
Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide
2016-04-01
Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D
A Kriging Model Based Finite Element Model Updating Method for Damage Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuming Yang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Model updating is an effective means of damage identification and surrogate modeling has attracted considerable attention for saving computational cost in finite element (FE model updating, especially for large-scale structures. In this context, a surrogate model of frequency is normally constructed for damage identification, while the frequency response function (FRF is rarely used as it usually changes dramatically with updating parameters. This paper presents a new surrogate model based model updating method taking advantage of the measured FRFs. The Frequency Domain Assurance Criterion (FDAC is used to build the objective function, whose nonlinear response surface is constructed by the Kriging model. Then, the efficient global optimization (EGO algorithm is introduced to get the model updating results. The proposed method has good accuracy and robustness, which have been verified by a numerical simulation of a cantilever and experimental test data of a laboratory three-story structure.
Introduction to numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.S.Y.
1980-01-01
More attention is being given to the possibility of nuclear waste isolation in hard rock formations. The waste will generate heat which raises the temperature of the surrounding fractured rock masses and induces buoyancy flow and pressure change in the fluid. These effects introduce the potential hazard of radionuclides being carried to the biosphere, and affect the structure of a repository by stress changes in the rock formation. The thermohydrological and thermomechanical responses are determined by the fractures as well as the intact rock blocks. The capability of modeling fractured rock masses is essential to site characterization and repository evaluation. The fractures can be modeled either as a discrete system, taking into account the detailed fracture distributions, or as a continuum representing the spatial average of the fractures. A numerical model is characterized by the governing equations, the numerical methods, the computer codes, the validations, and the applications. These elements of the thermohydrological models are discussed. Along with the general review, some of the considerations in modeling fractures are also discussed. Some remarks on the research needs in modeling fractured rock mass conclude the paper
Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in a carbonate oil reservoir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Awadhy, F. [ADMA-OPCO, Abudhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kocabas, I.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (United States)
2005-01-15
Many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates produce large amounts of sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide. In addition to creating problems in the production line, wellbore damage is often reported due to the precipitation of elemental sulfur in the vicinity of the wellbore. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in a gas reservoir, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This article presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. The experiments were conducted in a core (linear) system. Both analytical and numerical modelings were performed in a linear coordinate system. Data for the numerical model was obtained from both test tube and coreflood experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results). The crude oil was de-asphalted prior to conducting the experiment in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. A series of coreflood tests was carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate rock. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in the phenomenological model and can be incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. (author)
Numerical Simulation of the Ground Response to the Tire Load Using Finite Element Method
Valaskova, Veronika; Vlcek, Jozef
2017-10-01
Response of the pavement to the excitation caused by the moving vehicle is one of the actual problems of the civil engineering practice. The load from the vehicle is transferred to the pavement structure through contact area of the tires. Experimental studies show nonuniform distribution of the pressure in the area. This non-uniformity is caused by the flexible nature and the shape of the tire and is influenced by the tire inflation. Several tire load patterns, including uniform distribution and point load, were involved in the numerical modelling using finite element method. Applied tire loads were based on the tire contact forces of the lorry Tatra 815. There were selected two procedures for the calculations. The first one was based on the simplification of the vehicle to the half-part model. The characteristics of the vehicle model were verified by the experiment and by the numerical model in the software ADINA, when vehicle behaviour during the ride was investigated. Second step involved application of the calculated contact forces for the front axle as the load on the multi-layered half space representing the pavement structure. This procedure was realized in the software Plaxis and considered various stress patterns for the load. The response of the ground to the vehicle load was then analyzed. Axisymmetric model was established for this procedure. The paper presents the results of the investigation of the contact pressure distribution and corresponding reaction of the pavement to various load distribution patterns. The results show differences in some calculated quantities for different load patterns, which need to be verified by the experimental way when also ground response should be observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jilian Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss several stabilized finite element methods, which are penalty, regular, multiscale enrichment, and local Gauss integration method, for the steady incompressible flow problem with damping based on the lowest equal-order finite element space pair. Then we give the numerical comparisons between them in three numerical examples which show that the local Gauss integration method has good stability, efficiency, and accuracy properties and it is better than the others for the steady incompressible flow problem with damping on the whole. However, to our surprise, the regular method spends less CPU-time and has better accuracy properties by using Crout solver.
Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko
2015-01-01
The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations......, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo......-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: javier.mantecon@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel
2017-01-01
The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)
Numerical simulation of interior ballistic process of railgun based on the multi-field coupled model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qinghua Lin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Railgun launcher design relies on appropriate models. A multi-field coupled model of railgun launcher was presented in this paper. The 3D transient multi-field was composed of electromagnetic field, thermal field and structural field. The magnetic diffusion equations were solved by a finite-element boundary-element coupling method. The thermal diffusion equations and structural equations were solved by a finite element method. A coupled calculation was achieved by the transfer data from the electromagnetic field to the thermal and structural fields. Some characteristics of railgun shot, such as velocity skin effect, melt-wave erosion and magnetic sawing, which are generated under the condition of large-current and high-speed sliding electrical contact, were demonstrated by numerical simulation.
Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik
of conducting time-consuming and lab-costly procedures. The use of numerical models, capable of reducing greatly the testing cost, has shown great potential in characterizing asphalt-aggregate mixtures for both material evaluation and structural design purposes, [1],[2]. Discrete element method (DEM) is one...... – will be applied. The work presented here will focus on the discrete element method as a tool for modelling composite materials, i.e. determination of a representative volume; boundary conditions; characterisation of the components mastic (binder + filler) and aggregates; and establishment of virtual test samples....... Results from initial tests will be presented and the future development of the model towards characterising asphalt from its composition will be outlined....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawileh, Rami A.; El-Maaddawy, Tamer A.; Naser, Mohannad Z.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A 3D nonlinear FE model is developed of RC deep beams with web openings. ► We used cohesion elements to simulate bond. ► The developed FE model is suitable for analysis of such complex structures. -- Abstract: This paper aims to develop 3D nonlinear finite element (FE) models for reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams containing web openings and strengthened in shear with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sheets. The web openings interrupted the natural load path either fully or partially. The FE models adopted realistic materials constitutive laws that account for the nonlinear behavior of materials. In the FE models, solid elements for concrete, multi-layer shell elements for CFRP and link elements for steel reinforcement were used to simulate the physical models. Special interface elements were implemented in the FE models to simulate the interfacial bond behavior between the concrete and CFRP composites. A comparison between the FE results and experimental data published in the literature demonstrated the validity of the computational models in capturing the structural response for both unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened deep beams with openings. The developed FE models can serve as a numerical platform for performance prediction of RC deep beams with openings strengthened in shear with CFRP composites.
Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Lollino, P.; Calò, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Lanari, R.; Guzzetti, F.; Manunta, M.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to perform inverse numerical modelling of slow landslides that combines the potentialities of both numerical approaches and well-known remote-sensing satellite techniques. In particular, through an optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we minimize, with respect to a proper penalty function, the difference between the modelled displacement field and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) deformation time series. The proposed methodology allows us to automatically search for the physical parameters that characterize the landslide behaviour. To validate the presented approach, we focus our analysis on the slow Ivancich landslide (Assisi, central Italy). The kinematical evolution of the unstable slope is investigated via long-term DInSAR analysis, by exploiting about 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite acquisitions. The landslide is driven by the presence of a shear band, whose behaviour is simulated through a two-dimensional time-dependent finite element model, in two different physical scenarios, i.e. Newtonian viscous flow and a deviatoric creep model. Comparison between the model results and DInSAR measurements reveals that the deviatoric creep model is more suitable to describe the kinematical evolution of the landslide. This finding is also confirmed by comparing the model results with the available independent inclinometer measurements. Our analysis emphasizes that integration of different data, within inverse numerical models, allows deep investigation of the kinematical behaviour of slow active landslides and discrimination of the driving forces that govern their deformation processes.
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadioglu, Samet Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-08-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray; Martineau, Richard
2016-01-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)'s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL's product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Furtado, F. da; Galeao, A.C.N.R.
1984-01-01
A numerical procedure for the integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, when expressed in terms of a stream function equation and a vorticity transport equation, is presented. This procedure comprises: the variational formulation of the equations, the construction of the approximation spaces by the finite element method and the discretization via the Galerkin method. For the stationary problems, the system of non-linear algebraic equations resulting from the discretization is solved by the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Finally, for the transient problems, the solution of the non-linear ordinary differential equations resulting from the spatial discretization is accomplished through a Crank-Nicolson scheme. (Author) [pt
Jylhä, Liisi; Honkamo, Johanna; Jantunen, Heli; Sihvola, Ari
2005-05-01
Effective permittivity was modeled and measured for composites that consist of up to 35vol% of titanium dioxide powder dispersed in a continuous epoxy matrix. The study demonstrates a method that enables fast and accurate numerical modeling of the effective permittivity values of ceramic/polymer composites. The model requires electrostatic Monte Carlo simulations, where randomly oriented homogeneous prism-shaped inclusions occupy random positions in the background phase. The computation cost of solving the electrostatic problem by a finite-element code is decreased by the use of an averaging method where the same simulated sample is solved three times with orthogonal field directions. This helps to minimize the artificial anisotropy that results from the pseudorandomness inherent in the limited computational domains. All the required parameters for numerical simulations are calculated from the lattice structure of titanium dioxide. The results show a very good agreement between the measured and numerically calculated effective permittivities. When the prisms are approximated by oblate spheroids with the corresponding axial ratio, a fairly good prediction for the effective permittivity of the mixture can be achieved with the use of an advanced analytical mixing formula.
Development of a numerical model for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of railway bridges
Kim, Hee Ju; Cho, Eun Sang; Ham, Jun Su; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Tae Heon
2016-04-01
In the field of civil engineering, analyzing dynamic response was main concern for a long time. These analysis methods can be divided into moving load analysis method and moving mass analysis method, and formulating each an equation of motion has recently been studied after dividing vehicles and bridges. In this study, the numerical method is presented, which can consider the various train types and can solve the equations of motion for a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis by non-iteration procedure through formulating the coupled equations for motion. Also, 3 dimensional accurate numerical models was developed by KTX-vehicle in order to analyze dynamic response characteristics. The equations of motion for the conventional trains are derived, and the numerical models of the conventional trains are idealized by a set of linear springs and dashpots with 18 degrees of freedom. The bridge models are simplified by the 3 dimensional space frame element which is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The rail irregularities of vertical and lateral directions are generated by PSD functions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).
Numerical modeling of solute transport in deformable unsaturated layered soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Wu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The effect of soil stratification was studied through numerical investigation based on the coupled model of solute transport in deformable unsaturated soil. The theoretical model implied two-way coupled excess pore pressure and soil deformation based on Biot's consolidation theory as well as a one-way coupled volatile pollutant concentration field developed from the advection-diffusion theory. Embedded in the model, the degree of saturation, fluid compressibility, self-weight of the soil matrix, porosity variance, longitudinal dispersion, and linear sorption were computed. Based on simulation results of a proposed three-layer landfill model using the finite element method, the multi-layer effects are discussed with regard to the hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, degree of saturation, molecular diffusion coefficient, and thickness of each layer. Generally speaking, contaminants spread faster in a stratified field with a soft and highly permeable top layer; soil parameters of the top layer are more critical than the lower layers but controlling soil thicknesses will alter the results. This numerical investigation showed noticeable impacts of stratified soil properties on solute migration results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling layered soil instead of simply assuming the averaged properties across the soil profile.
Finite element modelling for mode-I fracture behaviour of CFRP
Chetan, H. C.; Kattimani, Subhaschandra; Murigendrappa, S. M.
2018-04-01
Debonding is a major failure mechanism in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) due to presence of many adhesion joins, in between many layers. In the current study a finite element simulation is carried out using Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) and Cohesive Zone Modelling (CZM) using Abaqus as analysis tool. A comparative study is performed in to order analyze convergence of results from CZM and VCCT. It was noted that CZM results matched well with published literature. The results from VCCT were also in good comparison with experimental data of published literature, but were seen to be overestimated. Parametric study is performed to evaluate the variation of input parameters like initial stiffness, element size, peak stress and energy release rate `G'. From the numerical evaluation, it was noted that CZM simulation relies largely on element size and peak stress.
Finite Element Model for Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Plane Frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S.B. STRAMANDINOLI
Full Text Available Abstract In this work, a two-dimensional finite element (FE model for physical and geometric nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beams and plane frames, developed by the authors, is presented. The FE model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory, in which shear deformations are neglected. The bar elements have three nodes with a total of seven degrees of freedom. Three Gauss-points are utilized for the element integration, with the element section discretized into layers at each Gauss point (Fiber Model. It is assumed that concrete and reinforcing bars are perfectly bonded, and each section layer is assumed to be under a uniaxial stress-state. Nonlinear constitutive laws are utilized for both concrete and reinforcing steel layers, and a refined tension-stiffening model, developed by the authors, is included. The Total Lagrangean Formulation is adopted for geometric nonlinear consideration and several methods can be utilized to achieve equilibrium convergence of the nonlinear equations. The developed model is implemented into a computer program named ANEST/CA, which is validated by comparison with some tests on RC beams and plane frames, showing an excellent correlation between numerical and experimental results.
Untangling Slab Dynamics Using 3-D Numerical and Analytical Models
Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.
2016-12-01
Increasingly sophisticated numerical models have enabled us to make significant strides in identifying the key controls on how subducting slabs deform. For example, 3-D models have demonstrated that subducting plate width, and the related strength of toroidal flow around the plate edge, exerts a strong control on both the curvature and the rate of migration of the trench. However, the results of numerical subduction models can be difficult to interpret, and many first order dynamics issues remain at least partially unresolved. Such issues include the dominant controls on trench migration, the interdependence of asthenospheric pressure and slab dynamics, and how nearby slabs influence each other's dynamics. We augment 3-D, dynamically evolving finite element models with simple, analytical force-balance models to distill the physics associated with subduction into more manageable parts. We demonstrate that for single, isolated subducting slabs much of the complexity of our fully numerical models can be encapsulated by simple analytical expressions. Rates of subduction and slab dip correlate strongly with the asthenospheric pressure difference across the subducting slab. For double subduction, an additional slab gives rise to more complex mantle pressure and flow fields, and significantly extends the range of plate kinematics (e.g., convergence rate, trench migration rate) beyond those present in single slab models. Despite these additional complexities, we show that much of the dynamics of such multi-slab systems can be understood using the physics illuminated by our single slab study, and that a force-balance method can be used to relate intra-plate stress to viscous pressure in the asthenosphere and coupling forces at plate boundaries. This method has promise for rapid modeling of large systems of subduction zones on a global scale.
Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Fotyga
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.
Numerical modeling of friction welding of bi-metal joints for electrical applications
Velu, P. Shenbaga; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss
2018-05-01
In the manufacturing industries, and more especially in electrical engineering applications, the usage of non-ferrous materials plays a vital role. Today's engineering applications relies upon some of the significant properties such as a good corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, good heat conductivity and higher electrical conductivity. Copper-aluminum bi-metal joint is one such combination that meets the demands requirements for electrical applications. In this work, the numerical simulation of AA 6061 T6 alloy/Copper was carried out under joining conditions. By using this developed model, the temperature distribution along the length of the dissimilar joint is predicted and the time-temperature profile has also been generated. Besides, a Finite Element Model has been developed by using the numerical simulation Tool "ABAQUS". This developed FEM is helpful in predicting various output parameters during friction welding of this dissimilar joint combination.
Numerical Modelling of Connections Between Stones in Foundations of Historical Buildings
Przewlocki, Jaroslaw; Zielinska, Monika; Grebowski, Karol
2017-12-01
The aim of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of old building foundations composed of stones (the main load-bearing elements) and mortar, based on numerical analysis. Some basic aspects of historical foundations are briefly discussed, with an emphasis on their development, techniques, and material. The behaviour of a foundation subjected to the loads transmitted from the upper parts of the structure is described using the finite element method (FEM). The main problems in analysing the foundations of historical buildings are determining the characteristics of the materials and the degree of degradation of the mortar, which is the weakest part of the foundation. Mortar is graded using the damaged-plastic model. In this model, exceeding the bearing capacity occurs due to the degradation of materials. The damaged-plastic model is the most accurate model describing the work and properties of mortar because it shows exactly what happens with this material throughout its total load history. For a uniformly loaded fragment of the foundation, both stresses and strains were analysed. The results of the analysis presented in this paper contribute to further research in the field of understanding both behaviour and modelling in historical buildings’ foundations.
Ovchinnikov, I. I.; Snezhkina, O. V.; Ovchinnikov, I. G.
2017-11-01
The task of modeling the kinetics of chloride-containing medium penetration into construction elements out of reinforced concrete that have partially damaged anti-corrosion protective coatings is being discussed. As a result, chlorides penetrate the construction element via local surface areas which leads to irregularities between chloride dispersion volumes. The kinetics of chloride penetration is described by the equation of diffusion to solve which the CONDUCT software complex by professor S. Patankar was used. The methodology used to solve the diffusional equation is described. The results of the evaluation of concentration field in the axial section of a cylindrical construction element, which was centrally reinforced, are given. The chloride diffusion was symmetrical to the axis, the medium was applied through the central ring area equal to one third of the side surface area while the rest of the surface was isolated. It was shown that the methodology of evaluation and its algorithm allow one to evaluate the concentration field of chlorides in reinforced concrete structural elements under local or asymmetrical action of the chloride - containing medium. The example given illustrates that after a certain time interval critical the concentration of chlorides develops even in protected areas which are located far from the initial damaged area. This means that the corrosion destruction of reinforced elements develops not only in the immediate damage area, but also further away from it.
Finite element modeling of ground deformation and gravity field at Mt. Etna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ganci
2008-06-01
Full Text Available An elastic 3-D axi-symmetric model based on Finite Element Method (FEM is proposed to compute ground deformation and gravity changes caused by overpressure sources in volcanic areas. The numerical computations are focused on the modeling of a complex description of Mt Etna in order to evaluate the effect of topography, medium heterogeneities and source geometries. Both ground deformation and gravity changes are investigated by solving a coupled numerical problem considering a simplified ground surface profile and a multi-layered crustal structure inferred from seismic tomography. The role of the source geometry is also explored taking into account spherical and ellipsoidal volumetric sources. The comparison between numerical results and those predicted by analytical solutions disclosed significant discrepancies. These differences constrain the applicability of simple spherical source and homogeneous half-space hypotheses, which are usually implicitly assumed when analytical solutions are applied.
Multi-physics modeling and numerical simulation of weld pool in GTA welding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Minh-Chien
2015-01-01
In this work, we develop a 3D physical and numerical model of the GTA (Gas Tungsten Arc) welding process in order to predict, for given welding parameters, useful quantities for the designer of welded assembly: weld bead shape, fluid flow in the weld pool as well as thermal distribution in the work piece. The model is developed in the Cast3M (http://www-cast3m.cea.fr/) finite element software and takes into account the main physical phenomena acting in the work piece and particularly in the weld pool, subject to source terms modeling the arc part of the welding process. A steady solution of this model is thought for and involves the coupling of the nonlinear thermohydraulics and electromagnetic equations together with the displacement of the deformable free surface of the weld pool. A first step in the development consisted in modeling the electromagnetic phenomena with two different numerical methods, in comparing the numerical results obtained with those of the literature and in quantifying the importance of the Lorentz force and the Joule effect compared to the other mechanical and thermal sources by computing power balances. Then, in order to assess the predictive capability of the model, simulations of various welding configurations are performed: variation in the chemical composition of the material, of the welding speed, of the prescribed arc pressure and of the welding positions, which is a focus of this work, are studied. A good agreement is obtained between the results of our model and other experimental and numerical results of the literature. Eventually, a model accounting for metal filling is proposed and its results are discussed. Thus, our complete model can be seen as a solid foundation towards future totally-coupled 3D welding models including the arc and it will be included in WPROCESS the in-house CEA software dedicated to the numerical simulation of welding. (author) [fr
Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durán-Olivencia, F J; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A
2014-01-01
The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way
Angela Mihai, L.
2013-03-01
Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stamatelos, Dimtrios; Kappatos, Vassilios
2017-01-01
Purpose – This paper presents the development of an advanced structural assessment approach for aerospace components (metallic and composites). This work focuses on developing an automatic image processing methodology based on Non Destructive Testing (NDT) data and numerical models, for predicting...... the residual strength of these components. Design/methodology/approach – An image processing algorithm, based on the threshold method, has been developed to process and quantify the geometric characteristics of damages. Then, a parametric Finite Element (FE) model of the damaged component is developed based...... on the inputs acquired from the image processing algorithm. The analysis of the metallic structures is employing the Extended FE Method (XFEM), while for the composite structures the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) technique with Progressive Damage Modelling (PDM) is used. Findings – The numerical analyses...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.
2014-01-01
In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky
1997-01-01
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niklas Karol
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Like other means of transport, merchant ships face the problem of increasing requirements concerning the environment protection, which, among other issues, implies the reduction of fuel consumption by the ship. Here, the conventional approach which consists in making use of higher strength steels to decrease the mass of the ship hull can be complemented by the use of new steel structures of sandwich panel type. However, the lack of knowledge and experience concerning, among other issues, fatigue strength assessment of thin-walled sandwich structures makes their use limited. Untypical welds imply the need for individual approach to the fatigue analysis. The article presents the effect of numerical FEM modelling with the aid of two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D elements on the results of strain and stress distributions in the areas of toe and root notches of the analysed laser weld. The presented results of computer simulation reveal that modelling of strain and stress states in 2D (instead of full 3D affects only the results in close vicinity of the notch, and the observed differences rapidly disappear at a distance of 0.05 mm from the bottom of the notch. The obtained results confirm the possibility of use of numerically effective 2D strain and stress state models for analysing the fatigue strength of laser weld according to local approach.
Towards high fidelity numerical wave tanks for modelling coastal and ocean engineering processes
Cozzuto, G.; Dimakopoulos, A.; de Lataillade, T.; Kees, C. E.
2017-12-01
With the increasing availability of computational resources, the engineering and research community is gradually moving towards using high fidelity Comutational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) models to perform numerical tests for improving the understanding of physical processes pertaining to wave propapagation and interaction with the coastal environment and morphology, either physical or man-made. It is therefore important to be able to reproduce in these models the conditions that drive these processes. So far, in CFD models the norm is to use regular (linear or nonlinear) waves for performing numerical tests, however, only random waves exist in nature. In this work, we will initially present the verification and validation of numerical wave tanks based on Proteus, an open-soruce computational toolkit based on finite element analysis, with respect to the generation, propagation and absorption of random sea states comprising of long non-repeating wave sequences. Statistical and spectral processing of results demonstrate that the methodologies employed (including relaxation zone methods and moving wave paddles) are capable of producing results of similar quality to the wave tanks used in laboratories (Figure 1). Subsequently cases studies of modelling complex process relevant to coastal defences and floating structures such as sliding and overturning of composite breakwaters, heave and roll response of floating caissons are presented. Figure 1: Wave spectra in the numerical wave tank (coloured symbols), compared against the JONSWAP distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Usama Umer
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This study aims to perform comparative analyses in modeling serrated chip morphologies using traditional finite element and smoothed particles hydrodynamics methods. Although finite element models are being employed in predicting machining performance variables for the last two decades, many drawbacks and limitations exist with the current finite element models. The problems like excessive mesh distortions, high numerical cost of adaptive meshing techniques, and need of geometric chip separation criteria hinder its practical implementation in metal cutting industries. In this study, a mesh free method, namely, smoothed particles hydrodynamics, is implemented for modeling serrated chip morphology while machining AISI H13 hardened tool steel. The smoothed particles hydrodynamics models are compared with the traditional finite element models, and it has been found that the smoothed particles hydrodynamics models have good capabilities in handling large distortions and do not need any geometric or mesh-based chip separation criterion.
Finite elements in fracture mechanics theory, numerics, applications
Kuna, Meinhard
2013-01-01
Fracture mechanics has established itself as an important discipline of growing interest to those working to assess the safety, reliability and service life of engineering structures and materials. In order to calculate the loading situation at cracks and defects, nowadays numerical techniques like finite element method (FEM) have become indispensable tools for a broad range of applications. The present monograph provides an introduction to the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, its main goal being to procure the special techniques for FEM analysis of crack problems, which have to date only been mastered by experts. All kinds of static, dynamic and fatigue fracture problems are treated in two- and three-dimensional elastic and plastic structural components. The usage of the various solution techniques is demonstrated by means of sample problems selected from practical engineering case studies. The primary target group includes graduate students, researchers in academia and engineers in practice.
Multiphysics Numerical Modeling of a Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph
2015-01-01
In the present research work, a modeling effort to predict the performance of a liquid-gas type fin and tube heat exchanger design is made. Three dimensional (3D) steady state numerical model is developed using commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics based on finite element method (FEM......). For the purposes here, only gas flowing over the fin side is simulated assuming constant inner tube wall temperature. The study couples conjugate heat transfer mechanism with turbulent flow in order to describe the temperature and velocity profile. In addition, performance characteristics of the heat exchanger...... design in terms of heat transfer and pressure loss are determined by parameters such as overall heat transfer coefficient, Colburn j-factor, flow resistance factor, and efficiency index. The model provides useful insights necessary for optimization of heat exchanger design....
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Brown, Jeffrey
2003-01-01
.... This portion describes the bearing and thermal analysis models. A process has been developed to numerically investigate operating temperatures of a rolling element bearing which combines capabilities of the Advanced Dynamics of Rolling Elements (ADORE...
Material transport through porous media: a finite-element Galerkin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duguid, J.O.; Reeves, M.
1976-03-01
A two-dimensional transient model for flow of a dissolved constituent through porous media has been developed. Mechanisms for advective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion, chemical absorption, and radioactive decay are included in the mathematical formulation. Implementations of quadrilateral finite elements, bilinear spatial interpolation, and Gaussian elimination are used in the numerical formulation. The programming language FORTRAN IV is used exclusively in the computer implementation. A listing of the program is included. This material-transport model is completely compatible with our moisture-transport model (Reeves and Duguid, 1975) for predicting advective Darcy velocities for porous media which may be partly unsaturated. In addition to a description of the mathematical formulation, the numerical treatment and the computer implementation results of two computer simulations are included in this document. One is a comparison with a well-known analytical treatment (Lapidus and Amundson, 1952) and is intended as a partial validation. The other simulation, a seepage-pond problem, is a more realistic demonstration of the capabilities of the computer model. Complete listings of input and output are given in the appendices so that this simulation may be used for check-out purposes. A comprehensive description of the material-transport computer model is given
Rudge, J. F.; Alisic Jewell, L.; Rhebergen, S.; Katz, R. F.; Wells, G. N.
2015-12-01
One of the fundamental components in any dynamical model of melt transport is the rheology of partially molten rock. This rheology is poorly understood, and one way in which a better understanding can be obtained is by comparing the results of laboratory deformation experiments to numerical models. Here we present a comparison between numerical models and the laboratory setup of Qi et al. 2013 (EPSL), where a cylinder of partially molten rock containing rigid spherical inclusions was placed under torsion. We have replicated this setup in a finite element model which solves the partial differential equations describing the mechanical process of compaction. These computationally-demanding 3D simulations are only possible due to the recent development of a new preconditioning method for the equations of magma dynamics. The experiments show a distinct pattern of melt-rich and melt-depleted regions around the inclusions. In our numerical models, the pattern of melt varies with key rheological parameters, such as the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, and the porosity- and strain-rate-dependence of the shear viscosity. These observed melt patterns therefore have the potential to constrain rheological properties. While there are many similarities between the experiments and the numerical models, there are also important differences, which highlight the need for better models of the physics of two-phase mantle/magma dynamics. In particular, the laboratory experiments display more pervasive melt-rich bands than is seen in our numerics.
Belmiloudi , Aziz; Rasheed , Amer
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a numerical scheme and perform its numerical analysis devoted to an anisotropic phase-field model with convection under the influence of magnetic field for the isother-mal solidification of binary mixtures in two-dimensional geometry. Precisely, the numerical stability and error analysis of this approximation scheme which is based on mixed finite-element method are performed. The particular application of a nickelcopper (NiCu) binary alloy, with real physical paramete...
Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baudron, Anne-Marie, E-mail: anne-marie.baudron@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CEA-DRN/DMT/SERMA, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Lautard, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.lautard@cea.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CEA-DRN/DMT/SERMA, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Maday, Yvon, E-mail: maday@ann.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions and Institut Universitaire de France, F-75005, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); Brown Univ, Division of Applied Maths, Providence, RI (United States); Riahi, Mohamed Kamel, E-mail: riahi@cmap.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CMAP, Inria-Saclay and X-Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Salomon, Julien, E-mail: salomon@ceremade.dauphine.fr [CEREMADE, Univ Paris-Dauphine, Pl. du Mal. de Lattre de Tassigny, F-75016, Paris (France)
2014-12-15
In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.
VIRTUAL MODELING OF A NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE TOOL USED FOR COMPLEX MACHINING OPERATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
POPESCU Adrian
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the 3D virtual model of the numerical control machine Modustar 100, in terms of machine elements. This is a CNC machine of modular construction, all components allowing the assembly in various configurations. The paper focused on the design of the subassemblies specific to the axes numerically controlled by means of CATIA v5, which contained different drive kinematic chains of different translation modules that ensures translation on X, Y and Z axis. Machine tool development for high speed and highly precise cutting demands employment of advanced simulation techniques witch it reflect on cost of total development of the machine.
Numerical Analysis on the High-Strength Concrete Beams Ultimate Behaviour
Smarzewski, Piotr; Stolarski, Adam
2017-10-01
Development of technologies of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams production, with the aim of creating a secure and durable material, is closely linked with the numerical models of real objects. The three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models of reinforced high-strength concrete beams with a complex geometry has been investigated in this study. The numerical analysis is performed using the ANSYS finite element package. The arc-length (A-L) parameters and the adaptive descent (AD) parameters are used with Newton-Raphson method to trace the complete load-deflection curves. Experimental and finite element modelling results are compared graphically and numerically. Comparison of these results indicates the correctness of failure criteria assumed for the high-strength concrete and the steel reinforcement. The results of numerical simulation are sensitive to the modulus of elasticity and the shear transfer coefficient for an open crack assigned to high-strength concrete. The full nonlinear load-deflection curves at mid-span of the beams, the development of strain in compressive concrete and the development of strain in tensile bar are in good agreement with the experimental results. Numerical results for smeared crack patterns are qualitatively agreeable as to the location, direction, and distribution with the test data. The model was capable of predicting the introduction and propagation of flexural and diagonal cracks. It was concluded that the finite element model captured successfully the inelastic flexural behaviour of the beams to failure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Knyazkov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To evaluate the force to damage the ice covers is necessary for estimation of icebreaking capability of vessels, as well as of hull strength of icebreakers, and navigation of ships in ice conditions. On the other hand, the use of ice cover support to arrange construction works from the ice is also of practical interest.By the present moment a great deal of investigations of ice cover deformation have been carried out to result, usually, in approximate calculations formula which was obtained after making a variety of assumptions. Nevertheless, we believe that it is possible to make further improvement in calculations. Application numerical methods, and, for example, FEM, makes possible to avoid numerous drawbacks of analytical methods dealing with both complex boundaries and load application areas and other problem peculiarities.The article considers an application of mixed models of FEM for investigating ice cover deformation. A simple flexible triangle element of mixed type was taken to solve this problem. Vector of generalized coordinates of the element contains apices flexures and normal bending moments in the middle of its sides. Compared to other elements mixed models easily satisfy compatibility requirements on the boundary of adjacent elements and do not require numerical displacement differentiation to define bending moments, because bending moments are included in vector of element generalized coordinates.The method of account of rigid support plate is proposed. The resulting ratio, taking into account the "stiffening", reduces the number of resolving systems of equations by the number of elements on the plate contour.To evaluate further the results the numerical realization of ice cover stress-strained problem it becomes necessary and correct to check whether calculation results correspond to accurate solution. Using an example of circular plate the convergence of numerical solutions to analytical solutions is showed.The article
Numerical simulations of granular dynamics: I. Hard-sphere discrete element method and tests
Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Murdoch, Naomi; Michel, Patrick
2011-03-01
We present a new particle-based (discrete element) numerical method for the simulation of granular dynamics, with application to motions of particles on small solar system body and planetary surfaces. The method employs the parallel N-body tree code pkdgrav to search for collisions and compute particle trajectories. Collisions are treated as instantaneous point-contact events between rigid spheres. Particle confinement is achieved by combining arbitrary combinations of four provided wall primitives, namely infinite plane, finite disk, infinite cylinder, and finite cylinder, and degenerate cases of these. Various wall movements, including translation, oscillation, and rotation, are supported. We provide full derivations of collision prediction and resolution equations for all geometries and motions. Several tests of the method are described, including a model granular “atmosphere” that achieves correct energy equipartition, and a series of tumbler simulations that show the expected transition from tumbling to centrifuging as a function of rotation rate.
Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Murashov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)
Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg
model has been developed which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines. The numerical model is based on a spectral wave model, a depth integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model. First the theoretical...... of the feature and under predicts the migration speeds of the features. On the second shoreline, the shoreline model predicts undulations lengths which are longer than the observed undulations. Lastly the thesis considers field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight...... length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves...
Numerical modelling of mine workings.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lightfoot, N
1999-03-01
Full Text Available to cover most of what is required for a practising rock mechanics engineer to be able to use any of these five programs to solve practical mining problems. The chapters on specific programs discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses and highlight... and applications of numerical modelling in the context of the South African gold and platinum mining industries. This includes an example that utilises a number of different numerical 3 modelling programs to solve a single problem. This particular example...
Finite element models of earthquake cycles in mature strike-slip fault zones
Lynch, John Charles
The research presented in this dissertation is on the subject of strike-slip earthquakes and the stresses that build and release in the Earth's crust during earthquake cycles. Numerical models of these cycles in a layered elastic/viscoelastic crust are produced using the finite element method. A fault that alternately sticks and slips poses a particularly challenging problem for numerical implementation, and a new contact element dubbed the "Velcro" element was developed to address this problem (Appendix A). Additionally, the finite element code used in this study was bench-marked against analytical solutions for some simplified problems (Chapter 2), and the resolving power was tested for the fault region of the models (Appendix B). With the modeling method thus developed, there are two main questions posed. First, in Chapter 3, the effect of a finite-width shear zone is considered. By defining a viscoelastic shear zone beneath a periodically slipping fault, it is found that shear stress concentrates at the edges of the shear zone and thus causes the stress tensor to rotate into non-Andersonian orientations. Several methods are used to examine the stress patterns, including the plunge angles of the principal stresses and a new method that plots the stress tensor in a manner analogous to seismic focal mechanism diagrams. In Chapter 4, a simple San Andreas-like model is constructed, consisting of two great earthquake producing faults separated by a freely-slipping shorter fault. The model inputs of lower crustal viscosity, fault separation distance, and relative breaking strengths are examined for their effect on fault communication. It is found that with a lower crustal viscosity of 1018 Pa s (in the lower range of estimates for California), the two faults tend to synchronize their earthquake cycles, even in the cases where the faults have asymmetric breaking strengths. These models imply that postseismic stress transfer over hundreds of kilometers may play a
Jin, Qiyun; Thompson, David J.; Lurcock, Daniel E. J.; Toward, Martin G. R.; Ntotsios, Evangelos
2018-05-01
A numerical model is presented for the ground-borne vibration produced by trains running in tunnels. The model makes use of the assumption that the geometry and material properties are invariant in the axial direction. It is based on the so-called two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) coupled Finite Element and Boundary Element methodology, in which a two-dimensional cross-section is discretised into finite elements and boundary elements and the third dimension is represented by a Fourier transform over wavenumbers. The model is applied to a particular case of a metro line built with a cast-iron tunnel lining. An equivalent continuous model of the tunnel is developed to allow it to be readily implemented in the 2.5D framework. The tunnel structure and the track are modelled using solid and beam finite elements while the ground is modelled using boundary elements. The 2.5D track-tunnel-ground model is coupled with a train consisting of several vehicles, which are represented by multi-body models. The response caused by the passage of a train is calculated as the sum of the dynamic component, excited by the combined rail and wheel roughness, and the quasi-static component, induced by the constant moving axle loads. Field measurements have been carried out to provide experimental validation of the model. These include measurements of the vibration of the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall. In addition, simultaneous measurements were made on the ground surface above the tunnel. Rail roughness and track characterisation measurements were also made. The prediction results are compared with measured vibration obtained during train passages, with good agreement.
Hot forming of composite prepreg: Numerical analyses
Guzman-Maldonado, Eduardo; Hamila, Nahiène; Boisse, Philippe; El Azzouzi, Khalid; Tardif, Xavier; Moro, Tanguy; Chatel, Sylvain; Fideu, Paulin
2017-10-01
The work presented here is part of the "FORBANS" project about the Hot Drape Forming (HDF) process consisting of unidirectional prepregs laminates. To ensure a fine comprehension of this process a combination strategy between experiment and numerical analysis is adopted. This paper is focused on the numerical analysis using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperelastic constitutive law. Each prepreg layer is modelled by shell elements. These elements consider the tension, in-plane shear and bending behaviour of the ply at different temperatures. The contact/friction during the forming process is taken into account using forward increment Lagrange multipliers.
Kou, Jisheng
2015-07-16
In this paper, we consider an interface model for multicomponent two-phase fluids with geometric mean influence parameters, which is popularly used to model and predict surface tension in practical applications. For this model, there are two major challenges in theoretical analysis and numerical simulation: the first one is that the influence parameter matrix is not positive definite; the second one is the complicated structure of the energy function, which requires us to find out a physically consistent treatment. To overcome these two challenging problems, we reduce the formulation of the energy function by employing a linear transformation and a weighted molar density, and furthermore, we propose a local minimum grand potential energy condition to establish the relation between the weighted molar density and mixture compositions. From this, we prove the existence of the solution under proper conditions and prove the maximum principle of the weighted molar density. For numerical simulation, we propose a modified Newton\\'s method for solving this nonlinear model and analyze its properties; we also analyze a finite element method with a physical-based adaptive mesh-refinement technique. Numerical examples are tested to verify the theoretical results and the efficiency of the proposed methods.
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider an interface model for multicomponent two-phase fluids with geometric mean influence parameters, which is popularly used to model and predict surface tension in practical applications. For this model, there are two major challenges in theoretical analysis and numerical simulation: the first one is that the influence parameter matrix is not positive definite; the second one is the complicated structure of the energy function, which requires us to find out a physically consistent treatment. To overcome these two challenging problems, we reduce the formulation of the energy function by employing a linear transformation and a weighted molar density, and furthermore, we propose a local minimum grand potential energy condition to establish the relation between the weighted molar density and mixture compositions. From this, we prove the existence of the solution under proper conditions and prove the maximum principle of the weighted molar density. For numerical simulation, we propose a modified Newton's method for solving this nonlinear model and analyze its properties; we also analyze a finite element method with a physical-based adaptive mesh-refinement technique. Numerical examples are tested to verify the theoretical results and the efficiency of the proposed methods.
A blended continuous–discontinuous finite element method for solving the multi-fluid plasma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sousa, E.M., E-mail: sousae@uw.edu; Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu
2016-12-01
The multi-fluid plasma model represents electrons, multiple ion species, and multiple neutral species as separate fluids that interact through short-range collisions and long-range electromagnetic fields. The model spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, which renders the model stiff and presents numerical challenges. To address the large range of timescales, a blended continuous and discontinuous Galerkin method is proposed, where the massive ion and neutral species are modeled using an explicit discontinuous Galerkin method while the electrons and electromagnetic fields are modeled using an implicit continuous Galerkin method. This approach is able to capture large-gradient ion and neutral physics like shock formation, while resolving high-frequency electron dynamics in a computationally efficient manner. The details of the Blended Finite Element Method (BFEM) are presented. The numerical method is benchmarked for accuracy and tested using two-fluid one-dimensional soliton problem and electromagnetic shock problem. The results are compared to conventional finite volume and finite element methods, and demonstrate that the BFEM is particularly effective in resolving physics in stiff problems involving realistic physical parameters, including realistic electron mass and speed of light. The benefit is illustrated by computing a three-fluid plasma application that demonstrates species separation in multi-component plasmas.
Numerical modeling of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (hyfrc)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hameed, R.; Turatsinze, A.
2015-01-01
A model for numerical simulation of mechanical response of concrete reinforced with slipping and non slipping metallic fibers in hybrid form is presented in this paper. Constitutive law used to model plain concrete behaviour is based on plasticity and damage theories, and is capable to determine localized crack opening in three dimensional (3-D) systems. Behaviour law used for slipping metallic fibers is formulated based on effective stress carried by these fibers after when concrete matrix is cracked. A continuous approach is proposed to model the effect of addition of non-slipping metallic fibers in plain concrete. This approach considers the constitutive law of concrete matrix with increased fracture energy in tension obtained experimentally in direct tension tests on Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). To simulate the mechanical behaviour of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HyFRC), proposed approaches to model non-slipping metallic fibers and constitutive law of plain concrete and slipping fibers are used simultaneously without any additive equation. All the parameters used by the proposed model have physical meanings and are determined through experiments or drawn from literature. The model was implemented in Finite Element (FE) Code CASTEM and tested on FRC prismatic notched specimens in flexure. Model prediction showed good agreement with experimental results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimir Ya Kumaev
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Numerical simulation of the melting processes is necessary in substantiating the safety of new generation reactors to determine the quantitative characteristics of the melt formed, destruction of reactor vessel and components, melt interaction processes in the melt localization systems (MLS), formation and transport of hydrogen, radioactive aerosols under severe accidents. The results of computations will be applied in developing the procedures for severe accident management and mitigation of its consequences and designing melt localization systems. The report is devoted to the development and application of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the DINCOR code intended for numerical simulation of the thermal hydraulic processes in a multicomponent medium with solid-liquid phase changes. The basic set of equations of multicomponent medium is presented. The numerical method to solve the governing equations is discussed. Some examples of two-dimensional code applications are presented. The experience of application of the code has shown that joint calculations of hydrodynamics, heat transfer, stratification and chemical interaction enable the process description accuracy to be significantly increased and the number of initial experimental data to be reduced. The multicomponent medium model can be used as the base for the development of a three-dimensional version of the code. At the same time, it was established that the models being used need be further developed. The most important problems are the following: -development of the local mathematical models of liquefaction and solidification of materials under front melting and melting due to the action of internal sources; -development of the model of incompressible components separation; -development of the models of dissolution and chemical interaction of multicomponent medium components. In conclusion possible verification of the computer code is discussed. (author)
Modelling Convergence of Finite Element Analysis of Cantilever Beam
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convergence studies are carried out by investigating the convergence of numerical results as the number of elements is increased. If convergence is not obtained, the engineer using the finite element method has absolutely no indication whether the results are indicative of a meaningful approximation to the correct solution ...
Neurosurgery simulation using non-linear finite element modeling and haptic interaction
Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand R.; Enquobahrie, Andinet
2012-02-01
Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the realtime requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.
1980-01-01
The computer program CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation), developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, solves numerically the heat and mass flow equations for a fully saturated medium, and computes one-dimensional consolidation of the simulated systems. The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are solved either by an iterative solution technique (old version) or an efficient sparse solver (new version). The deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. In this paper, the numerical code is described, validation examples given and areas of application discussed. Several example problems involving flow through fractured media are also presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-06-08
Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.
Numerical schemes for one-point closure turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larcher, Aurelien
2010-01-01
First-order Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are studied in this thesis. These latter consist of the Navier-Stokes equations, supplemented with a system of balance equations describing the evolution of characteristic scalar quantities called 'turbulent scales'. In so doing, the contribution of the turbulent agitation to the momentum can be determined by adding a diffusive coefficient (called 'turbulent viscosity') in the Navier-Stokes equations, such that it is defined as a function of the turbulent scales. The numerical analysis problems, which are studied in this dissertation, are treated in the frame of a fractional step algorithm, consisting of an approximation on regular meshes of the Navier-Stokes equations by the nonconforming Crouzeix-Raviart finite elements, and a set of scalar convection-diffusion balance equations discretized by the standard finite volume method. A monotone numerical scheme based on the standard finite volume method is proposed so as to ensure that the turbulent scales, like the turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε), remain positive in the case of the standard k - ε model, as well as the k - ε RNG and the extended k - ε - ν 2 models. The convergence of the proposed numerical scheme is then studied on a system composed of the incompressible Stokes equations and a steady convection-diffusion equation, which are both coupled by the viscosities and the turbulent production term. This reduced model allows to deal with the main difficulty encountered in the analysis of such problems: the definition of the turbulent production term leads to consider a class of convection-diffusion problems with an irregular right-hand side belonging to L 1 . Finally, to step towards the unsteady problem, the convergence of the finite volume scheme for a model convection-diffusion equation with L 1 data is proved. The a priori estimates on the solution and on its time derivative are obtained in discrete norms, for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guan, P B; Tingatinga, E A; Longalong, R E; Saguid, J
2016-01-01
During the past decades, the complexity of conventional methods to perform seismic performance assessment of buildings led to the development of more effective approaches. The rigid body spring-discrete element method (RBS-DEM) is one of these approaches and has recently been applied to the study of the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to strong earthquakes. In this paper, the governing equations of RBS-DEM planar elements subjected to lateral loads and horizontal ground motion are presented and used to replicate the hysteretic behavior of experimental RC columns. The RBS-DEM models of columns are made up of rigid components connected by systems of springs that simulate axial, shear, and bending behavior of an RC section. The parameters of springs were obtained using Response-2000 software and the hysteretic response of the models of select columns from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Structural Performance Database were computed numerically. Numerical examples show that one-component models were able to simulate the initial stiffness reasonably, while the displacement capacity of actual columns undergoing large displacements were underestimated. (paper)
Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas
2011-01-01
A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.
Numerical Modeling of Piezoelectric Transducers Using Physical Parameters
Cappon, H.; Keesman, K.J.
2012-01-01
Design of ultrasonic equipment is frequently facilitated with numerical models. These numerical models, however, need a calibration step, because usually not all characteristics of the materials used are known. Characterization of material properties combined with numerical simulations and
Numerical modelling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena in the mould channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Sowa
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper, a mathematical and a numerical model of the solidification of a cylindrical slender shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal, has been proposed. Pressure and velocity fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, while the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. Next, the numerical analysis of the solidification process of metals alloy in a cylindrical mould channel has been made. In the model one takes into account interdependence the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena. Coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The influence of the pressure and the temperature of metal pouring on the solid phase growth kinetics were estimated. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.
Structural modeling techniques by finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yeong Jin; Kim, Geung Hwan; Ju, Gwan Jeong
1991-01-01
This book includes introduction table of contents chapter 1 finite element idealization introduction summary of the finite element method equilibrium and compatibility in the finite element solution degrees of freedom symmetry and anti symmetry modeling guidelines local analysis example references chapter 2 static analysis structural geometry finite element models analysis procedure modeling guidelines references chapter 3 dynamic analysis models for dynamic analysis dynamic analysis procedures modeling guidelines and modeling guidelines.
Interaction Deep Excavation Adjacent Structure Numerical Two and Three Dimensional Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdallah, M.; Chehade, F. H.; Chehade, W.; Fawaz, A.
2011-01-01
Urban development often requires the construction of deep excavations near to buildings or other structures. We have to study complex material structure interactions where we should take into consideration several particularities. In this paper, we perform a numerical modeling with the finite element method, using PLAXIS software, of the interaction deep excavation-diaphragm wall-soil-structure in the case of non linear soil behavior. We focus our study on a comparison of the results given respectively by two and three dimensional modelings. This allows us to give some recommendations concerning the validity of twodimensional study. We perform a parametric study according to the initial loading on the structure and the struts number. (author)
An efficient finite element solution for gear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooley, C G; Parker, R G; Vijayakar, S M
2010-01-01
A finite element formulation for the dynamic response of gear pairs is proposed. Following an established approach in lumped parameter gear dynamic models, the static solution is used as the excitation in a frequency domain solution of the finite element vibration model. The nonlinear finite element/contact mechanics formulation provides accurate calculation of the static solution and average mesh stiffness that are used in the dynamic simulation. The frequency domain finite element calculation of dynamic response compares well with numerically integrated (time domain) finite element dynamic results and previously published experimental results. Simulation time with the proposed formulation is two orders of magnitude lower than numerically integrated dynamic results. This formulation admits system level dynamic gearbox response, which may include multiple gear meshes, flexible shafts, rolling element bearings, housing structures, and other deformable components.
Bakker, Mark; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.
2011-09-01
Two new approaches are presented for the accurate computation of the potential due to line elements that satisfy the modified Helmholtz equation with complex parameters. The first approach is based on fundamental solutions in elliptical coordinates and results in products of Mathieu functions. The second approach is based on the integration of modified Bessel functions. Both approaches allow evaluation of the potential at any distance from the element. The computational approaches are applied to model transient flow with the Laplace transform analytic element method. The Laplace domain solution is computed using a combination of point elements and the presented line elements. The time domain solution is obtained through a numerical inversion. Two applications are presented to transient flow fields, which could not be modeled with the Laplace transform analytic element method prior to this work. The first application concerns transient single-aquifer flow to wells near impermeable walls modeled with line-doublets. The second application concerns transient two-aquifer flow to a well near a stream modeled with line-sinks.
A numerical model for the simulation of quench in the ITER magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottura, L.
1996-01-01
A computational model describing the initiation and evolution of normal zones in the cable-in-conduit superconductors designed for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) is presented. Because of the particular geometry of the ITER cables, the model treats separately the helium momenta in the two cooling channels and the temperatures of the cable constituents. The numerical implementation of the model is discussed in conjunction with the selection of a well-suited solution algorithm. In particular, the solution procedure chosen is based on an implicit upwind finite element technique with adaptive time step and mesh size adjustment possibilities. The time step and mesh adaption procedures are described. Examples of application of the model are also reported. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
On the Validation of a Numerical Model for the Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction Problems
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Jorge Luis Palomino Tamayo
Full Text Available Abstract Modeling and simulation of mechanical response of structures, relies on the use of computational models. Therefore, verification and validation procedures are the primary means of assessing accuracy, confidence and credibility in modeling. This paper is concerned with the validation of a three dimensional numerical model based on the finite element method suitable for the dynamic analysis of soil-structure interaction problems. The soil mass, structure, structure's foundation and the appropriate boundary conditions can be represented altogether in a single model by using a direct approach. The theory of porous media of Biot is used to represent the soil mass as a two-phase material which is considered to be fully saturated with water; meanwhile other parts of the system are treated as one-phase materials. Plasticity of the soil mass is the main source of non-linearity in the problem and therefore an iterative-incremental algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson procedure is used to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations. For discretization in time, the Generalized Newmark-β method is used. The soil is represented by a plasticity-based, effective-stress constitutive model suitable for liquefaction. Validation of the present numerical model is done by comparing analytical and centrifuge test results of soil and soil-pile systems with those results obtained with the present numerical model. A soil-pile-structure interaction problem is also presented in order to shown the potentiality of the numerical tool.
Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeongho Choi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.
Numerical modeling for the retrofit of the hydraulic cooling subsystems in operating power plant
AlSaqoor, S.; Alahmer, A.; Al Quran, F.; Andruszkiewicz, A.; Kubas, K.; Regucki, P.; Wędrychowicz, W.
2017-08-01
This paper presents the possibility of using the numerical methods to analyze the work of hydraulic systems on the example of a cooling system of a power boiler auxiliary devices. The variety of conditions at which hydraulic system that operated in specific engineering subsystems requires an individualized approach to the model solutions that have been developed for these systems modernizing. A mathematical model of a series-parallel propagation for the cooling water was derived and iterative methods were used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. The results of numerical calculations made it possible to analyze different variants of a modernization of the studied system and to indicate its critical elements. An economic analysis of different options allows an investor to choose an optimal variant of a reconstruction of the installation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pot, G.; Laurence, D.; Rharif, N.E.; Leal de Sousa, L.; Compe, C.
1995-12-01
This paper deals with the introduction of a second moment closure turbulence model (Reynolds Stress Model) in an industrial finite element code, N3S, developed at Electricite de France.The numerical implementation of the model in N3S will be detailed in 2D and 3D. Some details are given concerning finite element computations and solvers. Then, some results will be given, including a comparison between standard k-ε model, R.S.M. model and experimental data for some test case. (authors). 22 refs., 3 figs
Chemical transport in a fissured rock: verification of a numerical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmuson, A.; Narasimham, T.N.; Neretnieks.
1982-01-01
Due to the very long-term, high toxicity of some nuclear waste products, models are required to predict, in certain cases, the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical concentration less than 0.001% of the concentration released from the repository. A numerical model, TRUMP, which solves the advective diffusion equation in general three dimensions, with or without decay and source term has been verified. The method is based on an integrated finite difference approach. The studies show that as long as the magnitude of advectance is equal to or less than that of conductance for the closed surface bonding any volume element in the region (that is, numerical Peclet number -3 % or less. The realistic input parameters used in the sample calculations suggest that such a range of Peclet numbers is indeed likely to characterize deep groundwater systems in granitic and ancient argillaceous systems. A sensitivity analysis based on the errors in prediction introduced due to uncertainties in input parameters are likely to be larger than the computational inaccuracies introduced by the numerical model. Currently, a disadvantage in the TRUMP model is that the iterative method of solving the set of simultaneous equations is rather slow when time constants vary widely over the flow region. Although the iterative solution may be very desirable for large three-dimensional problems in order to minimize computer storage, it seems desirable to use a direct solver technique in conjunction with the mixed explicit-implicit approach whenever possible. Work in this direction is in progress
Concrete model for finite element analysis of structures subjected to severe damages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamet, Ph.; Millard, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Nahas, G.; Barbe, B.
1984-01-01
A specific concrete model has been developed, in order to perform mechanical analysis of civil engineering structures, when subjected to accidental loadings, leading to severe damages. Its formulation is based on the physical mechanisms, which have been observed on laboratory specimens. The model has been implemented into the CASTEM finite element system, and the case of a concrete slab perforation by a rigid missile has been considered. The qualitative behaviour of the structure is well predicted by the model. Comparison between numerical and experimental results is also performed, using two main curves: missile velocity versus penetration depth; reaction forces versus time. (Author) [pt
Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, E.M.
1997-01-01
Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed
Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer
Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.
2013-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.
Precise magnetostatic field using the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio Teixeira do
2013-01-01
The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the adaptive remeshing using nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some numerical analysis of simple electromagnetic problems with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials are performed using first, the adaptive remeshing based in various error indicators and second, the numerical solution of waveguides using edge finite element. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Xiaozhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the frame of the extended finite element method, the exponent disconnected function is introduced to reflect the discontinuous characteristic of crack and the crack tip enrichment function which is made of triangular basis function, and the linear polar radius function is adopted to describe the displacement field distribution of elastoplastic crack tip. Where, the linear polar radius function form is chosen to decrease the singularity characteristic induced by the plastic yield zone of crack tip, and the triangle basis function form is adopted to describe the displacement distribution character with the polar angle of crack tip. Based on the displacement model containing the above enrichment displacement function, the increment iterative form of elastoplastic extended finite element method is deduced by virtual work principle. For nonuniform hardening material such as concrete, in order to avoid the nonsymmetry characteristic of stiffness matrix induced by the non-associate flowing of plastic strain, the plastic flowing rule containing cross item based on the least energy dissipation principle is adopted. Finally, some numerical examples show that the elastoplastic X-FEM constructed in this paper is of validity.
Numerical models of mass transfer during ripening and storage of salami
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Fabbri
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Ripening, in the dry sausages manufacturing process, has an influence over the main physical, chemical and microbiological transformations that take place inside these products and that define the final organoleptic properties of dry sausages. A number of study about the influence of ripening conditions on the main chemical and microbiological characteristics of dry sausages is available today. All these studies indicate that the final quality and safety standards achieved by the sausage manufacturing process can be considered to be strictly dependent from the specific ripening conditions. The water diffusion inside a seasoned sausage is surely an aspect of primary importance with regard to the quality of final product. As a consequence the aim of this research was to develop two parametric numerical models, concerning the moisture diffusion physics, describing salami ripening and storage. Mass transfer equations inside the sausage volume were numerically solved using a finite element technique. A first model describes diffusion phenomena occurring inside the salami and the exchange phenomena involving the surface of the product and the environment. After the ripening, the salami are stored in waterproof packaging, consequently an additional model able to describe also the evaporation and condensation phenomena occurring between the salami surface and the air in the package, was developed. The moisture equilibrium between salami surface and conservation atmosphere is mainly ruled by the temperature changes during storage. Both models allow to analyze the history of the moisture content inside the salami and are parametrised on product size and maturation/storage conditions. The models were experimentally validated, comparing the numerical outputs of the simulations with experimental data, showing a good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larrinaga, Pello; Chastre, Carlos; Biscaia, Hugo C.; San-José, José T.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Making more deepen the knowledge of textile reinforced mortar in tensile stress. • Analyzing the effect of the reinforcing ratio of the composite. • To compare results with Aveston–Cooper–Kelly theory. • To develop a numerical model based on a finite element code. • Considering the importance of the bond-slip law of the mortar-to-textile-interface. - Abstract: During the last years several projects and studies have improved the knowledge about textile reinforced mortar (TRM) technology. TRM has already been used in strengthening masonry and reinforced concrete structural elements such as walls, arches, columns and beams. This material is presented as a real alternative to the use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) in situations where these composites have presented some drawbacks or their use is banned. Textile reinforced mortar show a complex mechanical behavior derived from the heterogeneity of the constituent materials. This paper aims to deepen the knowledge of this composite material in terms of tensile behavior. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on thirty-one TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analyzed and contrasted with two distinct models. (i) The Aveston–Cooper–Kelly theory (ACK) which is based on a tri-linear analytical approach; and (ii) a non-linear numerical simulation with a 3D finite element code. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the TRM tensile tests also showed no significant dependence on the basalt-to-mortar interface, i.e., the choice of a bond-slip curve in order to reproduce the bond stresses and slippages along the interface is irrelevant and it can be simply considered as rigid interface
Sanbi, M.; Saadani, R.; Sbai, K.; Rahmoune, M.
2015-01-01
Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element eq...
Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi
2015-01-01
Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...... thecontact area and the distribution of contact pressure. The numerical simulation of resistancewelding is illustrated by a spot welding example that includes subsequent tensile shear testing...
Numerical modelling of elastic space tethers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Palmer, P. L.; Roberts, R. M.
2012-01-01
In this paper the importance of the ill-posedness of the classical, non-dissipative massive tether model on an orbiting tether system is studied numerically. The computations document that via the regularisation of bending resistance a more reliable numerical integrator can be produced. Furthermo....... It is also shown that on the slow manifold the dynamics of the satellites are well-approximated by the finite dimensional slack-spring model....
Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques
Steeve, B. E.
1996-01-01
The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.
Numerical methods and modelling for engineering
Khoury, Richard
2016-01-01
This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...
Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Lunati, Ivan
2016-10-01
We present a novel discretization scheme tailored to a class of multiphase models that regard the physical system as consisting of multiple interacting continua. In the framework of mixture theory, we consider a general mathematical model that entails solving a system of mass and momentum equations for both the mixture and one of the phases. The model results in a strongly coupled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations that are written in terms of phase and mixture (barycentric) velocities, phase pressure, and saturation. We construct an accurate, robust and reliable hybrid method that combines a mixed finite element discretization of the momentum equations with a primal discontinuous finite volume-element discretization of the mass (or transport) equations. The scheme is devised for unstructured meshes and relies on mixed Brezzi-Douglas-Marini approximations of phase and total velocities, on piecewise constant elements for the approximation of phase or total pressures, as well as on a primal formulation that employs discontinuous finite volume elements defined on a dual diamond mesh to approximate scalar fields of interest (such as volume fraction, total density, saturation, etc.). As the discretization scheme is derived for a general formulation of multicontinuum physical systems, it can be readily applied to a large class of simplified multiphase models; on the other, the approach can be seen as a generalization of these models that are commonly encountered in the literature and employed when the latter are not sufficiently accurate. An extensive set of numerical test cases involving two- and three-dimensional porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method (displaying an optimal convergence rate), the physics-preserving properties of the mixed-primal scheme, as well as the robustness of the method (which is successfully used to simulate diverse physical phenomena such as density fingering, Terzaghi's consolidation
Modelling of cardiovascular system: development of a hybrid (numerical-physical) model.
Ferrari, G; Kozarski, M; De Lazzari, C; Górczyńska, K; Mimmo, R; Guaragno, M; Tosti, G; Darowski, M
2003-12-01
Physical models of the circulation are used for research, training and for testing of implantable active and passive circulatory prosthetic and assistance devices. However, in comparison with numerical models, they are rigid and expensive. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a model of the circulation based on the merging of a lumped parameter physical model into a numerical one (producing therefore a hybrid). The physical model is limited to the barest essentials and, in this application, developed to test the principle, it is a windkessel representing the systemic arterial tree. The lumped parameters numerical model was developed in LabVIEW environment and represents pulmonary and systemic circulation (except the systemic arterial tree). Based on the equivalence between hydraulic and electrical circuits, this prototype was developed connecting the numerical model to an electrical circuit--the physical model. This specific solution is valid mainly educationally but permits the development of software and the verification of preliminary results without using cumbersome hydraulic circuits. The interfaces between numerical and electrical circuits are set up by a voltage controlled current generator and a voltage controlled voltage generator. The behavior of the model is analyzed based on the ventricular pressure-volume loops and on the time course of arterial and ventricular pressures and flow in different circulatory conditions. The model can represent hemodynamic relationships in different ventricular and circulatory conditions.
Numerical-Model Investigation of the Hydrothermal Regime of a Straight-Through Shallow Cooling Pond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokolov, A. S. [JSC ' VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)
2013-11-15
A mathematic model based on solution of hydrodynamics and heat-transfer equations by the finite-element method is constructed to predict the hydrothermal regime of a straight-through shallow cooling pond, which provides cooling circulating water to a repository of spent nuclear fuel. Numerical experiments made it possible to evaluate the influence exerted by wind conditions and flow rate of water in the river on the temperature of the circulating water.
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.
2013-01-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis...
Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model
Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel
2015-04-01
Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurtado, F.S.V.; Maliska, C.R.
2005-01-01
This paper briefly describes a two-dimensional numerical formulation using unstructured grids, developed for simulating two-phase immiscible displacements in porous media. The Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is used for discretizing the model differential equations. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hurtado, F.S.V.; Maliska, C.R. [Santa Catarina Federal Univ., Computational Fluid Dynamics Lab., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2005-07-01
This paper briefly describes a two-dimensional numerical formulation using unstructured grids, developed for simulating two-phase immiscible displacements in porous media. The Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is used for discretizing the model differential equations. (authors)
Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
2007-01-01
Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...... are made between alternative modeling methods, and characteristics of the methods are discussed....
Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Tuan Chou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.
An analytical–numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahsan, M Naveed; Pinkerton, Andrew J
2011-01-01
Multiple analytical and numerical models of the laser metal deposition process have been presented, but most rely on sequential solution of the energy and mass balance equations or discretization of the problem domain. Laser direct metal deposition is a complex process involving multiple interdependent processes which can be best simulated using a fully coupled mass-energy balance solution. In this work a coupled analytical–numerical solution is presented. Sub-models of the powder stream, quasi-stationary conduction in the substrate and powder assimilation into the area of the substrate above the liquidus temperature are combined. An iterative feedback loop is used to ensure mass and energy balances are maintained at the melt pool. The model is verified using Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition, produced with a coaxial nozzle and a diode laser. The model predictions of local temperature history, the track profile and microstructure scale show good agreement with the experimental results. The model is a useful industrial aid and alternative to finite element methods for selecting the parameters to use for laser direct metal deposition when separate geometric and microstructural outcomes are required
Deformation data modeling through numerical models: an efficient method for tracking magma transport
Charco, M.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.
2017-12-01
Nowadays, multivariate collected data and robust physical models at volcano observatories are becoming crucial for providing effective volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, the forecast of volcanic eruption is notoriously difficult. Wthin this frame one of the most promising methods to evaluate the volcano hazard is the use of surface ground deformation and in the last decades many developments in the field of deformation modeling has been achieved. In particular, numerical modeling allows realistic media features such as topography and crustal heterogeneities to be included, although it is still very time cosuming to solve the inverse problem for near-real time interpretations. Here, we present a method that can be efficiently used to estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources base on real-time surface deformation data and Finite Element (FE) models. Generally, the search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region and the Green functions for all the array components have to be precomputed. We propose a FE model for the pre-computation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain which eventually will lead to a better description of the status of the volcanic area. The number of Green functions is reduced here to the number of observational points by using their reciprocity relationship. We present and test this methodology with an optimization method base on a Genetic Algorithm. Following synthetic and sensitivity test to estimate the uncertainty of the model parameters, we apply the tool for magma tracking during 2007 Kilauea volcano intrusion and eruption. We show how data inversion with numerical models can speed up the source parameters estimations for a given volcano showing signs of unrest.
A numerical model of the shortbread baking process in a forced convection oven
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokolj, Uroš; Škerget, Leopold; Ravnik, Jure
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The evaporation of water had a significant effect on the temperature field. • The numerical model associated the grade of browning with the temperature field. • The results of the numerical and experimental grade of browning are comparable. • The difference between the measured and simulated temperature at the oven was 2.8 K. - Abstract: The objective of all manufacturers and users of ovens is to achieve uniform browning of various baked foods. In recent years, manufacturers have found it difficult to achieve this, due to the rapid appearance of new trends and due to progressively shorter development times. In this paper, we present the development and validation of a time-dependent 3D computational fluid dynamics model, which enables the numerical prediction of the baking performance and grade of browning of a forced convection oven. Flow and heat transfer of hot air in an oven, where a round heating element and a fan are both operating, are simulated. Radiative and convective heat transfer is taken into account. We found, that it is necessary to include water evaporation in the model. The numerical model was validated by performing experimental measurements of temperature and by performing baking tests of shortbread. After baking, the grade of browning was measured for the shortbread. To determine the grade of browning, the method of identification of colour contrasts was used, based on the colour space CIE L"∗a"∗b. Based on the results, we proposed a linear model, which enabled the prediction of the grade of browning based on the results of the fluid dynamics simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thurnay, K.
1984-02-01
Kandy is a model developed to describe the essential destructionphenomena of the fuel elements of an LMFBR. The fuel element is assumed to be a voided one, in which the heat generation is still going on. The main process to be modeled is the melting/bursting/evaporating of parts of the fuel pins and the subsequent dislocation of these materials in the coolant channel. The work presented summarizes the assumptions constituting the model, develops the corresponding equations of motion and describes the procedure, turning these into a system of difference-equations ready for coding. As a final part results of a testcase calculation with the Kandy-code are presentend and interpreted. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arthur Coré
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the characterization and the numerical modelling of the collapse of composite hollow spherical structures developed to absorb energy during high velocity impacts. The structure is composed of hollow spheres (ϕ=2–30 mm made of epoxy resin and mineral powder. First of all, quasi-static and dynamic (v=5 mm·min−1 to v=2 m·s−1 compression tests are conducted at room temperature on a single sphere to study energy dissipation mechanisms. Fracture of the material appears to be predominant. A numerical model based on the discrete element method is investigated to simulate the single sphere crushing. The stress-strain-time relationship of the material based on the Ree-Eyring law is numerically implemented. The DEM modelling takes naturally into account the dynamic fracture and the crack path computed is close to the one observed experimentally in uniaxial compression. Eventually, high velocity impacts (v>100 m·s−1 of a hollow sphere on a rigid surface are conducted with an air cannon. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate the ability of the present model to correctly describe the mechanical behavior of brittle materials at high strain rate.
An analytic solution for numerical modeling validation in electromagnetics: the resistive sphere
Swidinsky, Andrei; Liu, Lifei
2017-11-01
We derive the electromagnetic response of a resistive sphere to an electric dipole source buried in a conductive whole space. The solution consists of an infinite series of spherical Bessel functions and associated Legendre polynomials, and follows the well-studied problem of a conductive sphere buried in a resistive whole space in the presence of a magnetic dipole. Our result is particularly useful for controlled-source electromagnetic problems using a grounded electric dipole transmitter and can be used to check numerical methods of calculating the response of resistive targets (such as finite difference, finite volume, finite element and integral equation). While we elect to focus on the resistive sphere in our examples, the expressions in this paper are completely general and allow for arbitrary source frequency, sphere radius, transmitter position, receiver position and sphere/host conductivity contrast so that conductive target responses can also be checked. Commonly used mesh validation techniques consist of comparisons against other numerical codes, but such solutions may not always be reliable or readily available. Alternatively, the response of simple 1-D models can be tested against well-known whole space, half-space and layered earth solutions, but such an approach is inadequate for validating models with curved surfaces. We demonstrate that our theoretical results can be used as a complementary validation tool by comparing analytic electric fields to those calculated through a finite-element analysis; the software implementation of this infinite series solution is made available for direct and immediate application.
Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.
2016-12-01
The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for
A numerical model for modeling microstructure and THM couplings in fault gouges
Veveakis, M.; Rattez, H.; Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; Poulet, T.
2017-12-01
When materials are subjected to large deformations, most of them experience inelastic deformations, accompanied by a localization of these deformations into a narrow zone leading to failure. Localization is seen as an instability from the homogeneous state of deformation. Therefore a first approach to study it consists at looking at the possible critical conditions for which the constitutive equations of the material allow a bifurcation point (Rudnicki & Rice 1975). But in some cases, we would like to know the evolution of the material after the onset of localization. For example, a fault in the crustal part of the lithosphere is a shear band and the study of this localized zone enables to extract information about seismic slip. For that, we need to approximate the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem numerically. It is a challenging task due to the complications that arise while dealing with a softening behavior. Indeed, the classical continuum theory cannot be used because the governing system of equations is ill-posed (Vardoulakis 1985). This ill-posedness can be tracked back to the fact that constitutive models don't contain material parameters with the dimension of a length. It leads to what is called "mesh dependency" for numerical simulations, as the deformations localize in only one element of the mesh and the behavior of the system depends thus on the mesh size. A way to regularize the problem is to resort to continuum models with microstructure, such as Cosserat continua (Sulem et al. 2011). Cosserat theory is particularly interesting as it can explicitly take into account the size of the microstructure in a fault gouge. Basically, it introduces 3 degrees of freedom of rotation on top of the 3 translations (Godio et al. 2016). The original work of (Mühlhaus & Vardoulakis 1987) is extended in 3D and thermo-hydro mechanical couplings are added to the model to study fault system in the crustal part of the lithosphere. The system of equations is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daurelle, J V; Cadene, V; Occelli, R [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-12-31
In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1996-12-31
In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.
2.5-D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modelling using finite-element method
Zhao, Jian-guo; Huang, Xing-xing; Liu, Wei-fang; Zhao, Wei-jun; Song, Jian-yong; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Shang-xu
2017-10-01
2-D seismic modelling has notable dynamic information discrepancies with field data because of the implicit line-source assumption, whereas 3-D modelling suffers from a huge computational burden. The 2.5-D approach is able to overcome both of the aforementioned limitations. In general, the earth model is treated as an elastic material, but the real media is viscous. In this study, we develop an accurate and efficient frequency-domain finite-element method (FEM) for modelling 2.5-D viscoelastic wave propagation. To perform the 2.5-D approach, we assume that the 2-D viscoelastic media are based on the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and a 3-D point source. The viscoelastic wave equation is temporally and spatially Fourier transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain. Then, we systematically derive the weak form and its spatial discretization of 2.5-D viscoelastic wave equations in the frequency-wavenumber domain through the Galerkin weighted residual method for FEM. Fixing a frequency, the 2-D problem for each wavenumber is solved by FEM. Subsequently, a composite Simpson formula is adopted to estimate the inverse Fourier integration to obtain the 3-D wavefield. We implement the stiffness reduction method (SRM) to suppress artificial boundary reflections. The results show that this absorbing boundary condition is valid and efficient in the frequency-wavenumber domain. Finally, three numerical models, an unbounded homogeneous medium, a half-space layered medium and an undulating topography medium, are established. Numerical results validate the accuracy and stability of 2.5-D solutions and present the adaptability of finite-element method to complicated geographic conditions. The proposed 2.5-D modelling strategy has the potential to address modelling studies on wave propagation in real earth media in an accurate and efficient way.
Jia, Xin; Huang, Zhengxiang; Zu, Xudong; Gu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Qiangqiang
2013-12-01
In this study, an optimal finite element model of Kevlar woven fabric that is more computational efficient compared with existing models was developed to simulate ballistic impact onto fabric. Kevlar woven fabric was modeled to yarn level architecture by using the hybrid elements analysis (HEA), which uses solid elements in modeling the yarns at the impact region and uses shell elements in modeling the yarns away from the impact region. Three HEA configurations were constructed, in which the solid element region was set as about one, two, and three times that of the projectile's diameter with impact velocities of 30 m/s (non-perforation case) and 200 m/s (perforation case) to determine the optimal ratio between the solid element region and the shell element region. To further reduce computational time and to maintain the necessary accuracy, three multiscale models were presented also. These multiscale models combine the local region with the yarn level architecture by using the HEA approach and the global region with homogenous level architecture. The effect of the varying ratios of the local and global area on the ballistic performance of fabric was discussed. The deformation and damage mechanisms of fabric were analyzed and compared among numerical models. Simulation results indicate that the multiscale model based on HEA accurately reproduces the baseline results and obviously decreases computational time.
Numerical modeling of ultrasonic cavitation in ionic liquids
Calvisi, Michael L.; Elder, Ross M.
2017-11-01
Ionic liquids have favorable properties for sonochemistry applications in which the high temperatures and pressures achieved by cavitation bubbles are important drivers of chemical processes. Two different numerical models are presented to simulate ultrasonic cavitation in ionic liquids, each with different capabilities and physical assumptions. A model based on a compressible form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation (RPE) simulates ultrasonic cavitation of a spherical bubble with a homogeneous interior, incorporating evaporation and condensation at the bubble surface, and temperature-varying thermodynamic properties in the interior. A second, more computationally intensive model of a spherical bubble uses the finite element method (FEM) and accounts for spatial variations in pressure and temperature throughout the flow domain. This model provides insight into heat transfer across the bubble surface and throughout the bubble interior and exterior. Parametric studies are presented for sonochemistry applications involving ionic liquids as a solvent, examining a range of realistic ionic liquid properties and initial conditions to determine their effect on temperature and pressure. Results from the two models are presented for parametric variations including viscosity, thermal conductivity, water content of the ionic liquid solvent, acoustic frequency, and initial bubble pressure. An additional study performed with the FEM model examines thermal penetration into the surrounding ionic liquid during bubble oscillation. The results suggest the prospect of tuning ionic liquid properties for specific applications.
Dodig, H.
2017-11-01
This contribution presents the boundary integral formulation for numerical computation of time-harmonic radar cross section for 3D targets. Method relies on hybrid edge element BEM/FEM to compute near field edge element coefficients that are associated with near electric and magnetic fields at the boundary of the computational domain. Special boundary integral formulation is presented that computes radar cross section directly from these edge element coefficients. Consequently, there is no need for near-to-far field transformation (NTFFT) which is common step in RCS computations. By the end of the paper it is demonstrated that the formulation yields accurate results for canonical models such as spheres, cubes, cones and pyramids. Method has demonstrated accuracy even in the case of dielectrically coated PEC sphere at interior resonance frequency which is common problem for computational electromagnetic codes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perzyński Konrad
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The developed numerical model of a local nanoindentation test, based on the digital material representation (DMR concept, has been presented within the paper. First, an efficient algorithm describing the pulsed laser deposition (PLD process was proposed to realistically recreate the specific morphology of a nanolayered material in an explicit manner. The nanolayered Ti/TiN composite was selected for the investigation. Details of the developed cellular automata model of the PLD process were presented and discussed. Then, the Ti/TiN DMR was incorporated into the finite element software and numerical model of the nanoindentation test was established. Finally, examples of obtained results presenting capabilities of the proposed approach were highlighted.
Numerical model updating technique for structures using firefly algorithm
Sai Kubair, K.; Mohan, S. C.
2018-03-01
Numerical model updating is a technique used for updating the existing experimental models for any structures related to civil, mechanical, automobiles, marine, aerospace engineering, etc. The basic concept behind this technique is updating the numerical models to closely match with experimental data obtained from real or prototype test structures. The present work involves the development of numerical model using MATLAB as a computational tool and with mathematical equations that define the experimental model. Firefly algorithm is used as an optimization tool in this study. In this updating process a response parameter of the structure has to be chosen, which helps to correlate the numerical model developed with the experimental results obtained. The variables for the updating can be either material or geometrical properties of the model or both. In this study, to verify the proposed technique, a cantilever beam is analyzed for its tip deflection and a space frame has been analyzed for its natural frequencies. Both the models are updated with their respective response values obtained from experimental results. The numerical results after updating show that there is a close relationship that can be brought between the experimental and the numerical models.
Development of Multidimensional Gap Conductance model using Virtual Link Gap Element
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient between pellet and cladding can be quite sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several micrometers in certain region, difference of pellet surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Recently, multidimensional fuel performance codes have been being developed in the advanced countries to evaluate thermal behavior of fuel for off normal conditions and DBA(design based accident) conditions using the Finite Element Method (FEM). FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system, which is well known as the verified and reliable code, incorporates 1D thermal module and multidimensional mechanical module. In this code, multidimensional gap conductance model is not applied. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents multidimensional gap conductance as a function of gap thickness. BISON, which is multidimensional fuel performance code developed by INL, owns multidimensional gap conductance model using projected thermal contact. In general, thermal contact algorithm is nonlinear calculation which is expensive approach numerically. The gap conductance model for multi-dimension is difficult issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because gap conductance is function of gap thickness which depends on mechanical analysis at each iteration step. In this paper, virtual link gap (VLG) element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. In terms of calculation accuracy and convergence efficiency, the proposed VLG model was evaluated. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and
2-dimensional numerical modeling of active magnetic regeneration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders
2009-01-01
Various aspects of numerical modeling of Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) are presented. Using a 2-dimensional numerical model for solving the unsteady heat transfer equations for the AMR system, a range of physical effects on both idealized and non-idealized AMR are investigated. The modeled...
Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Turcotte, Donald L.; He, Ying; Lokavarapu, Harsha; Robey, Jonathan M.; Kellogg, Louise H.
2018-03-01
Geochemical observations of mantle-derived rocks favor a nearly homogeneous upper mantle, the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and heterogeneous lower mantle regions. Plumes that generate ocean island basalts are thought to sample the lower mantle regions and exhibit more heterogeneity than MORB. These regions have been associated with lower mantle structures known as large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPS) below Africa and the South Pacific. The isolation of these regions is attributed to compositional differences and density stratification that, consequently, have been the subject of computational and laboratory modeling designed to determine the parameter regime in which layering is stable and understanding how layering evolves. Mathematical models of persistent compositional interfaces in the Earth's mantle may be inherently unstable, at least in some regions of the parameter space relevant to the mantle. Computing approximations to solutions of such problems presents severe challenges, even to state-of-the-art numerical methods. Some numerical algorithms for modeling the interface between distinct compositions smear the interface at the boundary between compositions, such as methods that add numerical diffusion or 'artificial viscosity' in order to stabilize the algorithm. We present two new algorithms for maintaining high-resolution and sharp computational boundaries in computations of these types of problems: a discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter and a Volume-of-Fluid interface tracking algorithm. We compare these new methods with two approaches widely used for modeling the advection of two distinct thermally driven compositional fields in mantle convection computations: a high-order accurate finite element advection algorithm with entropy viscosity and a particle method that carries a scalar quantity representing the location of each compositional field. All four algorithms are implemented in the open source finite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mir Hamid Reza Ghoreishy
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on the mechanical behavior of nanocomposites based on PA6/NBR thermoplastic elastomer reinforced by single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs. The selected samples include 60 and 40% NBR with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% SWNT. The modeling methodology was based on the use of two-dimensional "representative volume elements" (RVE. The Abaqus/standard code was employed to carry out the non-linear finite element calculations. Plane stress elements were selected for discretization of the domain. Linear elastic and isotropic hardening elastic-plastic models were utilized to describe the mechanical behaviors of the carbon nanotubes and polymer matrix, respectively. The samples were simultaneously prepared using melt mixing method in a laboratory internal mixer. Different orientations including regular in both longitudinal and transverse directions and random were selected for the nanotubes in the matrix. Also, two structural forms including hollow and solid for the carbon nanotubes were chosen. The highest and lowest predicted moduli were obtained from models with regular orientation in longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively. On the other hand, comparison between the predicted elastic modulus and elastic-plastic behaviors of the samples with their corresponding experimental data revealed that the random orientation in conjunction with hollow structural form gives the best results. Moreover, the selected material model for the thermoplastic elastomer i.e., isotropic hardening can precisely describe the mechanical behavior in both tension and compression modes. It is also concluded that the main source of error in this modeling methodology can be attributed to the effects of interface between polymer and nanotubes and orientation in perpendicular directions.
Element-by-element parallel spectral-element methods for 3-D teleseismic wave modeling
Liu, Shaolin
2017-09-28
The development of an efficient algorithm for teleseismic wave field modeling is valuable for calculating the gradients of the misfit function (termed misfit gradients) or Fréchet derivatives when the teleseismic waveform is used for adjoint tomography. Here, we introduce an element-by-element parallel spectral-element method (EBE-SEM) for the efficient modeling of teleseismic wave field propagation in a reduced geology model. Under the plane-wave assumption, the frequency-wavenumber (FK) technique is implemented to compute the boundary wave field used to construct the boundary condition of the teleseismic wave incidence. To reduce the memory required for the storage of the boundary wave field for the incidence boundary condition, a strategy is introduced to efficiently store the boundary wave field on the model boundary. The perfectly matched layers absorbing boundary condition (PML ABC) is formulated using the EBE-SEM to absorb the scattered wave field from the model interior. The misfit gradient can easily be constructed in each time step during the calculation of the adjoint wave field. Three synthetic examples demonstrate the validity of the EBE-SEM for use in teleseismic wave field modeling and the misfit gradient calculation.
Numerical simulation of Higgs models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaster, A.
1995-10-01
The SU(2) Higgs and the Schwinger model on the lattice were analysed. Numerical simulations of the SU(2) Higgs model were performed to study the finite temperature electroweak phase transition. With the help of the multicanonical method the distribution of an order parameter at the phase transition point was measured. This was used to obtain the order of the phase transition and the value of the interface tension with the histogram method. Numerical simulations were also performed at zero temperature to perform renormalization. The measured values for the Wilson loops were used to determine the static potential and from this the renormalized gauge coupling. The Schwinger model was simulated at different gauge couplings to analyse the properties of the Kaplan-Shamir fermions. The prediction that the mass parameter gets only multiplicative renormalization was tested and verified. (orig.)
Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Gochev, Georgi; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg
2017-01-01
Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell–cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure–distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces. (paper)
Development of a user element in ABAQUS for modelling of cohesive laws in composite structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feih, S.
2006-01-01
forward, and most existing publications consider theoretical and therefore simpler softening shapes. In this article, bridging laws were implemented intoan interface element in the UEL user subroutine in the finite element code ABAQUS. Comparison with different experimental data points for crack opening...... measurements of the crack growth resistance and the end opening of the notch. The advantage of this method is that these bridging laws represent material laws independent of the specimen geometry. However, theadaption of the experimentally determined shape to a numerically valid model shape is not straight...
Preliminary analysis of four numerical models for calculating the mesoscale transport of Kr-85
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pepper, D W; Cooper, R E [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.
1983-01-01
A performance study of four numerical algorithms for multi-dimensional advection-diffusion prediction on mesoscale grids has been made. Dispersion from point and distributed sources and a simulation of a continuous source are compared with analytical solutions to assess relative accuracy. Model predictions are then compared with actual measurements of Kr-85 emitted from the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The particle-in-cell and method of moments algorithms exhibit superior accuracy in modeling single source releases. For modeling distributed sources, algorithms based on the pseudospectral and finite element interpolation concepts exhibit comparable accuracy. The method of moments is felt to be the best overall performer, although all the models appear to be relatively close in accuracy.
Development and validation of a weight-bearing finite element model for total knee replacement.
Woiczinski, M; Steinbrück, A; Weber, P; Müller, P E; Jansson, V; Schröder, Ch
2016-01-01
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure for osteoarthritis. However, some patients (19%) do have pain after surgery. A finite element model was developed based on boundary conditions of a knee rig. A 3D-model of an anatomical full leg was generated from magnetic resonance image data and a total knee prosthesis was implanted without patella resurfacing. In the finite element model, a restarting procedure was programmed in order to hold the ground reaction force constant with an adapted quadriceps muscle force during a squat from 20° to 105° of flexion. Knee rig experimental data were used to validate the numerical model in the patellofemoral and femorotibial joint. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses of Young's modulus of the patella cartilage, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) stiffness, and patella tendon origin were performed. Pearson's correlations for retropatellar contact area, pressure, patella flexion, and femorotibial ap-movement were near to 1. Lowest root mean square error for retropatellar pressure, patella flexion, and femorotibial ap-movement were found for the baseline model setup with Young's modulus of 5 MPa for patella cartilage, a downscaled PCL stiffness of 25% compared to the literature given value and an anatomical origin of the patella tendon. The results of the conducted finite element model are comparable with the experimental results. Therefore, the finite element model developed in this study can be used for further clinical investigations and will help to better understand the clinical aspects after TKA with an unresurfaced patella.
The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dobeš Josef
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.
Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irene Simonini
Full Text Available To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK.Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea.Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP.Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK. Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aristovich, K Y; Khan, S H
2010-01-01
Realistic computer modelling of biological objects requires building of very accurate and realistic computer models based on geometric and material data, type, and accuracy of numerical analyses. This paper presents some of the automatic tools and algorithms that were used to build accurate and realistic 3D finite element (FE) model of whole-brain. These models were used to solve the forward problem in magnetic field tomography (MFT) based on Magnetoencephalography (MEG). The forward problem involves modelling and computation of magnetic fields produced by human brain during cognitive processing. The geometric parameters of the model were obtained from accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and the material properties - from those obtained from Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTMRI). The 3D FE models of the brain built using this approach has been shown to be very accurate in terms of both geometric and material properties. The model is stored on the computer in Computer-Aided Parametrical Design (CAD) format. This allows the model to be used in a wide a range of methods of analysis, such as finite element method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Monte-Carlo Simulations, etc. The generic model building approach presented here could be used for accurate and realistic modelling of human brain and many other biological objects.
Recent results of seismic isolation study in CRIEPI: Numerical activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiojiri, Hiroo; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Yabana, Shurichi; Hirata, Kazuta
1992-01-01
Development of detailed numerical models of a bearing and the related isolation system Is necessary for establishing the rational design of the bearing and the system. The developed numerical models should be validated regarding the physical parameters and the basic assumption by comparing the experimental results with the numerical ones. The numerical work being conducted in CRIEPI consists of the following items: (1) Simple modeling of the behavior of the bearings capable of approximating the tests on bearings, and the validation of the model for the bearing by comparing the numerical results adopting the models with the shaking table tests results; (2) Detailed three-dimensional modeling of single bearings with finite-element codes, and the experimental validation of the model; (3)Simple and detailed three-dimensional modeling of isolation buildings and experimental validation
Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Liu
Full Text Available Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS, was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted.
Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konikow, L.F.
1996-01-01
This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs
Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konikow, L F [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)
1996-10-01
This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs.
de Mier, M.; Costa, F.; Idelsohn, S.
2008-12-01
Many magmatic and volcanic processes (e.g., magma differentiation, mingling, transport in the volcanic conduit) are controlled by the physical properties and flow styles of high-temperature silicate melts. Such processes can be experimentally investigated using analog systems and scaling methods, but it is difficult to find the suitable material and it is generally not possible to quantitatively extrapolate the results to the natural system. An alternative means of studying fluid dynamics in volcanic systems is with numerical models. We have chosen the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on a Delaunay mesh that moves with the fluid velocity, the Navier-Stokes equations in Lagrangian formulation, and linear elements for velocity, pressure, and temperature. Remeshing is performed when the grid becomes too distorted [E. Oñate et al., 2004. The Particle Finite Element Method: An Overview. Int. J. Comput. Meth. 1, 267-307]. The method is ideal for tracking material interfaces between different fluids or media. Methods based on Eulerian reference frames need special techniques, such as level-set or volume-of-fluid, to capture the interface position, and these techniques add a significant numerical diffusion at the interface. We have performed a series of two-dimensional simulations of a classical problem of fluid dynamics in magmatic and volcanic systems: intrusion of a basaltic melt in a silica-rich magma reservoir. We have used realistic physical properties and equations of state for the silicate melts (e.g., temperature, viscosity, and density) and tracked the changes in the system for geologically relevant time scales (up to 100 years). The problem is modeled by the low-Mach-number equations derived from an asymptotic analysis of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations that removes shock waves from the flow but allows however large variations of density due to temperature variations. Non-constant viscosity and volume changes are taken into account
3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Min; Coombs, T A
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-T c superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E–J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.
Modeling and numerical simulations of the influenced Sznajd model
Karan, Farshad Salimi Naneh; Srinivasan, Aravinda Ramakrishnan; Chakraborty, Subhadeep
2017-08-01
This paper investigates the effects of independent nonconformists or influencers on the behavioral dynamic of a population of agents interacting with each other based on the Sznajd model. The system is modeled on a complete graph using the master equation. The acquired equation has been numerically solved. Accuracy of the mathematical model and its corresponding assumptions have been validated by numerical simulations. Regions of initial magnetization have been found from where the system converges to one of two unique steady-state PDFs, depending on the distribution of influencers. The scaling property and entropy of the stationary system in presence of varying level of influence have been presented and discussed.
Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.
Numerically modeling Brownian thermal noise in amorphous and crystalline thin coatings
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Demos, Nicholas; Khan, Haroon
2018-01-01
Thermal noise is expected to be one of the noise sources limiting the astrophysical reach of Advanced LIGO (once commissioning is complete) and third-generation detectors. Adopting crystalline materials for thin, reflecting mirror coatings, rather than the amorphous coatings used in current-generation detectors, could potentially reduce thermal noise. Understanding and reducing thermal noise requires accurate theoretical models, but modeling thermal noise analytically is especially challenging with crystalline materials. Thermal noise models typically rely on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which relates the power spectral density of the thermal noise to an auxiliary elastic problem. In this paper, we present results from a new, open-source tool that numerically solves the auxiliary elastic problem to compute the Brownian thermal noise for both amorphous and crystalline coatings. We employ the open-source deal.ii and PETSc frameworks to solve the auxiliary elastic problem using a finite-element method, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel processing that enables us to use high resolutions capable of resolving the thin reflective coating. We verify numerical convergence, and by running on up to hundreds of compute cores, we resolve the coating elastic energy in the auxiliary problem to approximately 0.1%. We compare with approximate analytic solutions for amorphous materials, and we verify that our solutions scale as expected with changing beam size, mirror dimensions, and coating thickness. Finally, we model the crystalline coating thermal noise in an experiment reported by Cole et al (2013 Nat. Photon. 7 644–50), comparing our results to a simpler numerical calculation that treats the coating as an ‘effectively amorphous’ material. We find that treating the coating as a cubic crystal instead of as an effectively amorphous material increases the thermal noise by about 3%. Our results are a step toward better understanding and reducing thermal noise to
Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.
Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed
2016-01-01
Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.
Numerical simulation of instability behaviour of thin-walled frames with flexible connections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turkalj, G.; Brnic, J.; Vizentin, G.; Lanc, D.
2009-01-01
A one-dimensional finite element formulation for numerical simulation of instability behaviour of thin-walled frames containing flexible connections is presented. Stiffness matrices of a conventional 14-degree of freedom beam element are derived by applying the linearized virtual work principle and Vlasov's assumption. The structural material is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and linear-elastic. Flexible connection behaviour and different warping deformation conditions are introduced into the numerical model by modifying stiffness matrices of a conventional beam element. For that purpose a special transformation matrix is derived. The effectiveness of the numerical algorithm discussed is validated through the test problem
Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.
2011-01-01
In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.
Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlütter, Flemming
A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shao Yan-Lin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.
Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Steel-Concrete Composite Floor in Typical Lipsk Building
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lacki Piotr
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the work was to perform numerical analysis of a steel-concrete composite floor located in a LIPSK type building. A numerical model of the analytically designed floor was performed. The floor was in a six-storey, retail and service building. The thickness of a prefabricated slab was 100 mm. The two-row, crisscrossed reinforcement of the slab was made from φ16 mm rods with a spacing of 150 x 200 mm. The span of the beams made of steel IPE 160 profiles was 6.00 m and they were spaced every 1.20 m. The steelconcrete composite was obtained using 80×16 Nelson fasteners. The numerical analysis was carried out using the ADINA System based on the Finite Element Method. The stresses and strains in the steel and concrete elements, the distribution of the forces in the reinforcement bars and cracking in concrete were evaluated. The FEM model was made from 3D-solid finite elements (IPE profile and concrete slab and truss elements (reinforcement bars. The adopted steel material model takes into consideration the plastic state, while the adopted concrete material model takes into account material cracks.
Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Claus Poulsen
This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of secondary settling tanks. In the first part, the status on the development of numerical models for settling tanks and a discussion of the current design practice are presented. A study of the existing numerical models...... and design practice proved a demand for further development to include numerical models in the design of settling tanks, thus improving the future settling tanks....
Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.
2008-01-01
-dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show excellent results when compared with measurements. However, considerable errors occur when...
Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J. Chen, H.R. Strauss, S.C. Jardin, W. Park, L.E. Sugiyama, G. Fu, J. Breslau
2005-01-01
There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied
Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Protchenko Kostiantyn
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.
Numerical modeling and optimization of machining duplex stainless steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastee D. Koyee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The shortcomings of the machining analytical and empirical models in combination with the industry demands have to be fulfilled. A three-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM introduces an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between pure empirical and fundamental scientific quantities, and fulfill the industry needs. However, the challenging aspects which hinder the successful adoption of FEM in the machining sector of manufacturing industry have to be solved first. One of the greatest challenges is the identification of the correct set of machining simulation input parameters. This study presents a new methodology to inversely calculate the input parameters when simulating the machining of standard duplex EN 1.4462 and super duplex EN 1.4410 stainless steels. JMatPro software is first used to model elastic–viscoplastic and physical work material behavior. In order to effectively obtain an optimum set of inversely identified friction coefficients, thermal contact conductance, Cockcroft–Latham critical damage value, percentage reduction in flow stress, and Taylor–Quinney coefficient, Taguchi-VIKOR coupled with Firefly Algorithm Neural Network System is applied. The optimization procedure effectively minimizes the overall differences between the experimentally measured performances such as cutting forces, tool nose temperature and chip thickness, and the numerically obtained ones at any specified cutting condition. The optimum set of input parameter is verified and used for the next step of 3D-FEM application. In the next stage of the study, design of experiments, numerical simulations, and fuzzy rule modeling approaches are employed to optimize types of chip breaker, insert shapes, process conditions, cutting parameters, and tool orientation angles based on many important performances. Through this study, not only a new methodology in defining the optimal set of controllable parameters for turning simulations is introduced, but also
On the Hughes model and numerical aspects
Gomes, Diogo A.
2017-01-05
We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Hongzhu; Xiong, Bin; Han, Muran
2014-01-01
This paper presents a linear edge-based finite element method for numerical modeling of 3D controlled-source electromagnetic data in an anisotropic conductive medium. We use a nonuniform rectangular mesh in order to capture the rapid change of diffusive electromagnetic field within the regions of...... are in a good agreement with the solutions obtained by the integral equation method....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kottner R.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Adhesively bonded joints can be numerically simulated using the cohesive crack model. The critical strain energy release rate and the critical opening displacement are the parameters which must be known when cohesive elements in MSC.Marc software are used. In this work, the parameters of two industrial adhesives Hunstman Araldite 2021 and Gurit Spabond 345 for bonding of epoxy composites are identified. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB and End Notched Flexure (ENF test data were used for the identification. The critical opening displacements were identified using an optimization algorithm where the tests and their numerical simulations were compared.
Improving the seismic small-scale modelling by comparison with numerical methods
Pageot, Damien; Leparoux, Donatienne; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Durand, Olivier; Côte, Philippe; Capdeville, Yann
2017-10-01
the Spectral Element Method. The approach shows the relevance of building a line source by sampling several source points, except the boundaries effects on later arrival times. Indeed, the experimental results highlight the amplitude feature and the delay equal to π/4 provided by a line source in the same manner than numerical data. In opposite, the 2-D corrections applied on 3-D data showed discrepancies which are higher on experimental data than on numerical ones due to the source wavelet shape and interferences between different arrivals. The experimental results from the approach proposed here show that discrepancies are avoided, especially for the reflected echoes. Concerning the second point aiming to assess the experimental reproducibility of the source, correlation coefficients of recording from a repeated source impact on a homogeneous model are calculated. The quality of the results, that is, higher than 0.98, allow to calculate a mean source wavelet by inversion of a mean data set. Results obtained on a more realistic model simulating clays on limestones, confirmed the reproducibility of the source impact.
Numerical Model of a Variable-Combined-Cycle Engine for Dual Subsonic and Supersonic Cruise
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Victor Fernandez-Villace
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Efficient high speed propulsion requires exploiting the cooling capability of the cryogenic fuel in the propulsion cycle. This paper presents the numerical model of a combined cycle engine while in air turbo-rocket configuration. Specific models of the various heat exchanger modules and the turbomachinery elements were developed to represent the physical behavior at off-design operation. The dynamic nature of the model allows the introduction of the engine control logic that limits the operation of certain subcomponents and extends the overall engine operational envelope. The specific impulse and uninstalled thrust are detailed while flying a determined trajectory between Mach 2.5 and 5 for varying throttling levels throughout the operational envelope.
Evaluation of CFD numerical models for the study of the flow of water from the RMB pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmieri, Bruno Leonhardt; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Rezende, Hugo Cesar; Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araujo
2013-01-01
In this work two numerical models were developed for the study of the flow in the pool of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor-RMB using two computer codes: FLUENT and CFX. The codes presents big differences that may affect the results and performance of the simulation. An example is the mesh, which can be fully composed of regular hexahedral and present local refinement in FLUENT, due to the implementation of the solution focused on the element, which is not possible in CFX, which takes a node-centric solution. The temperature profiles were evaluated over the time of simulation. The research and the defining of an appropriate and optimized numerical model will be of fundamental importance for the RMB hot water layer project
Improved Element Erosion Function for Concrete-Like Materials with the SPH Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Kala
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The subject of the paper is a description of a simple test from the field of terminal ballistics and the handling of issues arising during its simulation using the numerical techniques of the finite element method. With regard to the possible excessive reshaping of the finite element mesh there is a danger that problems will arise such as the locking of elements or the appearance of negative volumes. It is often necessary to introduce numerical extensions so that the simulations can be carried out at all. When examining local damage to structures, such as the penetration of the outer shell or its perforation, it is almost essential to introduce the numerical erosion of elements into the simulations. However, when using numerical erosion, the dissipation of matter and energy from the computational model occurs in the mathematical background to the calculation. It is a phenomenon which can reveal itself in the final result when a discrepancy appears between the simulations and the experiments. This issue can be solved by transforming the eroded elements into smoothed particle hydrodynamics particles. These newly created particles can then assume the characteristics of the original elements and preserve the matter and energy of the numerical model.
Finite element modelling of chain-die forming for ultra-high strength steel
Majji, Raju; Xiang, Yang; Ding, Scott; Yang, Chunhui
2017-10-01
There has been a high demand for weight reduction in automotive vehicles while maintaining passenger safety. A potential steel material to achieve this is Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS). As a high strength material, it is difficult to be formed with desired profiles using traditional sheet metal forming processes such as Cold Roll Forming. To overcome this problem, a potentially alternative solution is Chain-die Forming (CDF), recently developed. The basic principal of the CDF is to fully combine roll forming and bending processes. The main advantage of this process is the elongated deformation length that significantly increases effective roll radius. This study focuses on identifying issues with the CDF by using CAD modelling, Motion Analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to devise solutions and construct a more reliable process in an optimal design sense. Some attempts on finite element modelling and simulation of the CDF were conducted using relatively simple models in literature and the research was still not sufficient enough for optimal design of a typical CDF for UHSS. Therefore two numerical models of Chain-die Forming process are developed in this study, including a) one having a set of rolls similar to roll forming but with a large radius, i.e., 20 meters; and b) the other one with dies and punch segments similar to a typical CDF machine. As a case study, to form a 60° channel with single pass was conducted using these two devised models for a comparison. The obtained numerical results clearly show the CDF could generate less residual stress, low strain and small springback of a single pass for the 60° UHSS channel. The design analysis procedure proposed in this study could greatly help the mechanical designers to devise a cost-effective and reliable CDF process for forming UHSS.
Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz
2011-02-01
The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area.
Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.
2015-04-02
In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.
A model finite-element to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Tanajura, C.A.S.
1988-01-01
A model to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod is presented. We drew our attention to the phenomenon of pellet-pellet and pellet-cladding contact by taking advantage of an elastic model which include the effects of thermal gradients, cladding internal and external pressures, swelling and initial relocation. The problem of contact gives rise ro a variational formulation which employs Lagrangian multipliers. An iterative scheme is constructed and the finite element method is applied to obtain the numerical solution. Some results and comments are presented to examine the performance of the model. (author) [pt
Numerical simulation of damage evolution for ductile materials and mechanical properties study
El Amri, A.; Hanafi, I.; Haddou, M. E. Y.; Khamlichi, A.
2015-12-01
This paper presents results of a numerical modelling of ductile fracture and failure of elements made of 5182H111 aluminium alloys subjected to dynamic traction. The analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook model based on ABAQUS software. The modelling difficulty related to prediction of ductile fracture mainly arises because there is a tremendous span of length scales from the structural problem to the micro-mechanics problem governing the material separation process. This study has been used the experimental results to calibrate a simple crack propagation criteria for shell elements of which one has often been used in practical analyses. The performance of the proposed model is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations.
Numerical simulation of damage evolution for ductile materials and mechanical properties study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amri, A El; Haddou, M E Y; Hanafi, I; Khamlichi, A
2015-01-01
This paper presents results of a numerical modelling of ductile fracture and failure of elements made of 5182H111 aluminium alloys subjected to dynamic traction. The analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook model based on ABAQUS software. The modelling difficulty related to prediction of ductile fracture mainly arises because there is a tremendous span of length scales from the structural problem to the micro-mechanics problem governing the material separation process. This study has been used the experimental results to calibrate a simple crack propagation criteria for shell elements of which one has often been used in practical analyses. The performance of the proposed model is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations. (paper)
On Numerical Methods in Non-Newtonian Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileas, G.
1982-12-01
The constitutive equations for non-Newtonian flows are presented and the various flow models derived from continuum mechanics and molecular theories are considered and evaluated. Detailed account is given of numerical simulation employing differential and integral models of different kinds of non-Newtonian flows using finite-difference and finite-element techniques. Appreciating the fact that no book or concentrated material on Numerical Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow exists at the present, procedures for computer set-ups are described and references are given for finite-difference, finite-element and molecular-theory based programmes for several kinds of flow. Achievements and unreached goals in the field of numerical simulation of non-Newtonian flows are discussed and the lack of numerical work in the fields of suspension flows and heat transfer is pointed out. Finally, FFOCUS is presented as a newly built computer program which can simulate freezing flows on Newtonian fluids through various geometries and is aimed to be further developed to handle non-Newtonian freezing flows and certain types of suspension phenomena involved in corium flow after a hypothetical core melt-down accident in a PWR. (author)
Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas
Ding, J.; Wang, S.
2017-12-01
Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).
Numerical investigation of elastic mechanical properties of graphene structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgantzinos, S.K.; Giannopoulos, G.I.; Anifantis, N.K.
2010-01-01
The computation of the elastic mechanical properties of graphene sheets, nanoribbons and graphite flakes using spring based finite element models is the aim of this paper. Interatomic bonded interactions as well as van der Waals forces between carbon atoms are simulated via the use of appropriate spring elements expressing corresponding potential energies provided by molecular theory. Each layer is idealized as a spring-like structure with carbon atoms represented by nodes while interatomic forces are simulated by translational and torsional springs with linear behavior. The non-bonded van der Waals interactions among atoms which are responsible for keeping the graphene layers together are simulated with the Lennard-Jones potential using appropriate spring elements. Numerical results concerning the Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio for graphene structures are derived in terms of their chilarity, width, length and number of layers. The numerical results from finite element simulations show good agreement with existing numerical values in the open literature.
Thermal Modelling and Design of On-board DC-DC Power Converter using Finite Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staliulionis, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Pittini, R.
2014-01-01
Power electronic converters are widely used and play a pivotal role in electronics area. The temperature causes around 54 % of all power converters failures. Thermal loads are nowadays one of the bottlenecks in the power system design and the cooling efficiency of a system is primarily determined...... by numerical modelling techniques. Therefore, thermal design through thermal modelling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the design process as less expensive compared to the experimental cut-and-try approach. Here the investigation is performed using finite element method-based modelling, and also...
Thermal Modeling and Design of On-board DC-DC Power Converter using Finite Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Power electronic converters are widely used and play a pivotal role in electronics area . The temperature causes around 54 % of all power converters failures. Thermal loads are nowadays one of the bottlenecks in the power system design and the cooling efficiency of a system is primarily determined...... by numerical modeling techniques. Therefore, thermal design through thermal modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the design process as less expensive compared to the experimenta l cut - and - try approach. Here the investigation is performed using finite element method - based modeling...
Non-linear finite element modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mintchev, Pavel; Dimitrov, Marin; Balinov, Stoimen
2002-01-01
The possibilities for applying the Finite Element Method (FEM) with gauged magnetic vector potential and the Edge Element Method (EEM) for three-dimensional numerical analysis of magnetostatic systems are analyzed. It is established that the EEM ensures sufficient accuracy for engineering calculations but in some cases its use results in bad convergence. The use of the FEM with gauged magnetic vector potential instead of the EEM is recommended for preliminary calculations of devices with complex geometry and large air gaps between the ferromagnetic parts. (Author)
Finite element modeling of Balsa wood structures under severe loadings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toson, B.; Pesque, J.J.; Viot, P.
2014-01-01
In order to compute, in various situations, the requirements for transporting packages using Balsa wood as an energy absorber, a constitutive model is needed that takes into account all of the specific characteristics of the wood, such as its anisotropy, compressibility, softening, densification, and strain rate dependence. Such a model must also include the treatment of rupture of the wood when it is in traction. The complete description of wood behavior is not sufficient: robustness is also necessary because this model has to work in presence of large deformations and of many other external nonlinear phenomena in the surrounding structures. We propose such a constitutive model that we have developed using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS. The necessary data were acquired through an extensive compilation of the existing literature with the augmentation of personal measurements. Numerous validation tests are presented that represent different impact situations that a transportation cask might endure. (authors)
Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giorla, Alain B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-03-01
In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some
Quinquis, M. E. T.; Buiter, S. J. H.
2013-10-01
Subduction of oceanic lithosphere brings water into Earth's upper mantle. Previous numerical studies have shown how slab dehydration and mantle hydration can impact the dynamics of a subduction system by allowing a more vigorous mantle flow and promoting localisation of deformation in lithosphere and mantle. The depths at which dehydration reactions occur in the hydrated portions of the slab are well constrained in these models by thermodynamic calculations. However, the mechanism by which free water migrates in the mantle is incompletely known. Therefore, models use different numerical schemes to model the migration of free water. We aim to show the influence of the numerical scheme of free water migration on the dynamics of the upper mantle and more specifically the mantle wedge. We investigate the following three migration schemes with a finite-element model: (1) element-wise vertical migration of free water, occurring independent of the material flow; (2) an imposed vertical free water velocity; and (3) a Darcy velocity, where the free water velocity is calculated as a function of the pressure gradient between water and the surrounding rocks. In addition, the material flow field also moves the free water in the imposed vertical velocity and Darcy schemes. We first test the influence of the water migration scheme using a simple Stokes flow model that simulates the sinking of a cold hydrated cylinder into a hot dry mantle. We find that the free water migration scheme has only a limited impact on the water distribution after 1 Myr in these models. We next investigate slab dehydration and mantle hydration with a thermomechanical subduction model that includes brittle behaviour and viscous water-dependent creep flow laws. Our models show how the bound water distribution is not greatly influenced by the water migration scheme whereas the free water distribution is. We find that a water-dependent creep flow law results in a broader area of hydration in the mantle
Clement, R; Schneider, J; Brambs, H-J; Wunderlich, A; Geiger, M; Sander, F G
2004-02-01
The paper demonstrates how to generate an individual 3D volume model of a human single-rooted tooth using an automatic workflow. It can be implemented into finite element simulation. In several computational steps, computed tomography data of patients are used to obtain the global coordinates of the tooth's surface. First, the large number of geometric data is processed with several self-developed algorithms for a significant reduction. The most important task is to keep geometrical information of the real tooth. The second main part includes the creation of the volume model for tooth and periodontal ligament (PDL). This is realized with a continuous free form surface of the tooth based on the remaining points. Generating such irregular objects for numerical use in biomechanical research normally requires enormous manual effort and time. The finite element mesh of the tooth, consisting of hexahedral elements, is composed of different materials: dentin, PDL and surrounding alveolar bone. It is capable of simulating tooth movement in a finite element analysis and may give valuable information for a clinical approach without the restrictions of tetrahedral elements. The mesh generator of FE software ANSYS executed the mesh process for hexahedral elements successfully.
Evaluation of wave runup predictions from numerical and parametric models
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.
2014-01-01
Wave runup during storms is a primary driver of coastal evolution, including shoreline and dune erosion and barrier island overwash. Runup and its components, setup and swash, can be predicted from a parameterized model that was developed by comparing runup observations to offshore wave height, wave period, and local beach slope. Because observations during extreme storms are often unavailable, a numerical model is used to simulate the storm-driven runup to compare to the parameterized model and then develop an approach to improve the accuracy of the parameterization. Numerically simulated and parameterized runup were compared to observations to evaluate model accuracies. The analysis demonstrated that setup was accurately predicted by both the parameterized model and numerical simulations. Infragravity swash heights were most accurately predicted by the parameterized model. The numerical model suffered from bias and gain errors that depended on whether a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial domain was used. Nonetheless, all of the predictions were significantly correlated to the observations, implying that the systematic errors can be corrected. The numerical simulations did not resolve the incident-band swash motions, as expected, and the parameterized model performed best at predicting incident-band swash heights. An assimilated prediction using a weighted average of the parameterized model and the numerical simulations resulted in a reduction in prediction error variance. Finally, the numerical simulations were extended to include storm conditions that have not been previously observed. These results indicated that the parameterized predictions of setup may need modification for extreme conditions; numerical simulations can be used to extend the validity of the parameterized predictions of infragravity swash; and numerical simulations systematically underpredict incident swash, which is relatively unimportant under extreme conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olofsson, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders
2005-05-01
The Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is conducting Preliminary Site Investigations at two different locations in Sweden in order to study the possibility of a Deep Repository for spent fuel. In the frame of these Site Investigations, Site Descriptive Models are achieved. These products are the result of an interaction of several disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology, and meteorology. The Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model constitutes one of these models. Before the start of the Site Investigations a numerical method using Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and the 2D numerical software UDEC was developed. Numerical simulations were the tool chosen for applying the theoretical approach for characterising the mechanical rock mass properties. Some shortcomings were identified when developing the methodology. Their impacts on the modelling (in term of time and quality assurance of results) were estimated to be so important that the improvement of the methodology with another numerical tool was investigated. The theoretical approach is still based on DFN models but the numerical software used is 3DEC. The main assets of the programme compared to UDEC are an optimised algorithm for the generation of fractures in the model and for the assignment of mechanical fracture properties. Due to some numerical constraints the test conditions were set-up in order to simulate 2D plane strain tests. Numerical simulations were conducted on the same data set as used previously for the UDEC modelling in order to estimate and validate the results from the new methodology. A real 3D simulation was also conducted in order to assess the effect of the '2D' conditions in the 3DEC model. Based on the quality of the results it was decided to update the theoretical model and introduce the new methodology based on DFN models and 3DEC simulations for the establishment of the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. By separating the spatial variability into two parts, one
Numerical modelling approach for mine backfill
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Muhammad Zaka Emad
2017-07-24
Jul 24, 2017 ... conditions. This paper discusses a numerical modelling strategy for modelling mine backfill material. The .... placed in an ore pass that leads the ore to the ore bin and crusher, from ... 1 year, depending on the mine plan.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Zhao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing (HF technique has been extensively used for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. HF enhances the connectivity of less permeable oil and gas-bearing rock formations by fluid injection, which creates an interconnected fracture network and increases the hydrocarbon production. Meanwhile, microseismic (MS monitoring is one of the most effective approaches to evaluate such stimulation process. In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM is adopted to numerically simulate HF and associated MS. Several post-processing tools, including frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value, fractal dimension (D-value, and seismic events clustering, are utilized to interpret numerical results. A non-parametric clustering algorithm designed specifically for FDEM is used to reduce the mesh dependency and extract more realistic seismic information. Simulation results indicated that at the local scale, the HF process tends to propagate following the rock mass discontinuities; while at the reservoir scale, it tends to develop in the direction parallel to the maximum in-situ stress.
Pawar, R.; Dash, Z.; Sakaki, T.; Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Zyvoloski, G.
2011-12-01
One of the concerns related to geologic CO2 sequestration is potential leakage of CO2 and its subsequent migration to shallow groundwater resources leading to geochemical impacts. Developing approaches to monitor CO2 migration in shallow aquifer and mitigate leakage impacts will require improving our understanding of gas phase formation and multi-phase flow subsequent to CO2 leakage in shallow aquifers. We are utilizing an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to characterize the multi-phase flow of CO2 in shallow aquifers. The laboratory experiments involve a series of highly controlled experiments in which CO2 dissolved water is injected in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns and tanks. The experimental results are used to study the effects of soil properties, temperature, pressure gradients and heterogeneities on gas formation and migration. We utilize the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) simulator (Zyvoloski et al, 2010) to numerically model the experimental results. The numerical models capture the physics of CO2 exsolution, multi-phase fluid flow as well as sand heterogeneity. Experimental observations of pressure, temperature and gas saturations are used to develop and constrain conceptual models for CO2 gas-phase formation and multi-phase CO2 flow in porous media. This talk will provide details of development of conceptual models based on experimental observation, development of numerical models for laboratory experiments and modelling results.
Numerical simulation of the interaction of elements of active protection with metal barriers
Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.
2017-10-01
The present paper is aimed at working out the algorithm of multi-contact interaction of solid bodies; it studies the influence of the shape of projectile (damage agent) on its penetration capability. Steel projectiles of different shape have been considered as damage agents: sphere, regular tetrahedron, cube, cylinder and plate. The weight of projectiles has been kept the same. Antitank grenade has been used as a target. The study has been conducted by means of numerical simulation using finite element analysis. The simulation is three-dimensional. Behavior of materials has been described by elasto-plastic model taking into consideration the fracture and fragmentation of interacting bodies. The speed of interaction has been considered within the range of 800 to 2000 m/s. Research results demonstrated significant influence of the projectile shape on its penetration capability. Projectile in the shape of elongated cylinder has shown better penetration capability. Considering the weight of damage agents (except for sphere and plate) their maximum penetration capability has been reached at the speed of 1400 m/s. Increase of the speed of interaction has been followed by intensive fracture of damage agents and their penetration capability thus has worsened.
Mier-Torrecilla, Monica; Geyer, Adelina; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, Eugenio
2010-05-01
In this work we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), a newly developed tool that combines the flexibility of particle-based methods with the accuracy of the finite element discretization. In order to test the applicability of PFEM to the study of negatively buoyant jets, we have compared the two-dimensional numerical results with experiments investigating the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Reynolds Re and Froude numbers Fr, such that 0.1 < Fr < 30, reproducing both weak and strong fountains in a laminar regime (8 < Re < 1350). Numerical results, together with the experimental observations, allow us to describe three different fountain behaviors that have not been previously reported. Based on the Re and Fr values for the numerical and experimental simulations, we have built a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of each of the observed flow types. Whereas the Fr number itself provides a prediction of the maximum penetration height of the jet, its combination with the Re number provides a prediction of the flow behavior for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity. Conclusive remarks concerning the dynamics of negatively buoyant jets may be applied later on to several geological situations, e.g. the flow structure of a fully submerged subaqueous eruptive vent discharging magma or the replenishment of magma chambers in the Earth's crust.
Bu, Sunyoung; Huang, Jingfang; Boyer, Treavor H.; Miller, Cass T.
2010-07-01
The focus of this work is on the modeling of an ion exchange process that occurs in drinking water treatment applications. The model formulation consists of a two-scale model in which a set of microscale diffusion equations representing ion exchange resin particles that vary in size and age are coupled through a boundary condition with a macroscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE), which represents the concentration of a species in a well-mixed reactor. We introduce a new age-averaged model (AAM) that averages all ion exchange particle ages for a given size particle to avoid the expensive Monte-Carlo simulation associated with previous modeling applications. We discuss two different numerical schemes to approximate both the original Monte-Carlo algorithm and the new AAM for this two-scale problem. The first scheme is based on the finite element formulation in space coupled with an existing backward difference formula-based ODE solver in time. The second scheme uses an integral equation based Krylov deferred correction (KDC) method and a fast elliptic solver (FES) for the resulting elliptic equations. Numerical results are presented to validate the new AAM algorithm, which is also shown to be more computationally efficient than the original Monte-Carlo algorithm. We also demonstrate that the higher order KDC scheme is more efficient than the traditional finite element solution approach and this advantage becomes increasingly important as the desired accuracy of the solution increases. We also discuss issues of smoothness, which affect the efficiency of the KDC-FES approach, and outline additional algorithmic changes that would further improve the efficiency of these developing methods for a wide range of applications.
Quinquis, M. E. T.; Buiter, S. J. H.
2014-06-01
Subduction of oceanic lithosphere brings water into the Earth's upper mantle. Previous numerical studies have shown how slab dehydration and mantle hydration can impact the dynamics of a subduction system by allowing a more vigorous mantle flow and promoting localisation of deformation in the lithosphere and mantle. The depths at which dehydration reactions occur in the hydrated portions of the slab are well constrained in these models by thermodynamic calculations. However, computational models use different numerical schemes to simulate the migration of free water. We aim to show the influence of the numerical scheme of free water migration on the dynamics of the upper mantle and more specifically the mantle wedge. We investigate the following three simple migration schemes with a finite-element model: (1) element-wise vertical migration of free water, occurring independent of the flow of the solid phase; (2) an imposed vertical free water velocity; and (3) a Darcy velocity, where the free water velocity is a function of the pressure gradient caused by the difference in density between water and the surrounding rocks. In addition, the flow of the solid material field also moves the free water in the imposed vertical velocity and Darcy schemes. We first test the influence of the water migration scheme using a simple model that simulates the sinking of a cold, hydrated cylinder into a dry, warm mantle. We find that the free water migration scheme has only a limited impact on the water distribution after 1 Myr in these models. We next investigate slab dehydration and mantle hydration with a thermomechanical subduction model that includes brittle behaviour and viscous water-dependent creep flow laws. Our models demonstrate that the bound water distribution is not greatly influenced by the water migration scheme whereas the free water distribution is. We find that a bound water-dependent creep flow law results in a broader area of hydration in the mantle wedge, which
Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models
LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeta Šamec
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Designing mechanical systems which are submitted to vibration requires calculation methods which are very different to those u-sed in other disciplines because, when this occurs, the magnitude of the forces becomes secondary and the frequency with which the force is repeated becomes the most important aspect. It must be taken care of, given that smaller periodic forces can prompt disasters than greater static forces. The article presents a representative problem regarding systems having forced vibration, the mathematical treatment of differential equations from an electrical and mechanical viewpoint, an electrical analogy, numerical modeling of circuits using ANSYS finite element software, analysis and comparison of numerical modeling results compared to test values, the post-processing of results and conclusions regarding electrical analogy methodology when analysing forced vibra-tion systems.
Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jun Soo; Kim, Jong Min
1996-06-01
A finite element model was developed for the thermal analysis of a stud-to-plate laser brazing joint, and the transient temperature fields were analysed by using a three-dimensional model. The finite element program ABAQUS, together with a few user subroutines, was employed to perform the numerical approximation. Temperature-dependent thermal properties, effect of latent heat, and the convection and radiative heat losses were considered. The brazing parts used were AISI 304 stainless steel stud and aluminium A1 5052 plate, and the brazing alloy 88 A1-12 Si was used as filler metal. A pseudo-TM 01 mode of the cw CO 2 laser beam was used as heat source, for which TM 00 mode generated by beam oscillator was optically modulated using axicon lens. Re-location of the filler metal during the brazing process including its wetting and spreading was examined by using a high speed motion analyser, and the results were incorporated inn the FEM modelling for defining the solution domain and boundary conditions. The numerical results were obtained for typical process parameters, and were compared with experimental ones determined by using the infrared and thermocouple measurements. 11 figs., 30 refs. (Author)
Experimental and numerical investigations of shape memory alloy helical springs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguiar, Ricardo A A; Pacheco, Pedro M C L; Savi, Marcelo A
2010-01-01
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to the class of smart materials and have been used in numerous applications. Solid phase transformations induced either by stress or temperature are behind the remarkable properties of SMAs that motivate the concept of innovative smart actuators for different purposes. The SMA element used in these actuators can assume different forms and a spring is an element usually employed for this aim. This contribution deals with the modeling, simulation and experimental analysis of SMA helical springs. Basically, a one-dimensional constitutive model is assumed to describe the SMA thermomechanical shear behavior and, afterwards, helical springs are modeled by considering a classical approach for linear-elastic springs. A numerical method based on the operator split technique is developed. SMA helical spring thermomechanical behavior is investigated through experimental tests performed with different thermomechanical loadings. Shape memory and pseudoelastic effects are treated. Numerical simulations show that the model results are in close agreement with those obtained by experimental tests, revealing that the proposed model captures the general thermomechanical behavior of SMA springs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Voronov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a literature review in simulation of grinding processes. It takes into consideration the statistical, energy based, and imitation approaches to simulation of grinding forces. Main stages of interaction between abrasive grains and machined surface are shown. The article describes main approaches to the geometry modeling of forming new surfaces when grinding. The review of approaches to the chip and pile up effect numerical modeling is shown. Advantages and disadvantages of grain-to-surface interaction by means of finite element method and molecular dynamics method are considered. The article points out that it is necessary to take into consideration the system dynamics and its effect on the finished surface. Structure of the complex imitation model of grinding process dynamics for flexible work-pieces with spatial surface geometry is proposed from the literature review. The proposed model of spatial grinding includes the model of work-piece dynamics, model of grinding wheel dynamics, phenomenological model of grinding forces based on 3D geometry modeling algorithm. Model gives the following results for spatial grinding process: vibration of machining part and grinding wheel, machined surface geometry, static deflection of the surface and grinding forces under various cutting conditions.
Numerical Analysis of Deflections of Multi-Layered Beams
Biliński, Tadeusz; Socha, Tomasz
2015-03-01
The paper concerns the rheological bending problem of wooden beams reinforced with embedded composite bars. A theoretical model of the behaviour of a multi-layered beam is presented. The component materials of this beam are described with equations for the linear viscoelastic five-parameter rheological model. Two numerical analysis methods for the long-term response of wood structures are presented. The first method has been developed with SCILAB software. The second one has been developed with the finite element calculation software ABAQUS and user subroutine UMAT. Laboratory investigations were conducted on sample beams of natural dimensions in order to validate the proposed theoretical model and verify numerical simulations. Good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical results is observed.
NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vipman Tandjiria
1999-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.
Ocean wave prediction using numerical and neural network models
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.
This paper presents an overview of the development of the numerical wave prediction models and recently used neural networks for ocean wave hindcasting and forecasting. The numerical wave models express the physical concepts of the phenomena...
Bending stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints applied with a use of finite element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milan Šimek
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Presented work focuses on bending moment stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints with a use of Finite Element Method. The joints are created from Minifix and Rondorfix cams combined with non-glued wooden dowels. Laminated particleboard 18 mm of thickness is used as a connected material. The connectors were chosen such as the most applied kind in furniture industry for the case furniture. All gained results were reciprocally compared to each other and also in comparison to experimental testing by the mean of stiffness. The non-linear numerical model of chosen joints was successfully created using the software Ansys Workbench. The detailed analysis of stress distribution in the joint was achieved with non-linear numerical simulation. A relationship between numerical simulation and experimental testing was showed by comparison stiffness tangents. A numerical simulation of RTA joint loads also demonstrated the important role of non-glued dowels in the tested joints. The low strength of particleboard in the tension parallel to surface (internal bond is the most likely the cause of the joint failure. Results are applicable for strength designing of furniture with the aid of Computer Aided Engineering.
Mechanical Characterization and Numerical Modelling of Rubber Shockpads in 3G Artificial Turf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Cole
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Third generation (3G artificial turf systems use in sporting applications is increasingly prolific. These multi-component systems are comprised of a range of polymeric and elastomeric materials that exhibit non-linear and strain rate dependent behaviours under the complex loads applied from players and equipment. To further study and better understand the behaviours of these systems, the development of a numerical model to accurately predict individual layers’ behaviour as well as the overall system response under different loading conditions is necessary. The purpose of this study was to characterise and model the mechanical behaviour of a rubber shockpad found in 3G artificial surfaces for vertical shock absorption using finite element analysis. A series of uniaxial compression tests were performed to characterise the mechanical behaviour of the shockpad. Compression loading was performed at 0.9 Hz to match human walking speeds. A Microfoam material model was selected from the PolyUMod library and optimised using MCalibration software before being imported into ABAQUS for analysis. A finite element model was created for the shockpad using ABAQUS and a compressive load applied to match that of the experimental data. Friction coefficients were altered to view the effect on the loading response. The accuracy of the model was compared using a series of comparative measures including the energy loss and root mean square error.
The Numerical FEM Model of the Kinematics of the Vibratory Shot Peening Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanisław Bławucki
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical calculations, with the finite element method in the ABAQUS program environment, of the vibratory shot peening process with loose peening elements. The behaviour of shot peening elements was analysed in the kinematic aspect. The impact of the initial deployment of vibratory shot peening elements on their behaviour during processing was investigated, including the displacement, velocity, acceleration and the number of collisions. The way of determining the effectiveness of the processing with the vibratory shot peening was illustrated.
Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in Near-Surface Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pique, Angels; Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Berglund, Sten
2013-01-01
Scenarios of barrier failure and radionuclide release to the near-surface environment are important to consider within performance and safety assessments of repositories for nuclear waste. A geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is planned at Forsmark, Sweden. Conceptual and numerical reactive transport models were developed in order to assess the retention capacity of the Quaternary till and clay deposits for selected radionuclides, in the event of an activity release from the repository. The elements considered were carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), cesium (Cs), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), radium (Ra), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), technetium (Tc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). According to the numerical predictions, the repository-derived nuclides that would be most significantly retained are Th, Ni, and Cs, mainly through sorption onto clays, followed by U, C, Sr, and Ra, trapped by sorption and/or incorporation into mineral phases
Numerical Modeling and Mechanical Analysis of Flexible Risers
Li, J. Y.; Qiu, Z. X.; Ju, J. S.
2015-01-01
ABAQUS is used to create a detailed finite element model for a 10-layer unbonded flexible riser to simulate the riser’s mechanical behavior under three load conditions: tension force and internal and external pressure. It presents a technique to create detailed finite element model and to analyze flexible risers. In FEM model, all layers are modeled separately with contact interfaces; interaction between steel trips in certain layers has been considered as well. FEM model considering contact ...
Ogawa, Masaki
2018-02-01
To discuss how redistribution of heat producing elements (HPEs) by magmatism affects the lunar mantle evolution depending on the initial condition, I present two-dimensional numerical models of magmatism in convecting mantle internally heated by incompatible HPEs. Mantle convection occurs beneath a stagnant lithosphere that inhibits recycling of the HPE-enriched crustal materials to the mantle. Magmatism is modeled by a permeable flow of magma generated by decompression melting through matrix. Migrating magma transports heat, mass, and HPEs. When the deep mantle is initially hot with the temperature TD around 1800 K at its base, magmatism starts from the beginning of the calculated history to extract HPEs from the mantle. The mantle is monotonously cooled, and magmatism ceases within 2 Gyr, accordingly. When the deep mantle is initially colder with TD around 1100 K, HPEs stay in the deep mantle for a longer time to let the planet be first heated up and then cooled only slightly. If, in addition, there is an HPE-enriched domain in the shallow mantle at the beginning of the calculation, magma continues ascending to the surface through the domain for more than 3 Gyr. The low TD models fit in with the thermal and magmatic history of the Moon inferred from spacecraft observations, although it is not clear if the models are consistent with the current understanding of the origin of the Moon and its magnetic field. Redistribution of HPEs by magmatism is a crucial factor that must be taken into account in future studies of the evolution of the Moon.
Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves
Pérez, Nicolás; Buiochi, Flávio; Brizzotti Andrade, Marco Aurélio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar
2016-01-01
Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. PMID:28787875
Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolás Pérez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM, to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods.
Khan, Sabeel M.; Sunny, D. A.; Aqeel, M.
2017-09-01
Nonlinear dynamical systems and their solutions are very sensitive to initial conditions and therefore need to be approximated carefully. In this article, we present and analyze nonlinear solution characteristics of the periodically forced Chen system with the application of a variational method based on the concept of finite time-elements. Our approach is based on the discretization of physical time space into finite elements where each time-element is mapped to a natural time space. The solution of the system is then determined in natural time space using a set of suitable basis functions. The numerical algorithm is presented and implemented to compute and analyze nonlinear behavior at different time-step sizes. The obtained results show an excellent agreement with the classical RK-4 and RK-5 methods. The accuracy and convergence of the method is shown by comparing numerically computed results with the exact solution for a test problem. The presented method has shown a great potential in dealing with the solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems and thus can be utilized in delineating different features and characteristics of their solutions.
Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhenghua
1999-01-01
Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall
Large scale experiments as a tool for numerical model development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Jens; Hansen, Erik Asp; Fuchs, Jesper
2003-01-01
Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied...
Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-01-06
Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solution. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two numerical examples.
Li, Dong Feng; Bai, Fu Qing; Nie, Hui
2018-06-01
In order to analyze the influence of bridge holes widening on hydrodynamic such as water level, a two-dimensional mathematical model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic factors, river network flow velocity vector distribution is given, water level and difference of bridge widening before and after is calculated and charted, water surface gradient in seven different river sections near the upper reaches of bridges is counted and revealed. The results of hydrodynamic calculation indicate that The Maximum and the minimum deducing numerical value of the water level after bridge widening is 0.028m, and 0.018m respective. the seven sections water surface gradient becomes smaller until it becomes negative, the influence of bridge widening on the upstream is basically over, the range of influence is about 450m from the bridge to the upstream. reach
Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B
2009-01-01
It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been
Numerical modeling of rapidly varying flows using HEC-RAS and WSPG models.
Rao, Prasada; Hromadka, Theodore V
2016-01-01
The performance of two popular hydraulic models (HEC-RAS and WSPG) for modeling hydraulic jump in an open channel is investigated. The numerical solutions are compared with a new experimental data set obtained for varying channel bottom slopes and flow rates. Both the models satisfactorily predict the flow depths and location of the jump. The end results indicate that the numerical models output is sensitive to the value of chosen roughness coefficient. For this application, WSPG model is easier to implement with few input variables.
Development of a finite element model of the human abdomen.
Lee, J B; Yang, K H
2001-11-01
Currently, three-dimensional finite element models of the human body have been developed for frequently injured anatomical regions such as the brain, chest, extremities and pelvis. While a few models of the human body include the abdomen, these models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the abdominal region. As the first step in understanding abdominal injuries via numerical methods, a 3D finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male human abdomen (WSUHAM) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of side impact tests and a series of frontal impact tests. The model includes a detailed representation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, spine, skin and major blood vessels. Hollow organs, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts, ureters, rectum and adrenal glands are grouped into three bodybags in order to provide realistic inertial properties and to maintain the position of the solid organs in their appropriate locations. Using direct connections, the model was joined superiorly to a partial model of the human thorax, and inferiorly to models of the human pelvis and the lower extremities that have been previously developed. Material properties for various tissues of the abdomen were derived from the literature. Data obtained in a series of cadaveric pendulum impact tests conducted at Wayne State University (WSU), a series of lateral drop tests conducted at Association Peugeot-Renault (APR) and a series of cadaveric lower abdomen frontal impact tests conducted at WSU were used to validate the model. Results predicted by the model match these experimental data for various impact speeds, impactor masses and drop heights. Further study is still needed in order to fully validate WSUHAM before it can be used to assess various impact loading conditions associated with vehicular crashes.
Finite elements of nonlinear continua
Oden, John Tinsley
1972-01-01
Geared toward undergraduate and graduate students, this text extends applications of the finite element method from linear problems in elastic structures to a broad class of practical, nonlinear problems in continuum mechanics. It treats both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view.The text reviews the thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method, and then brings them together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of these models are analyzed, along with the numerical s
Viceconti, Marco; Davinelli, Mario; Taddei, Fulvia; Cappello, Angelo
2004-10-01
Most of the finite element models of bones used in orthopaedic biomechanics research are based on generic anatomies. However, in many cases it would be useful to generate from CT data a separate finite element model for each subject of a study group. In a recent study a hexahedral mesh generator based on a grid projection algorithm was found very effective in terms of accuracy and automation. However, so far the use of this method has been documented only on data collected in vitro and only for long bones. The present study was aimed at verifying if this method represents a procedure for the generation of finite element models of human bones from data collected in vivo, robust, accurate, automatic and general enough to be used in clinical studies. Robustness, automation and numerical accuracy of the proposed method were assessed on five femoral CT data sets of patients affected by various pathologies. The generality of the method was verified by processing a femur, an ileum, a phalanx, a proximal femur reconstruction, and the micro-CT of a small sample of spongy bone. The method was found robust enough to cope with the variability of the five femurs, producing meshes with a numerical accuracy and a computational weight comparable to those found in vitro. Even when the method was used to process the other bones the levels of mesh conditioning remained within acceptable limits. Thus, it may be concluded that the method presents a generality sufficient to cope with almost any orthopaedic application.
Rienstra, S.W.; Eversman, W.
2001-01-01
An explicit, analytical, multiple-scales solution for modal sound transmission through slowly varying ducts with mean flow and acoustic lining is tested against a numerical finite-element solution solving the same potential flow equations. The test geometry taken is representative of a high-bypass
Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics
1992-01-01
This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...
Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José
2017-05-01
The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational
Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.
2009-01-01
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basombrio, F.G.; Sarmiento, G.S.
1980-01-01
In a previous paper the finite element code PLASTEF for the numerical simulation of thermoelastoplastic behaviour of materials was presented in its general outline. This code employs an initial stress incremental procedure for given histories of loads and temperature. It has been formulated for medium sized computers. The present work is an extension of the previous paper to consider additional aspects of the variable temperature case. Non-trivial tests of this type of situation are described. Finally, details are given of some concrete applications to the prediction of thermoelastoplastic collapse of nuclear fuel element cladding. (author)
Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.
1994-01-01
sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...
Numerical modeling and the physical basis of seismic discriminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denny, M.D.
1993-01-01
Accurate seismic event discrimination is critical to detection of nuclear explosions. Numerical modeling applied to seismic event discrimination can lead to increased reliability of proliferation detection. It is particularly applicable to error budgeting and to understanding explosion and earthquake phenomenologies. There also is a need for minimum requirements to validate the models used in numerical modeling
A review on numerical models for granular flow inside hoppers and its applications in PBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Yushi; Guo Qiuju; Zhang Liguo
2015-01-01
Granular flow is the shearing motion of a collection of discrete solid particles which are commonly seen and widely utilized in various industrial applications. One of the essential applications of dense slow granular flow in engineering is the pebble flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactor (PBR). A number of numerical models have been established for researching the basic physical mechanisms and properties of granular flow. For the purpose of generating an appropriate model for high temperature reactor-pebblebed modules (HTR-PM) in the future, numerical models on granular flow in hoppers and some of their previous applications on PBRs are reviewed. In this paper, basic transport and contact mechanisms of granular flow are firstly introduced, then kinetic theory from gas molecules and plastic theory from metal mechanics approaches give descriptions of the macroscopic behavior of rapid flow and quasistatic flow regimes, respectively, subsequently kinematic continuum method and discrete element method (DEM) are presented to describe the bulk features of dense slow flow in hoppers. Since various kinematic models, DEM models and their modified versions for dense slow granular flow in hoppers have been experimentally verified and applied in prediction of pebble flow in PBRs, a promising model for HTR-PM is expected with further work to generate pebble flow profile in the future. (author)
Dispersion analysis of the Pn -Pn-1DG mixed finite element pair for atmospheric modelling
Melvin, Thomas
2018-02-01
Mixed finite element methods provide a generalisation of staggered grid finite difference methods with a framework to extend the method to high orders. The ability to generate a high order method is appealing for applications on the kind of quasi-uniform grids that are popular for atmospheric modelling, so that the method retains an acceptable level of accuracy even around special points in the grid. The dispersion properties of such schemes are important to study as they provide insight into the numerical adjustment to imbalance that is an important component in atmospheric modelling. This paper extends the recent analysis of the P2 - P1DG pair, that is a quadratic continuous and linear discontinuous finite element pair, to higher polynomial orders and also spectral element type pairs. In common with the previously studied element pair, and also with other schemes such as the spectral element and discontinuous Galerkin methods, increasing the polynomial order is found to provide a more accurate dispersion relation for the well resolved part of the spectrum but at the cost of a number of unphysical spectral gaps. The effects of these spectral gaps are investigated and shown to have a varying impact depending upon the width of the gap. Finally, the tensor product nature of the finite element spaces is exploited to extend the dispersion analysis into two-dimensions.
Mathematical and numerical foundations of turbulence models and applications
Chacón Rebollo, Tomás
2014-01-01
With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation, and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics,...
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4...
Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis
Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.
2016-12-01
Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.
Piecewise Polynomial Aggregation as Preprocessing for Data Numerical Modeling
Dobronets, B. S.; Popova, O. A.
2018-05-01
Data aggregation issues for numerical modeling are reviewed in the present study. The authors discuss data aggregation procedures as preprocessing for subsequent numerical modeling. To calculate the data aggregation, the authors propose using numerical probabilistic analysis (NPA). An important feature of this study is how the authors represent the aggregated data. The study shows that the offered approach to data aggregation can be interpreted as the frequency distribution of a variable. To study its properties, the density function is used. For this purpose, the authors propose using the piecewise polynomial models. A suitable example of such approach is the spline. The authors show that their approach to data aggregation allows reducing the level of data uncertainty and significantly increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations. To demonstrate the degree of the correspondence of the proposed methods to reality, the authors developed a theoretical framework and considered numerical examples devoted to time series aggregation.
Analytical and numerical modeling of sandbanks dynamics
Idier, Deborah; Astruc, Dominique
2003-01-01
Linear and nonlinear behavior of large-scale underwater bedform patterns like sandbanks are studied using linear stability analysis and numerical modeling. The model is based on depth-integrated hydrodynamics equations with a quadratic bottom friction law and a bed load sediment transport model
Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data
Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.
2009-04-01
Methods for monitoring seepage and detecting internal erosion are essential for the safety evaluation of embankment dams. Internal erosion is one of the major reasons for embankment dam failures, and there are thousands of large tailings dams and waste-rock dumps in the world that may pe considered as hotspots for environmental impact. In this research the geophysical survey works were performed on Cetatuia 2 tailings dam. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method was able to detect spatially anomalous zones inside the embankment dam. These anomalies are the results of internal erosion phenomena which may progressing inside the dam and is difficult to detect by conventional methods. Data aquired by geophysical survey together with their interpretations were used in the numerical model for slope stability assessment. The final results show us the structural weakness induced by the presence of internal erosion elements especially for seismic loading case. This research methodology may be also available for tailings dam monitoring purposes. Electrical Rezistivity Imaging (ERI) was performed on Cetatuia 2 dam at the Uranium Milling Plant Feldioara, in order to map areas with lateral and vertical changes in resistivity. The electrodes are connected to an automated computer operated switch box that selects the 4 electrodes to be used. A computer controls the switch box and the measuring device, and runs a program that selects the electrodes, makes the measurement, and stores the measurement. For inversion processing procedures was used Res2Din software. The measured resistivity were plotted by the pseudo section contouring method. There are five resistivity pseudosections obtained from the Cetatuia 2 tailings dam during the october 2007 measurements. Four transversal profiles trans1 to trans4 are perpendicular to the berms and the longitudinal one long1 is placed along dam's crest. The high resistivities near the berms surfaces corresponds to unsaturated fill materials
Numerical modelling of pressure suppression pools with CFD and FEM codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Timperi, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))
2011-06-15
Experiments on large-break loss-of-coolant accident for BWR is modeled with computational fluid (CFD) dynamics and finite element calculations. In the CFD calculations, the direct-contact condensation in the pressure suppression pool is studied. The heat transfer in the liquid phase is modeled with the Hughes-Duffey correlation based on the surface renewal model. The heat transfer is proportional to the square root of the turbulence kinetic energy. The condensation models are implemented with user-defined functions in the Euler-Euler two-phase model of the Fluent 12.1 CFD code. The rapid collapse of a large steam bubble and the resulting pressure source is studied analytically and numerically. Pressure source obtained from simplified calculations is used for studying the structural effects and FSI in a realistic BWR containment. The collapse results in volume acceleration, which induces pressure loads on the pool walls. In the case of a spherical bubble, the velocity term of the volume acceleration is responsible of the largest pressure load. As the amount of air in the bubble is decreased, the peak pressure increases. However, when the water compressibility is accounted for, the finite speed of sound becomes a limiting factor. (Author)
Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.
1985-10-01
The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.
Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.
1985-10-01
The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs
Use of the iterative solution method for coupled finite element and boundary element modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koteras, J.R.
1993-07-01
Tunnels buried deep within the earth constitute an important class geomechanics problems. Two numerical techniques used for the analysis of geomechanics problems, the finite element method and the boundary element method, have complementary characteristics for applications to problems of this type. The usefulness of combining these two methods for use as a geomechanics analysis tool has been recognized for some time, and a number of coupling techniques have been proposed. However, not all of them lend themselves to efficient computational implementations for large-scale problems. This report examines a coupling technique that can form the basis for an efficient analysis tool for large scale geomechanics problems through the use of an iterative equation solver
Climate change and high-resolution whole-building numerical modelling
Blocken, B.J.E.; Briggen, P.M.; Schellen, H.L.; Hensen, J.L.M.
2010-01-01
This paper briefly discusses the need of high-resolution whole-building numerical modelling in the context of climate change. High-resolution whole-building numerical modelling can be used for detailed analysis of the potential consequences of climate change on buildings and to evaluate remedial
Numerical Analysis of Deflections of Multi-Layered Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biliński Tadeusz
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the rheological bending problem of wooden beams reinforced with embedded composite bars. A theoretical model of the behaviour of a multi-layered beam is presented. The component materials of this beam are described with equations for the linear viscoelastic five-parameter rheological model. Two numerical analysis methods for the long-term response of wood structures are presented. The first method has been developed with SCILAB software. The second one has been developed with the finite element calculation software ABAQUS and user subroutine UMAT. Laboratory investigations were conducted on sample beams of natural dimensions in order to validate the proposed theoretical model and verify numerical simulations. Good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical results is observed.
Scheidsteger, T.; Urbschat, H.; Griffiths, R. B.; Schellnhuber, H. J.
1997-01-01
A procedure is described for efficiently finding the ground state energy and configuration for a Frenkel-Kontorova model in a periodic potential, consisting of N parabolic segments of identical curvature in each period, through a numerical solution of the convex minimization problem described in the preceding paper. The key elements are the use of subdifferentials to describe the structure of the minimization problem; an intuitive picture of how to solve it, based on motion of quasiparticles;...
Critically Important Object Security System Element Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Khomyackov
2012-03-01
Full Text Available A stochastic model of critically important object security system element has been developed. The model includes mathematical description of the security system element properties and external influences. The state evolution of the security system element is described by the semi-Markov process with finite states number, the semi-Markov matrix and the initial semi-Markov process states probabilities distribution. External influences are set with the intensity of the Poisson thread.
Numerical modelling of hydrologically-driven slope instability by means of porous media mechanics
Kakogiannou, Evanthia; Sanavia, Lorenzo; Lora, Marco; Schrefler, Bernhard
2015-04-01
Heavy rainfall can trigger slope failure which generally involves shallow soil deposit of different grading and origin usually in a state of partial saturation. In this case of slope instability, the behaviour of the soil slope is closely related not only to the distribution of pore-water pressure but also to the stress state during rainfall infiltration involving both mechanical and hydrological processes. In order to understand better these physical key processes, in this research work, the modelling of rainfall induced slope failure is considered as a coupled variably saturated hydro-mechanical problem. Therefore, the geometrically linear finite element code Comes-Geo for non-isothermal elasto-plastic multiphase solid porous materials is used, as developed by B.A. Schrefler and his co-workers. In this context, a detailed numerical analysis of an experimental slope stability test due to rainfall infiltration is presented. The main goals of this work are to understand the triggering mechanisms during the progressive failure, the effect of using different constitutive models of the mechanical soil behavior on the numerical results and the use of the second order work criterion on the detection of slope instability.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.
Discrete element modeling of deformable particles in YADE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Haustein
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the open-source discrete element framework YADE and the implementation of a new deformation engine. YADE is a highly expandable software package that allows the simulation of current industrial problems in the field of granular materials using particle-based numerical methods. The description of the compaction of powders and granular material like metal pellets is now possible with a pure and simple discrete element approach in a modern DEM-framework. The deformation is realized by expanding the radius of the spherical particles, depending on their overlap, so that the volume of the material is kept constant.
Modeling multiscale evolution of numerous voids in shocked brittle material.
Yu, Yin; Wang, Wenqiang; He, Hongliang; Lu, Tiecheng
2014-04-01
The influence of the evolution of numerous voids on macroscopic properties of materials is a multiscale problem that challenges computational research. A shock-wave compression model for brittle material, which can obtain both microscopic evolution and macroscopic shock properties, was developed using discrete element methods (lattice model). Using a model interaction-parameter-mapping procedure, qualitative features, as well as trends in the calculated shock-wave profiles, are shown to agree with experimental results. The shock wave splits into an elastic wave and a deformation wave in porous brittle materials, indicating significant shock plasticity. Void collapses in the deformation wave were the natural reason for volume shrinkage and deformation. However, media slippage and rotation deformations indicated by complex vortex patterns composed of relative velocity vectors were also confirmed as an important source of shock plasticity. With increasing pressure, the contribution from slippage deformation to the final plastic strain increased. Porosity was found to determine the amplitude of the elastic wave; porosity and shock stress together determine propagation speed of the deformation wave, as well as stress and strain on the final equilibrium state. Thus, shock behaviors of porous brittle material can be systematically designed for specific applications.
Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Takahashi, T.; Hashida, T.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Niibori, Y.
2007-01-01
An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer
Compositional modeling of three-phase flow with gravity using higher-order finite element methods
Moortgat, Joachim
2011-05-11
A wide range of applications in subsurface flow involve water, a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or oil, and a gas phase, such as air or CO2. The numerical simulation of such processes is computationally challenging and requires accurate compositional modeling of three-phase flow in porous media. In this work, we simulate for the first time three-phase compositional flow using higher-order finite element methods. Gravity poses complications in modeling multiphase processes because it drives countercurrent flow among phases. To resolve this issue, we propose a new method for the upwinding of three-phase mobilities. Numerical examples, related to enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed algorithm. We pay special attention to challenges associated with gravitational instabilities and take into account compressibility and various phase behavior effects, including swelling, viscosity changes, and vaporization. We find that the proposed higher-order method can capture sharp solution discontinuities, yielding accurate predictions of phase boundaries arising in computational three-phase flow. This work sets the stage for a broad extension of the higher-order methods for numerical simulation of three-phase flow for complex geometries and processes.
[Numerical simulation of the effect of virtual stent release pose on the expansion results].
Li, Jing; Peng, Kun; Cui, Xinyang; Fu, Wenyu; Qiao, Aike
2018-04-01
The current finite element analysis of vascular stent expansion does not take into account the effect of the stent release pose on the expansion results. In this study, stent and vessel model were established by Pro/E. Five kinds of finite element assembly models were constructed by ABAQUS, including 0 degree without eccentricity model, 3 degree without eccentricity model, 5 degree without eccentricity model, 0 degree axial eccentricity model and 0 degree radial eccentricity model. These models were divided into two groups of experiments for numerical simulation with respect to angle and eccentricity. The mechanical parameters such as foreshortening rate, radial recoil rate and dog boning rate were calculated. The influence of angle and eccentricity on the numerical simulation was obtained by comparative analysis. Calculation results showed that the residual stenosis rates were 38.3%, 38.4%, 38.4%, 35.7% and 38.2% respectively for the 5 models. The results indicate that the pose has less effect on the numerical simulation results so that it can be neglected when the accuracy of the result is not highly required, and the basic model as 0 degree without eccentricity model is feasible for numerical simulation.
Modeling and finite element simulation of the magneto-mechanical behavior of ferrogels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attaran, Abdolhamid; Brummund, Jörg; Wallmersperger, Thomas
2017-01-01
In our previous study (see Ref. Attaran et al. (in press) ) we formulated a continuum model for ferrogels considering them as multicomponent materials. In the present work a reduced model for ferrogels is presented consisting only of a polymer network (P) and fixed magnetic particles (f). The reduced model is solved using the finite element method where the only degrees of freedom are mechanical displacement and magnetic potential. Elongation and contraction of a ferrogel are observed parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field direction, respectively. These results are in a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. With our modeling approach, we were able to investigate (i) the influence of the magnetic field on the polymer gel containing magnetic particles and (ii) the resulting mechanical deformation of a ferrogel. - Highlights: • A reduced continuum model for ferrogels, consisting of a polymer network and fixed magnetic particles, is presented. • A coupled magneto-mechanical problem is formulated and solved numerically using the Finite Element Method in 2D. • Deformation of a ferrogel in a magnetic field for a circular gel and a strip of a ferrogel is investigated. • Elongation of the ferrogel is observed in the direction of the applied magnetic field. • Contraction of the ferrogel is observed perpendicular to the applied magnetic field.
Modeling and finite element simulation of the magneto-mechanical behavior of ferrogels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Attaran, Abdolhamid, E-mail: abdolhamid.attaran@tu-dresden.de; Brummund, Jörg; Wallmersperger, Thomas
2017-06-01
In our previous study (see Ref. Attaran et al. (in press) ) we formulated a continuum model for ferrogels considering them as multicomponent materials. In the present work a reduced model for ferrogels is presented consisting only of a polymer network (P) and fixed magnetic particles (f). The reduced model is solved using the finite element method where the only degrees of freedom are mechanical displacement and magnetic potential. Elongation and contraction of a ferrogel are observed parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field direction, respectively. These results are in a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. With our modeling approach, we were able to investigate (i) the influence of the magnetic field on the polymer gel containing magnetic particles and (ii) the resulting mechanical deformation of a ferrogel. - Highlights: • A reduced continuum model for ferrogels, consisting of a polymer network and fixed magnetic particles, is presented. • A coupled magneto-mechanical problem is formulated and solved numerically using the Finite Element Method in 2D. • Deformation of a ferrogel in a magnetic field for a circular gel and a strip of a ferrogel is investigated. • Elongation of the ferrogel is observed in the direction of the applied magnetic field. • Contraction of the ferrogel is observed perpendicular to the applied magnetic field.
Finite element modelling of cornea mechanics: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Talisa Mohammad Nejad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent tissue in front of the eye that refracts light and facilitates vision. A slight change in the geometry of the cornea remarkably affects the optical power. Because of this sensitivity, biomechanical study of the cornea can reveal much about its performance and function. In vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanics of the cornea and determine its characteristics. Numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM have been extensively implemented as effective and noninvasive methods for analyzing corneal mechanics and possible disorders. This article reviews the use of FEM for assessing the mechanical behavior of the cornea. Different applications of FEM in corneal disease studies, surgical predictions, impact simulations, and clinical applications have been reviewed. Some suggestions for the future of this type of modeling in the area of corneal mechanics are also discussed.
NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE SOIL BEHAVIOUR BY USING NEWLY DEVELOPED ADVANCED MATERIAL MODEL
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Jan Veselý
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a theoretical background, implementation and validation of the newly developed Jardine plastic hardening-softening model (JPHS model, which can be used for numerical modelling of the soils behaviour. Although the JPHS model is based on the elasto-plastic theory, like the Mohr-Coulomb model that is widely used in geotechnics, it contains some improvements, which removes the main disadvantages of the MC model. The presented model is coupled with an isotopically hardening and softening law, non-linear elastic stress-strain law, non-associated elasto-plastic material description and a cap yield surface. The validation of the model is done by comparing the numerical results with real measured data from the laboratory tests and by testing of the model on the real project of the tunnel excavation. The 3D numerical analysis is performed and the comparison between the JPHS, Mohr-Coulomb, Modified Cam-Clay, Hardening small strain model and monitoring in-situ data is done.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pečenko, Robert; Huč, Sabina; Turk, Goran
2014-01-01
In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of timber beam exposed to fire. The numerical procedure is divided into two physically separated but closely related phases. In the first phase coupled problem of moisture and heat transfer over the timber beam is numerically solved using...... the enhanced finite element method. The results of the first computational stage were used as the input data for the numerical analysis of mechanical response of timber element....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borhan, H; Ahmadian, M T [Sharif University of Technology, Center of Excellence for Design, Robotics and Automation, School of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-04-01
In this paper, a complete nonlinear finite element model for coupled-domain MEMS devices with electrostatic actuation and squeeze film effect is developed. For this purpose, a corotational finite element formulation for the dynamic analysis of planer Euler beams is employed. In this method, the internal nodal forces due to deformation and intrinsic residual stresses, the inertial nodal forces, and the damping effect of squeezed air film are systematically derived by consistent linearization of the fully geometrically nonlinear beam theory using d'Alamber and virtual work principles. An incremental-iterative method based on the Newmark direct integration procedure and the Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented and compared with experimental findings which indicate properly good agreement.
Investigation of Shear Stud Performance in Flat Plate Using Finite Element Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.S. Viswanathan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Three types of shear stud arrangement, respectively featuring an orthogonal, a radial and a critical perimeter pattern, were evaluated numerically. A numerical investigation was conducted using the finite element software ABAQUS to evaluate their ability to resist punching shear in a flat plate. The finite element analysis here is an application of the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using three-dimensional solid finite elements. The nonlinear characteristics of concrete were achieved by employing the concrete damaged plasticity model in the finite element program. Transverse shear stress was evaluated using finite element analysis in terms of shear stress distribution for flat plate with and without shear stud reinforcement. The model predicted that shear studs placed along the critical perimeter are more effective compared to orthogonal and radial patterns.
Numerical simulations of progressive hardening by using ABAQUS FEA software
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domański Tomasz
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns numerical simulations of progressive hardening include phase transformations in solid state of steel. Abaqus FEA software is used for numerical analysis of temperature field and phase transformations. Numerical subroutines, written in fortran programming language are used in computer simulations where models of the distribution of movable heat source, kinetics of phase transformations in solid state as well as thermal and structural strain are implemented. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics is based on continuous heating diagram and continuous cooling diagram. The numerical analysis of thermal fields, phase fractions and strain associated progressive hardening of elements made of steel were done.
Two Dimensional Finite Element Model to Study Calcium Distribution in Oocytes
Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj
2015-06-01
Cytosolic free calcium concentration is a key regulatory factor and perhaps the most widely used means of controlling cellular function. Calcium can enter cells through different pathways which are activated by specific stimuli including membrane depolarization, chemical signals and calcium depletion of intracellular stores. One of the important components of oocyte maturation is differentiation of the Ca2+ signaling machinery which is essential for egg activation after fertilization. Eggs acquire the ability to produce the fertilization-specific calcium signal during oocyte maturation. The calcium concentration patterns required during different stages of oocyte maturation are still not completely known. Also the mechanisms involved in calcium dynamics in oocyte cell are still not well understood. In view of above a two dimensional FEM model has been proposed to study calcium distribution in an oocyte cell. The parameters such as buffers, ryanodine receptor, SERCA pump and voltage gated calcium channel are incorporated in the model. Based on the biophysical conditions the initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The model is transformed into variational form and Ritz finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. A program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem and executed to obtain numerical results. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers, RyR, SERCA pump and VGCC on calcium distribution in an oocyte cell.
Finite element modeling and simulation with ANSYS workbench
Chen, Xiaolin
2014-01-01
IntroductionSome Basic ConceptsAn Example in FEA: Spring SystemOverview of ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBars and TrussesIntroductionReview of the 1-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of TrussesFormulation of the Bar ElementExamples with Bar ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBeams and FramesIntroductionReview of the Beam TheoryModeling of Beams and FramesFormulation of the Beam ElementExamples with Beam ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsTwo-Dimensional ElasticityIntroductionReview of 2-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of 2-D Elasticity ProblemsFormulation of the Pla
Numerical modeling of fires on gas pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Yang; Jianbo Lai; Lu Liu
2011-01-01
When natural gas is released through a hole on a high-pressure pipeline, it disperses in the atmosphere as a jet. A jet fire will occur when the leaked gas meets an ignition source. To estimate the dangerous area, the shape and size of the fire must be known. The evolution of the jet fire in air is predicted by using a finite-volume procedure to solve the flow equations. The model is three-dimensional, elliptic and calculated by using a compressibility corrected version of the k - ξ turbulence model, and also includes a probability density function/laminar flamelet model of turbulent non-premixed combustion process. Radiation heat transfer is described using an adaptive version of the discrete transfer method. The model is compared with the experiments about a horizontal jet fire in a wind tunnel in the literature with success. The influence of wind and jet velocity on the fire shape has been investigated. And a correlation based on numerical results for predicting the stoichiometric flame length is proposed. - Research highlights: → We developed a model to predict the evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames. → Measurements of temperature distributions match well with the numerical predictions. → A correlation has been proposed to predict the stoichiometric flame length. → Buoyancy effects are higher in the numerical results. → The radiative heat loss is bigger in the experimental results.
NUMERICAL PREDICTION MODELS FOR AIR POLLUTION BY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Biliaiev
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work involves: 1 development of 3D numerical models that allow calculating the process of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions; 2 creation of models which would allow predicting the air pollution level in urban areas. Methodology. To solve the problem upon assessing the level of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions fundamental equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer are used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer finite-difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximations is applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in differential form, splits into two equations, where at each step of splitting an unknown value of the velocity potential is determined by an explicit scheme of running computation, while the difference scheme is implicit one. For the numerical integration of the emissions dispersion equation in the atmosphere applies the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme of splitting. Emissions from the road are modeled by a series of point sources of given intensity. Developed numerical models form is the basis of the created software package. Findings. 3D numerical models were developed; they belong to the class of «diagnostic models». These models take into account main physical factors that influence the process of dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere when emissions from vehicles in the city occur. Based on the constructed numerical models the computational experiment was conducted to assess the level of air pollution in the street. Originality. Authors have developed numerical models that allow to calculate the 3D aerodynamics of the wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer emissions from the highway. Calculations to determine the area of contamination, which is formed near the buildings, located along the highway were
Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.
Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M
2016-02-01
In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.
Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges
Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra
2016-07-01
Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.
Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans
Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal
2018-05-01
Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.
Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viggo Tvergaard
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.
Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann
2011-09-01
Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.
A non-reflecting boundary for use in a finite element beam model of a railway track
Yang, Jiannan; Thompson, David J.
2015-02-01
Some beam-like structures such as a railway track are effectively infinite in nature. Analytical solutions exist for simple structures but numerical methods like the finite element (FE) method are often employed to study more complicated problems. However, when the FE method is used for structures of infinite extent it is essential to introduce artificial boundaries to limit the area of computation. Here, a non-reflecting boundary is developed using a damped tapered tip for application in a finite element model representing an infinite supported beam. The FE model of the tapered tip is validated against an analytical model based on Bessel functions. The reflection characteristics of the FE tapered tip are quantified using a wave/FE superposition method. It is shown that the damped tapered tip is much more effective than its constant counterpart and achieves reduction of the model size. The damped tapered tip is applied to a simple FE railway track model and good agreement is found when its point mobility is compared with an analytical infinite track model.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Radial Lip Seal Geometry on Sealing Performance
Tok, G.; Parlar, Z.; Temiz, V.
2018-01-01
Sealing elements are often needed in industry and especially in machine design. With the change and development of machine technology from day to day, sealing elements show continuous development and change in parallel with these developments. Many factors influence the performance of the sealing elements such as shaft surface roughness, radial force, lip geometry etc. In addition, the radial lip seals must have a certain pre-load and interference in order to provide a good sealing. This also affects the friction torque. Researchers are developing new seal designs to reduce friction losses in mechanical systems. In the presented study, the effect of the lip seal geometry on sealing performance will be examined numerically. The numerical model created for this purpose will be verified with experimental data firstly. In the numerical model, shaft and seal will be modeled as hyper-elastic in 2D and 3D. NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as seal material will be analyzed for the rotating shaft state at constant speed by applying a uniform radial force.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido
2017-01-01
Drilling is an indispensable process for many manufacturing industries due to the importance of the process for assembling components. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for drilling process of aluminum 2024-T3. The 3D model of tool for two facet HSSCo and four facet...... area were determined numerically. The results confirm the ability and advantage of 3D FE model of the drilling process....... HSS were generated base on the details geometry. The simulations were carried out for both drills in different cutting conditions. The numerically obtained thrust forces were compared against experimental results. The tool stress distribution, chip formation and temperature distribution in the chip...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Liu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a finite element implementation of a strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model and its application to tunnel excavation. The computational model was constructed based on the return mapping scheme, in which an elastic trial step was first executed, followed by plastic correction involving the Newton–Raphson method to return the predicted state of stresses to the supposed yield surface. By combining the plastic shear hardening rule and stress correction equations, the loading index for the strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model was solved. It is therefore possible to update the stresses, elastic and plastic strains, and slope of the yield locus at the end of each incremental step. As an illustrative example, an integration algorithm was incorporated into ABAQUS through the user subroutine UMAT to solve the tunnel excavation problem in strain-hardening Drucker–Prager rock formations. The obtained numerical results were found to be in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus indicating the validity and accuracy of the proposed UMAT code, as well as the finite element model.
Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.
1993-01-01
This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources
Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denisov Oleg
2018-01-01
Full Text Available New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum, blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading.
Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements
Denisov, Oleg; Pleshko, Mikhail; Ponomareva, Irina; Merenyashev, Vitaliy
2018-03-01
New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum), blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Max la Cour; Villa, Umberto; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
2017-01-01
associated with non-planar interfaces between agglomerates, the coarse velocity space has guaranteed approximation properties. The employed AMGe technique provides coarse spaces with desirable local mass conservation and stability properties analogous to the original pair of Raviart-Thomas and piecewise......We study the application of a finite element numerical upscaling technique to the incompressible two-phase porous media total velocity formulation. Specifically, an element agglomeration based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe) technique with improved approximation proper ties [37] is used, for the first...... discontinuous polynomial spaces, resulting in strong mass conservation for the upscaled systems. Due to the guaranteed approximation properties and the generic nature of the AMGe method, recursive multilevel upscaling is automatically obtained. Furthermore, this technique works for both structured...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongfu Tan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable.
Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden
2008-01-01
The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate...... a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates...... results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR....
Crossflow characteristics of flange type fuel element for very high temperature gas-cooled reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takizuka, Takakazu; Kaburaki, Hideo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Masahide.
1987-01-01
Fuel element design incorporating mating flanges at block end faces has the potential to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a VHTR (very high temperature gas-cooled reactor) core. As part of research and development efforts to establish flange type fuel element design, experiments and analyses were carried out on crossflow through interface gap between elements. Air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature was used as a fluid. Crossflow loss coefficient factors were obtained with three test models, having different flange mating clearances, for various interface gap configurations, gap widths and block misalignments. It was found that crossflow loss coefficient factors for flange type fuel element were much larger than those for conventional flat-faced element. Numerical analyses were also made using a simple model devised to represent the crossflow path at the fuel element interface. The close agreement between numerical results and experimental data indicated that this model could predict well the crossflow characteristics of the flange type fuel element. (author)
Numerical modelling of the HAB Energy Buoy: Stage 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurniawan, Adi
This report presents the results of the first stage of the project "Numerical modelling of the HAB Energy Buoy". The objectives of this stage are to develop a numerical model of the HAB Energy Buoy, a self-reacting wave energy device consisting of two heaving bodies, and to investigate a number...... and a summary of the main findings is presented. A numerical model of the HAB Energy Buoy has been developed in the frequency domain using two alternative formulations of the equations of motion. The model is capable of predicting the power capture, motion response, and power take-off loads of the device...... configuration are imposed to give a more realistic prediction of the power capture and help ensure a fair comparison. Recommendations with regard to the HAB design are finally suggested....
Numerical modelling of the jet nozzle enrichment process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vercelli, P.
1983-01-01
A numerical model was developed for the simulation of the isotopic enrichment produced by the jet nozzle process. The flow was considered stationary and under ideal gas conditions. The model calculates, for any position of the skimmer piece: (a) values of radial mass concentration profiles for each isotopic species and (b) values of elementary separation effect (Σ sub(A)) and uranium cut (theta). The comparison of the numerical results obtained with the experimental values given in the literature proves the validity of the present work as an initial step in the modelling of the process. (Author) [pt
Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.
2014-01-01
This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Rock Dynamic Fracture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aliasghar Mirmohammadlou
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Rapid development of engineering activities expands through a variety of rock engineering processes such as drilling, blasting, mining and mineral processing. These activities require rock dynamic fracture mechanics method to characterize the rock behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness is an important parameter for the analysis of engineering structures under dynamic loading. Several experimental methods are used for determination of dynamic fracture properties of materials. Among them, the Hopkinson pressure bar and the drop weight have been frequently used for rocks. On the other hand, numerical simulations are very useful in dynamic fracture studies. Among vast variety of numerical techniques, the powerful extended finite element method (XFEM enriches the finite element approximation with appropriate functions extracted from the fracture mechanics solution around a crack-tip. The main advantage of XFEM is its capability in modeling different on a fixed mesh, which can be generated without considering the existence of discontinuities. In this paper, first, the design of a drop weight test setup is presented. Afterwards, the experimental tests on igneous (basalt and calcareous (limestone rocks with single-edge-cracked bend specimen are discussed. Then, each experimental test is modeled with the XFEM code. Finally, the obtained experimental and numerical results are compared. The results indicate that the experimentally predicted dynamic fracture toughness has less than 8 percent difference with calculated dynamic fracture toughness from extended ﬁnite element method
Research development and teaching of numerical methods at the Atomic Centre of Bariloche, Argentina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pissanetzky, S.; Sarmiento, G.S.
1981-01-01
The areas of study of numerical methods, particularly the finite element method, are listed. These include numerical simulation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel elements and of the heat transfer in the industrial processing of sheaths for nuclear fuel cladding. Computer programs to support these studies are listed. Two examples of applications of these programs are given. The first is the modelling of high-vacuum annealing furnaces, particularly those used to manufacture zircaloy tubes for reactor sheaths. The second is the modelling of localized thermochemical problems in nuclear fuel elements and other nuclear reactor components. Details of where to obtain further information of work covered in this summary are given. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.
1996-08-01
A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.
On the Hughes model and numerical aspects
Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto
2017-01-01
We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori
Experimental and Numerical Study on the Tensile Behaviour of UACS/Al Fibre Metal Laminate
Xue, Jia; Wang, Wen-Xue; Zhang, Jia-Zhen; Wu, Su-Jun; Li, Hang
2015-10-01
A new fibre metal laminate fabricated with aluminium sheets and unidirectionally arrayed chopped strand (UACS) plies is proposed. The UACS ply is made by cutting parallel slits into a unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg. The UACS/Al laminate may be viewed as aluminium laminate reinforced by highly aligned, discontinuous carbon fibres. The tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminate, including thermal residual stress and failure progression, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulation. Finite element analysis was used to simulate the onset and propagation of intra-laminar fractures occurring within slits of the UACS plies and delamination along the interfaces. The finite element models feature intra-laminar cohesive elements inserted into the slits and inter-laminar cohesive elements inserted at the interfaces. Good agreement are obtained between experimental results and finite element analysis, and certain limitations of the finite element models are observed and discussed. The combined experimental and numerical studies provide a detailed understanding of the tensile behaviour of UACS/Al laminates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duron, J; Grilli, F; Antognazza, L; Decroux, M; Stavrev, S; Dutoit, B; Fischer, Oe
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a new numerical model, in which both the thermal and the electromagnetic aspects of the over-critical current regime of HTS materials are taken into account. The electromagnetic and thermal equations have been implemented in finite-element method (FEM) software in order to obtain a novel, closer to reality model for investigating the behaviour of the superconductor when the current exceeds I c . This model has been applied for studying the behaviour of strip lines of an YBCO/Au FCL with a sapphire substrate. Simulations with currents largely exceeding I c have been performed, showing that the total current limitation occurs only when the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters is taken into consideration. Such modelling can replace experiments with currents far exceeding I c which may damage or destroy the studied sample or HTS device
Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krengel Dominik
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.
Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction
Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi
2013-10-01
A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.
Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.
2018-01-01
Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benner, J.
1984-03-01
A method for the numerical simulation of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core internal's behaviour during a blowdown accident is described, by which the motion of the reactor core and the interaction of the fuel elements with the core barrel and the coolant medium is calculated. Furthermore, some simple models for the support columns, lower and upper core support and the grid plate are provided. All these models have been implemented into the code Flux-4. For the solution of the very complex, coupled equations of motions for fluid and fuel rods an efficient numerical solution technique has been developed. With the new code-version Flux-5 the PWR-blowdown is parametically investigated. The calculated core barrel loadings are compared with Flux-4 results, simulating the core's inertia by a mass ring of HDR type. (orig.) [de
The Liquid Film Flow with Evaporation: Numerical Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rezanova Ekaterina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of thin liquid layer on an inclined substrate is investigated numerically. The mathematical modelling is based on the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations and the generalized conditions on the thermocapillary boundary simplified during the parametrical analysis. In the framework of the long-wave approximation the evolution equation which determines the thickness of the liquid layer in the case of moderate Reynolds numbers is derived. The results of numerical modelling of the liquid flow with evaporation at the interface are obtained.
Polynomial model inversion control: numerical tests and applications
Novara, Carlo
2015-01-01
A novel control design approach for general nonlinear systems is described in this paper. The approach is based on the identification of a polynomial model of the system to control and on the on-line inversion of this model. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the numerical efficiency of the approach. Numerical examples of applicative interest are presented, concerned with control of the Duffing oscillator, control of a robot manipulator and insulin regulation in a type 1 diabetic p...
Alfat, Sayahdin; Kimura, Masato; Firihu, Muhammad Zamrun; Rahmat
2018-05-01
In engineering area, investigation of shape effect in elastic materials was very important. It can lead changing elasticity and surface energy, and also increase of crack propagation in the material. A two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to investigation of elasticity and surface energy in elastic material by Adaptive Finite Element Method. Besides that, behavior of crack propagation has observed for every those materials. The government equations were based on a phase field approach in crack propagation model that developed by Takaishi-Kimura. This research has varied four shape domains where physical properties of materials were same (Young's modulus E = 70 GPa and Poisson's ratio ν = 0.334). Investigation assumptions were; (1) homogeneous and isotropic material, (2) there was not initial cracking at t = 0, (3) initial displacement was zero [u1, u2] = 0) at initial condition (t = 0), and (4) length of time simulation t = 5 with interval Δt = 0.005. Mode I/II or mixed mode crack propagation has been used for the numerical investigation. Results of this studies were very good and accurate to show changing energy and behavior of crack propagation. In the future time, this research can be developed to complex phenomena and domain. Furthermore, shape optimization can be investigation by the model.
Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.
1977-01-01
The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model
Numerical Modelling and Prediction of Erosion Induced by Hydrodynamic Cavitation
Peters, A.; Lantermann, U.; el Moctar, O.
2015-12-01
The present work aims to predict cavitation erosion using a numerical flow solver together with a new developed erosion model. The erosion model is based on the hypothesis that collapses of single cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries form high velocity microjets, which cause sonic impacts with high pressure amplitudes damaging the surface. The erosion model uses information from a numerical Euler-Euler flow simulation to predict erosion sensitive areas and assess the erosion aggressiveness of the flow. The obtained numerical results were compared to experimental results from tests of an axisymmetric nozzle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.M. Almeida Filho
Full Text Available The present study evaluates the bond behavior between steel bars and concrete by means of a numerical analysis based on Finite Element Method. Results of a previously conducted experimental program on reinforced concrete beams subjected to monotonic loading are also presented. Two concrete types, self-compacting concrete and ordinary concrete, were considered in the study. Non-linear constitutive relations were used to represent concrete and steel in the proposed numerical model, aiming to reproduce the bond behavior observed in the tests. Experimental analysis showed similar results for the bond resistances of self-compacting and ordinary concrete, with self-compacting concrete presenting a better performance in some cases. The results given by the numerical modeling showed a good agreement with the tests for both types of concrete, especially in the pre-peak branch of the load vs. slip and load vs. displacement curves. As a consequence, the proposed numerical model could be used to estimate a reliable development length, allowing a possible reduction of the structure costs.
Martins, J. M. P.; Thuillier, S.; Andrade-Campos, A.
2018-05-01
The identification of material parameters, for a given constitutive model, can be seen as the first step before any practical application. In the last years, the field of material parameters identification received an important boost with the development of full-field measurement techniques, such as Digital Image Correlation. These techniques enable the use of heterogeneous displacement/strain fields, which contain more information than the classical homogeneous tests. Consequently, different techniques have been developed to extract material parameters from full-field measurements. In this study, two of these techniques are addressed, the Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) and the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). The main idea behind FEMU is to update the parameters of a constitutive model implemented in a finite element model until both numerical and experimental results match, whereas VFM makes use of the Principle of Virtual Work and does not require any finite element simulation. Though both techniques proved their feasibility in linear and non-linear constitutive models, it is rather difficult to rank their robustness in plasticity. The purpose of this work is to perform a comparative study in the case of elasto-plastic models. Details concerning the implementation of each strategy are presented. Moreover, a dedicated code for VFM within a large strain framework is developed. The reconstruction of the stress field is performed through a user subroutine. A heterogeneous tensile test is considered to compare FEMU and VFM strategies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon
2000-08-01
The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon
2000-08-01
The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.
1997-07-01
The mathematical models and numerical methods employed by the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multi-component flow in porous media, are described. The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The component models of FEHM are discussed. The first major component, Flow- and Energy-Transport Equations, deals with heat conduction; heat and mass transfer with pressure- and temperature-dependent properties, relative permeabilities and capillary pressures; isothermal air-water transport; and heat and mass transfer with noncondensible gas. The second component, Dual-Porosity and Double-Porosity/Double-Permeability Formulation, is designed for problems dominated by fracture flow. Another component, The Solute-Transport Models, includes both a reactive-transport model that simulates transport of multiple solutes with chemical reaction and a particle-tracking model. Finally, the component, Constitutive Relationships, deals with pressure- and temperature-dependent fluid/air/gas properties, relative permeabilities and capillary pressures, stress dependencies, and reactive and sorbing solutes. Each of these components is discussed in detail, including purpose, assumptions and limitations, derivation, applications, numerical method type, derivation of numerical model, location in the FEHM code flow, numerical stability and accuracy, and alternative approaches to modeling the component
Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben
1991-01-01
As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))
2008-05-15
hypotheses are supported by new evidence, which strengthens the overall credibility in the conceptual model presented in stage 2.2. The sensitivity of the calibrated groundwater flow and solute transport model developed in stage 2.2 to parameter uncertainty was addressed in stage 2.3 by means of numerical modelling. A comprehensive set of uncertainties have been quantified to each of the model elements: HCD, HRD and HSD as well as boundary conditions both in terms of their effects on the model calibration processes and in predictions of discharge areas for groundwater flow through the repository candidate volume. The results from the sensitivity tests carried out confirm that high degrees of anisotropy in the regolith and/or the uppermost bedrock seem to characterise the near-surface hydrogeological conditions of the site.
Plasma modelling and numerical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Dijk, J; Kroesen, G M W; Bogaerts, A
2009-01-01
Plasma modelling is an exciting subject in which virtually all physical disciplines are represented. Plasma models combine the electromagnetic, statistical and fluid dynamical theories that have their roots in the 19th century with the modern insights concerning the structure of matter that were developed throughout the 20th century. The present cluster issue consists of 20 invited contributions, which are representative of the state of the art in plasma modelling and numerical simulation. These contributions provide an in-depth discussion of the major theories and modelling and simulation strategies, and their applications to contemporary plasma-based technologies. In this editorial review, we introduce and complement those papers by providing a bird's eye perspective on plasma modelling and discussing the historical context in which it has surfaced. (editorial review)
Buszta, Kamila; Szklarczyk, Tadeusz; Malina, Grzegorz
2017-04-01
Detailed analysis of hydrogeological conditions at a study area is the basis for characterising adjacent groundwater circulation systems. It is also an essential element during executing hydrogeological documentations. The goal of this work was to reconstruct on a numerical model natural groundwater circulation systems of the studied area located within the municipality of Chmielnik in the region of Kielce (South Poland). The area is characterized by a complex geological structure, which along with the existing hydrographic network, makes the scheme of groundwater circulation complicated and difficult to map on a numerical model. The studied area is situated at the border of three geological units: on the North - the extended portion of the Palaeozoic Swietokrzyskie Mountains (mainly Devonian and Permian), in the center - the S-W part of the Mesozoic Margin of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, and on the South - a marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. The whole area belongs to the Vistula river basin, and it includes catchments of its left tributaries: the Nida and Czarna Staszowska rivers. Based on the collected field and archival hydrogeological, hydrological and sozological data a conceptual model was built, under which a numerical model of groundwater flow was developed using the specialized software - Visual MODFLOW. The numerical model maps the five-layer groundwater circulation system in conjunction with surface watercourses. Such division reflects appropriately the variability of hydrogeological parameters within the geological structures. Two principal and exploited aquifers comprise: a fractured-porous Neogene and fractured Upper Jurassic formations. The external model borders are based primarily on surface watercourses and locally on watersheds. The modelled area of 130 km2 was divided into square grids of 50 m. The model consists of 275 rows and 277 columns. Each of five layers was simulated with the same number of active blocks. In the construction of
Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre
Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.
2018-04-01
The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Alice Cunha da; Su, Jian
2013-01-01
The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a fourth generation thermal nuclear reactor, graphite-moderated and helium cooled. The HTGRs have important characteristics making essential the study of these reactors, as well as its fuel element. Examples of these are: high thermal efficiency,low operating costs and construction, passive safety attributes that allow implication of the respective plants. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a HTGR with spherical fuel elements that named the reactor. This fuel element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO2 particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix and a convective heat transfer by Helium happens on the outer surface of the fuel element. In this work, the transient heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature reactor was studied in a transient situation of combined convective and radiative cooling. Improved lumped parameter model was developed for the transient heat conduction in the two-layer composite sphere subjected to combined convective and radiative cooling. The improved lumped model was obtained through two-point Hermite approximations for integrals. Transient combined convective and radiative cooling of the two-layer spherical fuel element was analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed lumped model, with respect to die rent values of the Biot number, the radiation-conduction parameter, the dimensionless thermal contact resistance, the dimensionless inner diameter and coating thickness, and the dimensionless thermal conductivity. It was shown by comparison with numerical solution of the original distributed parameter model that the improved lumped model, with H2,1/H1,1/H0,0 approximation yielded significant improvement of average temperature prediction over the classical lumped model. (author)
Radtke, H.; Burchard, H.
2015-01-01
In this paper, an unconditionally positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for systems of non-linearly coupled ODE's is presented. These systems of ODE's are used to describe biogeochemical transformation processes in marine ecosystem models. The numerical scheme is a positive-definite modification of the Runge-Kutta method, it can have arbitrarily high order of accuracy and does not require time step adaption. If the scheme is combined with a modified Patankar-Runge-Kutta method from Burchard et al. (2003), it also gets the ability to solve a certain class of stiff numerical problems, but the accuracy is restricted to second-order then. The performance of the new scheme on two test case problems is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grange, J.L.; Caremoli, C.; Eddi, M.
1988-01-01
This paper presents improvements performed on SICLE numerical model in order to analyse the condensation front that occurs in the moisture separator reheaters (MSR) of nuclear power plants. Modifications of SICLE numerical model architecture and a fine modelling of reheater have allowed to correctly simulate the MSR thermohydraulic behaviour during a severe transient (plant islanding) [fr
Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of casting processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri
1998-01-01
The control volume method applied to numerical modelling of castning. Analytical solutions based on the error function.Riemann-temperature. Modelling of release of latent heat with the enthalpy method....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads
2010-01-01
A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensiona......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...
Modeling and numerical simulation of multi-component flow in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, B.
2011-01-01
This work deals with the modelization and numerical simulation of two phase multi-component flow in porous media. The study is divided into two parts. First we study and prove the mathematical existence in a weak sense of two degenerate parabolic systems modeling two phase (liquid and gas) two component (water and hydrogen) flow in porous media. In the first model, we assume that there is a local thermodynamic equilibrium between both phases of hydrogen by using the Henry's law. The second model consists of a relaxation of the previous model: the kinetic of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is no longer instantaneous. The second part is devoted to the numerical analysis of those models. Firstly, we propose a numerical scheme to compare numerical solutions obtained with the first model and numerical solutions obtained with the second model where the characteristic time to recover the thermodynamic equilibrium goes to zero. Secondly, we present a finite volume scheme with a phase-by-phase upstream weighting scheme without simplified assumptions on the state law of gas densities. We also validate this scheme on a 2D test cases. (author)
Yang, Sam
The dissertation presents the mathematical formulation, experimental validation, and application of a volume element model (VEM) devised for modeling, simulation, and optimization of energy systems in their early design stages. The proposed model combines existing modeling techniques and experimental adjustment to formulate a reduced-order model, while retaining sufficient accuracy to serve as a practical system-level design analysis and optimization tool. In the VEM, the physical domain under consideration is discretized in space using lumped hexahedral elements (i.e., volume elements), and the governing equations for the variable of interest are applied to each element to quantify diverse types of flows that cross it. Subsequently, a system of algebraic and ordinary differential equations is solved with respect to time and scalar (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, etc.) fields are obtained in both spatial and temporal domains. The VEM is capable of capturing and predicting dynamic physical behaviors in the entire system domain (i.e., at system level), including mutual interactions among system constituents, as well as with their respective surroundings and cooling systems, if any. The VEM is also generalizable; that is, the model can be easily adapted to simulate and optimize diverse systems of different scales and complexity and attain numerical convergence with sufficient accuracy. Both the capability and generalizability of the VEM are demonstrated in the dissertation via thermal modeling and simulation of an Off-Grid Zero Emissions Building, an all-electric ship, and a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Furthermore, the potential of the VEM as an optimization tool is presented through the integrative thermodynamic optimization of a VCR system, whose results are used to evaluate the trade-offs between various objective functions, namely, coefficient of performance, second law efficiency, pull-down time, and refrigerated space temperature, in
Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas
2011-06-01
Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure such as grain topology, porosity, inclusions, and defects; however, many models rely on assumptions of homogeneity. We use the probabilistic finite element method (WK Liu, IJNME, 1986) to introduce local uncertainty to account for material heterogeneity. The PFEM uses statistical information about the local material response (i.e., its expectation, coefficient of variation, and autocorrelation) drawn from knowledge of the microstructure, single crystal behavior, and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to determine the expectation and covariance of the system response (velocity, strain, stress, etc). This approach is compared to resolved grain-scale simulations of the equivalent system. The microstructures used for the DNS are produced using Monte Carlo simulations of grain growth, and a sufficient number of realizations are computed to ensure a meaningful comparison. Finally, comments are made regarding the suitability of one-dimensional PFEM for modeling material heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
An implicit numerical model for multicomponent compressible two-phase flow in porous media
Zidane, Ali; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2015-11-01
We introduce a new implicit approach to model multicomponent compressible two-phase flow in porous media with species transfer between the phases. In the implicit discretization of the species transport equation in our formulation we calculate for the first time the derivative of the molar concentration of component i in phase α (cα, i) with respect to the total molar concentration (ci) under the conditions of a constant volume V and temperature T. The species transport equation is discretized by the finite volume (FV) method. The fluxes are calculated based on powerful features of the mixed finite element (MFE) method which provides the pressure at grid-cell interfaces in addition to the pressure at the grid-cell center. The efficiency of the proposed model is demonstrated by comparing our results with three existing implicit compositional models. Our algorithm has low numerical dispersion despite the fact it is based on first-order space discretization. The proposed algorithm is very robust.
Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, Onno
2001-01-01
This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1980-01-01
Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem