Sample records for element modeling approach

  1. An edge element approach for dynamic micromagnetic modeling

    Bottauscio, O.; Chiampi, M.; Manzin, A.


    This paper proposes a three-dimensional dynamic micromagnetic model, based on the Galerkin weak formulation, reconstructing magnetization by finite element edge vector shape functions. The demagnetizing filed is computed using a hybrid finite element boundary element method. The procedure is compared to analytical formulas and simulations performed with the NIST/OOMMF code, focusing on damping and precessional switching in magnetic thin films.

  2. A Finite Element Approach to Modeling Abrasive Wear Modes

    Woldman, M.; Heide, van der E.; Tinga, T.; Masen, M.A.


    Machine components operating in sandy environments will wear because of the abrasive interaction with sand particles. In this work, a method is derived to predict the amount of wear caused by such abrasive action, in order to improve the maintenance concept of the components. A finite element model

  3. A Computational Approach for Automated Posturing of a Human Finite Element Model


    following: obtaining source geometries in the posture being tested, a so- called posturing “by hand” where geometries are moved to what “looks correct ...ARL-MR-0934• JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Computational Approach for Automated Posturing of a Human Finite ElementModel by Justin McKee...Automated Posturing of a Human Finite ElementModel by Justin McKee Bennett Aerospace, Inc., Cary, NC Adam Sokolow Weapons and Materials Research

  4. Mechanistic approach to multi-element isotope modeling of organic contaminant degradation.

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo


    We propose a multi-element isotope modeling approach to simultaneously predict the evolution of different isotopes during the transformation of organic contaminants. The isotopic trends of different elements are explicitly simulated by tracking position-specific isotopologues that contain the isotopes located at fractionating positions. Our approach is self-consistent and provides a mechanistic description of different degradation pathways that accounts for the influence of both primary and secondary isotope effects during contaminant degradation. The method is particularly suited to quantitatively describe the isotopic evolution of relatively large organic contaminant molecules. For such compounds, an integrated approach, simultaneously considering all possible isotopologues, would be impractical due to the large number of isotopologues. We apply the proposed modeling approach to the degradation of toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and nitrobenzene observed in previous experimental studies. Our model successfully predicts the multi-element isotope data (both 2D and 3D), and accurately captures the distinct trends observed for different reaction pathways. The proposed approach provides an improved and mechanistic methodology to interpret multi-element isotope data and to predict the extent of multi-element isotope fractionation that goes beyond commonly applied modeling descriptions and simplified methods based on the ratio between bulk enrichment factors or on linear regression in dual-isotope plots.

  5. Variance analysis for model updating with a finite element based subspace fitting approach

    Gautier, Guillaume; Mevel, Laurent; Mencik, Jean-Mathieu; Serra, Roger; Döhler, Michael


    Recently, a subspace fitting approach has been proposed for vibration-based finite element model updating. The approach makes use of subspace-based system identification, where the extended observability matrix is estimated from vibration measurements. Finite element model updating is performed by correlating the model-based observability matrix with the estimated one, by using a single set of experimental data. Hence, the updated finite element model only reflects this single test case. However, estimates from vibration measurements are inherently exposed to uncertainty due to unknown excitation, measurement noise and finite data length. In this paper, a covariance estimation procedure for the updated model parameters is proposed, which propagates the data-related covariance to the updated model parameters by considering a first-order sensitivity analysis. In particular, this propagation is performed through each iteration step of the updating minimization problem, by taking into account the covariance between the updated parameters and the data-related quantities. Simulated vibration signals are used to demonstrate the accuracy and practicability of the derived expressions. Furthermore, an application is shown on experimental data of a beam.

  6. Finite element modelling of woven composite failure modes at the mesoscopic scale: deterministic versus stochastic approaches

    Roirand, Q.; Missoum-Benziane, D.; Thionnet, A.; Laiarinandrasana, L.


    Textile composites are composed of 3D complex architecture. To assess the durability of such engineering structures, the failure mechanisms must be highlighted. Examinations of the degradation have been carried out thanks to tomography. The present work addresses a numerical damage model dedicated to the simulation of the crack initiation and propagation at the scale of the warp yarns. For the 3D woven composites under study, loadings in tension and combined tension and bending were considered. Based on an erosion procedure of broken elements, the failure mechanisms have been modelled on 3D periodic cells by finite element calculations. The breakage of one element was determined using a failure criterion at the mesoscopic scale based on the yarn stress at failure. The results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for the two kinds of macroscopic loadings. The deterministic approach assumed a homogeneously distributed stress at failure all over the integration points in the meshes of woven composites. A stochastic approach was applied to a simple representative elementary periodic cell. The distribution of the Weibull stress at failure was assigned to the integration points using a Monte Carlo simulation. It was shown that this stochastic approach allowed more realistic failure simulations avoiding the idealised symmetry due to the deterministic modelling. In particular, the stochastic simulations performed have shown several variations of the stress as well as strain at failure and the failure modes of the yarn.

  7. An Integrated Magnetic Circuit Model and Finite Element Model Approach to Magnetic Bearing Design

    Provenza, Andrew J.; Kenny, Andrew; Palazzolo, Alan B.


    A code for designing magnetic bearings is described. The code generates curves from magnetic circuit equations relating important bearing performance parameters. Bearing parameters selected from the curves by a designer to meet the requirements of a particular application are input directly by the code into a three-dimensional finite element analysis preprocessor. This means that a three-dimensional computer model of the bearing being developed is immediately available for viewing. The finite element model solution can be used to show areas of magnetic saturation and make more accurate predictions of the bearing load capacity, current stiffness, position stiffness, and inductance than the magnetic circuit equations did at the start of the design process. In summary, the code combines one-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling methods for designing magnetic bearings.

  8. Cadaveric validation of a finite element modeling approach for studying scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    Permeswaran, Vijay N; Goetz, Jessica E; Rudert, M James; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Anderson, Donald D


    Cadaveric experiments were undertaken to validate a finite element (FE) modeling approach for studying impingement-related scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The specific focus of the validation was contact at the site of impingement between the humeral polyethylene component and the inferior aspect of the scapula during an adduction motion. Lateralization of the RSA center of rotation was varied because it has been advocated clinically to reduce impingement and presumably decrease the risk of scapular notching. Tekscan sensors were utilized to directly measure contact stress at the impingement site, and FE was used to compute contact stresses. Favorable agreement was seen between physically measured and FE-computed impingement site location (within one sensing element of the Tekscan sensor) and contact loads (mean absolute difference of 14.9%). Contact stresses and contact areas were difficult to compare directly due to the disparate spatial resolutions of the Tekscan sensor and the FE model. FE-computed contact at the impingement site was highly focal, with a total contact area comparable to the area of an individual Tekscan sensing element. The good agreement between the physically measured and FE-computed contact data (i.e., contact load and location) support the use of FE modeling as a tool for computationally testing the efficacy of changing various surgical variables associated with RSA.

  9. Aircraft wing structural design optimization based on automated finite element modelling and ground structure approach

    Yang, Weizhu; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Lei; Wang, Peiyan


    An optimization procedure combining an automated finite element modelling (AFEM) technique with a ground structure approach (GSA) is proposed for structural layout and sizing design of aircraft wings. The AFEM technique, based on CATIA VBA scripting and PCL programming, is used to generate models automatically considering the arrangement of inner systems. GSA is used for local structural topology optimization. The design procedure is applied to a high-aspect-ratio wing. The arrangement of the integral fuel tank, landing gear and control surfaces is considered. For the landing gear region, a non-conventional initial structural layout is adopted. The positions of components, the number of ribs and local topology in the wing box and landing gear region are optimized to obtain a minimum structural weight. Constraints include tank volume, strength, buckling and aeroelastic parameters. The results show that the combined approach leads to a greater weight saving, i.e. 26.5%, compared with three additional optimizations based on individual design approaches.

  10. Discrete element modelling approach to assessment of granular properties in concrete

    Piet STROEVEN; Huan HE; Martijn STROEVEN


    This paper presents the technological relevance of a concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modelling (DEM)system, HADES. This new system is the successor of SPACE that is limited to spherical grains only. It can realistically simulate the packing of arbitrary-shaped particles up to the fully compacted state. Generation of families of such particles, i.e., generally representing aggregate of fluvial origin and crushed rock, respectively, and the forming way of particulate structure are described.Similarly shaped particles are proposed for simulation of cement paste because of conformity with experimental results obtained by the X-ray tomography method. Technologically relevant territories inside and outside concrete technology are presently explored in this efficient, reliable, and economic way. Some results obtained by this DEM approach are presented.

  11. Fourier finite element modeling of light emission in waveguides: 2.5-dimensional FEM approach.

    Ou, Yangxin; Pardo, David; Chen, Yuntian


    We present a Fourier finite element modeling of light emission of dipolar emitters coupled to infinitely long waveguides. Due to the translational symmetry, the three-dimensional (3D) coupled waveguide-emitter system can be decomposed into a series of independent 2D problems (2.5D), which reduces the computational cost. Moreover, the reduced 2D problems can be extremely accurate, compared to its 3D counterpart. Our method can precisely quantify the total emission rates, as well as the fraction of emission rates into different modal channels for waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. We compare our method with dyadic Green's function for the light emission in single mode metallic nanowire, which yields an excellent agreement. This method is applied in multi-mode waveguides, as well as multi-core waveguides. We further show that our method has the full capability of including dipole orientations, as illustrated via a rotating dipole, which leads to unidirectional excitation of guide modes. The 2.5D Finite Element Method (FEM) approach proposed here can be applied for various waveguides, thus it is useful to interface single-photon single-emitter in nano-structures, as well as for other scenarios involving coupled waveguide-emitters.

  12. An adaptive finite element approach to modelling sediment laden density currents

    Parkinson, S.; Hill, J.; Allison, P. A.; Piggott, M. D.


    Modelling sediment-laden density currents at real-world scales is a challenging task. Here we present Fluidity, which uses dynamic adaptive re-meshing to reduce computational costs whilst maintaining sufficient resolution where and when it is required. This allows small-scale processes to be captured in large scale simulations. Density currents, also known as gravity or buoyancy currents, occur wherever two fluids with different densities meet. They can occur at scales of up to hundred kilometres in the ocean when continental shelves collapse. This process releases large quantities of sediment into the ocean which increase the bulk density of the fluid to form a density current. These currents can carry sediment hundreds of kilometres, at speeds of up to a hundred kilometres per hour, over the sea bed. They can be tsunamigenic and they have the potential to cause significant damage to submarine infrastructure, such as submarine telecommunications cables or oil and gas infrastructure. They are also a key process for movement of organic material into the depths of the ocean. Due to this, they play an important role in the global carbon cycle on the Earth, forming a significant component of the stratigraphic record, and their deposits can form useful sources of important hydrocarbons. Modelling large scale sediment laden density currents is a very challenging problem. Particles within the current are suspended by turbulence that occurs at length scales that are several orders of magnitude smaller than the size of the current. Models that resolve the vertical structure of the flow require a very large, highly resolved mesh, and substantial computing power to solve. Here, we verify our adaptive model by comparison with a set of laboratory experiments by Gladstone et al. [1998] on the propagation and sediment deposition of bidisperse gravity currents. Comparisons are also made with fixed mesh solutions, and it is shown that accuracy can be maintained with fewer elements

  13. A NURBS-based finite element model applied to geometrically nonlinear elastodynamics using a corotational approach

    Espath, L. F R


    A numerical model to deal with nonlinear elastodynamics involving large rotations within the framework of the finite element based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) basis is presented. A comprehensive kinematical description using a corotational approach and an orthogonal tensor given by the exact polar decomposition is adopted. The state equation is written in terms of corotational variables according to the hypoelastic theory, relating the Jaumann derivative of the Cauchy stress to the Eulerian strain rate.The generalized-α method (Gα) method and Generalized Energy-Momentum Method with an additional parameter (GEMM+ξ) are employed in order to obtain a stable and controllable dissipative time-stepping scheme with algorithmic conservative properties for nonlinear dynamic analyses.The main contribution is to show that the energy-momentum conservation properties and numerical stability may be improved once a NURBS-based FEM in the spatial discretization is used. Also it is shown that high continuity can postpone the numerical instability when GEMM+ξ with consistent mass is employed; likewise, increasing the continuity class yields a decrease in the numerical dissipation. A parametric study is carried out in order to show the stability and energy budget in terms of several properties such as continuity class, spectral radius and lumped as well as consistent mass matrices.

  14. A multibody modelling approach to determine load sharing between passive elements of the lumbar spine.

    Abouhossein, Alireza; Weisse, Bernhard; Ferguson, Stephen J


    The human spinal segment is an inherently complex structure, a combination of flexible and semi-rigid articulating elements stabilised by seven principal ligaments. An understanding of how mechanical loading is shared among these passive elements of the segment is required to estimate tissue failure stresses. A 3D rigid body model of the complete lumbar spine has been developed to facilitate the prediction of load sharing across the passive elements. In contrast to previous multibody models, this model includes a non-linear, six degrees of freedom intervertebral disc, facet bony articulations and all spinal ligaments. Predictions of segmental kinematics and facet joint forces, in response to pure moment loading (flexion-extension), were compared to published in vitro data. On inclusion of detailed representation of the disc and facets, the multibody model fully captures the non-linear flexibility response of the spinal segment, i.e. coupled motions and a mobile instantaneous centre of rotation. Predicted facet joint forces corresponded well with reported values. For the loading case considered, the model predicted that the ligaments are the main stabilising elements within the physiological motion range; however, the disc resists a greater proportion of the applied load as the spine is fully flexed. In extension, the facets and capsular ligaments provide the principal resistance. Overall patterns of load distribution to the spinal ligaments are in agreement with previous predictions; however, the current model highlights the important role of the intraspinous ligament in flexion and the potentially high risk of failure. Several important refinements to the multibody modelling of the passive elements of the spine have been described, and such an enhanced passive model can be easily integrated into a full musculoskeletal model for the prediction of spinal loading for a variety of daily activities.

  15. A new approach to finite element modeling, analysis and post-processing

    White, Gil


    Recent advances in both hardware and software have opened the door to a new generation of finite element modeling systems. INTERGRAPH CORP has combined an innovative programming concept with a stand alone workstation hardware platform to produce a new standard in finite element modeling called I/FEM. The system offers the COSMIC NASTRAN user full integration between design and analysis. I/FEM not only addresses the needs of the NASTRAN user of today, it also provides for continued evolution of the COSMIC NASTRAN product.

  16. A consistent geochemical modelling approach for the leaching and reactive transport of major and trace elements in MSWI bottom ash

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Comans, R.N.J.


    To improve the long-term environmental risk assessment of waste applications, a predictive "multi-surface" modelling approach has been developed to simultaneously predict the leaching and reactive transport of a broad range of major and trace elements (i.e., pH, Na, Al, Fe, Ca, SO4, Mg, Si, PO4, CO3

  17. A consistent geochemical modelling approach for the leaching and reactive transport of major and trace elements in MSWI bottom ash

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Comans, R.N.J.


    To improve the long-term environmental risk assessment of waste applications, a predictive "multi-surface" modelling approach has been developed to simultaneously predict the leaching and reactive transport of a broad range of major and trace elements (i.e., pH, Na, Al, Fe, Ca, SO4, Mg, Si, PO4, CO3

  18. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 2. Application and experimental insights

    Kavetski, D.; Fenicia, F.


    In this article's companion paper, flexible approaches for conceptual hydrological modeling at the catchment scale were motivated, and the SUPERFLEX framework, based on generic model components, was introduced. In this article, the SUPERFLEX framework and the “fixed structure” GR4H model (an hourly

  19. A musculo-mechanical model of esophageal transport based on an immersed boundary-finite element approach

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.


    This work extends a fiber-based immersed boundary (IB) model of esophageal transport by incorporating a continuum model of the deformable esophageal wall. The continuum-based esophagus model adopts finite element approach that is capable of describing more complex and realistic material properties and geometries. The leakage from mismatch between Lagrangian and Eulerian meshes resulting from large deformations of the esophageal wall is avoided by careful choice of interaction points. The esophagus model, which is described as a multi-layered, fiber-reinforced nonlinear elastic material, is coupled to bolus and muscle-activation models using the IB approach to form the esophageal transport model. Cases of esophageal transport with different esophagus models are studied. Results on the transport characteristics, including pressure field and esophageal wall kinematics and stress, are analyzed and compared. Support from NIH grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 is gratefully acknowledged. BEG is supported by NSF award ACI 1460334.

  20. A discontinuous finite element approach to cracking in coupled poro-elastic fluid flow models

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Evans, O.; Ulven, O. I.; Sun, W.


    Reaction-driven cracking is a coupled process whereby fluid-induced reactions drive large volume changes in the host rock which produce stresses leading to crack propagation and failure. This in turn generates new surface area and fluid-flow pathways for subsequent reaction in a potentially self-sustaining system. This mechanism has has been proposed for the pervasive serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, as well as applications to mineral carbon sequestration and hydrocarbon extraction. The key computational issue in this problem is implementing algorithms that adequately model the formation of discrete fractures. Here we present models using a discontinuous finite element method for modeling fracture formation (Radovitsky et al., 2011). Cracks are introduced along facets of the mesh by the relaxation of penalty parameters once a failure criterion is met. It is fully described in the weak form of the equations, requiring no modification of the underlying mesh structure and allowing fluid properties to be easily adjusted along cracked facets. To develop and test the method, we start by implementing the algorithm for the simplified Biot equations for poro-elasticity using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA. We consider hydro-fracking around a borehole (Grassl et al., 2015), where elevated fluid pressure in the poro-elastic solid causes it to fail radially in tension. We investigate the effects of varying the Biot coefficient and adjusting the fluid transport properties in the vicinity of the crack and compare our results to related dual-graph models (Ulven & Sun, submitted). We discuss issues arising from this method, including the formation of null spaces and appropriate preconditioning and solution strategies. Initial results suggest that this method provides a promising way to incorporate cracking into our reactive fluid flow models and future work aims to integrate the mechanical and chemical aspects of this process.

  1. Multi-Resolution Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo Approach for System Identification with an Application to Finite-Element Models

    Johannesson, G; Glaser, R E; Lee, C L; Nitao, J J; Hanley, W G


    Estimating unknown system configurations/parameters by combining system knowledge gained from a computer simulation model on one hand and from observed data on the other hand is challenging. An example of such inverse problem is detecting and localizing potential flaws or changes in a structure by using a finite-element model and measured vibration/displacement data. We propose a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian methodology. This approach does not only yield a single best-guess solution, but a posterior probability distribution over the parameter space. In addition, the Bayesian approach provides a natural framework to accommodate prior knowledge. A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure is proposed to generate samples from the posterior distribution (an ensemble of likely system configurations given the data). The MCMC procedure proposed explores the parameter space at different resolutions (scales), resulting in a more robust and efficient procedure. The large-scale exploration steps are carried out using coarser-resolution finite-element models, yielding a considerable decrease in computational time, which can be a crucial for large finite-element models. An application is given using synthetic displacement data from a simple cantilever beam with MCMC exploration carried out at three different resolutions.

  2. 3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: a gait analysis driven approach.

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio


    Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. The FEM were developed segmenting bones, cartilage and skin from MRI and drawing a horizontal plate as ground support. Materials properties were adopted from previous literature. FE simulations were run with the kinematics and kinetics data of four different phases of the stance phase of gait (heel strike, loading response, midstance and push off). FEMs were then driven by group gait data of 10 neuropathic and 10 healthy subjects. Model validation focused on agreement between FEM-simulated and experimental PP. The peak values and the total distribution of the pressures were compared for this purpose. Results showed that the models were less robust when driven from group data and underestimated the PP in each foot subarea. In particular in the case of the neuropathic subject's model the mean errors between experimental and simulated data were around the 20% of the peak values. This knowledge is crucial in understanding the aetiology of diabetic foot.

  3. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Forquin, P.


    Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 - 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs) [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction) of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1). The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa), a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the particulate

  4. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Forquin P.


    Full Text Available Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR. The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 – 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1. The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa, a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the

  5. Fourier finite element modeling of light emission in waveguides: 2.5-dimensional FEM approach

    Ou, Yangxin; Chen, Yuntian


    We present a Fourier finite element modeling of light emission of dipolar emitters coupled to infinitely long waveguides. Due to the translational symmetry, the three-dimensional (3D) coupled waveguide-emitter system can be decomposed into a series of independent 2D problems (2.5D), which reduces the computational cost. Moreover, the reduced 2D problems can be extremely accurate, compared to its 3D counterpart. Our method can precisely quantify the total emission rates, as well as the fraction of emission rates into different modal channels for waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. We compare our method with dyadic Green's function for the light emission in single mode metallic nanowire, which yields an excellent agreement. This method is applied in multi-mode waveguides, as well as multi-core waveguides. We further show that our method has the full capability of including dipole orientations, as illustrated via a rotating dipole, which leads to unidirectional excitation of guide modes. The 2.5D Finite El...

  6. Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge

    Doody, Christina


    This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

  7. Discrete element modeling approach to porosimetry for durability risk estimation of concrete

    Stroeven, P.; Le, N.L.B.; Stroeven, M.; Sluys, L.J.


    The paper introduces a novel approach to porosimetry in virtual concrete, denoted as random node structuring (RNS). The fresh state of this particulate material is produced by the DEM system HADES. Hydration simulation is a hybrid approach making use of wellknown discretization and vector methods. P

  8. Computational Modeling Approaches for Studying Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-element Injector


    Transverse Combustion Response," in AIAA JPC Conference, Denver, CO, AIAA Paper No. 2009-5490, 2009. [12] B. Pomeroy, J. Sisco, J. Eckstein and W...Anderson, "Characterization of Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injector Stability in a Subscale Multi-Element Combustor," in AIAA JPC Conference...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Response at Full Scale Frequencies in a Subscale Combustor," in AIAA JPC Conference, Nashville, TN

  9. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to curre

  10. Orbital stress analysis, part V: systematic approach to validate a finite element model of a human orbit.

    Al-sukhun, Jehad; Penttilä, Heikki; Ashammakhi, Nureddin


    The progress in computer technology and the increased use of finite element analysis in the medical field by nonengineers and medical researchers lead us to believe that there is a need to develop a systematic approach to validate a finite element model (FEM), of a human orbit, that simulates part of the maxillofacial skeleton and to investigate the effects and the clinical significance of changing the geometry, boundary conditions, that is, muscle forces, and orthotropic material properties on the predictive outcome of an FEM of a human orbit. Forty-seven variables affecting the material properties, boundary conditions, and the geometry of an FEM of a human orbit including the globe were systematically changed, creating a number of FEMs of the orbit. The effects of the variations were quantified as differences in the principal strain magnitudes modeled by the original FEM (criterion standard), before the sensitivity analyses, and those generated by the changed FEMs. The material properties that had the biggest impact on the predicted principal strains were the shear moduli (up to 21%) and the absence of fatty tissue (up to 75%). The boundary condition properties that had the biggest impact on the predicted principal strains were the superior rectus muscle and canthal ligaments (up to 18% and 23%, respectively). Alterations to the geometry of the orbit, such as an increase in its volume, had the greatest effect on principal strain magnitudes (up to 52%). Changes in geometry, boundary conditions, and orthotropic material properties can induce significant changes in strain patterns. These values must therefore be chosen with care when using finite element modeling techniques. This study also highlights the importance of restoring the orbital fat and volume when reconstructing the orbital floor following a blunt injury. The possibility that the unrestored increase in the orbital volume and the resulting stresses may be a source of globe injuries, causing diplopia

  11. Different Modelling Approaches to Coupling Wall and Floor Panels within a Dynamic Finite Element Model of a Lightweight Building

    Kiel, Nikolaj; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Niu, Bin


    As a result of the increasing interest of constructing environmentally friendly lightweight buildings, analyses of vibrational and acoustical transmission in these buildings have become increasingly important. Structures where vibrational transmission may result in undesirable vibrations....... With the number of modules in the three axial directions defined, wall and floor panels are constructed, placed and coupled in the global model. The core of this modular finite element model consists of connecting the different panels to each other in a rational manner, where the accuracy is as high as possible...... of a similar construction without a skeleton. These parameters are selected in a way where decoupled pseudo-modes of the skeleton are avoided, alongside the insignificant influence of the overall structure achieved with a low mass, small profile, and a relatively low Young's modulus, approximately 1...

  12. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.


    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to currently dominant "fixed" model applications, the flexible framework proposed here allows the hydrologist to hypothesize, build, and test different model structures using combinations of generic components. This is particularly useful for conceptual modeling at the catchment scale, where limitations in process understanding and data availability remain major research and operational challenges. The formulation of the model architecture and individual components to represent distinct aspects of catchment-scale function, such as storage, release, and transmission of water, is discussed. Several numerical strategies for implementing the model equations within a computationally robust framework are also presented. In the companion paper, the potential of the flexible framework is examined with respect to supporting more systematic and stringent hypothesis testing, for characterizing catchment diversity, and, more generally, for aiding progress toward more unified hydrological theory at the catchment scale.

  13. Experimental Finite Element Approach for Stress Analysis

    Ahmet Erklig


    Full Text Available This study aims to determining the strain gauge location points in the problems of stress concentration, and it includes both experimental and numerical results. Strain gauges were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on beam and blocks to related node of elements of finite element models. Linear and nonlinear cases were studied. Cantilever beam problem was selected as the linear case to approve the approach and conforming contact problem was selected as the nonlinear case. An identical mesh structure was prepared for the finite element and the experimental models. The finite element analysis was carried out with ANSYS. It was shown that the results of the experimental and the numerical studies were in good agreement.

  14. Discrete Element Modeling

    Morris, J; Johnson, S


    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  15. A hybrid transfinite element approach for nonlinear transient thermal analysis

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.


    A new computational approach for transient nonlinear thermal analysis of structures is proposed. It is a hybrid approach which combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. The present study is limited to nonlinearities due to temperature-dependent thermophysical properties. Numerical test cases attest to the basic capabilities and therein validate the transfinite element approach by means of comparisons with conventional finite element schemes and/or available solutions.

  16. Different Modelling Approaches to Coupling Wall and Floor Panels within a Dynamic Finite Element Model of a Lightweight Building

    Kiel, Nikolaj; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Niu, Bin


    As a result of the increasing interest of constructing environmentally friendly lightweight buildings, analyses of vibrational and acoustical transmission in these buildings have become increasingly important. Structures where vibrational transmission may result in undesirable vibrations....... In this way a well-defined master geometry is present onto which all panels can be tied. But as the skeleton is an element itself, it will have a physical mass and a corresponding stiffness to be included in the linear system of equations. This means that the skeleton will influence the structure...

  17. An high order Mixed Interpolation Tensorial Components (MITC) shell element approach for modeling the buckling behavior of delaminated composites

    Gaiotti, Marco; Rizzo, Cesare M.; Branner, Kim


    of composite laminates of wind turbine blades, results were found valuable for the marine industry as well, because similar laminates are used for the hull shell and stiffeners. Systematic calculations were carried out to assess the effects of an embedded delamination on the buckling load, varying the size...... and through thickness position of the delamination. Different finite element modeling strategies were considered and validated against the experimental results. The one applying the 9 nodes MITC shell elements was found matching the experimental data despite failure modes were different for the two...

  18. Discrete Element Modeling of Asphalt Concrete Cracking Using a User-defined Tlree-dimensional Micromechanical Approach

    CHEN Jun; PAN Tongyan; HUANG Xiaoming


    We established a user-defined micromechanical model using discrete element method (DEM) to investigate the cracking behavior of asphalt concrete (AC).Using the “Fish” language provided in the particle flow code in 3-Demensions (PFC3D),the air voids and mastics in asphalt concrete were realistically built as two distinct phases.With the irregular shape of individual aggregate particles modeled using a clump of spheres of different sizes,the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element model was able to account for aggregate gradation and fraction.Laboratory uniaxial complex modulus test and indirect tensile strength test were performed to obtain input material parameters for the numerical simulation.A set of the indirect tensile test were simulated to study the cracking behavior of AC at two levels of temperature,i e,-10 ℃ and 15 ℃.The predicted results of the numerical simulation were compared with laboratory experimental measurements.Results show that the 3D DEM model is able to predict accurately the fracture pattern of different asphalt mixtures.Based on the DEM model,the effects of air void content and aggregate volumetric fraction on the cracking behavior of asphalt concrete were evaluated.

  19. Flow Element Models

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  20. The effect of fixture neck design in a realistic model of dental implant: a finite element approach.

    Necchi, Silvia; Migliavacca, Francesco; Gastaldi, Dario; Pizzagalli, Manuela; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto; Pietrabissa, Riccardo; Dubini, Gabriele


    The aim of this work is to develop an accurate finite element model able to reproduce a standard experimental set-up for the evaluation of mechanical failure of a dental implant system. The considered system is composed of a fixture, an abutment and a connecting screw. We analysed the behaviour of the implant system considering three different designs of the fixture, in order to establish which one provides the better mechanical behaviour. After the definition of the numerical models, loading conditions were selected in order to reproduce the same stress state found in previous mechanical failure tests. Preloading and functional loading conditions were simulated. The analysis of the numerical results shows that the structure yielding is due to the fixture neck plastic deformation, that increases the load eccentricity and then the bending stress on the connecting screw. Only slight differences were found between the three implant systems in the amount and distribution of stress. The model reproduces properly the implant systems and the experimental set-up. The goodness of the model can be summarised as: realistic geometrical structure, elastoplastic model for the material description, correct definition of the contacts and the existing tolerance among the different system components, reproduction of the preloading stress condition. The present study permitted to define a valid procedure for the realization of numerical models of implant systems.

  1. The concept of runoff elements as a basis of scale-free approach to runoff formation modelling - the experience of the model "Hydrograph" development and implementation

    Vinogradov, Yu. B.; Semenova, O.


    The concept of runoff elements used in proposed model as a base for calculating routine describing slope runoff transformation gives the opportunity to avoid the scale problem in hydrological modelling which, to our opinion, mainly refers to mathematical approaches (the framework of Navier-Stokes equations) widely used for description of water movement within the basin. River basin is a system of elementary watersheds of surface and underground ones of various layers. The topography of river basin surface conditionally can be presented by a system of the inclined surfaces each of them being an elementary slope. Within a surface elementary slope water flowing down is realized over non-channel rill system and within the underground elementary slope - over the underground drainage system. The elementary slopes and watersheds in their turn consist of a system of runoff elements - limited by micro-divides areas of the surface and underground elementary slopes and watersheds exposed with their open part to the slope non-channel or underground drainage system. Runoff elements are not the kind of idealization but they can be easily identified with the natural formations. Surface runoff elements depending on natural conditions but mainly on inclination can be measured from shares and ones up to tens of thousand square meters. Underground runoff elements can be much greater. For each runoff element there is a balance ratio (1) There is the unique nonlinear relation between W and outflow dischargeR: (2) Then, the corresponding equation of the outflow hydrograph from runoff elements of a given layer is the following: (3) Here R0 is the initial value of runoff R and S is the runoff rate (m3s-1); Δt is the computational time interval (sec) during which S is constant; a,b - hydraulic coefficients (which determine the conditions of outflow) with dimension m-3 and m3 s-1. In the general case, we assume that the number of runoff elements is proportional to the basin area F (m2

  2. Assessing element distribution and speciation in a stream at abandoned Pb-Zn mining site by combining classical, in-situ DGT and modelling approaches.

    Omanović, Dario; Pižeta, Ivanka; Vukosav, Petra; Kovács, Elza; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Tamás, János


    The distribution and speciation of elements along a stream subjected to neutralised acid mine drainage (NAMD) effluent waters (Mátra Mountain, Hungary; Toka stream) were studied by a multi-methodological approach: dissolved and particulate fractions of elements were determined by HR-ICPMS, whereas speciation was carried out by DGT, supported by speciation modelling performed by Visual MINTEQ. Before the NAMD discharge, the Toka is considered as a pristine stream, with averages of dissolved concentrations of elements lower than world averages. A considerable increase of element concentrations caused by effluent water inflow is followed by a sharp or gradual concentration decrease. A large difference between total and dissolved concentrations was found for Fe, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn and As in effluent water and at the first downstream site, with high correlation factors between elements in particulate fraction, indicating their common behaviour, governed by the formation of ferri(hydr)oxides (co)precipitates. In-situ speciation by the DGT technique revealed that Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Mn and U were predominantly present as a labile, potentially bioavailable fraction (>90%). The formation of strong complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM) resulted in a relatively low DGT-labile concentration of Cu (42%), while low DGT-labile concentrations of Fe (5%) and Pb (12%) were presumably caused by their existence in colloidal (particulate) fraction which is not accessible to DGT. Except for Fe and Pb, a very good agreement between DGT-labile concentrations and those predicted by the applied speciation model was obtained, with an average correlation factor of 0.96. This study showed that the in-situ DGT technique in combination with model-predicted speciation and classical analysis of samples could provide a reasonable set of data for the assessment of the water quality status (WQS), as well as for the more general study of overall behaviour of the elements in natural waters subjected

  3. Finite element model approach of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell with a focus on minimization of the computational effort and short circuit prediction

    Raffler, Marco; Sevarin, Alessio; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Heindl, Simon F.; Breitfuss, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang


    In this research, a parameterized beam-element-based mechanical modeling approach for cylindrical lithium ion batteries is developed. With the goal to use the cell model in entire vehicle crash simulations, focus of development is on minimizing the computational effort whilst simultaneously obtaining accurate mechanical behavior. The cylindrical cell shape is approximated by radial beams connected to each other in circumferential and longitudinal directions. The discrete beam formulation is used to define an anisotropic material behavior. An 18650 lithium ion cell model constructed in LS-Dyna is used to show the high degree of parameterization of the approach. A criterion which considers the positive pole deformation and the radial deformation of the cell is developed for short circuit prediction during simulation. An abuse testing program, consisting of radial crush, axial crush, and penetration is performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and internal short circuit behavior of a commercially available 18650 lithium cell. Additional 3-point-bending tests are performed to verify the approach objectively. By reducing the number of strength-related elements to 1600, a fast and accurate cell model can be created. Compared to typical cell models in technical literature, simulation time of a single cell load case can be reduced by approx. 90%.

  4. Element-Based Computational Model

    Conrad Mueller


    Full Text Available A variation on the data-flow model is proposed to use for developing parallel architectures. While the model is a data driven model it has significant differences to the data-flow model. The proposed model has an evaluation cycleof processing elements (encapsulated data that is similar to the instruction cycle of the von Neumann model. The elements contain the information required to process them. The model is inherently parallel. An emulation of the model has been implemented. The objective of this paper is to motivate support for taking the research further. Using matrix multiplication as a case study, the element/data-flow based model is compared with the instruction-based model. This is done using complexity analysis followed by empirical testing to verify this analysis. The positive results are given as motivation for the research to be taken to the next stage - that is, implementing the model using FPGAs.

  5. Speciation of rare earth elements in natural terrestrial waters: assessing the role of dissolved organic matter from the modeling approach

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.


    Humic Ion-Binding Model V, which focuses on metal complexation with humic and fulvic acids, was modified to assess the role of dissolved natural organic matter in the speciation of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural terrestrial waters. Intrinsic equilibrium constants for cation-proton exchange with humic substances (i.e., p KMHA for type A sites, consisting mainly of carboxylic acids), required by the model for each REE, were initially estimated using linear free-energy relationships between the first hydrolysis constants and stability constants for REE metal complexation with lactic and acetic acid. p KMHA values were further refined by comparison of calculated Model V "fits" to published data sets describing complexation of Eu, Tb, and Dy with humic substances. A subroutine that allows for the simultaneous evaluation of REE complexation with inorganic ligands (e.g., Cl -, F -, OH -, SO 42-, CO 32-, PO 43-), incorporating recently determined stability constants for REE complexes with these ligands, was also linked to Model V. Humic Ion-Binding Model V's ability to predict REE speciation with natural organic matter in natural waters was evaluated by comparing model results to "speciation" data determined previously with ultrafiltration techniques (i.e., organic acid-rich waters of the Nsimi-Zoetele catchment, Cameroon; dilute, circumneutral-pH waters of the Tamagawa River, Japan, and the Kalix River, northern Sweden). The model predictions compare well with the ultrafiltration studies, especially for the heavy REEs in circumneutral-pH river waters. Subsequent application of the model to world average river water predicts that organic matter complexes are the dominant form of dissolved REEs in bulk river waters draining the continents. Holding major solute, minor solute, and REE concentrations of world average river water constant while varying pH, the model suggests that organic matter complexes would dominate La, Eu, and Lu speciation within the pH ranges of 5

  6. Deciphering P-T-t Paths from Reaction Microstructures in Metamorphic Rocks: a New Approach by Means of Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modelling

    Sassi, R.; Marcuzzi, F.; Mazzoli, C.


    One of the main goals of metamorphic petrology is to obtain information on the variations of metamorphic P-T conditions during orogenesis (P-T-t paths). For this purpose petrologists are aware of the potentiality of studying reaction microstructures, although results are not always satisfactory as in most cases qualitative approaches, failing on the real meaning of specific microstructral relationships, are often adopted. Thus, the present research aimed to study the petrogenetic meaning of reaction microstructure in metamorphic rocks through the formulation of a new true three-dimensional finite-element model. For this purpose, different petrologically well studied metamorphic microstructural situations have been selected, in order to identify information, variables and constraints fundamental for the development of the model. A generalised finite-elements model (FEM) has been developed, applicable to any microstructural situation, independently on grain-size and distribution of minerals in the matrix, and able to also consider growth anisotropies, intracrystalline diffusion, pressure solution, and possibly anisotropy of the strain field. This model is based on a combination of the usual diffusion linear equations used in current irreversible thermodynamic models, providing constraints on absolute values of diffusion coefficients of chemical components, chemical potential gradients and time of reactions during metamorphism, starting from information on textural anisotropies observed in metamorphic rocks. In the model, parameterization is given by diffusion, convection and reaction coefficients of each chemical species within each finite element, which dimension is equal to the spatial resolution of the experimentally measured input data (i.e. SEM elemental maps). Thus, parameterization is able to describe locally heterogeneous reaction phenomena although based on a basically linear partial derivative differential model. Such a discretization of the continuum model

  7. Nonlinear/linear unified thermal stress formulations - Transfinite element approach

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.


    A new unified computational approach for applicability to nonlinear/linear thermal-structural problems is presented. Basic concepts of the approach including applicability to nonlinear and linear thermal structural mechanics are first described via general formulations. Therein, the approach is demonstrated for thermal stress and thermal-structural dynamic applications. The proposed transfinite element approach focuses on providing a viable hybrid computational methodology by combining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element schemes in conjunction with transform techniques and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Comparative samples of numerical test cases highlight the capabilities of the proposed concepts.

  8. Physical model of Nernst element

    Nakamura, Hiroaki [Venture Business Lab., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou


    Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)

  9. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    Romero, Vicente Jose


    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  10. Finite element analysis of grain-matrix micro-cracking in shale within the context of a multiscale modeling approach for fracture (Invited)

    Regueiro, R. A.; Yu, S.


    The paper models grain-scale micro-cracking in shale at grain-matrix interfaces, assuming constituents are composed of quart silt grains and compacted clay matrix for a typical shale. The influence of grain-matrix-grain interaction on micro-crack patterns is investigated. Elasto-plastic pressure-sensitive cohesive-surface models are inserted at grain-matrix interfaces and intra-clay-matrix finite element facets, while a bulk elasto-plasticity model with bifurcation is employed for the clay matrix to compare to the intra-clay-matrix cohesive-surface model. Numerical examples are presented under two-dimensional plane strain condition at small strains. A procedure is proposed to upscale grain-scale micro-cracking to predict macro-fracture nucleation and propagation in shale and other bound particulate materials. It is shown that using cohesive surface elements (CSEs) at all finite element facets in the clay matrix mesh to simulate micro-cracking in the clay matrix leads to mesh-dependent results. Using CSEs at grain-clay-matrix interfaces is physical and not mesh dependent. We also considered using bulk pressure-sensitive elasto-plasticity with bifurcation condition within the clay matrix to attempt to predict onset of localization around grains in the simulations. It was encouraging to see that for both the single grain and multiple grain simulations, the finite element region in the clay matrix meshes where bifurcation was first detected around the grains was nearly the same. This gives us confidence that once a proper post-bifurcation constitutive model is implemented within an embedded discontinuity formulation, micro-cracking nucleation and propagation at the grain-scale in shale can be properly simulated, which will provide the basis for up-scaling to macro-cracks within a multiscale method for fracture in shale. Other items to address in future research are: (i) include transverse isotropy (elastic and plastic) for the bulk clay matrix elasto-plasticity model

  11. Thermo-coupled Surface Cauchy-Born Theory: An Engineering Finite Element Approach to Modeling of Nanowire Thermomechanical Response

    Esfahania, M. Nasr; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, J. Henri;


    There are remarkable studies geared towards developing thermomechanical analyses of nanowires based on quasiharmonic and Molecular Dynamics simulations. These methods exhibit limited applicability due to the associated computational cost. In this study an engineering finite-temperature model base...

  12. Mitral valve finite-element modelling from ultrasound data: a pilot study for a new approach to understand mitral function and clinical scenarios.

    Votta, Emiliano; Caiani, Enrico; Veronesi, Federico; Soncini, Monica; Montevecchi, Franco Maria; Redaelli, Alberto


    In the current scientific literature, particular attention is dedicated to the study of the mitral valve and to comprehension of the mechanisms that lead to its normal function, as well as those that trigger possible pathological conditions. One of the adopted approaches consists of computational modelling, which allows quantitative analysis of the mechanical behaviour of the valve by means of continuum mechanics theory and numerical techniques. However, none of the currently available models realistically accounts for all of the aspects that characterize the function of the mitral valve. Here, a new computational model of the mitral valve has been developed from in vivo data, as a first step towards the development of patient-specific models for the evaluation of annuloplasty procedures. A structural finite-element model of the mitral valve has been developed to account for all of the main valvular substructures. In particular, it includes the real geometry and the movement of the annulus and papillary muscles, reconstructed from four-dimensional ultrasound data from a healthy human subject, and a realistic description of the complex mechanical properties of mitral tissues. Preliminary simulations allowed mitral valve closure to be realistically mimicked and the role of annulus and papillary muscle dynamics to be quantified.

  13. Finite element modelling of SAW correlator

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Abbott, Derek


    Numerical simulations of SAW correlators so far are limited to delta function and equivalent circuit models. These models are not accurate as they do not replicate the actual behaviour of the device. Manufacturing a correlator to specifically realise a different configuration is both expensive and time consuming. With the continuous improvement in computing capacity, switching to finite element modelling would be more appropriate. In this paper a novel way of modelling a SAW correlator using finite element analysis is presented. This modelling approach allows the consideration of different code implementation and device structures. This is demonstrated through simulation results for a 5×2-bit Barker sequence encoded SAW correlator. These results show the effect of both bulk and leaky modes on the device performance at various operating frequencies. Moreover, the ways in which the gain of the correlator can be optimised though variation of design parameters will also be outlined.

  14. An approach to elemental task learning

    Belmans, P


    In this article we deal with the automated learning of tasks by a robotic system through observation of a human operator. Particularly, we explain what is meant by a learning ability in autonomous robots and in teleoperation systems, where several operators and several machines may work in cooperation to perform tasks. We discuss different approaches to learning in these systems and outline the features of the models they are based upon. This leads us to choose an analytical model suited for tasks analysis. We then present the software architecture for our proposed approach and show the first results obtained on sample tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Probabilistic Approach for Determining the Material Properties of Meniscal Attachments In Vivo Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and a Finite Element Model.

    Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Son, Juhyun; Lee, Young Han; Chun, Heoung-Jae


    The material properties of in vivo meniscal attachments were evaluated using a probabilistic finite element (FE) model and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI scans of five subjects were collected at full extension and 30°, 60°, and 90° flexion. One subject with radiographic evidence of no knee injury and four subjects with Kellgren-Lawrence score of 1 or 2 (two each) were recruited. Isovoxel sagittal three-dimensional cube sequences of the knee were acquired in extension and flexion. Menisci movement in flexion was investigated using sensitivity analysis based on the Monte Carlo method in order to generate a subject-specific FE model to evaluate significant factors. The material properties of horn attachment in the five-subject FE model were optimized to minimize the differences between meniscal movements in the FE model and MR images in flexion. We found no significant difference between normal and patient knees in flexion with regard to movement of anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral menisci or changes in height morphology. At 90° flexion, menisci movement was primarily influenced by posterior horn stiffness, followed by anterior horn stiffness, the transverse ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament. The optimized material properties model predictions for menisci motion were more accurate than the initial material properties model. The results of this approach suggest that the material properties of horn attachment, which affects the mobile characteristics of menisci, could be determined in vivo. Thus, this study establishes a basis for a future design method of attachment for tissue-engineered replacement menisci.

  16. Investigations on Actuator Dynamics through Theoretical and Finite Element Approach

    Somashekhar S. Hiremath


    Full Text Available This paper gives a new approach for modeling the fluid-structure interaction of servovalve component-actuator. The analyzed valve is a precision flow control valve-jet pipe electrohydraulic servovalve. The positioning of an actuator depends upon the flow rate from control ports, in turn depends on the spool position. Theoretical investigation is made for No-load condition and Load condition for an actuator. These are used in finite element modeling of an actuator. The fluid-structure-interaction (FSI is established between the piston and the fluid cavities at the piston end. The fluid cavities were modeled with special purpose hydrostatic fluid elements while the piston is modeled with brick elements. The finite element method is used to simulate the variation of cavity pressure, cavity volume, mass flow rate, and the actuator velocity. The finite element analysis is extended to study the system's linearized response to harmonic excitation using direct solution steady-state dynamics. It was observed from the analysis that the natural frequency of the actuator depends upon the position of the piston in the cylinder. This is a close match with theoretical and simulation results. The effect of bulk modulus is also presented in the paper.

  17. A Domain Decomposition Approach to Implementing Fault Slip in Finite-Element Models of Quasi-static and Dynamic Crustal Deformation

    Aagaard, Brad T; Williams, Charles A


    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  18. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.


    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

  19. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Ming Cheng; Weifu Liu; Kaixin Liu


    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application, The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  20. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Cheng, Ming; Liu, Weifu; Liu, Kaixin


    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application. The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  1. Accurate finite element modeling of acoustic waves

    Idesman, A.; Pham, D.


    In the paper we suggest an accurate finite element approach for the modeling of acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. We consider the standard linear elements and the linear elements with reduced dispersion for the space discretization as well as the explicit central-difference method for time integration. The analytical study of the numerical dispersion shows that the most accurate results can be obtained with the time increments close to the stability limit. However, even in this case and the use of the linear elements with reduced dispersion, mesh refinement leads to divergent numerical results for acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. This is explained by large spurious high-frequency oscillations. For the quantification and the suppression of spurious oscillations, we have modified and applied a two-stage time-integration technique that includes the stage of basic computations and the filtering stage. This technique allows accurate convergent results at mesh refinement as well as significantly reduces the numerical anisotropy of solutions. We should mention that the approach suggested is very general and can be equally applied to any loading as well as for any space-discretization technique and any explicit or implicit time-integration method.

  2. Exposure assessment models for elemental components of particulate matter in an urban environment: A comparison of regression and random forest approaches

    Brokamp, Cole; Jandarov, Roman; Rao, M. B.; LeMasters, Grace; Ryan, Patrick


    Exposure assessment for elemental components of particulate matter (PM) using land use modeling is a complex problem due to the high spatial and temporal variations in pollutant concentrations at the local scale. Land use regression (LUR) models may fail to capture complex interactions and non-linear relationships between pollutant concentrations and land use variables. The increasing availability of big spatial data and machine learning methods present an opportunity for improvement in PM exposure assessment models. In this manuscript, our objective was to develop a novel land use random forest (LURF) model and compare its accuracy and precision to a LUR model for elemental components of PM in the urban city of Cincinnati, Ohio. PM smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and eleven elemental components were measured at 24 sampling stations from the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). Over 50 different predictors associated with transportation, physical features, community socioeconomic characteristics, greenspace, land cover, and emission point sources were used to construct LUR and LURF models. Cross validation was used to quantify and compare model performance. LURF and LUR models were created for aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn), and total PM2.5 in the CCAAPS study area. LURF utilized a more diverse and greater number of predictors than LUR and LURF models for Al, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all showed a decrease in fractional predictive error of at least 5% compared to their LUR models. LURF models for Al, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all had a cross validated fractional predictive error less than 30%. Furthermore, LUR models showed a differential exposure assessment bias and had a higher prediction error variance. Random forest and other machine learning methods may provide more accurate exposure assessment.

  3. New Data on Joint Extraction of Nitric Acid, Uranium(VI) and Tetravalent Elements by Diluted TBP and New Approach to Modeling of their Distribution

    Zilberman, B.Ya.; Fedorov, Yu.S.; Puzikov, E.A.; Blazheva, I.V. [RPA ' V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute' , 28, 2nd Murinskiy av., Saint-Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)


    HNO{sub 3} and U(IV) extraction by diluted TBP (tributyl phosphate) appeared significantly higher than believed earlier, requiring correction of mathematical model for extraction of all the species. The proposed model of HNO{sub 3} extraction includes its dissolving in the extracted water, as well as its abduction to UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(TBP){sub 2}. Extraction of U(VI) and tetravalent elements is considered as reaction of their hydrated or partially hydrolyzed forms, the latter could be extracted themselves or as neutral forms with water liberation. The equation of element chemical reaction for modeling is determined by the slope of the linear part of the S-shaped curve representing D/S{sup 2} function as a plot of HNO{sub 3} concentration, where D is a distribution coefficient of the micro-component and S is a TBP concentration free of HNO{sub 3}. The description of tetravalent element extraction in U(VI) presence needs the assumption of cation-cation interaction of element hydrolyzed forms with U(VI) in aqueous phase. Zr distribution is affected by micellar effects. (authors)

  4. Finite element modeling methods for photonics

    Rahman, B M Azizur


    The term photonics can be used loosely to refer to a vast array of components, devices, and technologies that in some way involve manipulation of light. One of the most powerful numerical approaches available to engineers developing photonic components and devices is the Finite Element Method (FEM), which can be used to model and simulate such components/devices and analyze how they will behave in response to various outside influences. This resource provides a comprehensive description of the formulation and applications of FEM in photonics applications ranging from telecommunications, astron

  5. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo


    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Modelling of Hybrid Materials and Interface Defects through Homogenization Approach for the Prediction of Effective Thermal Conductivity of FRP Composites Using Finite Element Method

    C. Mahesh


    Full Text Available Finite element method is effectively used to homogenize the thermal conductivity of FRP composites consisting of hybrid materials and fibre-matrix debonds at some of the fibres. The homogenized result at microlevel is used to determine the property of the layer using macromechanics principles; thereby, it is possible to minimize the computational efforts required to solve the problem as in state through only micromechanics approach. The working of the proposed procedure is verified for three different problems: (i hybrid composite having two different fibres in alternate layers, (ii fibre-matrix interface debond in alternate layers, and (iii fibre-matrix interface debond at one fibre in a group of four fibres in one unit cell. It is observed that the results are in good agreement with those obtained through pure micro-mechanics approach.

  7. Parallel direct solver for finite element modeling of manufacturing processes

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P.A.F.


    The central processing unit (CPU) time is of paramount importance in finite element modeling of manufacturing processes. Because the most significant part of the CPU time is consumed in solving the main system of equations resulting from finite element assemblies, different approaches have been...

  8. Finite element modeling of corneal strip extensometry

    Botha, N


    Full Text Available numerically modelled in several studies, this study focusses on accurately modelling the strip extensiometry test. Two methods were considered to simulate the experimental conditions namely, a single phase and a two phase method. A finite element model...

  9. Discovery of regulatory elements is improved by a discriminatory approach

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin; Winther, Ole;


    A major goal in post-genome biology is the complete mapping of the gene regulatory networks for every organism. Identification of regulatory elements is a prerequisite for realizing this ambitious goal. A common problem is finding regulatory patterns in promoters of a group of co-expressed genes...... present a new computational method for identifying transcription factor binding sites in promoters using a discriminatory approach with a large negative set encompassing a significant sample of the promoters from the relevant genome. The sequences are described by a probabilistic model and the most...

  10. An element by element spectral element method for elastic wave modeling

    LIN Weijun; WANG Xiuming; ZHANG Hailan


    The spectral element method which combines the advantages of spectral method with those of finite element method,provides an efficient tool in simulating elastic wave equation in complex medium. Based on weak form of elastodynamic equations, mathematical formulations for Legendre spectral element method are presented. The wave field on an element is discretized using high-order Lagrange interpolation, and integration over the element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. This results in a diagonal mass matrix which leads to a greatly simplified algorithm. In addition, the element by element technique is introduced in our method to reduce the memory sizes and improve the computation efficiency. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy and the efficiency. Because of combinations of the finite element scheme and spectral algorithms, this method can be used for complex models, including free surface boundaries and strong heterogeneity.

  11. An Assessment of Compressive Size Effect of Plane Concrete Using Combination of Micro-Plane Damage Based Model and 3D Finite Elements Approach

    A. Labibzadeh


    Full Text Available In recent years, the material behavior dependence of laboratory concrete specimens built with the same concrete mixture under the same load conditions to their geometrical sizes is well established. This phenomenon which is observed not only in concrete but also in most quasi-brittle materials such as rock, ceramic or composite materials is now called as size effect. Many of the existing structural analyzing codes are not able to consider this important feature of concrete structures especially under compressive loadings. However we know that the main purpose of concrete application in structural members is to resist compression. The aim of this study is to show the ability of author's recently developed 3D finite elements code equipped with the proposed author's newly micro-planes damage based model for considering of compressive size effect of plane concrete. To do so, two different sizes of cubic concrete specimens are modeled with mentioned code under the uniaxial compressive test and their fracture mechanisms, pre-peak and post-peak strain-stress paths are investigated. Obtained results reveal the good coincidence with experimental evidences. In fact, the combination of proposed micro-planes damage based model and developed presented 3D finite elements technique creates a powerful numerical tool to capture and predict precisely strain localization and fracture mechanism in the specimens and consequently to assess properly the compressive size effect of plane concrete in analysis and design.

  12. A finite element-based machine learning approach for modeling the mechanical behavior of the breast tissues under compression in real-time.

    Martínez-Martínez, F; Rupérez-Moreno, M J; Martínez-Sober, M; Solves-Llorens, J A; Lorente, D; Serrano-López, A J; Martínez-Sanchis, S; Monserrat, C; Martín-Guerrero, J D


    This work presents a data-driven method to simulate, in real-time, the biomechanical behavior of the breast tissues in some image-guided interventions such as biopsies or radiotherapy dose delivery as well as to speed up multimodal registration algorithms. Ten real breasts were used for this work. Their deformation due to the displacement of two compression plates was simulated off-line using the finite element (FE) method. Three machine learning models were trained with the data from those simulations. Then, they were used to predict in real-time the deformation of the breast tissues during the compression. The models were a decision tree and two tree-based ensemble methods (extremely randomized trees and random forest). Two different experimental setups were designed to validate and study the performance of these models under different conditions. The mean 3D Euclidean distance between nodes predicted by the models and those extracted from the FE simulations was calculated to assess the performance of the models in the validation set. The experiments proved that extremely randomized trees performed better than the other two models. The mean error committed by the three models in the prediction of the nodal displacements was under 2 mm, a threshold usually set for clinical applications. The time needed for breast compression prediction is sufficiently short to allow its use in real-time (<0.2 s). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...


    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  15. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    Carlson, B.


    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.




    A mathematical model that simulates the mechanical processes inside a skeletal muscle under various conditions of muscle recruitment was formulated. The model is based on the finite-elements approach and simulates both contractile and passive elastic elements. Apart from the classic strategy of solv




    A mathematical model that simulates the mechanical processes inside a skeletal muscle under various conditions of muscle recruitment was formulated. The model is based on the finite-elements approach and simulates both contractile and passive elastic elements. Apart from the classic strategy of solv

  18. Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris

    Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed


    Flash flooding is characterised by high velocity flows which impact vulnerable catchments with little warning time and as such, result in complex flow dynamics which are difficult to replicate through modelling. The impacts of flash flooding can be made yet more severe by the transport of both natural and anthropogenic debris, ranging from tree trunks to vehicles, wheelie bins and even storage containers, the effects of which have been clearly evident during recent UK flooding. This cargo of debris can have wide reaching effects and result in actual flood impacts which diverge from those predicted. A build-up of debris may lead to partial channel blockage and potential flow rerouting through urban centres. Build-up at bridges and river structures also leads to increased hydraulic loading which may result in damage and possible structural failure. Predicting the impacts of debris transport; however, is difficult as conventional hydrodynamic modelling schemes do not intrinsically include floating debris within their calculations. Subsequently a new tool has been developed using an emerging approach, which incorporates debris transport through the coupling of two existing modelling techniques. A 1D hydrodynamic modelling scheme has here been coupled with a 2D discrete element scheme to form a new modelling tool which predicts the motion and flow-interaction of floating debris. Hydraulic forces arising from flow around the object are applied to instigate its motion. Likewise, an equivalent opposing force is applied to fluid cells, enabling backwater effects to be simulated. Shock capturing capabilities make the tool applicable to predicting the complex flow dynamics associated with flash flooding. The modelling scheme has been applied to experimental case studies where cylindrical wooden dowels are transported by a dam-break wave. These case studies enable validation of the tool's shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied between the two numerical

  19. Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing

    Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.


    The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.

  20. An improved optimal elemental method for updating finite element models

    Duan Zhongdong(段忠东); Spencer B.F.; Yan Guirong(闫桂荣); Ou Jinping(欧进萍)


    The optimal matrix method and optimal elemental method used to update finite element models may not provide accurate results. This situation occurs when the test modal model is incomplete, as is often the case in practice. An improved optimal elemental method is presented that defines a new objective function, and as a byproduct, circumvents the need for mass normalized modal shapes, which are also not readily available in practice. To solve the group of nonlinear equations created by the improved optimal method, the Lagrange multiplier method and Matlab function fmincon are employed. To deal with actual complex structures,the float-encoding genetic algorithm (FGA) is introduced to enhance the capability of the improved method. Two examples, a 7-degree of freedom (DOF) mass-spring system and a 53-DOF planar frame, respectively, are updated using the improved method.Thc example results demonstrate the advantages of the improved method over existing optimal methods, and show that the genetic algorithm is an effective way to update the models used for actual complex structures.

  1. Analytical model and behavioral simulation approach for a ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer employing a sample-hold element

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik


    A previously unknown intrinsic nonlinearity of standard SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers is identified. A general analytical model for SigmaDelta fractional-N phased-locked loops (PLLs) that includes the effect of the nonlinearity is derived and an improvement to the synthesizer topology...... is discussed. Also, a new methodology for behavioral simulation is presented: the proposed methodology is based on an object-oriented event-driven approach and offers the possibility to perform very fast and accurate simulations, and the theoretical models developed validate the simulation results. We show...

  2. Non-linear finite element modeling

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  3. Finite element modelling of fibre-reinforced brittle materials

    Kullaa, J.


    The tensile constitutive behaviour of fibre-reinforced brittle materials can be extended to two or three dimensions by using the finite element method with crack models. The three approaches in this study include the smeared and discrete crack concepts and a multi-surface plasticity model. The tensi

  4. Automatic generation of matrix element derivatives for tight binding models

    Elena, Alin M.; Meister, Matthias


    Tight binding (TB) models are one approach to the quantum mechanical many-particle problem. An important role in TB models is played by hopping and overlap matrix elements between the orbitals on two atoms, which of course depend on the relative positions of the atoms involved. This dependence can be expressed with the help of Slater-Koster parameters, which are usually taken from tables. Recently, a way to generate these tables automatically was published. If TB approaches are applied to simulations of the dynamics of a system, also derivatives of matrix elements can appear. In this work we give general expressions for first and second derivatives of such matrix elements. Implemented in a tight binding computer program, like, for instance, DINAMO, they obviate the need to type all the required derivatives of all occurring matrix elements by hand.

  5. Nanoscale Continuum Modelling of Carbon Nanotubes by Polyhedral Finite Elements

    Logah Perumal


    Full Text Available As the geometry of a cell of carbon nanotube is hexagonal, a new approach is presented in modelling of single-walled carbon nanotubes using polyhedral finite elements. Effect of varying length, diameter, and thickness of carbon nanotubes on Young’s modulus is studied. Both armchair and zigzag configurations are modelled and simulated in Mathematica. Results from current approach found good agreement with the other published data.

  6. On the Approaching Domain Obtained by Finite Element Method

    邹青松; 李永海


    The use of finite element method leads to replacing the initial domain by an approaching domain,Under some appropriate assumptions,we prove that there exists a W1,+∞-diffeomorphism from the original domain to the approaching domain.

  7. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology...... adoption theories, such as Diffusion of Innovations, Technology Acceptance Model, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Further on, at research model for identification of Cloud Computing Adoption factors from a business model perspective is presented. The following business model building...

  8. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    adoption theories, such as Diffusion of Innovations, Technology Acceptance Model, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Further on, at research model for identification of Cloud Computing Adoption factors from a business model perspective is presented. The following business model building......The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology...

  9. B Free Finite Element Approach for Saturated Porous Media: Consolidation

    M. M. Stickle


    Full Text Available The B free finite element approach is applied to the governing equations describing the consolidation process in saturated poroelastic medium with intrinsically incompressible solid and fluid phases. Under this approach, where Voigt notation is avoided, the finite element equilibrium equations and the linearization of the coupled governing equations are fully derived using tensor algebra. In order to assess the B free approach for the consolidation equations, direct comparison with analytical solution of the response of a homogeneous and isotropic water-saturated poroelastic finite column under harmonic load is presented. The results illustrate the capability of this finite element approach of reproducing accurately the response of quasistatic phenomena in a saturated porous medium.

  10. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.


    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  11. Finite element modeling of nanotube structures linear and non-linear models

    Awang, Mokhtar; Muhammad, Ibrahim Dauda


    This book presents a new approach to modeling carbon structures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes using finite element methods, and addresses the latest advances in numerical studies for these materials. Based on the available findings, the book develops an effective finite element approach for modeling the structure and the deformation of grapheme-based materials. Further, modeling processing for single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in detail.

  12. Intra Plate Stresses Using Finite Element Modelling

    Jayalakshmi S.


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in the estimation of seismic hazard is the ability to quantify seismic activity. Empirical models based on the available earthquake catalogue are often used to obtain activity of source regions. The major limitation with this approach is the lack of sufficient data near a specified source. The non-availability of data poses difficulties in obtaining distribution of earthquakes with large return periods. Such events recur over geological time scales during which tectonic processes, including mantle convection, formation of faults and new plate boundaries, are likely to take place. The availability of geometries of plate boundaries, plate driving forces, lithospheric stress field and GPS measurements has provided numerous insights on the mechanics of tectonic plates. In this article, a 2D finite element model of Indo-Australian plate is developed with the focus of representing seismic activity in India. The effect of large scale geological features including sedimentary basins, fold belts and cratons on the stress field in India is explored in this study. In order to address long term behaviour, the orientation of stress field and tectonic faults of the present Indo-Australian plate are compared with a reconstructed stress field from the early Miocene (20 Ma.

  13. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.


    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the...

  14. Biomechanical simulation of thorax deformation using finite element approach.

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Xian; Ohgi, Junji; Miura, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Akira; Matsumura, Chikanori; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki


    The biomechanical simulation of the human respiratory system is expected to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. Because the deformation of the thorax significantly influences airflow in the lungs, we focused on simulating the thorax deformation by introducing contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, which are the main muscles responsible for the thorax deformation during breathing. We constructed a finite element model of the thorax, including the rib cage, intercostal muscles, and diaphragm. To reproduce the muscle contractions, we introduced the Hill-type transversely isotropic hyperelastic continuum skeletal muscle model, which allows the intercostal muscles and diaphragm to contract along the direction of the fibres with clinically measurable muscle activation and active force-length relationship. The anatomical fibre orientations of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm were introduced. Thorax deformation consists of movements of the ribs and diaphragm. By activating muscles, we were able to reproduce the pump-handle and bucket-handle motions for the ribs and the clinically observed motion for the diaphragm. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, we simulated the thorax deformation during normal quiet breathing and compared the results with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images for verification. Thorax deformation can be simulated by modelling the respiratory muscles according to continuum mechanics and by introducing muscle contractions. The reproduction of representative motions of the ribs and diaphragm and the comparison of the thorax deformations during normal quiet breathing with 4D-CT images demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach. This work may provide a platform for establishing a computational mechanics model of the human respiratory system.

  15. A finite element approach to x-ray optics design

    Honkanen, A. P.; Ferrero, C.; Guigay, J. P.; Mocella, V.


    Dynamical diffraction in a deformed (often bent) crystal is described by the Takagi equations 1 which, in general, have to be solved numerically on a regular 2-D grid of points representing a planar cross section of the crystal in which the diffraction of an incident X-ray wavefront occurs . Presently, the majority of numerical approaches are based on a finite difference solving scheme2-4 which can be easily implemented on a regular Cartesian grid but is not suitable for deformed meshes. In this case, the inner deformed crystal structure can be taken into account, but not the shape of the crystal surface if this differs substantially from a planar profile 5,6. Conversely, a finite element method (FEM) can be easily applied to a deformed mesh and serves very well to the purpose of modelling any incident wave on an arbitrarily shaped entrance surface 7 e.g. that of a bent crystal or a crystal submitted to a strong heat load 8-10. For instance, the cylindrical shape of the surface of a strongly bent crystal plate can easily be taken into account in a FEM calculation. Bent crystals are often used as focusing optical elements in Xray beamlines 11-13. In the following, we show the implementation of a general numerical framework for describing the propagation of X-rays inside a crystal based on the solution of the Takagi equations via the COMSOL Multiphysics FEM software package ( A cylindrically bent crystal will be taken as an example to illustrate the capabilities of the new approach.

  16. Finite element modeling of plasmon based single-photon sources

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland;


    A finite element method (FEM) approach of calculating a single emitter coupled to plasmonic waveguides has been developed. The method consists of a 2D model and a 3D model: (I) In the 2D model, we have calculated the spontaneous emission decay rate of a single emitter into guided plasmonic modes...... waveguides with different geometries, as long as only one guided plasmonic mode is predominantly excited....

  17. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol


    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.

  18. Modeling aquifer systems with analytic elements and subdomains

    Fitts, C. R.


    A new approach for analytic element (AE) modeling of groundwater flow is presented. The approach divides the modeled region into polygonal subdomains, each with its own analytic flow model and its own local isotropic or anisotropic aquifer parameters. This allows analytic modeling of systems where the anisotropy ratio and direction vary spatially, an AE capability not possible without subdomains. It also allows for flexible layering in a model, with more layers in the area of interest abutting fewer layers in the far field. The approach is demonstrated in a model with seven subdomains and a mix of single-layer and triple-layer areas. Checks of the model indicate that the inter-subdomain boundary conditions can be approximated well, and where the differential equation is approximated (multilayer areas and transient flow), that approximation can be quite accurate.

  19. A general finite element model for numerical simulation of structure dynamics

    WANG Fujun; LI Yaojun; Han K.; Feng Y.T.


    A finite element model used to simulate the dynamics with continuum and discontinuum is presented. This new approach is conducted by constructing the general contact model. The conventional discrete element is treated as a standard finite element with one node in this new method. The one-node element has the same features as other finite elements, such as element stress and strain. Thus, a general finite element model that is consistent with the existed finite element model is set up. This new model is simple in mathematical concept and is straightforward to be combined into the existing standard finite element code. Numerical example demonstrates that this new approach is more effective to perform the dynamic process analysis in which the interactions among a large number of discrete bodies and continuum objects are included.

  20. A Geometrical Approach to the Boundary Element Method

    Auchmann, B; Rjasanow, S


    We introduce a geometric formulation of the boundary element method (BEM), using concepts of the discrete electromagnetic theory. Geometric BEM is closely related to Galerkin-BEM and to the generalized collocation scheme. It is easy to implement, accurate, and computationally efficient. We validate our approach with 2-D examples and give an outlook to 3-D results.

  1. Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction

    Jinchi Lu(陆金池); Jun Peng(彭军); Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang(杨朝晖); Kincho H. Law


    Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model calibrated by physical tests represents the salient characteristics of sand liquefaction and associated accumulation of shear deformations. Key elements of the computational strategy employed in ParCYCLIC include the development of a parallel sparse direct solver, the deployment of an automatic domain decomposer, and the use of the Multilevel Nested Dissection algorithm for ordering of the finite element nodes. Simulation results of centrifuge test models using ParCYCLIC are presented. Performance results from grid models and geotechnical simulations show that ParCYCLIC is efficiently scalable to a large number of processors.

  2. A generalized hybrid transfinite element computational approach for nonlinear/linear unified thermal/structural analysis

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.


    The present paper describes the development of a new hybrid computational approach for applicability for nonlinear/linear thermal structural analysis. The proposed transfinite element approach is a hybrid scheme as it combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Applicability of the proposed formulations for nonlinear analysis is also developed. Several test cases are presented to include nonlinear/linear unified thermal-stress and thermal-stress wave propagations. Comparative results validate the fundamental capablities of the proposed hybrid transfinite element methodology.

  3. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    Kumar, D L P


    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  4. Finite element modeling of permanent magnet devices

    Brauer, J. R.; Larkin, L. A.; Overbye, V. D.


    New techniques are presented for finite element modeling of permanent magnets in magnetic devices such as motors and generators. These techniques extend a previous sheet-current permanent magnet model that applies only for straight line B-H loops and rectangular-shaped magnets. Here Maxwell's equations are used to derive the model of a permanent magnet having a general curved B-H loop and any geometric shape. The model enables a nonlinear magnetic finite element program to use Newton-Raphson iteration to solve for saturable magnetic fields in a wide variety of devices containing permanent magnets and steels. The techniques are applied to a brushless dc motor with irregular-shaped permanent magnets. The calculated motor torque agrees well with measured torque.

  5. Study of Delamination and Buckling of Paper during the Creping Process using Finite Element Method -- A Cohesive Element Approach

    Gupta, Swapnil Sheelkumar

    Paper variants such as paper napkins, tissue paper are manufactured by a process called as creping during which a paper adhesively bonded to a rotating drum is continuously scraped off by a blade. Resulting low density paper provides critical attributes such as fluid absorbency, softness, and stretchiness to the final paper product. The macroscopic effect of creping is the formation of fine ridges called as " crepes". The quality of the final product is characterized by the length of the crepes. The process of creping has been hypothesized to be a periodic sequence of delamination, buckling and post-buckling compression of paper. A quasi-static comparison of a two dimensional finite element model implementing surface based cohesive zone theory and a critical stress criteria based fracture model is presented. The adhesive being a critical part of creping is represented by a zero thickness cohesive layer in the cohesive model . A comparison of a 1-D analytical model implementing an energy release rate approach and a Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) quasi-static finite element model is presented. An experimental investigation to quantitatively determine the adhesive fracture toughness during creping is conducted by an energy based approach. The influence of drum speed and adhesive concentration on the adhesive fracture energy is analyzed and comparison with a dynamic finite element model is obtained.

  6. Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity

    Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.


    We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.

  7. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon


    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  8. A practical approach to extract symplectic transfer maps numerically for arbitrary magnetic elements

    Li, Yongjun


    We introduce a practical approach to extract the symplectic transfer maps for arbitrary magnetic beam-line elements. Beam motion in particle accelerators depends on linear and nonlinear magnetic fields of the beam-line elements. These elements are usually modeled as magnetic multipoles with constant field strengths in the longitudinal direction (i.e., hard-edge model) in accelerator design and modeling codes. For magnets with complicated structures such as insertion devices or fields with significant longitudinal variation effects, the simplified models may not be sufficient to char- acterize beam dynamics behaviors accurately. A numerical approach has been developed to extract symplectic transfer maps from particle trajectory tracking simulation that uses magnetic field data provided by three-dimensional magnetic field modeling codes or experimental measurements. The extracted transfer maps can be used in linear optics design and nonlinear dynamics optimization to achieve more realistic results.

  9. The finite element modeling of spiral ropes

    Juan Wu


    Accurate understanding the behavior of spiral rope is complicated due to their complex geometry and complex contact conditions between the wires. This study proposed the finite element models of spiral ropes subjected to tensile loads. The parametric equations developed in this paper were implemented for geometric modeling of ropes. The 3D geometric models with different twisting manner, equal diameters of wires were generated in details by using Pro/ENGINEER software. The results of the present finite element analysis were on an acceptable level of accuracy as compared with those of theoretical and experimental data. Further development is ongoing to analysis the equivalent stresses induced by twisting manner of cables. The twisting manner of wires was important to spiral ropes in the three wire layers and the outer twisting manner of wires should be contrary to that of the second layer, no matter what is the first twisting manner of wires.

  10. A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.


    This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.

  11. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)


    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Chemical element transport in stellar evolution models

    Cassisi, Santi


    Stellar evolution computations provide the foundation of several methods applied to study the evolutionary properties of stars and stellar populations, both Galactic and extragalactic. The accuracy of the results obtained with these techniques is linked to the accuracy of the stellar models, and in this context the correct treatment of the transport of chemical elements is crucial. Unfortunately, in many respects calculations of the evolution of the chemical abundance profiles in stars are still affected by sometimes sizable uncertainties. Here, we review the various mechanisms of element transport included in the current generation of stellar evolution calculations, how they are implemented, the free parameters and uncertainties involved, the impact on the models and the observational constraints.

  13. Multiphase Transformer Modelling using Finite Element Method

    Nor Azizah Mohd Yusoff


    Full Text Available In the year of 1970 saw the starting invention of the five-phase motor as the milestone in advanced electric motor. Through the years, there are many researchers, which passionately worked towards developing for multiphase drive system. They developed a static transformation system to obtain a multiphase supply from the available three-phase supply. This idea gives an influence for further development in electric machines as an example; an efficient solution for bulk power transfer. This paper highlighted the detail descriptions that lead to five-phase supply with fixed voltage and frequency by using Finite-Element Method (FEM. Identifying of specification on a real transformer had been done before applied into software modeling. Therefore, Finite-Element Method provides clearly understandable in terms of visualize the geometry modeling, connection scheme and output waveform.


    Natalia Bakhova


    Full Text Available  The two-dimensional thermal model of graben structure in the presence of salt tectonics on the basis of a finite elements method is constructed. The analysis of the thermal field is based on the solution of stationary equation of heat conductivity with variable boundary conditions. The high precision of temperatures distribution and heat flows is received. The decision accuracy is no more than 0,6 %.

  15. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.


    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  16. Elements of a function analytic approach to probability.

    Ghanem, Roger Georges (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Red-Horse, John Robert


    We first provide a detailed motivation for using probability theory as a mathematical context in which to analyze engineering and scientific systems that possess uncertainties. We then present introductory notes on the function analytic approach to probabilistic analysis, emphasizing the connections to various classical deterministic mathematical analysis elements. Lastly, we describe how to use the approach as a means to augment deterministic analysis methods in a particular Hilbert space context, and thus enable a rigorous framework for commingling deterministic and probabilistic analysis tools in an application setting.

  17. Modeling of high entropy alloys of refractory elements

    Grosso, M.F. del, E-mail: [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (B1650KNA), San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Mosca, H.O. [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (B1650KNA), San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina)


    Reverting the traditional process of developing new alloys based on one or two single elements with minority additions, the study of high entropy alloys (HEA) (equimolar combinations of many elements) has become a relevant and interesting new field of research due to their tendency to form solid solutions with particular properties in the absence of intermetallic phases. Theoretical or modeling studies at the atomic level on specific HEA, describing the formation, structure, and properties of these alloys are limited due to the large number of constituents involved. In this work we focus on HEA with refractory elements showing atomistic modeling results for W-Nb-Mo-Ta and W-Nb-Mo-Ta-V HEA, for which experimental background exists. An atomistic modeling approach is applied for the determination of the role of each element and identification of the interactions and features responsible for the transition to the high entropy regime. Results for equimolar alloys of 4 and 5 refractory elements, for which experimental results exist, are shown. A straightforward algorithm is introduced to interpret the transition to the high entropy regime.

  18. An element-based finite-volume method approach for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation

    Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail:; Varavei, Abdoljalil; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin (United States). Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Dept.], e-mails:,


    An element-based finite-volume approach in conjunction with unstructured grids for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation is presented. In this approach, both the discrete fracture and the matrix mass balances are taken into account without any additional models to couple the matrix and discrete fractures. The mesh, for two dimensional domains, can be built of triangles, quadrilaterals, or a mix of these elements. However, due to the available mesh generator to handle both matrix and discrete fractures, only results using triangular elements will be presented. The discrete fractures are located along the edges of each element. To obtain the approximated matrix equation, each element is divided into three sub-elements and then the mass balance equations for each component are integrated along each interface of the sub-elements. The finite-volume conservation equations are assembled from the contribution of all the elements that share a vertex, creating a cell vertex approach. The discrete fracture equations are discretized only along the edges of each element and then summed up with the matrix equations in order to obtain a conservative equation for both matrix and discrete fractures. In order to mimic real field simulations, the capillary pressure is included in both matrix and discrete fracture media. In the implemented model, the saturation field in the matrix and discrete fractures can be different, but the potential of each phase in the matrix and discrete fracture interface needs to be the same. The results for several naturally fractured reservoirs are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  19. A finite element parametric modeling technique of aircraft wing structures

    Tang Jiapeng; Xi Ping; Zhang Baoyuan; Hu Bifu


    A finite element parametric modeling method of aircraft wing structures is proposed in this paper because of time-consuming characteristics of finite element analysis pre-processing. The main research is positioned during the preliminary design phase of aircraft structures. A knowledge-driven system of fast finite element modeling is built. Based on this method, employing a template parametric technique, knowledge including design methods, rules, and expert experience in the process of modeling is encapsulated and a finite element model is established automatically, which greatly improves the speed, accuracy, and standardization degree of modeling. Skeleton model, geometric mesh model, and finite element model including finite element mesh and property data are established on parametric description and automatic update. The outcomes of research show that the method settles a series of problems of parameter association and model update in the pro-cess of finite element modeling which establishes a key technical basis for finite element parametric analysis and optimization design.

  20. Multi element synthetic aperture transmission using a frequency division approach

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    can therefore be used for flow imaging, unlike with Hadamard and Golay coding. The frequency division approach increases the SNR by a factor of N2 compared to conventional pulsed synthetic aperture imaging, provided that N transmission centers are used. Simulations and phantom measurements....... The transmitting elements are excited so that N virtual sources are formed. All sources are excited using one subset at a time. The signals can be separated by matched filtration, and the corresponding information is extracted. The individual source information is hence available in every emission and the method...

  1. Finite element modeling of retinal prosthesis mechanics

    Basinger, B. C.; Rowley, A. P.; Chen, K.; Humayun, M. S.; Weiland, J. D.


    Epiretinal prostheses used to treat degenerative retina diseases apply stimulus via an electrode array fixed to the ganglion cell side of the retina. Mechanical pressure applied by these arrays to the retina, both during initial insertion and throughout chronic use, could cause sufficient retinal damage to reduce the device's effectiveness. In order to understand and minimize potential mechanical damage, we have used finite element analysis to model mechanical interactions between an electrode array and the retina in both acute and chronic loading configurations. Modeling indicates that an acute tacking force distributes stress primarily underneath the tack site and heel edge of the array, while more moderate chronic stresses are distributed more evenly underneath the array. Retinal damage in a canine model chronically implanted with a similar array occurred in correlating locations, and model predictions correlate well with benchtop eyewall compression tests. This model provides retinal prosthesis researchers with a tool to optimize the mechanical electrode array design, but the techniques used here represent a unique effort to combine a modifiable device and soft biological tissues in the same model and those techniques could be extended to other devices that come into mechanical contact with soft neural tissues.

  2. Finite Element Model of Cardiac Electrical Conduction.

    Yin, John Zhihao


    In this thesis, we develop mathematical models to study electrical conduction of the heart. One important pattern of wave propagation of electrical excitation in the heart is reentry which is believed to be the underlying mechanism of some dangerous cardiac arhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. We present in this thesis a new ionic channel model of the ventricular cardiac cell membrane to study the microscopic electrical properties of myocardium. We base our model on recent single channel experiment data and a simple physical diffusion model of the calcium channel. Our ionic channel model of myocardium has simpler differential equations and fewer parameters than previous models. Further more, our ionic channel model achieves better results in simulating the strength-interval curve when we connect the membrane patch model to form a one dimensional cardiac muscle strand. We go on to study a finite element model which uses multiple states and non-nearest neighbor interactions to include curvature and dispersion effects. We create a generalized lattice randomization to overcome the artifacts generated by the interaction between the local dynamics and the regularities of the square lattice. We show that the homogeneous model does not display spontaneous wavefront breakup in a reentrant wave propagation once the lattice artifacts have been smoothed out by lattice randomization with a randomization scale larger than the characteristic length of the interaction. We further develop a finite 3-D 3-state heart model which employs a probability interaction rule. This model is applied to the simulation of Body Surface Laplacian Mapping (BSLM) using a cylindrical volume conductor as the torso model. We show that BSLM has a higher spatial resolution than conventional mapping methods in revealing the underlying electrical activities of the heart. The results of these studies demonstrate that mathematical modeling and computer simulation are very

  3. Finite-Element Modelling of Biotransistors

    Selvaganapathy PR


    Full Text Available Abstract Current research efforts in biosensor design attempt to integrate biochemical assays with semiconductor substrates and microfluidic assemblies to realize fully integrated lab-on-chip devices. The DNA biotransistor (BioFET is an example of such a device. The process of chemical modification of the FET and attachment of linker and probe molecules is a statistical process that can result in variations in the sensed signal between different BioFET cells in an array. In order to quantify these and other variations and assess their importance in the design, complete physical simulation of the device is necessary. Here, we perform a mean-field finite-element modelling of a short channel, two-dimensional BioFET device. We compare the results of this model with one-dimensional calculation results to show important differences, illustrating the importance of the molecular structure, placement and conformation of DNA in determining the output signal.

  4. Finite element modeling for materials engineers using Matlab

    Oluwole, Oluleke


    Finite Element Modeling for Materials Engineers Using MATLAB® combines the finite element method with MATLAB to offer materials engineers a fast and code-free way of modeling for many materials processes.

  5. Metallomics approach to changes in element concentration during differentiation from fibroblasts into adipocytes by element array analysis.

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Nagasaki, Shu; Yawata, Ayako; Anan, Yasumi; Hamada, Koichi; Mizutani, Akihiro


    We aimed to establish an element array analysis that involves the simultaneous detection of all elements in cells and the display of changes in element concentration before and after a cellular event. In this study, we demonstrated changes in element concentration during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes. This metallomics approach yielded unique information of cellular response to physiological and toxicological events.

  6. Assessment of stochastically updated finite element models using reliability indicator

    Hua, X. G.; Wen, Q.; Ni, Y. Q.; Chen, Z. Q.


    Finite element (FE) model updating techniques have been a viable approach to correcting an initial mathematical model based on test data. Validation of the updated FE models is usually conducted by comparing model predictions with independent test data that have not been used for model updating. This approach of model validation cannot be readily applied in the case of a stochastically updated FE model. In recognizing that structural reliability is a major decision factor throughout the lifecycle of a structure, this study investigates the use of structural reliability as a measure for assessing the quality of stochastically updated FE models. A recently developed perturbation method for stochastic FE model updating is first applied to attain the stochastically updated models by using the measured modal parameters with uncertainty. The reliability index and failure probability for predefined limit states are computed for the initial and the stochastically updated models, respectively, and are compared with those obtained from the 'true' model to assess the quality of the two models. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge is provided as an example. The simulated modal parameters involving different uncertainty magnitudes are used to update an initial model of the bridge. It is shown that the reliability index obtained from the updated model is much closer to true reliability index than that obtained from the initial model in the case of small uncertainty magnitude; in the case of large uncertainty magnitude, the reliability index computed from the initial model rather than from the updated model is closer to the true value. The present study confirms the usefulness of measurement-calibrated FE models and at the same time also highlights the importance of the uncertainty reduction in test data for reliable model updating and reliability evaluation.

  7. Wave Transformation Modeling with Effective Higher-Order Finite Elements

    Tae-Hwa Jung


    Full Text Available This study introduces a finite element method using a higher-order interpolation function for effective simulations of wave transformation. Finite element methods with a higher-order interpolation function usually employ a Lagrangian interpolation function that gives accurate solutions with a lesser number of elements compared to lower order interpolation function. At the same time, it takes a lot of time to get a solution because the size of the local matrix increases resulting in the increase of band width of a global matrix as the order of the interpolation function increases. Mass lumping can reduce computation time by making the local matrix a diagonal form. However, the efficiency is not satisfactory because it requires more elements to get results. In this study, the Legendre cardinal interpolation function, a modified Lagrangian interpolation function, is used for efficient calculation. Diagonal matrix generation by applying direct numerical integration to the Legendre cardinal interpolation function like conducting mass lumping can reduce calculation time with favorable accuracy. Numerical simulations of regular, irregular and solitary waves using the Boussinesq equations through applying the interpolation approaches are carried out to compare the higher-order finite element models on wave transformation and examine the efficiency of calculation.

  8. Discrete Element Modeling for Mobility and Excavation

    Knuth, M. A.; Hopkins, M. A.


    The planning and completion of mobility and excavation efforts on the moon requires a thorough understanding of the planetary regolith. In this work, a discrete element method (DEM) model is created to replicate those activities in the laboratory and for planning mission activities in the future. The crux of this work is developing a particle bed that best replicates the regolith tool/wheel interaction seen in the laboratory. To do this, a DEM geotechnical triaxial strength cell was created allowing for comparison of laboratory JSC-1a triaxial tests to DEM simulated soils. This model relies on a triangular lattice membrane covered triaxial cell for determining the macroscopic properties of the modeled granular material as well as a fast and efficient contact detection algorithm for a variety of grain shapes. Multiple grain shapes with increasing complexity (ellipsoid, poly-ellipsoid and polyhedra) have been developed and tested. This comparison gives us a basis to begin scaling DEM grain size and shape to practical values for mobility and excavation modeling. Next steps include development of a DEM scoop for percussive excavation testing as well as continued analysis of rover wheel interactions using a wide assortment of grain shape and size distributions.

  9. Theoretical aspects of the internal element connectivity parameterization approach for topology optimization

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.; Langelaar, M.;


    . Therefore, it is important to interpolate link stiffness properly to obtain stably converging results. The main objective of this work is two-fold (1) the investigation of the relationship between the link stiffness and the stiffness of a domain-discretizing patch by using a discrete model and a homogenized......The internal element connectivity parameterization (I-ECP) method is an alternative approach to overcome numerical instabilities associated with low-stiffness element states in non-linear problems. In I-ECP, elements are connected by zero-length links while their link stiffness values are varied...... model and (2) the suggestion of link stiffness interpolation functions. The effects of link stiffness penalization on solution convergence are then tested with several numerical examples. The developed homogenized I-ECP model can also be used to physically interpret an intermediate design variable state....

  10. Nanoscale finite element models for vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes:atomistic versus continuum



    By the atomistic and continuum finite element models, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied. In the atomistic finite element model, the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively. The molecular mechanics is linked to structural mechanics to determine the elastic properties of the mentioned beam elements. In the continuum finite element approach, by neglecting the discrete nature of the atomic structure of the nanotubes, they are modeled with shell elements. By both models, the natural frequencies of SWCNTs are computed, and the effects of the geometrical parameters, the atomic structure, and the boundary conditions are investigated. The accuracy of the utilized methods is verified in comparison with molecular dynamic simulations. The molecular structural model leads to more reliable results, especially for lower aspect ratios. The present analysis provides valuable information about application of continuum models in the investigation of the mechanical behaviors of nanotubes.


    Bahattin KANBER; Ibrahim H. GUZELBEY; Ahmet ERKLI


    An improved version of the regular boundary element method, the artificial boundary node approach, is derived. A simple contact algorithm is designed and implemented into the direct boundary element, regular boundary element and artificial boundary node approaches. The exisiting and derived approaches are tested using some case studies. The results of the artificial boundary node approach are compared with those of the existing boundary element program, the regular element approach, ANSYS and analytical solution whenever possible. The results show the effectiveness of the artificial boundary node approach for a wider range of boundary offsets.

  12. Insights into the Biology of IRES Elements through Riboproteomic Approaches

    Almudena Pacheco


    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a highly regulated process that exerts a strong influence on the posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Two alternative mechanisms govern translation initiation in eukaryotic mRNAs, the cap-dependent initiation mechanism operating in most mRNAs, and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES-dependent mechanism, first discovered in picornaviruses. IRES elements are highly structured RNA sequences that, in most instances, require specific proteins for recruitment of the translation machinery. Some of these proteins are eukaryotic initiation factors. In addition, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs play a key role in internal initiation control. RBPs are pivotal regulators of gene expression in response to numerous stresses, including virus infection. This review discusses recent advances on riboproteomic approaches to identify IRES transacting factors (ITAFs and the relationship between RNA-protein interaction and IRES activity, highlighting the most relevant features on picornavirus and hepatitis C virus IRESs.

  13. A finite element approach to self-consistent field theory calculations of multiblock polymers

    Ackerman, David M; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar


    Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) has proven to be a powerful tool for modeling equilibrium microstructures of soft materials, particularly for multiblock polymers. A very successful approach to numerically solving the SCFT set of equations is based on using a spectral approach. While widely successful, this approach has limitations especially in the context of current technologically relevant applications. These limitations include non-trivial approaches for modeling complex geometries, difficulties in extending to non-periodic domains, as well as non-trivial extensions for spatial adaptivity. As a viable alternative to spectral schemes, we develop a finite element formulation of the SCFT paradigm for calculating equilibrium polymer morphologies. We discuss the formulation and address implementation challenges that ensure accuracy and efficiency. We explore higher order chain contour steppers that are efficiently implemented with Richardson Extrapolation. This approach is highly scalable and suitable for s...

  14. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    . The numerical approach allows for a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and shear zone development during progressive shear strain. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation increase with the magnitude of the normal stress. The stresses are distributed heterogeneously through the granular...... of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real...... granular materials and the numerical results. The materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress and horizontal shearing. The peak and ultimate shear strengths depend linearly on the magnitude of the normal stress by the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relationship...

  15. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin


    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...... comprises economic, environmental and social aspects. The impacts on and trade-offs between the different dimensions of sustainability are discussed, and combined with aspect of product quality. Furthermore, we identify the important planning decisions in relation to production and distribution and organise...... these in a decision hierarchy. Based on these discussions, decision support models based on mixed-integer linear programming are developed for the planning tasks on the tactical level, including decision-making on packaging options and delivery structures. The resulting models can be used to support production...

  16. Mixed finite element - discontinuous finite volume element discretization of a general class of multicontinuum models

    Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Lunati, Ivan


    We present a novel discretization scheme tailored to a class of multiphase models that regard the physical system as consisting of multiple interacting continua. In the framework of mixture theory, we consider a general mathematical model that entails solving a system of mass and momentum equations for both the mixture and one of the phases. The model results in a strongly coupled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations that are written in terms of phase and mixture (barycentric) velocities, phase pressure, and saturation. We construct an accurate, robust and reliable hybrid method that combines a mixed finite element discretization of the momentum equations with a primal discontinuous finite volume-element discretization of the mass (or transport) equations. The scheme is devised for unstructured meshes and relies on mixed Brezzi-Douglas-Marini approximations of phase and total velocities, on piecewise constant elements for the approximation of phase or total pressures, as well as on a primal formulation that employs discontinuous finite volume elements defined on a dual diamond mesh to approximate scalar fields of interest (such as volume fraction, total density, saturation, etc.). As the discretization scheme is derived for a general formulation of multicontinuum physical systems, it can be readily applied to a large class of simplified multiphase models; on the other, the approach can be seen as a generalization of these models that are commonly encountered in the literature and employed when the latter are not sufficiently accurate. An extensive set of numerical test cases involving two- and three-dimensional porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method (displaying an optimal convergence rate), the physics-preserving properties of the mixed-primal scheme, as well as the robustness of the method (which is successfully used to simulate diverse physical phenomena such as density fingering, Terzaghi's consolidation

  17. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; Boer, de André; Rao, Vittal S.


    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controll

  18. A comparison of boundary element and finite element methods for modeling axisymmetric polymeric drop deformation

    Hooper, Russell; Toose, E.M.; Macosko, Christopher W.; Derby, Jeffrey J.


    A modified boundary element method (BEM) and the DEVSS-G finite element method (FEM) are applied to model the deformation of a polymeric drop suspended in another fluid subjected to start-up uniaxial extensional flow. The effects of viscoelasticity, via the Oldroyd-B differential model, are

  19. Finite element meshing approached as a global minimization process



    The ability to generate a suitable finite element mesh in an automatic fashion is becoming the key to being able to automate the entire engineering analysis process. However, placing an all-hexahedron mesh in a general three-dimensional body continues to be an elusive goal. The approach investigated in this research is fundamentally different from any other that is known of by the authors. A physical analogy viewpoint is used to formulate the actual meshing problem which constructs a global mathematical description of the problem. The analogy used was that of minimizing the electrical potential of a system charged particles within a charged domain. The particles in the presented analogy represent duals to mesh elements (i.e., quads or hexes). Particle movement is governed by a mathematical functional which accounts for inter-particles repulsive, attractive and alignment forces. This functional is minimized to find the optimal location and orientation of each particle. After the particles are connected a mesh can be easily resolved. The mathematical description for this problem is as easy to formulate in three-dimensions as it is in two- or one-dimensions. The meshing algorithm was developed within CoMeT. It can solve the two-dimensional meshing problem for convex and concave geometries in a purely automated fashion. Investigation of the robustness of the technique has shown a success rate of approximately 99% for the two-dimensional geometries tested. Run times to mesh a 100 element complex geometry were typically in the 10 minute range. Efficiency of the technique is still an issue that needs to be addressed. Performance is an issue that is critical for most engineers generating meshes. It was not for this project. The primary focus of this work was to investigate and evaluate a meshing algorithm/philosophy with efficiency issues being secondary. The algorithm was also extended to mesh three-dimensional geometries. Unfortunately, only simple geometries were tested

  20. Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation

    Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.


    A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.

  1. A super-element approach for structural identification in time domain

    LI Jie; ZHAO Xin


    For most time-domain identification methods,a complete measurement for unique identification results is required for structural responses.However,the number of transducers is commonly far less than the number of structural degrees of freedom (DOFs) in practical applications,and thus make the time-domain identification methods rarely feasible for practical systems.A super-element approach is proposed in this study to identify the structural parameters of a large-scale structure in the time domain.The most interesting feature of the proposed super-element approach is its divide-and-conquer ability,which can be applied to identify large-scale structures using a relatively small number of transducers.The super-element model used for time domain identification is first discussed in this study.Then a parameterization procedure based on the sensitivities of response forces is introduced to establish the identification equations of super-elements.Some principles are suggested on effective decomposing of the whole structure into super-elements for identification purposes.Numerical simulations are conducted at the end of this study.The numerical results show that all structural parameters can be identified using a relatively small number of transducers,and the computational time can also be greatly shortened.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Modeling Method Based on Boundary Element

    Xu-Sheng Gan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study an improved dynamic modeling method based on a Boundary Element Method (BEM. The dynamic model was composed of the elements such as the beam element, plate element, joint element, lumped mass and spring element by the BEM. An improved dynamic model of a machine structure was established based on plate-beam element system mainly. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure were analyzed and the comparison of computational results and experimental’s showed the modeling method was effective. The analyses indicate that the introduced method inaugurates a good way for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a machine structure efficiently.

  3. Modelling the Implications of Quality Management Elements on Strategic Flexibility

    Ana Belén Escrig-Tena


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the implications of a quality management (QM initiative on strategic flexibility. Our study defines flexibility from a strategic approach and examines the extent to which, why, and how the triggering factors of strategic flexibility are related to QM elements. The hypotheses put forward are tested in an empirical study carried out on a sample of Spanish firms, using structural equation models. The results demonstrate the positive effect of adopting an integral QM initiative on enhancing strategic flexibility. QM enhances strategic flexibility more effectively when it is introduced comprehensively rather than in a piecemeal fashion. A series of practices linked to the application of a QM initiative are outlined, which managers can use to improve strategic flexibility. The approach used in the study can be applied to analyse other antecedents of flexibility and to propose possible studies that consider QM as an antecedent of other organisational variables.

  4. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.


    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  5. Systematic approach to MIS model creation

    Macura Perica


    Full Text Available In this paper-work, by application of basic principles of general theory of system (systematic approach, we have formulated a model of marketing information system. Bases for research were basic characteristics of systematic approach and marketing system. Informational base for management of marketing system, i.e. marketing instruments was presented in a way that the most important information for decision making were listed per individual marketing mix instruments. In projected model of marketing information system, information listed in this way create a base for establishing of data bases, i.e. bases of information (data bases of: product, price, distribution, promotion. This paper-work gives basic preconditions for formulation and functioning of the model. Model was presented by explication of elements of its structure (environment, data bases operators, analysts of information system, decision makers - managers, i.e. input, process, output, feedback and relations between these elements which are necessary for its optimal functioning. Beside that, here are basic elements for implementation of the model into business system, as well as conditions for its efficient functioning and development.

  6. An Adaptive Approach to Schema Classification for Data Warehouse Modeling

    Hong-Ding Wang; Yun-Hai Tong; Shao-Hua Tan; Shi-Wei Tang; Dong-Qing Yang; Guo-Hui Sun


    Data warehouse (DW) modeling is a complicated task, involving both knowledge of business processes and familiarity with operational information systems structure and behavior. Existing DW modeling techniques suffer from the following major drawbacks -data-driven approach requires high levels of expertise and neglects the requirements of end users, while demand-driven approach lacks enterprise-wide vision and is regardless of existing models of underlying operational systems. In order to make up for those shortcomings, a method of classification of schema elements for DW modeling is proposed in this paper. We first put forward the vector space models for subjects and schema elements, then present an adaptive approach with self-tuning theory to construct context vectors of subjects, and finally classify the source schema elements into different subjects of the DW automatically. Benefited from the result of the schema elements classification, designers can model and construct a DW more easily.

  7. The Model of Unreliable Elements (Human Resources) Intellectual Management System on the Basis of Their Psychological and Personal Characteristics

    Ryabtsev, Timofey; Antonova, Elena


    The Article suggests a possible approach to creation of the Intellectual Management System for human resources and personnel (during their professional tasks solving), and that could consider personal characteristics and psychological condition of the human resources as an “unreliable” element. The Article describes some elements of the Intellectual Management System: professional activity model and “unreliable” element (human resources) model.

  8. Determination Effective Elements of Continuing Interprofessional Education Models

    Leila Safabakhsh


    Full Text Available Background: Traditional continuing education (CE approaches have limited impact on patient management and outcomes. Continuing interprofessional education is an innovated educational approach that can improve patient care and outcomes related to health care. There is a need to provide guidance to continuing education professionals in the development, implementation, and evaluation of continuing interprofessional education activities. Objectives: This study attempted to identity effective elements of continuing interprofessional education in programs or models. Study Design: Database searches of published papers using Eric. Ovid, Science direct and PubMed (1990-2016 were conducted for existing IPE model post-registration. Broad search terms were used, including interprofessional education, continuing interprofessional education models and interprofessional education post-registration models. Results: Seven continuing interprofessional education models were identified in the literature. Topic, Goals, Content, learning strategy and Evaluation strategy were the components used in these patterns. Conclusions: Healthy topics, Content sharing between the participating professions, common educational goals for all professions, interactive learning and interprofessional learning methods and diverse assessment methods with feedback to learners, helps to make better be implemented inter-professional training programs.

  9. A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails

    Nilsson, C.-M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.


    Engineering methods for modelling the generation of railway rolling noise are well established. However, these necessarily involve some simplifying assumptions to calculate the sound powers radiated by the wheel and the track. For the rail, this involves using an average vibration together with a radiation efficiency determined for a two-dimensional (2D) problem. In this paper, the sound radiation from a rail is calculated using a method based on a combination of waveguide finite elements and wavenumber boundary elements. This new method allows a number of the simplifying assumptions in the established methods to be avoided. It takes advantage of the 2D geometry of a rail to provide an efficient numerical approach but nevertheless takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the vibration and sound field and the infinite extent of the rail. The approach is used to study a conventional 'open' rail as well as an embedded tram rail of the type used for street running. In the former case it is shown that the conventional approach gives correct results and the complexity of the new method is mostly not necessary. However, for the embedded rail it is found that it is important to take into account the radiation from several wave types in the rail and embedding material. The damping effect of the embedding material on the rail vibration is directly taken into account and, for the example shown, causes the embedded rail to radiate less sound than the open rail above about 600 Hz. The free surface of the embedding material amplifies the sound radiation at some frequencies, while at other frequencies it moves out of phase with the rail and reduces the radiation efficiency. At low frequencies the radiation from the embedded rail resembles a line monopole source which produces greater power than the 'open' rail which forms a line dipole.

  10. A new interface element for connecting independently modeled substructures

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.


    A new interface element based on the hybrid variational formulation is presented and demonstrated. The element provides a means of connecting independently modeled substructures whose nodes along the common boundary need not be coincident. The interface element extends previous work to include connecting an arbitrary number of substructures, the use of closed and generally curved interfaces, and the use of multiple, possibly nested, interfaces. Several applications of the element are presented and aspects of the implementation are discussed.

  11. Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques

    Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert


    This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)

  12. Finite element approach for transient analysis of multibody systems

    Wu, Shih-Chin; Chang, Che-Wei; Housner, Jerrold M.


    A three-dimensional, finite element based formulation for the transient dynamics of constrained multibody systems with trusslike configurations is presented. A convected coordinate system is used to define the rigid-body motion of individual elements in the system. Deformation of each element is defined relative to its convected coordinate system. The formulation is oriented toward joint-dominated structures. Through a series of sequential transformations, the joint degree of freedom is built into the equations of motion of the element to reduce geometric constraints. Based on the derivation, a general-purpose code has been developed. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the code.

  13. Finite element modelling of internal and multiple localized cracks

    Saloustros, Savvas; Pelà, Luca; Cervera, Miguel; Roca, Pere


    Tracking algorithms constitute an efficient numerical technique for modelling fracture in quasi-brittle materials. They succeed in representing localized cracks in the numerical model without mesh-induced directional bias. Currently available tracking algorithms have an important limitation: cracking originates either from the boundary of the discretized domain or from predefined "crack-root" elements and then propagates along one orientation. This paper aims to circumvent this drawback by proposing a novel tracking algorithm that can simulate cracking starting at any point of the mesh and propagating along one or two orientations. This enhancement allows the simulation of structural case-studies experiencing multiple cracking. The proposed approach is validated through the simulation of a benchmark example and an experimentally tested structural frame under in-plane loading. Mesh-bias independency of the numerical solution, computational cost and predicted collapse mechanisms with and without the tracking algorithm are discussed.

  14. Rigorous joining of advanced reduced-dimensional beam models to three-dimensional finite element models

    Song, Huimin

    In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and

  15. Toxic Elements in Food: Occurrence, Binding, and Reduction Approaches

    Hajeb, P.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Shakibazadeh, Sh


    Toxic elements such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, sometimes called heavy metals, can diminish mental and central nervous system function; elicit damage to blood composition as well as the kidneys, lungs, and liver; and reduce energy levels. Food is considered one of the main routes...... of their entry into the human body. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the effects of common food processing procedures on the levels of toxic elements in food. While some studies have reported negative effects of processing, several have shown that processing practices may have a positive effect...... on the reduction of toxic elements in foodstuffs. A number of studies have also introduced protocols and suggested chemical agents that reduce the amount of toxic elements in the final food products. In this review, the reported methods employed for the reduction of toxic elements are discussed with particular...

  16. Performance Modelling of Timber Facade Elements

    Surmeli-Anac, A.N.


    Windows and doors are essential elements of buildings. These seemingly simple components have become increasingly complex over the last decades. They have to fulfil an increased number of functions which ask for contradictory solutions and need to comply with more and more severe requirements.


    Oana CHIVU


    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes


    Oana CHIVU


    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of rotary ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  19. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    Konovalenko, Lena


    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  20. Finite element model updating using bayesian framework and modal properties

    Marwala, T


    Full Text Available Finite element (FE) models are widely used to predict the dynamic characteristics of aerospace structures. These models often give results that differ from measured results and therefore need to be updated to match measured results. Some...

  1. An approach for activity-based DEVS model specification

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram


    activity-based behavior modeling of parallel DEVS atomic models. We consider UML activities and actions as fundamental units of behavior modeling, especially in the presence of recent advances in the UML 2.5 specifications. We describe in detail how to approach activity modeling with a set of elemental...

  2. Finite element modelling of solidification phenomena

    K N Seetharamu; R Paragasam; Ghulam A Quadir; Z A Zainal; B Sathya Prasad; T Sundararajan


    The process of solidification process is complex in nature and the simulation of such process is required in industry before it is actually undertaken. Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer process accompanying the solidification process. The metal and the mould along with the air gap formation is accounted in the heat transfer simulation. Distortion of the casting is caused due to non-uniform shrinkage associated with the process. Residual stresses are induced in the final castings. Simulation of the shrinkage and the thermal stresses are also carried out using finite element methods. The material behaviour is considered as visco-plastic. The simulations are compared with available experimental data and the comparison is found to be good. Special considerations regarding the simulation of solidification process are also brought out.

  3. A Novel Approach to a Piezoelectric Sensing Element

    M. Martinez


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials have commonly been used in pressure and stress sensors; however, many designs consist of thin plate structures that produce small voltage signals when they are compressed or extended under a pressure field. This study used finite element methods to design a novel piezoelectric pressure sensor with a C-shaped piezoelectric element and determine if the voltage signal obtained during hydrostatic pressure application was enhanced compared to a standard thin plate piezoelectric element. The results of this study demonstrated how small deformations of this C-shaped sensor produced a large electrical signal output. It was also shown that the location of the electrodes for this sensor needs to be carefully chosen and that the electric potential distribution varies depending on the poling of the piezoelectric element. This study indicated that the utilization of piezoelectric materials of different shapes and geometries embedded in a polymer matrix for sensing applications has several advantages over thin plate solid piezoelectric structures.

  4. An Optimization-Based Approach to Injector Element Design

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)


    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) injector elements. A swirl coaxial element and an unlike impinging element (a fuel-oxidizer-fuel triplet) are used to facilitate the study. The elements are optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, APf, oxidizer pressure drop, deltaP(sub f), combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, (for the swirl element) or impingement half-angle, alpha, (for the impinging element) at a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for both element types. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable for both types of elements. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail for each element type. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the element design is illustrated. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues

  5. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent


    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  6. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process

    Chandra, Umesh


    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a member of an emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as solid freeform fabrication (SFF); another member of the class is the laser deposition process. Successful application of the EBF3 process requires precise control of a number of process parameters such as the EB power, speed, and metal feed rate in order to ensure thermal management; good fusion between the substrate and the first layer and between successive layers; minimize part distortion and residual stresses; and control the microstructure of the finished product. This is the only effort thus far that has addressed computer simulation of the EBF3 process. The models developed in this effort can assist in reducing the number of trials in the laboratory or on the shop floor while making high-quality parts. With some modifications, their use can be further extended to the simulation of laser, TIG (tungsten inert gas), and other deposition processes. A solid mechanics-based finite element code, ABAQUS, was chosen as the primary engine in developing these models whereas a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, was used in a support role. Several innovative concepts were developed, some of which are highlighted below. These concepts were implemented in a number of new computer models either in the form of stand-alone programs or as user subroutines for ABAQUS and Fluent codes. A database of thermo-physical, mechanical, fluid, and metallurgical properties of stainless steel 304 was developed. Computing models for Gaussian and raster modes of the electron beam heat input were developed. Also, new schemes were devised to account for the heat sink effect during the deposition process. These innovations, and others, lead to improved models for thermal management and prediction of transient/residual stresses and distortions. Two approaches for the prediction of microstructure were pursued. The first was an empirical approach involving the

  7. 2-D magnetotelluric modeling using finite element method incorporating unstructured quadrilateral elements

    Sarakorn, Weerachai


    In this research, the finite element (FE) method incorporating quadrilateral elements for solving 2-D MT modeling was presented. The finite element software was developed, employing a paving algorithm to generate the unstructured quadrilateral mesh. The accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility of our FE forward modeling are presented, compared and discussed. The numerical results indicate that our FE codes using an unstructured quadrilateral mesh provide good accuracy when the local mesh refinement is applied around sites and in the area of interest, with superior results when compared to other FE methods. The reliability of the developed codes was also confirmed when comparing both analytical solutions and COMMEMI2D model. Furthermore, our developed FE codes incorporating an unstructured quadrilateral mesh showed useful and powerful features such as handling irregular and complex subregions and providing local refinement of the mesh for a 2-D domain as closely as unstructured triangular mesh but it requires less number of elements in a mesh.

  8. Artificial intelligence and finite element modelling for monitoring flood defence structures

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.; Kusherbaeva, V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.


    We present a hybrid approach to monitoring the stability of flood defence structures equipped with sensors. This approach combines the finite element modelling with the artificial intelligence for real-time signal processing and anomaly detection. This combined method has been developed for the Urba

  9. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  10. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas


    a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements......Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...

  11. A finite element model of ultrasonic extrusion

    Lucas, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Daud, Y, E-mail: [College of Science and Technology, UTM City Campus, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Since the 1950's researchers have carried out investigations into the effects of applying ultrasonic excitation to metals undergoing elastic and plastic deformation. Experiments have been conducted where ultrasonic excitation is superimposed in complex metalworking operations such as wire drawing and extrusion, to identify the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations. This study presents a finite element analysis of ultrasonic excitation applied to the extrusion of a cylindrical aluminium bar. The effects of friction on the extrusion load are reported for the two excitation configurations of radially and axially applied ultrasonic vibrations and the results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature.

  12. A finite element model of ultrasonic extrusion

    Lucas, M.; Daud, Y.


    Since the 1950's researchers have carried out investigations into the effects of applying ultrasonic excitation to metals undergoing elastic and plastic deformation. Experiments have been conducted where ultrasonic excitation is superimposed in complex metalworking operations such as wire drawing and extrusion, to identify the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations. This study presents a finite element analysis of ultrasonic excitation applied to the extrusion of a cylindrical aluminium bar. The effects of friction on the extrusion load are reported for the two excitation configurations of radially and axially applied ultrasonic vibrations and the results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature.

  13. Mixed finite elements for global tide models

    Cotter, Colin J


    We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation -- the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in $L^2$ as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.

  14. A Practical Approach to Governance and Optimization of Structured Data Elements.

    Collins, Sarah A; Gesner, Emily; Morgan, Steven; Mar, Perry; Maviglia, Saverio; Colburn, Doreen; Tierney, Diana; Rocha, Roberto


    Definition and configuration of clinical content in an enterprise-wide electronic health record (EHR) implementation is highly complex. Sharing of data definitions across applications within an EHR implementation project may be constrained by practical limitations, including time, tools, and expertise. However, maintaining rigor in an approach to data governance is important for sustainability and consistency. With this understanding, we have defined a practical approach for governance of structured data elements to optimize data definitions given limited resources. This approach includes a 10 step process: 1) identification of clinical topics, 2) creation of draft reference models for clinical topics, 3) scoring of downstream data needs for clinical topics, 4) prioritization of clinical topics, 5) validation of reference models for clinical topics, and 6) calculation of gap analyses of EHR compared against reference model, 7) communication of validated reference models across project members, 8) requested revisions to EHR based on gap analysis, 9) evaluation of usage of reference models across project, and 10) Monitoring for new evidence requiring revisions to reference model.


    江成顺; 刘蕴贤; 沈永明


    This paper is concerned with some nonlinear reaction - diffusion models. To solve this kind of models, the modified Laplace finite element scheme and the alternating direction finite element scheme are established for the system of patrical differential equations. Besides, the finite difference method is utilized for the ordinary differential equation in the models. Moreover, by the theory and technique of prior estimates for the differential equations, the convergence analyses and the optimal L2- norm error estimates are demonstrated.


    Chen Huaran; Li Yiqun; He Qiaoyun; Zhang Jieqing; Ma Hongsheng; Li Li


    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the area of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.


    ChenHuaran; LiYiqun; HeQiaoyun; ZhangJieqing; MaHongsheng; LiLi


    On ths basis of interaction between faults, a finite element model for Southwest China is constructed, and the stress adjustment due to the strong earthquake occurrence in this region was studied. The preliminary results show that many strong earthquakes occurred in the are a of increased stress in the model. Though the results are preliminary, the quasi-3D finite element model is meaningful for strong earthquake prediction.

  18. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    Why Multiple Models?This book presents a variety of approaches which produce complex models or controllers by piecing together a number of simpler subsystems. Thisdivide-and-conquer strategy is a long-standing and general way of copingwith complexity in engineering systems, nature and human probl...

  19. Finite Element Model and Validation of Nasal Tip Deformation.

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Harb, Rani; Badran, Alan; Ho, David; Wong, Brian J F


    Nasal tip mechanical stability is important for functional and cosmetic nasal airway surgery. Palpation of the nasal tip provides information on tip strength to the surgeon, though it is a purely subjective assessment. Providing a means to simulate nasal tip deformation with a validated model can offer a more objective approach in understanding the mechanics and nuances of the nasal tip support and eventual nasal mechanics as a whole. Herein we present validation of a finite element (FE) model of the nose using physical measurements recorded using an ABS plastic-silicone nasal phantom. Three-dimensional photogrammetry was used to capture the geometry of the phantom at rest and while under steady state load. The silicone used to make the phantom was mechanically tested and characterized using a linear elastic constitutive model. Surface point clouds of the silicone and FE model were compared for both the loaded and unloaded state. The average Hausdorff distance between actual measurements and FE simulations across the nose were 0.39 ± 1.04 mm and deviated up to 2 mm at the outermost boundaries of the model. FE simulation and measurements were in near complete agreement in the immediate vicinity of the nasal tip with millimeter accuracy. We have demonstrated validation of a two-component nasal FE model, which could be used to model more complex modes of deformation where direct measurement may be challenging. This is the first step in developing a nasal model to simulate nasal mechanics and ultimately the interaction between geometry and airflow.

  20. Holistic Approach to the Periodic System of Elements

    Trunov, N. N.


    For studying the objectivity and the quality of a given form of the Periodic system as a single whole we compare plots of functions presenting properties of elements in pairs of periods. Using mathematical statistics we introduce a dimensionless parameter which indicates high quality of the long form of the Periodic system.

  1. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Binder, A. B.


    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  2. Discrete element modelling of granular materials

    Van Baars, S.


    A new model is developed by the author, which does not use the equations of motion but the equations of equilibrium to describe granular materials. The numerical results show great similarities with reality and can generally be described by an advanced Mohr-Coulomb model. However, many contacts betw

  3. Key Elements of Effective Teaching in the Direct Teaching Model.

    Bruning, Roger H.

    Summaries and outlines are presented of key elements in effective teaching identified in research studies by Kounin (1970), Brophy (1973), Brophy and Evertson (1976), Stallings (1974; l975), Berliner (1979), and Good and Grouws (1979). These elements are synthesized in a direct teaching model that delineates the characteristics of effective…

  4. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang


    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  5. Advancements in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements and related structures

    Billone, M.C.; Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.; Head, J.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (USA); Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (UK))


    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactors is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system. By understanding the thermomechanical behavior of the different materials which constitute a nuclear fuel element, analysis and predictions can be made regarding the integrity and reliability of fuel element designs. The SMiRT conference series, through the division on fuel elements and the post-conference seminars on fuel element modeling, provided technical forums for the international participation in the exchange of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical modeling of fuel elements. This paper discusses the technical advances in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements presented at the SMiRT conference series since its inception in 1971. Progress in the areas of material properties and constitutive relationships, modeling methodologies, and integral modeling approaches was reviewed and is summarized in light of their impact on the thermomechanical modeling of nuclear fuel elements. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Multi-scale modeling and experimental study of twin inception and propagation in hexagonal close-packed materials using a crystal plasticity finite element approach; part II: Local behavior

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Daymond, Mark R.


    In-situ tensile tests are performed on Zircaloy-2 samples with various grain sizes to study twin inception and propagation. Orientation maps of some areas at the surface are measured before and after deformation, using the Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. Strain fields of the same areas are determined using the digital image correlation technique and are compared with results from Crystal Plasticity Finite Element (CPFE) simulations. Different assumptions are made within the CPFE code to simulate twin propagation. It is observed that the predictions of different models does not really change from one model to another when statistical information on the twins is compared, yet local predictions for each grain, i.e. twin direction, twin variant selection, and twin inception site, do change. Also, it is shown that the twin Schmid factor can vary drastically within grains and that for those grains with a low tendency for twinning this variation may make them susceptible to twinning.

  7. Finite Element Modeling of Airflow During Phonation

    Šidlof P.


    Full Text Available In the paper a mathematical model of airflow in human vocal folds is presented. The geometry of the glottal channel is based on measurements of excised human larynges. The airflow is modeled by nonstationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a 2D computational domain, which is deformed in time due to vocal fold vibration. The paper presents numerical results and focuses on flow separation in glottis. Quantitative data from numerical simulations are compared to results of measurements by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV, performed on a scaled self-oscillating physical model of vocal folds.

  8. Material models and properties in the finite element analysis of knee ligaments: a literature review

    Fabio eGalbusera


    Full Text Available Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo


    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  10. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten


    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  11. A finite element approach to self-consistent field theory calculations of multiblock polymers

    Ackerman, David M.; Delaney, Kris; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar


    Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) has proven to be a powerful tool for modeling equilibrium microstructures of soft materials, particularly for multiblock polymers. A very successful approach to numerically solving the SCFT set of equations is based on using a spectral approach. While widely successful, this approach has limitations especially in the context of current technologically relevant applications. These limitations include non-trivial approaches for modeling complex geometries, difficulties in extending to non-periodic domains, as well as non-trivial extensions for spatial adaptivity. As a viable alternative to spectral schemes, we develop a finite element formulation of the SCFT paradigm for calculating equilibrium polymer morphologies. We discuss the formulation and address implementation challenges that ensure accuracy and efficiency. We explore higher order chain contour steppers that are efficiently implemented with Richardson Extrapolation. This approach is highly scalable and suitable for systems with arbitrary shapes. We show spatial and temporal convergence and illustrate scaling on up to 2048 cores. Finally, we illustrate confinement effects for selected complex geometries. This has implications for materials design for nanoscale applications where dimensions are such that equilibrium morphologies dramatically differ from the bulk phases.

  12. Efficient Finite Element Modelling of Elastodynamic Scattering

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.


    A robust and efficient technique for predicting the complete scattering behavior for an arbitrarily-shaped defect is presented that can be implemented in a commercial FE package. The spatial size of the modeling domain around the defect is as small as possible to minimize computational expense and a minimum number of models are executed. Example results for 2D and 3D scattering in isotropic material and guided wave scattering are presented.


    Parjoko, Y. H.


    This study aims to understand the effect of applying several parameters: different axle load configuration, concrete properties, subgrade properties, slab thickness, joint characteristics, shoulder construction, bounded HMA overlay on concrete pavement, and bounded and unbounded CTB foundation over subgrade on the fatigue and erosion related distresses in concrete pavements. KENSLAB, an elaborate finite element program is used to determine the concrete pavement responses: stresses and deflect...

  14. The features of finite-element modeling of a structural element of flexible woven composites

    Dmitry A. Kozhanov


    Full Text Available The features of finite-element modeling of both an element itself and its behavior under uniaxial tension have been demonstrated with a structural element of flexible woven composites. The main components of the material, such as reinforcing fabric and material's matrix were examined in modeling. The reinforcing fabric is a plain weave. These yarns were taken as an elastic material. The matrix of the material was considered to be a soft polymer with the possible occurrence of irreversible elastic-plastic deformations. Moreover, the possible occurrence of damages in the structure of the material under high loads was taken into account in modeling. The fields of stresses and strains were built; the zones of the material's internal damages under uniaxial tension were demonstrated. The risk zones of weave were revealed.

  15. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.

  16. Probabilistic models for access strategies to dynamic information elements

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Olsen, Rasmus L.; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    In various network services (e.g., routing and instances of context-sensitive networking) remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach...... for information elements spread over a large number of network nodes are provided, which allow to draw conclusions on scalability properties. The impact of different distribution types for the network delays as well as for the time between changes of the information element on the mismatch probability...

  17. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research proposal offers to develop the most accurate, comprehensive and efficient finite element models to date for simulation of the...



    Based on the inner character analysis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connecting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interpart feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presented, and virtual-part-based connecting element modeling is proposed. During the assembly modeling, base parts are modified by the Boolean subtraction between the virtual part and the part to be connected. Dynamic matching algorithm, which is based on list database, is designed for dynamic extension and off-line editing of connecting part and virtual part, and design rules of connecting element is encapsulated by the virtual part. A prototyped software module for rapid design of connecting elements is implemented under self-developed CAD/CAM platform-SuperMan.

  19. Elements of matrix modeling and computing with Matlab

    White, Robert E


    As discrete models and computing have become more common, there is a need to study matrix computation and numerical linear algebra. Encompassing a diverse mathematical core, Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB examines a variety of applications and their modeling processes, showing you how to develop matrix models and solve algebraic systems. Emphasizing practical skills, it creates a bridge from problems with two and three variables to more realistic problems that have additional variables. Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB focuses on seven basic applicat

  20. Research on Knowledge-based Connecting Elements Modeling


    Steps of manipulation is required to complete the m od eling of the connection elements such as bolt, pin and the like in commerce CAD system. It leads to low efficiency, difficulty to assure the relative position, impossibility to express rules and knowledge. Based on the inner character analy sis of interpart, detail modification and assembly relation of mechanical connec ting element, the idea, which extends the feature modeling of part to the interp art feature modeling for assembly purpose, is presen...

  1. Modeling rammed earth wall using discrete element method

    Bui, T.-T.; Bui, Q.-B.; Limam, A.; Morel, J.-C.


    Rammed earth is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable development. Several research studies have thus recently been carried out to investigate this material. Some of them attempted to simulate the rammed earth's mechanical behavior by using analytical or numerical models. Most of these studies assumed that there was a perfect cohesion at the interface between earthen layers. This hypothesis proved to be acceptable for the case of vertical loading, but it could be questionable for horizontal loading. To address this problem, discrete element modeling seems to be relevant to simulate a rammed earth wall. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted thus far using discrete element modeling to study a rammed earth wall. This paper presents an assessment of the discrete element modeling's robustness for rammed earth walls. Firstly, a brief description of the discrete element modeling is presented. Then the parameters necessary for discrete element modeling of the material law of the earthen layers and their interfaces law following the Mohr-Coulomb model with a tension cut-off and post-peak softening were given. The relevance of the model and the material parameters were assessed by comparing them with experimental results from the literature. The results showed that, in the case of vertical loading, interfaces did not have an important effect. In the case of diagonal loading, model with interfaces produced better results. Interface characteristics can vary from 85 to 100% of the corresponding earthen layer's characteristics.

  2. Finite Element Model Updating Using Response Surface Method

    Marwala, Tshilidzi


    This paper proposes the response surface method for finite element model updating. The response surface method is implemented by approximating the finite element model surface response equation by a multi-layer perceptron. The updated parameters of the finite element model were calculated using genetic algorithm by optimizing the surface response equation. The proposed method was compared to the existing methods that use simulated annealing or genetic algorithm together with a full finite element model for finite element model updating. The proposed method was tested on an unsymmetri-cal H-shaped structure. It was observed that the proposed method gave the updated natural frequen-cies and mode shapes that were of the same order of accuracy as those given by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, it was observed that the response surface method achieved these results at a computational speed that was more than 2.5 times as fast as the genetic algorithm and a full finite element model and 24 ti...

  3. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating...... of introduction of existing knowledge, as well as the ease of model interpretation. This book attempts to outlinemuch of the common ground between the various approaches, encouraging the transfer of ideas.Recent progress in algorithms and analysis is presented, with constructive algorithms for automated model...

  4. Finite Element Modeling for Ultrasonic Transducers (Preprint)


    virtual prototyping of transducers . Fig. 18 shows a 3D model of a Tonpilz device for low frequency sensing in air. This classical design is usually used...coupled Tonpilz transducer . A thick, flexible matching layer is bonded to the face of the conical head-mass. 7. CONCLUSIONS This paper was intended as a...This is a preprint of a paper published in Proc. SPIE Int. Symp. Medical Imaging 1998, San Diego, Feb 21-27, 1998 Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering

  5. Automatic terrain modeling using transfinite element analysis

    Collier, Nathaniel O.


    An automatic procedure for modeling terrain is developed based on L2 projection-based interpolation of discrete terrain data onto transfinite function spaces. The function space is refined automatically by the use of image processing techniques to detect regions of high error and the flexibility of the transfinite interpolation to add degrees of freedom to these areas. Examples are shown of a section of the Palo Duro Canyon in northern Texas.

  6. Finite Element Approach for Coupled Striplines Embedded in Dielectric Material

    Matthew N.O. Sadiku


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present finite element method (FEM to investigate the quasi-static analysis of two dimensional (2D shielded two coupled stripline structures for microelectronic devices.  In the proposed method, we specifically determine the values of capacitance per unit length and inductance per unit length of shielded two vertically coupled striplines and shielded two coupled striplines embedded in dielectric material.  Extensive simulation results are presented, and some comparative results are given by other methods and found them to be in excellent agreement. Furthermore, we determine the quasi-TEM spectral for the potential distribution of these shielded two coupled striplines.

  7. Evaluation of Fabric Hand with Grey Element Model

    CHEN Dong-sheng; GAN Ying-jin; BAI Yue


    A premium composite grey element model is established and used for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Fabric hand is regarded as a grey system and the model is composed of fabric mechanical properties, which are primary hand attributes. Based on comparison with a standard model, fabric hand can be objectively evaluated.

  8. Quality Assurance of Cancer Study Common Data Elements Using A Post-Coordination Approach.

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Tao, Cui; Weng, Chunhua; Chute, Christopher G


    Domain-specific common data elements (CDEs) are emerging as an effective approach to standards-based clinical research data storage and retrieval. A limiting factor, however, is the lack of robust automated quality assurance (QA) tools for the CDEs in clinical study domains. The objectives of the present study are to prototype and evaluate a QA tool for the study of cancer CDEs using a post-coordination approach. The study starts by integrating the NCI caDSR CDEs and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data dictionaries in a single Resource Description Framework (RDF) data store. We designed a compositional expression pattern based on the Data Element Concept model structure informed by ISO/IEC 11179, and developed a transformation tool that converts the pattern-based compositional expressions into the Web Ontology Language (OWL) syntax. Invoking reasoning and explanation services, we tested the system utilizing the CDEs extracted from two TCGA clinical cancer study domains. The system could automatically identify duplicate CDEs, and detect CDE modeling errors. In conclusion, compositional expressions not only enable reuse of existing ontology codes to define new domain concepts, but also provide an automated mechanism for QA of terminological annotations for CDEs.

  9. Model Construct Based Enterprise Model Architecture and Its Modeling Approach


    In order to support enterprise integration, a kind of model construct based enterprise model architecture and its modeling approach are studied in this paper. First, the structural makeup and internal relationships of enterprise model architecture are discussed. Then, the concept of reusable model construct (MC) which belongs to the control view and can help to derive other views is proposed. The modeling approach based on model construct consists of three steps, reference model architecture synthesis, enterprise model customization, system design and implementation. According to MC based modeling approach a case study with the background of one-kind-product machinery manufacturing enterprises is illustrated. It is shown that proposal model construct based enterprise model architecture and modeling approach are practical and efficient.

  10. Analysis of ground vibrations due to underground trains by 2.5D finite/infinite element approach

    Hsiao-Hui Hung; Y. B. Yang


    The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach is adopted to study wave propagation problems caused by underground moving trains. The irregularities of the near field, including the tunnel structure and parts of the soil, are modeled by the finite elements, and the wave propagation properties of the far field extending to infinity are modeled by the infinite elements. One particular feature of the 2.5D approach is that it enables the computation of the three-dimensional response of the half-space, taking into account the load-moving effect, using only a two-dimensional profile. Although the 2.5D finite/infinite element approach shows a great advantage in studying the wave propagation caused by moving trains, attention should be given to the calculation aspects, such as the rules for mesh establishment, in order to avoid producing inaccurate or erroneous results. In this paper, some essential points for consideration in analysis are highlighted, along with techniques to enhance the speed of the calculations. All these observations should prove useful in making the 2.5D finite/infinite element approach an effective one.

  11. Heavy element stable isotope ratios: analytical approaches and applications.

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi


    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  12. Analytical modeling of sandwich beam for piezoelectric bender elements


    Piezoelectric bender elements are widely used as electromechanical sensors and actuators. An analytical sandwich beam model for piezoelectric bender elements was developed based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which assumes a single rotation angle for the whole cross-section and a quadratic distribution function for coupled electric potential in piezoelectric layers, and corrects the effect of transverse shear strain on the electric displacement integration. Free vibration analysis of simplysupported bender elements was carried out and the numerical results showed that, solutions of the present model for various thickness-to-length ratios are compared well with the exact two-dimensional solutions, which presents an efficient and accurate model for analyzing dynamic electromechanical responses of bender elements.

  13. Finite element modeling and simulation with ANSYS workbench

    Chen, Xiaolin


    IntroductionSome Basic ConceptsAn Example in FEA: Spring SystemOverview of ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBars and TrussesIntroductionReview of the 1-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of TrussesFormulation of the Bar ElementExamples with Bar ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsBeams and FramesIntroductionReview of the Beam TheoryModeling of Beams and FramesFormulation of the Beam ElementExamples with Beam ElementsCase Study with ANSYS WorkbenchSummaryProblemsTwo-Dimensional ElasticityIntroductionReview of 2-D Elasticity TheoryModeling of 2-D Elasticity ProblemsFormulation of the Pla

  14. A model-based multisensor data fusion knowledge management approach

    Straub, Jeremy


    A variety of approaches exist for combining data from multiple sensors. The model-based approach combines data based on its support for or refutation of elements of the model which in turn can be used to evaluate an experimental thesis. This paper presents a collection of algorithms for mapping various types of sensor data onto a thesis-based model and evaluating the truth or falsity of the thesis, based on the model. The use of this approach for autonomously arriving at findings and for prioritizing data are considered. Techniques for updating the model (instead of arriving at a true/false assertion) are also discussed.

  15. Predictive Modeling of Defibrillation utilizing Hexahedral and Tetrahedral Finite Element Models: Recent Advances

    Triedman, John K.; Jolley, Matthew; Stinstra, Jeroen; Brooks, Dana H.; MacLeod, Rob


    ICD implants may be complicated by body size and anatomy. One approach to this problem has been the adoption of creative, extracardiac implant strategies using standard ICD components. Because data on safety or efficacy of such ad hoc implant strategies is lacking, we have developed image-based finite element models (FEMs) to compare electric fields and expected defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) using standard and novel electrode locations. In this paper, we review recently published studies by our group using such models, and progress in meshing strategies to improve efficiency and visualization. Our preliminary observations predict that they may be large changes in DFTs with clinically relevant variations of electrode placement. Extracardiac ICDs of various lead configurations are predicted to be effective in both children and adults. This approach may aid both ICD development and patient-specific optimization of electrode placement, but the simplified nature of current models dictates further development and validation prior to clinical or industrial utilization. PMID:18817926

  16. New Discrete Element Models for Three-Dimensional Impact Problems

    SHAN Li; CHENG Ming; LIU Kai-xin; LIU Wei-Fu; CHEN Shi-Yang


    Two 3-D numerical models of the discrete element method(DEM)for impact problems are proposed.The models can calculate not only the impact problems of continuum and non-continuum,but also the transient process from continuum to non-continuum.The stress wave propagation in a concrete block and a dynamic splitting process of a marble disc under impact loading are numerically simulated with the proposed models.By comparing the numerical results with the corresponding results obtained by the finite element method(FEM)and the experiments,it is proved that the models are reliable for three-dimensional impact problems.

  17. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.


    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  18. Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures

    Smith, N. A. S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Correia, T. M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, TW11 0LW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Rokosz, M. K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, TW11 0LW Middlesex (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.

  19. Laser therapy applying the differential approaches and biophotometrical elements

    Mamedova, F. M.; Akbarova, Ju. A.; Umarova, D. A.; Yudin, G. A.


    The aim of the present paper is the presentation of biophotometrical data obtained from various anatomic-topographical mouth areas to be used for the development of differential approaches to laser therapy in dentistry. Biophotometrical measurements were carried out using a portative biophotometer, as a portion of a multifunctional equipping system of laser therapy, acupuncture and biophotometry referred to as 'Aura-laser'. The results of biophotometrical measurements allow the implementation of differential approaches to laser therapy of parodontitis and mucous mouth tissue taking their clinic form and rate of disease into account.

  20. Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.


    -shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative...... on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring...... to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain....

  1. Finite element modeling for volume phantom in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    I. O. Rybina


    Full Text Available Using surface phantom, "shadows" of currents, which flow below and under surface tomographic lays, include on this lay, that is cause of adding errors in reconstruction image. For processing modeling in studied object volume isotropic finite elements should be used. Cube is chosen for finite element modeling in this work. Cube is modeled as sum of six rectangular (in the base pyramids, each pyramid consists of four triangular pyramids (with rectangular triangle in the base and hypotenuse, which is equal to cube rib to provide its uniformity and electrical definition. In the case of modeling on frequencies higher than 100 kHz biological tissue resistivities are complex. In this case weight coefficient k will be complex in received cube electrical model (inverse conductivity matrix of the cube finite element.

  2. Lumped Mass Modeling for Local-Mode-Suppressed Element Connectivity

    Joung, Young Soo; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Yoon Young


    for the standard element density method. Local modes are artificial, numerical modes resulting from the intrinsic modeling technique of the topology optimization method. Even with existing local mode controlling techniques, the convergence of the topology optimization of vibrating structures, especially...... experiencing large structural changes, appears to be still poor. In ECP, the nodes of the domain-discretizing elements are connected by zero-length one-dimensional elastic links having varying stiffness. For computational efficiency, every elastic link is now assumed to have two lumped masses at its ends......For successful topology design optimization of crashworthy “continuum” structures, unstable element-free and local vibration mode-free transient analyses should be ensured. Among these two issues, element instability was shown to be overcome if a recently-developed formulation, the element...


    Jelena Jovanović


    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  4. Air Gun Launch Simulation Modeling and Finite Element Model Sensitivity Analysis


    Air Gun Launch Simulation Modeling and Finite Element Model Sensitivity Analysis by Mostafiz R. Chowdhury and Ala Tabiei ARL-TR-3703...Adelphi, MD 20783-1145 ARL-TR-3703 January 2006 Air Gun Launch Simulation Modeling and Finite Element Model Sensitivity Analysis...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Gun Launch Simulation Modeling and Finite Element Model Sensitivity Analysis 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Critical elements of the crisis intervention team model of jail diversion: an expert survey.

    McGuire, Alan B; Bond, Gary R


    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of jail diversion is a promising approach to addressing the over-involvement of people with mental illness with the criminal justice system. Despite its popularity and promising empirical support, the literature has yet to clarify CIT's critical elements. The aim of this study was to assess the degree to which experts agreement on the importance and perceived implementation of the critical elements of CIT. Study 1 used a literature review to cull potential elements. Three experts familiar with the CIT model reviewed these elements. Study 2 utilized an online survey of 55 CIT co-ordinators/officers and published experts to assess agreement regarding importance and degree the element is implemented. A preliminary list of 36 elements was identified with a high level of expert agreement on their importance regarding importance and implementation. This study developed a preliminary list of elements of the CIT's program. Further research should develop consensus, explore elements' association with outcomes, and differentiate elements from those common to all jail diversion programs.

  6. Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis

    Puškar Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  7. [Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis].

    Puskar, Tatjana; Vasiljević, Darko; Marković, Dubravka; Jevremović, Danimir; Pantelić, Dejan; Savić-Sević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka


    The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects) in programmes for solid modeling. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analysing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body) into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,...). Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  8. An approach to parameter estimation for breast tumor by finite element method

    Xu, A.-qing; Yang, Hong-qin; Ye, Zhen; Su, Yi-ming; Xie, Shu-sen


    The temperature of human body on the surface of the skin depends on the metabolic activity, the blood flow, and the temperature of the surroundings. Any abnormality in the tissue, such as the presence of a tumor, alters the normal temperature on the skin surface due to increased metabolic activity of the tumor. Therefore, abnormal skin temperature profiles are an indication of diseases such as tumor or cancer. This study is to present an approach to detect the female breast tumor and its related parameter estimations by combination the finite element method with infrared thermography for the surface temperature profile. A 2D simplified breast embedded a tumor model based on the female breast anatomical structure and physiological characteristics was first established, and then finite element method was used to analyze the heat diffuse equation for the surface temperature profiles of the breast. The genetic optimization algorithm was used to estimate the tumor parameters such as depth, size and blood perfusion by minimizing a fitness function involving the temperature profiles simulated data by finite element method to the experimental data obtained by infrared thermography. This preliminary study shows it is possible to determine the depth and the heat generation rate of the breast tumor by using infrared thermography and the optimization analysis, which may play an important role in the female breast healthcare and diseases evaluation or early detection. In order to develop the proposed methodology to be used in clinical, more accurate anatomy 3D breast geometry should be considered in further investigations.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Tractor Trolley Axle by Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

    Sanjay Aloni


    Full Text Available Tractor trolley or trailers are very popular and cheaper mode of goods transport in rural as well as urban area. But these trailers are manufactured in small scale to moderate scale industry. Especially in the small- and middle-scale agricultural machinery industry, insufficient use of new technology and new design features can cause problems such as breakdowns and failures during field operations. In Present work finite element analysis approach is used to modify existing rear axle of tractor trolley. Fatigue failure of the rear axle finite element model was predicted after the dynamic load was imposed on it. For analysis, a 6.0 ton 2 wheeler tractor trolley i.e. semitrailer manufactured by Awachat Industries Ltd., Wardha is selected. The finite element analysis of existing rear axle of tractor trolley revealed the stresses distribution on rear axle. So, an effort is made to modify the design of existing rear axle along with change of material so that advantage of weight reduction along with safe stress can be obtained.

  10. Elements of a new approach to time in Quantum Mechanics

    Dias, Eduardo O.; Parisio, Fernando


    In this work we present a re-evaluation of the concept of time in non-relativistic quantum theory. We suggest a formalism in which time is changed into the status of an operator, and where expectation values of observables and the state of a quantum system are reworked. This approach leads us to an additional concept, given by a temporal probability distribution associated with the actual measurement of an observable.

  11. Measurement of spin correlation in tt production using a matrix element approach.

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L


    We determine the fraction of tt events with spin correlation, assuming that the spin of the top quark is either correlated with the spin of the top antiquark as predicted by the standard model or is uncorrelated. For the first time we use a matrix-element-based approach to study tt spin correlation. We use tt → W+ b W- b → ℓ+ νbℓ- ν b final states produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=1.96  TeV, where ℓ denotes an electron or a muon. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4  fb(-1) and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The result agrees with the standard model prediction. We exclude the hypothesis that the spins of the tt are uncorrelated at the 97.7% C.L.

  12. Physical Constraint Finite Element Model for Medical Image Registration.

    Jingya Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to being derived from linear assumption, most elastic body based non-rigid image registration algorithms are facing challenges for soft tissues with complex nonlinear behavior and with large deformations. To take into account the geometric nonlinearity of soft tissues, we propose a registration algorithm on the basis of Newtonian differential equation. The material behavior of soft tissues is modeled as St. Venant-Kirchhoff elasticity, and the nonlinearity of the continuum represents the quadratic term of the deformation gradient under the Green- St.Venant strain. In our algorithm, the elastic force is formulated as the derivative of the deformation energy with respect to the nodal displacement vectors of the finite element; the external force is determined by the registration similarity gradient flow which drives the floating image deforming to the equilibrium condition. We compared our approach to three other models: 1 the conventional linear elastic finite element model (FEM; 2 the dynamic elastic FEM; 3 the robust block matching (RBM method. The registration accuracy was measured using three similarities: MSD (Mean Square Difference, NC (Normalized Correlation and NMI (Normalized Mutual Information, and was also measured using the mean and max distance between the ground seeds and corresponding ones after registration. We validated our method on 60 image pairs including 30 medical image pairs with artificial deformation and 30 clinical image pairs for both the chest chemotherapy treatment in different periods and brain MRI normalization. Our method achieved a distance error of 0.320±0.138 mm in x direction and 0.326±0.111 mm in y direction, MSD of 41.96±13.74, NC of 0.9958±0.0019, NMI of 1.2962±0.0114 for images with large artificial deformations; and average NC of 0.9622±0.008 and NMI of 1.2764±0.0089 for the real clinical cases. Student's t-test demonstrated that our model statistically outperformed the other methods in

  13. A Revision on Cost Elements of the EOQ Model

    Asadabadi Mehdi Rajabi


    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to investigate the fundamental cost elements of the traditional EOQ model and develop the model by expiring some of its unrealistic assumptions. Over the last few decades, there have been numerous studies developing the EOQ model, but the basic cost elements of the EOQ model have not been investigated efficiently. On the other hand, the capital cost of buying inventories seems to be important to be investigated separately as well as holding cost and ordering cost in the model. In this paper, the capital cost of the inventory and possible stepwise increases in holding and setup cost are taken into account to make a revised formula to compute the economic order quantity. The proposed model involves explicitly the capital cost of buying the inventories in the EOQ model to ensure the decision makers that their financial concerns are considered in the revised model and the new order quantity results the minimum total cost.

  14. Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method

    Ullidtz, Per


    With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression...... of the grains. This is true even of the resilient (or reversible) deformations. It is also interesting because the Discrete Element Method models resilient and plastic deformations as well as failure in a single process.The paper describes two types of calculations. One on a small sample of angular elements...... subjected to a pulsating (repeated) biaxial loading and another of a larger sample of circular element subjected to a plate load. Both cases are two dimensional, i.e. plane strain.The repeated biaxial loading showed a large increase in plastic strain for the first load pulse at a given load level...


    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey


    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  16. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob


    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  17. Rayleigh-based, multi-element coral thermometry: A biomineralization approach to developing climate proxies

    Gaetani, G.A.; Cohen, A.L.; Wang, Z.; Crusius, J.


    This study presents a new approach to coral thermometry that deconvolves the influence of water temperature on skeleton composition from that of “vital effects”, and has the potential to provide estimates of growth temperatures that are accurate to within a few tenths of a degree Celsius from both tropical and cold-water corals. Our results provide support for a physico-chemical model of coral biomineralization, and imply that Mg2+ substitutes directly for Ca2+ in biogenic aragonite. Recent studies have identified Rayleigh fractionation as an important influence on the elemental composition of coral skeletons. Daily, seasonal and interannual variations in the amount of aragonite precipitated by corals from each “batch” of calcifying fluid can explain why the temperature dependencies of elemental ratios in coral skeleton differ from those of abiogenic aragonites, and are highly variable among individual corals. On the basis of this new insight into the origin of “vital effects” in coral skeleton, we developed a Rayleigh-based, multi-element approach to coral thermometry. Temperature is resolved from the Rayleigh fractionation signal by combining information from multiple element ratios (e.g., Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) to produce a mathematically over-constrained system of Rayleigh equations. Unlike conventional coral thermometers, this approach does not rely on an initial calibration of coral skeletal composition to an instrumental temperature record. Rather, considering coral skeletogenesis as a biologically mediated, physico-chemical process provides a means to extract temperature information from the skeleton composition using the Rayleigh equation and a set of experimentally determined partition coefficients. Because this approach is based on a quantitative understanding of the mechanism that produces the “vital effect” it should be possible to apply it both across scleractinian species and to corals growing in vastly different environments. Where

  18. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders


    The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...... lightweight structures without noise and disturbing vibrations between storeys and rooms. The dynamic response of floor and wall structures may be investigated using finite element models with three-dimensional solid elements [1]. In order to analyse the global response of complete buildings, finite element...

  19. Model refinements of transformers via a subproblem finite element method

    Dular, Patrick; Kuo-Peng, Patrick; Ferreira Da Luz, Mauricio,; Krähenbühl, Laurent


    International audience; A progressive modeling of transformers is performed via a subproblem finite element method. A complete problem is split into subproblems with different adapted overlapping meshes. Model refinements are performed from ideal to real flux tubes, 1-D to 2-D to 3-D models, linear to nonlinear materials, perfect to real materials, single wire to volume conductor windings, and homogenized to fine models of cores and coils, with any coupling of these changes. The proposed unif...

  20. The Finite Element Numerical Modelling of 3D Magnetotelluric

    Ligang Cao


    Full Text Available The ideal numerical simulation of 3D magnetotelluric was restricted by the methodology complexity and the time-consuming calculation. Boundary values, the variation of weighted residual equation, and the hexahedral mesh generation method of finite element are three major causes. A finite element method for 3D magnetotelluric numerical modeling is presented in this paper as a solution for the problem mentioned above. In this algorithm, a hexahedral element coefficient matrix for magnetoelluric finite method is developed, which solves large-scale equations using preconditioned conjugate gradient of the first-type boundary conditions. This algorithm is verified using the homogeneous model, and the positive landform model, as well as the low resistance anomaly model.

  1. River Health Assessment Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model


    [Objective] The study aimed to assess the health state of rivers by using fuzzy matter-element model.[Method] Based on fuzzy matter-element analysis theory,the assessment model of river health was established,then a modified method to calculate the superior subordinate degree was put forward according to Hamming distance.Afterwards,a multi-level evaluation model,which contained the assessment indicators about hydrological features,ecological characteristics,environmental traits and service function,was set ...


    K. S. Kurachka


    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a thin circular sandwich plate being under the vertical load is proposed. The model employs the finite element method and takes advantage of an axisymmetric finite element that leads to the small dimension of the resulting stiffness matrix and sufficient accuracy for practical calculations. The analytical expressions for computing local stiffness matrices are found, which can significantly speed up the process of forming the global stiffness matrix and increase the accuracy of calculations. A software is under development and verification. The discrepancy between the results of the mathematical model and those of analytical formulas for homogeneous thin circularsandwich plates does not exceed 7%.

  3. Calibration of a finite element composite delamination model by experiments

    Gaiotti, M.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim;


    distinct sub-laminates. The work focuses on experimental validation of a finite element model built using the 9-noded MITC9 shell elements, which prevent locking effects and aiming to capture the highly non linear buckling features involved in the problem. The geometry has been numerically defined...... modes related to the production methods is presented in this paper. A microscopic analysis of the fracture surfaces was carried out in order to better understand the failure mechanisms. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group....

  4. Hydraulic Modeling of Lock Approaches


    cation was that the guidewall design changed from a solid wall to one on pilings in which water was allowed to flow through and/or under the wall ...develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the...magnitudes and directions at lock approaches for open river conditions. The meshes were developed using the Surface- water Modeling System. The two

  5. LP Approach to Statistical Modeling

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep; Parzen, Emanuel


    We present an approach to statistical data modeling and exploratory data analysis called `LP Statistical Data Science.' It aims to generalize and unify traditional and novel statistical measures, methods, and exploratory tools. This article outlines fundamental concepts along with real-data examples to illustrate how the `LP Statistical Algorithm' can systematically tackle different varieties of data types, data patterns, and data structures under a coherent theoretical framework. A fundament...

  6. Discrete element modelling of fluidised bed spray granulation

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Weijers, G.G.C.; Boerefijn, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    A novel discrete element spray granulation model capturing the key features of fluidised bed hydrodynamics, liquid¿solid contacting and agglomeration is presented. The model computes the motion of every individual particle and droplet in the system, considering the gas phase as a continuum. Microsca

  7. Discrete element modelling of fluidised bed spray granulation

    Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Weijers, G.G.C.; Boerefijn, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    A novel discrete element spray granulation model capturing the key features of fluidised bed hydrodynamics, liquid-solid contacting and agglomeration is presented. The model computes the motion of every individual particle and droplet in the system, considering the gas phase as a continuum. Micro sc

  8. Hyperelastic Modelling and Finite Element Analysing of Rubber Bushing

    Merve Yavuz ERKEK


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to obtain stiffness curves of rubber bushings which are used in automotive industry with hyperelastic finite element model. Hyperelastic material models were obtained with different material tests. Stress and strain values and static stiffness curves were determined. It is shown that, static stiffness curves are nonlinear. The level of stiffness affects the vehicle dynamics behaviour.

  9. Numerical modeling of the dynamic behavior of structures under impact with a discrete elements / finite elements coupling; Modelisation numerique du comportement dynamique de structures sous impact severe avec un couplage elements discrets / elements finis

    Rousseau, J.


    That study focuses on concrete structures submitted to impact loading and is aimed at predicting local damage in the vicinity of an impact zone as well as the global response of the structure. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) seems particularly well suited in this context for modeling fractures. An identification process of DEM material parameters from macroscopic data (Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strength, fracture energy, etc.) will first be presented for the purpose of enhancing reproducibility and reliability of the simulation results with DE samples of various sizes. Then, a particular interaction, between concrete and steel elements, was developed for the simulation of reinforced concrete. The discrete elements method was validated on quasi-static and dynamic tests carried out on small samples of concrete and reinforced concrete. Finally, discrete elements were used to simulate impacts on reinforced concrete slabs in order to confront the results with experimental tests. The modeling of a large structure by means of DEM may lead to prohibitive computation times. A refined discretization becomes required in the vicinity of the impact, while the structure may be modeled using a coarse FE mesh further from the impact area, where the material behaves elastically. A coupled discrete-finite element approach is thus proposed: the impact zone is modeled by means of DE and elastic FE are used on the rest of the structure. An existing method for 3D finite elements was extended to shells. This new method was then validated on many quasi-static and dynamic tests. The proposed approach is then applied to an impact on a concrete structure in order to validate the coupled method and compare computation times. (author)

  10. Spectral-finite element approach to present-time mantle convection

    Tosi, N.; Martinec, Z.


    We present a spectral-finite element approach to the forward modelling of present-time mantle convection. The differential Stokes problem for an incompressible viscous flow in a spherical shell is reformulated in weak sense by means of a variational principle. The integral equations obtained are then parametrized by vector and tensor spherical harmonics in the angular direction and by piecewise linear finite elements over the radial direction. The solution is obtained using the Galerkin method, that leads to the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations. The earth-viscosity structure is described using a two-dimensional spherical grid, that allows us to treat various kinds of lateral variation, with viscosity contrasts of several order of magnitude. The method is first tested for the case of a one-dimensional viscosity structure. After prescribing the internal load in the form of a Dirac-delta, Green's functions for the surface topography, core topography and geoid are computed and compared with those obtained by solving the problem with the traditional matrix propagator technique. The approach is then applied to two different axisymmetric viscosity structures consisting either of one or two highly viscous cratonic bodies embedded in the upper mantle. We compute the corresponding Green's functions, showing and discussing the non-linear coupling of various spherical-harmonic modes, and the resulting angular dependence of the flow velocity.

  11. Matrix Elements of One- and Two-Body Operators in the Unitary Group Approach (II) - Application

    DAI Lian-Rong; PAN Feng


    Simple analytical expressions for one- and two-body matrix elements in the unitary group approach to the configuration interaction problems of many-electron systems are obtained based on the previous results for general Un irreps.

  12. Application of a data base management system to a finite element model

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.


    In today's software market, much effort is being expended on the development of data base management systems (DBMS). Most commercially available DBMS were designed for business use. However, the need for such systems within the engineering and scientific communities is becoming apparent. A potential DBMS application that appears attractive is the handling of data for finite element engineering models. The applications of a commercially available, business-oriented DBMS to a structural engineering, finite element model is explored. The model, DBMS, an approach to using the DBMS, advantages and disadvantages are described. Plans for research on a scientific and engineering DBMS are discussed.


    Vasyl I. Kovalchuk


    Full Text Available The article presents three models of the use of elements of distance learning at school. All models partially or fully implement the training, interaction and collaboration of the participants in the educational process. The first model is determined by the use of open cloud services and Web 2.0 for the implementation of certain educational and managerial tasks of the school. The second model uses support for learning management and content creation. The introduction of the second model is possible with the development of the IT infrastructure of the school, the training of teachers for the use of distance learning technologies, the creation of electronic educational resources. The third model combines the use of Web 2.0 technologies and training and content management systems. Models of the use of elements of distance learning are presented of the results of regional research experimental work of schools.

  14. Combining existing numerical models with data assimilation using weighted least-squares finite element methods.

    Rajaraman, Prathish K; Manteuffel, T A; Belohlavek, M; Heys, Jeffrey J


    A new approach has been developed for combining and enhancing the results from an existing computational fluid dynamics model with experimental data using the weighted least-squares finite element method (WLSFEM). Development of the approach was motivated by the existence of both limited experimental blood velocity in the left ventricle and inexact numerical models of the same flow. Limitations of the experimental data include measurement noise and having data only along a two-dimensional plane. Most numerical modeling approaches do not provide the flexibility to assimilate noisy experimental data. We previously developed an approach that could assimilate experimental data into the process of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations, but the approach was limited because it required the use of specific finite element methods for solving all model equations and did not support alternative numerical approximation methods. The new approach presented here allows virtually any numerical method to be used for approximately solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and then the WLSFEM is used to combine the experimental data with the numerical solution of the model equations in a final step. The approach dynamically adjusts the influence of the experimental data on the numerical solution so that more accurate data are more closely matched by the final solution and less accurate data are not closely matched. The new approach is demonstrated on different test problems and provides significantly reduced computational costs compared with many previous methods for data assimilation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A finite element model for protein transport in vivo

    Montas Hubert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological mass transport processes determine the behavior and function of cells, regulate interactions between synthetic agents and recipient targets, and are key elements in the design and use of biosensors. Accurately predicting the outcomes of such processes is crucial to both enhancing our understanding of how these systems function, enabling the design of effective strategies to control their function, and verifying that engineered solutions perform according to plan. Methods A Galerkin-based finite element model was developed and implemented to solve a system of two coupled partial differential equations governing biomolecule transport and reaction in live cells. The simulator was coupled, in the framework of an inverse modeling strategy, with an optimization algorithm and an experimental time series, obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP technique, to estimate biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters. In the inverse algorithm, an adaptive method was implemented to calculate sensitivity matrix. A multi-criteria termination rule was developed to stop the inverse code at the solution. The applicability of the model was illustrated by simulating the mobility and binding of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor in the nucleoplasm of mouse adenocarcinoma. Results The numerical simulator shows excellent agreement with the analytic solutions and experimental FRAP data. Detailed residual analysis indicates that residuals have zero mean and constant variance and are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient criteria for least square parameter optimization, which was used in this study, were met. Conclusion The developed strategy is an efficient approach to extract as much physiochemical information from the FRAP protocol as possible. Well-posedness analysis of the inverse problem, however, indicates that the FRAP protocol provides insufficient

  16. An Extended Finite Element Method Formulation for Modeling the Response of Polycrystalline Materials to Dynamic Loading

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.


    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite-element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static meso-scale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Vitali and Benson [2] and Song et al. [3] to model dynamic loading of a polycrystalline material. We use demonstration problems to examine the method's efficacy for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline materials at the meso-scale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries.

  17. Optical tomography reconstruction algorithm with the finite element method: An optimal approach with regularization tools

    Balima, O., E-mail: [Département des Sciences Appliquées, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 bd de l’Université, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Favennec, Y. [LTN UMR CNRS 6607 – Polytech’ Nantes – La Chantrerie, Rue Christian Pauc, BP 50609 44 306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Rousse, D. [Chaire de recherche industrielle en technologies de l’énergie et en efficacité énergétique (t3e), École de technologie supérieure, 201 Boul. Mgr, Bourget Lévis, QC, Canada G6V 6Z3 (Canada)


    Highlights: •New strategies to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction through mesh and finite element parameterization. •Use of gradient filtering through an alternative inner product within the adjoint method. •An integral form of the cost function is used to make the reconstruction compatible with all finite element formulations, continuous and discontinuous. •Gradient-based algorithm with the adjoint method is used for the reconstruction. -- Abstract: Optical tomography is mathematically treated as a non-linear inverse problem where the optical properties of the probed medium are recovered through the minimization of the errors between the experimental measurements and their predictions with a numerical model at the locations of the detectors. According to the ill-posed behavior of the inverse problem, some regularization tools must be performed and the Tikhonov penalization type is the most commonly used in optical tomography applications. This paper introduces an optimized approach for optical tomography reconstruction with the finite element method. An integral form of the cost function is used to take into account the surfaces of the detectors and make the reconstruction compatible with all finite element formulations, continuous and discontinuous. Through a gradient-based algorithm where the adjoint method is used to compute the gradient of the cost function, an alternative inner product is employed for preconditioning the reconstruction algorithm. Moreover, appropriate re-parameterization of the optical properties is performed. These regularization strategies are compared with the classical Tikhonov penalization one. It is shown that both the re-parameterization and the use of the Sobolev cost function gradient are efficient for solving such an ill-posed inverse problem.

  18. Fatigue assessment of an existing steel bridge by finite element modelling and field measurements

    Kwad, J.; Alencar, G.; Correia, J.; Jesus, A.; Calçada, R.; Kripakaran, P.


    The evaluation of fatigue life of structural details in metallic bridges is a major challenge for bridge engineers. A reliable and cost-effective approach is essential to ensure appropriate maintenance and management of these structures. Typically, local stresses predicted by a finite element model of the bridge are employed to assess the fatigue life of fatigue-prone details. This paper illustrates an approach for fatigue assessment based on measured data for a connection in an old bascule steel bridge located in Exeter (UK). A finite element model is first developed from the design information. The finite element model of the bridge is calibrated using measured responses from an ambient vibration test. The stress time histories are calculated through dynamic analysis of the updated finite element model. Stress cycles are computed through the rainflow counting algorithm, and the fatigue prone details are evaluated using the standard SN curves approach and the Miner’s rule. Results show that the proposed approach can estimate the fatigue damage of a fatigue prone detail in a structure using measured strain data.

  19. Avalanche Initiaition Mechanism - A Finite-element Approach

    S. Senthil


    Full Text Available The Himalayas, the longest chain of mountains in the world, experiences extensive snowfall and avalanche activity during winter. Some of these areas are densely populated, and death and destruction on large scale due to avalanche activity has been reported in these areas. One of the ways of reducing the loss of life and material due to avalanches is through prediction of avalanches. An understanding of weather forecasting, terrain, and avalanche initiation mechanism is a prerequisite for avalanche prediction. In the present paper mathematical modelling of avalanche initiation mechanism has been discussed.

  20. Finite element modeling and feedback control of piezoelectric smart structures


    Presents the general formula derived with a smart beam structure bonded with piezoelectric material using the piezoelectricity theory, elastic mechanism and Hamilton principle for eleetromechanically coupled piezoelectric fi nite element and dynamic equations, the second order dynamic model built, and the expression of state space, and the analysis of conventional speed and position feedback and the design of optimum feedback controller for output, the fi nite element models built for a piezoelectric cantilever beam, and the feedback controller designed eventually, and concludes with simulation results that the vibration suppression obtained is very satisfactory and the algorithms proposed are very useful.

  1. Modeling of sensor function for piezoelectric bender elements


    An analytical sandwich beam model for piezoelectric bender elements is derived based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which assumes a single rotation angle for the whole cross-section and a quadratic distribution for coupled electric potential in piezoelectric layers. Shear coefficient is introduced to correct the effect of transverse shear strain on shear force and the electric displacement integration. Static and free vibration analyses of simply-supported bender elements are carried out for the sensor function. The results illustrate the high accuracy of the present model compared with the exact 2D solutions.

  2. Approaches to Modeling of Recrystallization

    Håkan Hallberg


    Full Text Available Control of the material microstructure in terms of the grain size is a key component in tailoring material properties of metals and alloys and in creating functionally graded materials. To exert this control, reliable and efficient modeling and simulation of the recrystallization process whereby the grain size evolves is vital. The present contribution is a review paper, summarizing the current status of various approaches to modeling grain refinement due to recrystallization. The underlying mechanisms of recrystallization are briefly recollected and different simulation methods are discussed. Analytical and empirical models, continuum mechanical models and discrete methods as well as phase field, vertex and level set models of recrystallization will be considered. Such numerical methods have been reviewed previously, but with the present focus on recrystallization modeling and with a rapidly increasing amount of related publications, an updated review is called for. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in terms of applicability, underlying assumptions, physical relevance, implementation issues and computational efficiency.

  3. Finite element modeling of a 3D coupled foot-boot model.

    Qiu, Tian-Xia; Teo, Ee-Chon; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei


    Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt the finite element (FE) modeling and analysis approaches to create a state-of-the-art 3D coupled foot-boot model for future studies on biomechanical investigation of stress injury mechanism, foot wear design and parachute landing fall simulation. In the modeling process, the foot-ankle model with lower leg was developed based on Computed Tomography (CT) images using ScanIP, Surfacer and ANSYS. Then, the boot was represented by assembling the FE models of upper, insole, midsole and outsole built based on the FE model of the foot-ankle, and finally the coupled foot-boot model was generated by putting together the models of the lower limb and boot. In this study, the FE model of foot and ankle was validated during balance standing. There was a good agreement in the overall patterns of predicted and measured plantar pressure distribution published in literature. The coupled foot-boot model will be fully validated in the subsequent works under both static and dynamic loading conditions for further studies on injuries investigation in military and sports, foot wear design and characteristics of parachute landing impact in military.

  4. Modeling fragmentation with new high order finite element technology and node splitting

    Olovsson Lars


    Full Text Available The modeling of fragmentation has historically been linked to the weapons industry where the main goal is to optimize a bomb or to design effective blast shields. Numerical modeling of fragmentation from dynamic loading has traditionally been modeled by legacy finite element solvers that rely on element erosion to model material failure. However this method results in the removal of too much material. This is not realistic as retaining the mass of the structure is critical to modeling the event correctly. We propose a new approach implemented in the IMPETUS AFEA SOLVER® based on the following: New High Order Finite Elements that can easily deal with very large deformations; Stochastic distribution of initial damage that allows for a non homogeneous distribution of fragments; and a Node Splitting Algorithm that allows for material fracture without element erosion that is mesh independent. The approach is evaluated for various materials and scenarios: -Titanium ring electromagnetic compression; Hard steel Taylor bar impact, Fused silica Taylor bar impact, Steel cylinder explosion, The results obtained from the simulations are representative of the failure mechanisms observed experimentally. The main benefit of this approach is good energy conservation (no loss of mass and numerical robustness even in complex situations.

  5. Straightened cervical lordosis causes stress concentration: a finite element model study.

    Wei, Wei; Liao, Shenhui; Shi, Shiyuan; Fei, Jun; Wang, Yifan; Chen, Chunyue


    In this study, we propose a finite element analysis of the complete cervical spine with straightened and normal physiological curvature by using a specially designed modelling system. An accurate finite element model is established to recommend plausible approaches to treatment of cervical spondylosis through the finite element analysis results. There are few reports of biomechanics influence of the straightened cervical curve. It is difficult to measure internal responses of cervical spine directly. However, the finite element method has been reported to have the capability to quantify both external and internal responses to mechanical loading, such as the strain and stress distribution of spinal components. We choose a subject with a straightened cervical spine from whom to collect the CT scan data, which formed the basis of the finite element analysis. By using a specially designed modelling system, a high quality finite element model of the complete cervical spine with straightened curvature was generated, which was then mapped to reconstruct a normal physiological curvature model by a volumetric mesh deformation method based on discrete differential properties. Then, the same boundary conditions were applied to do a comparison. The result demonstrated that the active movement range of straightened cervical spine decreased by 24-33 %, but the stress increased by 5-95 %. The stress was concentrated at the facet joint cartilage, uncovertebral joint and the disk. The results suggest that cervical lordosis may have a direct impact on cervical spondylosis treatment. These results may be useful for clinical treatment of cervical spondylosis with straightened curvature.

  6. Automatic procedure for realistic 3D finite element modelling of human brain for bioelectromagnetic computations

    Aristovich, K Y; Khan, S H, E-mail: [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)


    Realistic computer modelling of biological objects requires building of very accurate and realistic computer models based on geometric and material data, type, and accuracy of numerical analyses. This paper presents some of the automatic tools and algorithms that were used to build accurate and realistic 3D finite element (FE) model of whole-brain. These models were used to solve the forward problem in magnetic field tomography (MFT) based on Magnetoencephalography (MEG). The forward problem involves modelling and computation of magnetic fields produced by human brain during cognitive processing. The geometric parameters of the model were obtained from accurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and the material properties - from those obtained from Diffusion Tensor MRI (DTMRI). The 3D FE models of the brain built using this approach has been shown to be very accurate in terms of both geometric and material properties. The model is stored on the computer in Computer-Aided Parametrical Design (CAD) format. This allows the model to be used in a wide a range of methods of analysis, such as finite element method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Monte-Carlo Simulations, etc. The generic model building approach presented here could be used for accurate and realistic modelling of human brain and many other biological objects.

  7. Modeling fluid- and trace element-fluxes in subducted slabs utilising two-dimensional thermodynamic and trace element models

    Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Jahn, S.


    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere induces one of the major element cycles on Earth. Devolatilisation reactions in the subducted plate, the associated major and trace element transport as well as fluid-rock interaction within the slab and the mantle wedge control the flux of matter from the down-going plate into the upper plate and the atmosphere. Prediction and quantification of these fluxes is therefore a fundamental task in geosciences. The amount and composition of liberated fluids in a subducted slab is controlled by thermodynamic constraints, the fluid-rock element distribution as well as reaction kinetics in the affected rocks. Consequently, prediction of the element transfer within the slab and into the overlying rocks must consider these processes and their complex interactions. In this contribution we focus on the thermodynamic constraints on devolatilisation reactions in slab-crust and -mantle, the associated fluid migration and the chemical aspect of fluid-rock interaction within a hydrated subducted plate. Based on numerically modeled isotherm patterns of contrasting subduction settings we calculate phase relations in different layers of the subducted slabs. We use incremental Gibbs energy minimisation models and consider upward migration of liberated fluids during subduction. Moreover, modeled phase relations, fluid amounts and trace element partition coefficients, are used to calculate mass balanced distribution of fluid-mobile trace elements among the stable phases within the slab. Trace element transport occurs within the migrating fluid phase that equilibrates with the wall rock during ascent. This process controls element depletion and/or enrichment of fluid and wall rock and enables detailed prediction of the trace element transfer along the slab mantle interface. Our results show that fluid fluxes at the slab surface are clearly bimodal: at fore-arc depths water is continuously released predominantly from the MORB layer whereas at sub- and

  8. A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis.

    El Gowini, Mohamed M; Moussa, Walied A


    A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive.

  9. A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis

    Mohamed M. El Gowini


    Full Text Available A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D. Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive.

  10. A discrete element model for simulating saturated granular soil

    Mahan Lamei; Ali Asghar Mirghasemi


    A numerical model is developed to simulate saturated granular soil,based on the discrete element method.Soil particles are represented by Lagrangian discrete elements,and pore fluid,by appropriate discrete elements which represent alternately Lagrangian mass of water and Eulerian volume of space.Macroscale behavior of the model is verified by simulating undrained biaxial compression tests.Micro-scale behavior is compared to previous literature through pore pressure pattern visualization during shear tests,it is demonstrated that dynamic pore pressure patterns are generated by superposed stress waves.These pore-pressure patterns travel much faster than average drainage rate of the pore fluid and may initiate soil fabric change,ultimately leading to liquefaction in loose sands.Thus,this work demonstrates a tool to roughly link dynamic stress wave patterns to initiation of liquefaction phenomena.

  11. Nonlinear structural finite element model updating and uncertainty quantification

    Ebrahimian, Hamed; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P.


    This paper presents a framework for nonlinear finite element (FE) model updating, in which state-of-the-art nonlinear structural FE modeling and analysis techniques are combined with the maximum likelihood estimation method (MLE) to estimate time-invariant parameters governing the nonlinear hysteretic material constitutive models used in the FE model of the structure. The estimation uncertainties are evaluated based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) theorem. A proof-of-concept example, consisting of a cantilever steel column representing a bridge pier, is provided to verify the proposed nonlinear FE model updating framework.

  12. Elements of complexity in subsurface modeling, exemplified with three case studies

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.


    There are complexity elements to consider when applying subsurface flow and transport models to support environmental analyses. Modelers balance the benefits and costs of modeling along the spectrum of complexity, taking into account the attributes of more simple models (e.g., lower cost, faster execution, easier to explain, less mechanistic) and the attributes of more complex models (higher cost, slower execution, harder to explain, more mechanistic and technically defensible). In this report, modeling complexity is examined with respect to considering this balance. The discussion of modeling complexity is organized into three primary elements: (1) modeling approach, (2) description of process, and (3) description of heterogeneity. Three examples are used to examine these complexity elements. Two of the examples use simulations generated from a complex model to develop simpler models for efficient use in model applications. The first example is designed to support performance evaluation of soil-vapor-extraction remediation in terms of groundwater protection. The second example investigates the importance of simulating different categories of geochemical reactions for carbon sequestration and selecting appropriate simplifications for use in evaluating sequestration scenarios. In the third example, the modeling history for a uranium-contaminated site demonstrates that conservative parameter estimates were inadequate surrogates for complex, critical processes and there is discussion on the selection of more appropriate model complexity for this application. All three examples highlight how complexity considerations are essential to create scientifically defensible models that achieve a balance between model simplification and complexity.

  13. [Sutural physical model building in the three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones].

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Xian-chun; Zhang, Xing; Tai, Yin-xia; Yan, Sen


    To build the physical model of four suturae which are related to the growth of maxilla in the three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones. A 16 years old volunteer with individual normal occlusion, good periodontium health condition and without diseases of temporomandibular joint was chosen to be the material of modeling. The three-dimensional finite-element model of the volunteer's maxillofacial bones was built using the CT scan and the finite-element modeling method. Finally we built the physical model of four suturae which were related to the growth of maxilla in the model of maxillofacial bones. The model of maxillofacial bones with 86,575 nodes and 485,915 elements was generated. This model contained four suturae including sutura frontomaxillaris, sutura zygomaticomaxillaris, sutura temporozygomatica and sutura pterygopalatine. A three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones with good biological similarity was developed.

  14. 3D mode discrete element method with the elastoplastic model


    The three-dimensional mode-deformable discrete element method (3MDEM) is an extended distinct element approach under the assumptions of small strain,finite displacement,and finite rotation of blocks.The deformation of blocks is expressed by the combination of the deformation modes in 3MDEM.In this paper,the elastoplastic constitutive relationship of blocks is implemented on the 3MDEM platform to simulate the integrated process from elasticity to plasticity and finally to fracture.To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional criterion for contact fracturing,a new criterion based on plastic strain is introduced.This approach is verified by two numerical examples.Finally,a cantilever beam is simulated as a comprehensive case study,which went through elastic,elastoplastic,and discontinuous fracture stages.

  15. Finite element model calibration using frequency responses with damping equalization

    Abrahamsson, T. J. S.; Kammer, D. C.


    Model calibration is a cornerstone of the finite element verification and validation procedure, in which the credibility of the model is substantiated by positive comparison with test data. The calibration problem, in which the minimum deviation between finite element model data and experimental data is searched for, is normally characterized as being a large scale optimization problem with many model parameters to solve for and with deviation metrics that are nonlinear in these parameters. The calibrated parameters need to be found by iterative procedures, starting from initial estimates. Sometimes these procedures get trapped in local deviation function minima and do not converge to the globally optimal calibration solution that is searched for. The reason for such traps is often the multi-modality of the problem which causes eigenmode crossover problems in the iterative variation of parameter settings. This work presents a calibration formulation which gives a smooth deviation metric with a large radius of convergence to the global minimum. A damping equalization method is suggested to avoid the mode correlation and mode pairing problems that need to be solved in many other model updating procedures. By this method, the modal damping of a test data model and the finite element model is set to be the same fraction of critical modal damping. Mode pairing for mapping of experimentally found damping to the finite element model is thus not needed. The method is combined with model reduction for efficiency and employs the Levenberg-Marquardt minimizer with randomized starts to achieve the calibration solution. The performance of the calibration procedure, including a study of parameter bias and variance under noisy data conditions, is demonstrated by two numerical examples.

  16. Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele


    ). In the present paper we use a single layer of quadratic (in 2D) and prismatic (in 3D) elements. The model has been stabilized through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild modal filter. We present numerical tests of nonlinear waves serving as a proof-of-concept validation...

  17. Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...

  18. Hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.


    The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.

  19. Finite Element Model for Failure Study of Two-Dimensional Triaxially Braided Composite

    Li, Xuetao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.


    A new three-dimensional finite element model of two-dimensional triaxially braided composites is presented in this paper. This meso-scale modeling technique is used to examine and predict the deformation and damage observed in tests of straight sided specimens. A unit cell based approach is used to take into account the braiding architecture as well as the mechanical properties of the fiber tows, the matrix and the fiber tow-matrix interface. A 0 deg / plus or minus 60 deg. braiding configuration has been investigated by conducting static finite element analyses. Failure initiation and progressive degradation has been simulated in the fiber tows by use of the Hashin failure criteria and a damage evolution law. The fiber tow-matrix interface was modeled by using a cohesive zone approach to capture any fiber-matrix debonding. By comparing the analytical results to those obtained experimentally, the applicability of the developed model was assessed and the failure process was investigated.

  20. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders


    . The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms....... The drawback of component mode synthesis compared to modelling with structural elements is the increased computational cost, although the number of degrees of freedom is small in comparison, as a result of the large bandwidth of the system matrices.......The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...

  1. Finite element modelling of the 1969 Portuguese tsunami

    Guesmia, M.; Heinrich, Ph.; Mariotti, C.


    On the 28 th February 1969, the coasts of Portugal, Spain and Morocco were affected by water waves generated by a submarine earthquake (Ms=7.3) with epicenter located off Portugal. The propagation of this tsunami has been simulated by a finite element numerical model solving the Boussinesq equations. These equations have been discretized using the finite element Galerkin method and a Crank-Nicholson scheme in time. The 2-D simulation of the 1969 tsunami is carried out using the hydraulic source calculated from the geophysical model of Okada and seismic parameters of Fukao. The modeled waves are compared with the recorded waves with respect to the travel times, the maximum amplitudes, the periods of the signal. Good agreement is found for most of the studied gauges. The comparison between Boussinesq and shallow-water models shows that the effects of frequency dispersion are minor using Fukao's seismic parameters.

  2. Development of simplified finite element models for welded joints

    Song, Seong Il; Ahn, Sung Wook; Kim, Young Geul; Kim, Hyun Gyu [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we develop simplified finite element (FE) models for butt-, lap- and T-welded joints by performing numerical and experimental experiments. Three-point bending tests of butt- and lap-welded specimens are performed to obtain the stiffness of the specimens and the strains at points near the welding beads. Similarly the stiffness and strains of T-welded specimen are measured by applying a point load at the end of the specimen. To develop simplified FE models, we consider the shape parameters of width, thickness and the angle of weld elements in the numerical simulations. The shape parameters of the simplified FE models are determined by building linear regression models for the experimental data sets.

  3. Development of Simplified Finite Element Models for Welded Joints

    Song, Seong Il; Ahn, Sung Wook; Kim, Young Geul; Kim, Hyun Gyu [Seoul National Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we develop simplified finite element (FE) models for butt-, lap- and T-welded joints by performing numerical and experimental experiments. Three-point bending tests of butt- and lap-welded specimens are performed to obtain the stiffness of the specimens and the strains at points near the welding beads. Similarly the stiffness and strains of T-welded specimen are measured by applying a point load at the end of the specimen. To develop simplified FE models, we consider the shape parameters of width, thickness and the angle of weld elements in the numerical simulations. The shape parameters of the simplified FE models are determined by building linear regression models for the experimental data sets.

  4. Generic linking of finite element models for non-linear static and global dynamic analyses for aircraft structures

    Wit, de A.J.; Akcay Perdahcioglu, D.; Brink, van den W.M.; Boer, de A.


    Depending on the type of analysis, Finite Element(FE) models of different fidelity are necessary. Creating these models manually is a labor intensive task. This paper discusses a generic approach for generating FE models of different fidelity from a single reference FE model. These different fidelit

  5. Generic Linking of Finite Element Models for non-linear static and global dynamic analyses of aircraft structures

    Wit, de A.J.; Akcay-Perdahcioglu, D.; Brink, van den W.M.; Boer, de A.


    Depending on the type of analysis, Finite Element(FE) models of different fidelity are necessary. Creating these models manually is a labor intensive task. This paper discusses a generic approach for generating FE models of different fidelity from a single reference FE model. These different fidelit

  6. Generic linking of finite element models for non-linear static and global dynamic analyses for aircraft structures

    de Wit, A.J.; Akcay-Perdahcioglu, Didem; van den Brink, W.M.; de Boer, Andries; Rolfes, R.; Jansen, E.L.


    Depending on the type of analysis, Finite Element(FE) models of different fidelity are necessary. Creating these models manually is a labor intensive task. This paper discusses a generic approach for generating FE models of different fidelity from a single reference FE model. These different

  7. Finite element based model of parchment coffee drying

    Preeda Prakotmak


    Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin laye...

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Metasurfaces with Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions

    Sandeep, Srikumar; Caloz, Christophe


    A modeling of metasurfaces in the finite element method (FEM) based on generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) is presented. The discontinuities in electromagnetic fields across a metasurface as represented by the GSTC are modeled by assigning nodes to both sides of the metasurface. The FEM-GSTC formulation in both 1D and 2D domains is derived and implemented. The method is extended to handle more general bianistroptic metasurfaces. The formulations are validated by several illustrative examples.


    Vlasov Alexander Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider some classes of problems of geomechanics that are resolved through the application of SIMULIA ABAQUS software. The tasks associated with the assessment of the zone of influence of structures produced on surrounding buildings and structures in the dense urban environment, as well as the tectonic and physical simulation of rifts with the purpose of identification of deformations of the Earth surface and other defects of lithospheric plates. These seemingly different types of tasks can be grouped together on the basis of common characteristics due to the complexity of numerical modeling problems of geomechanics and geophysics. Non-linearity of physical processes, complexity of the geological structure and variable thickness of layers, bed thinning layers, lenses, as well as singular elements, make it hard to consolidate different elements (for example, engineering and geological elements and associated structures of buildings in a single model. In this regard, software SIMULIA ABAQUS looks attractive, since it provides a highly advanced finite-element modeling technique, including a convenient hexahedral mesh generator, a wide range of models of elastic and plastic strain of materials, and the ability to work with certain geometric areas that interrelate through the mechanism of contacting surface pairs that have restrictions. It is noteworthy that the research also facilitates development of personal analytical methods designated for the assessment of physical and mechanical properties of heterogeneous materials as well as new solutions applicable in the vicinity of singular elements of the area that may be used in modeling together with ABAQUS software.

  10. Comparison between 2D and 3D Modelling of Induction Machine Using Finite Element Method

    Zelmira Ferkova


    Full Text Available The paper compares two different ways (2D and 3D of modelling of two-phase squirrel-cage induction machine using the finite element method (FEM. It focuses mainly on differences between starting characteristics given from both types of the model. It also discusses influence of skew rotor slots on harmonic content in air gap flux density and summarizes some issues of both approaches.

  11. Modeling the mechanics of axonal fiber tracts using the embedded finite element method.

    Garimella, Harsha T; Kraft, Reuben H


    A subject-specific human head finite element model with embedded axonal fiber tractography obtained from diffusion tensor imaging was developed. The axonal fiber tractography finite element model was coupled with the volumetric elements in the head model using the embedded element method. This technique enables the calculation of axonal strains and real-time tracking of the mechanical response of the axonal fiber tracts. The coupled model was then verified using pressure and relative displacement-based (between skull and brain) experimental studies and was employed to analyze a head impact, demonstrating the applicability of this method in studying axonal injury. Following this, a comparison study of different injury criteria was performed. This model was used to determine the influence of impact direction on the extent of the axonal injury. The results suggested that the lateral impact loading is more dangerous compared to loading in the sagittal plane, a finding in agreement with previous studies. Through this analysis, we demonstrated the viability of the embedded element method as an alternative numerical approach for studying axonal injury in patient-specific human head models.

  12. Vibration Analysis of Rotating Tapered Timoshenko Beams by a New Finite Element Model

    Bulent Yardimoglu


    Full Text Available A new finite element model is developed and subsequently used for transverse vibrations of tapered Timoshenko beams with rectangular cross-section. The displacement functions of the finite element are derived from the coupled displacement field (the polynomial coefficients of transverse displacement and cross-sectional rotation are coupled through consideration of the differential equations of equilibrium approach by considering the tapering functions of breadth and depth of the beam. This procedure reduces the number of nodal variables. The new model can also be used for uniform beams. The stiffness and mass matrices of the finite element model are expressed by using the energy equations. To confirm the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the new model, a semi-symbolic computer program in MATLAB® is developed. As illustrative examples, the bending natural frequencies of non-rotating/rotating uniform and tapered Timoshenko beams are obtained and compared with previously published results and the results obtained from the finite element models of solids created in ABAQUS. Excellent agreement is found between the results of new finite element model and the other results.

  13. (Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)

    Gray, L.J.


    Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.

  14. A validated approach for modeling collapse of steel structures

    Saykin, Vitaliy Victorovich

    A civil engineering structure is faced with many hazardous conditions such as blasts, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and fires during its lifetime. Even though structures are designed for credible events that can happen during a lifetime of the structure, extreme events do happen and cause catastrophic failures. Understanding the causes and effects of structural collapse is now at the core of critical areas of national need. One factor that makes studying structural collapse difficult is the lack of full-scale structural collapse experimental test results against which researchers could validate their proposed collapse modeling approaches. The goal of this work is the creation of an element deletion strategy based on fracture models for use in validated prediction of collapse of steel structures. The current work reviews the state-of-the-art of finite element deletion strategies for use in collapse modeling of structures. It is shown that current approaches to element deletion in collapse modeling do not take into account stress triaxiality in vulnerable areas of the structure, which is important for proper fracture and element deletion modeling. The report then reviews triaxiality and its role in fracture prediction. It is shown that fracture in ductile materials is a function of triaxiality. It is also shown that, depending on the triaxiality range, different fracture mechanisms are active and should be accounted for. An approach using semi-empirical fracture models as a function of triaxiality are employed. The models to determine fracture initiation, softening and subsequent finite element deletion are outlined. This procedure allows for stress-displacement softening at an integration point of a finite element in order to subsequently remove the element. This approach avoids abrupt changes in the stress that would create dynamic instabilities, thus making the results more reliable and accurate. The calibration and validation of these models are

  15. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    Qu, Zu-Qing


    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  16. Closed Loop Finite Element Modeling of Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    Guang Meng


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a general design and analysis scheme for actively controlled piezoelectric smart structures. The scheme involves dynamic modeling of a smart structure, designing control laws and closed-loop simulation in a finite element environment. Based on the structure responses determined by finite element method, a modern system identification technique known as Observer/Kalman filter Identification (OKID technique is used to determine the system Markov parameters. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA is then employed to develop an explicit state space model of the equivalent linear system for control law design. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG control law design technique is employed to design a control law. By using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL, the control law is incorporated into the ANSYS finite element model to perform closed loop simulations. Therefore, the control law performance can be evaluated in the context of a finite element environment. Finally, numerical examples have demonstrated the validity and efficiency of the proposed design scheme. Without any further modifications, the design scheme can be readily applied to other complex smart structures.

  17. 3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.


    Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.

  18. Facilitating Performance Optimization of RF PCB Designs by using Parametric Finite-Element Component Models

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg


    Novel parametric finite-element models are provided for discrete SMD capacitors and inductors in the frequency range 100 MHz to 4 GHz. The aim of the models is to facilitate performance optimization and analysis of RF PCB designs integrating these SMD components with layout geometries...... such as antennas and PCB traces. The models presented are benchmarked against real-life measurements and conventional circuit models. Furthermore, two example parallel-resonance circuits are designed based on interpolation of the results and validated by measurements in order to demonstrate the accuracy...... of the presented modelling approach....

  19. A finite element model for residual stress in repair welds

    Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This paper describes a three-dimensional finite element model for calculation of the residual stress distribution caused by repair welding. Special user subroutines were developed to simulate the continuous deposition of filler metal during welding. The model was then tested by simulating the residual stress/strain field of a FeAl weld overlay clad on a 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel plate, for which neutron diffraction measurement data of the residual strain field were available. It is shown that the calculated residual stress distribution was consistent with that determined with neutron diffraction. High tensile residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transverse directions were observed around the weld toe at the end of the weld. The strong spatial dependency of the residual stresses in the region around the weld demonstrates that the common two-dimensional cross-section finite element models should not be used for repair welding analysis.

  20. A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals



    A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.

  1. Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform

    Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.


    Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.

  2. A new approach in cascade flow analysis using the finite element method

    Baskharone, E.; Hamed, A.


    A new approach in analyzing the potential flow past cascades and single airfoils using the finite element method is developed. In this analysis the circulation around the airfoil is not externally imposed but is directly computed in the numerical solution. Different finite element discretization patterns, orders of piecewise approximation, and grid sizes are used in the solution. The results obtained are compared with existing experimental measurements and exact solutions in cascades and single airfoils.

  3. Some theoretical aspects of elastic wave modeling with a recently developed spectral element method

    WANG XiuMing; SERIANI Geza; LIN WeiJun


    A spectral element method has been recently developed for solving elastodynamic problems. The numerical solutions are obtained by using the weak formulation of the elastodynamic equation for heterogeneous media, based on the Galerkin approach applied to a partition, in small subdomains, of the original physical domain. In this work, some mathematical aspects of the method and the associated algorithm implementation are systematically investigated. Two kinds of orthogonal basis functions, constructed with Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials, and their related Gauss-Lobatto collocation points are introduced. The related integration formulas are obtained. The standard error estimations and expansion convergence are discussed. An element-by-element pre-conditioned conjugate gradient linear solver in the space domain and a staggered predictor/multi-corrector algorithm in the time integration are used for strong heterogeneous elastic media. As a consequence, neither the global matrices nor the effective force vector is assembled. When analytical formulas are used for the element quadrature, there is even no need for forming element matrix in order to further save memory without losing much in computational efficiency. The element-by-element algorithm uses an optimal tensor product scheme which makes this method much more efficient than finite-element methods from the point of view of both memory storage and computational time requirements. This work is divided into two parts. The first part mainly focuses on theoretical studies with a simple numerical result for the Chebyshev spectral element, and the second part, mainly with the Legendre spectral element, will give the algorithm implementation, numerical accuracy and efficiency analyses, and then the detailed modeling example comparisons of the proposed spectral element method with a pseudo-spectral method, which will be seen in another work by Lin, Wang and Zhang.

  4. Some theoretical aspects of elastic wave modeling with a recently developed spectral element method

    SERIANI; Geza


    A spectral element method has been recently developed for solving elastodynamic problems. The numerical solutions are obtained by using the weak formulation of the elastodynamic equation for heterogeneous media, based on the Galerkin approach applied to a partition, in small subdomains, of the original physical domain. In this work, some mathematical aspects of the method and the associated algorithm implementation are systematically investigated. Two kinds of orthogonal basis functions, constructed with Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials, and their related Gauss-Lobatto collocation points are introduced. The related integration formulas are obtained. The standard error estimations and expansion convergence are discussed. An element-by-element pre-conditioned conjugate gradient linear solver in the space domain and a staggered predictor/multi-corrector algorithm in the time integration are used for strong heterogeneous elastic media. As a consequence, neither the global matrices nor the effective force vector is assembled. When analytical formulas are used for the element quadrature, there is even no need for forming element matrix in order to further save memory without losing much in computational efficiency. The element-by-element algorithm uses an optimal tensor product scheme which makes this method much more efficient than finite-element methods from the point of view of both memory storage and computational time requirements. This work is divided into two parts. The first part mainly focuses on theoretical studies with a simple numerical result for the Che-byshev spectral element, and the second part, mainly with the Legendre spectral element, will give the algorithm implementation, numerical accuracy and efficiency analyses, and then the detailed modeling example comparisons of the proposed spectral element method with a pseudo-spectral method, which will be seen in another work by Lin, Wang and Zhang.

  5. Mathematical Model of the Heald with Damping Element

    Bílek Martin


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the existing design solution of shedding mechanism. It is characterised by a heald attachment into the heald shaft with a necessary design allowance. The preparation of a mathematical model for the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame is explained in this study. A damping element for dissipating the energy created during the heald impact on the carrying wire of the heald shaft is currently used for the high-speed weaving loom. This system makes use of a damping element, fitted in the profile of the rod at an optimum distance from heald eye. This element provides for reduction of the heald velocity before its drop upon the supporting wire because the opposite section of the heald is pressed into the rubber element. The calculated results of the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame are compared with the existing solution without application of the damping element.

  6. Modelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements

    Nguyen, Vinh Phu; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane; Heidarpour, Amin


    Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses.

  7. Collapse Modeling of a Masonry Arch Dam Using the Cohesive Interface Elements

    Jianwen Pan


    Full Text Available A finite element (FE approach with zero-thickness cohesive interface elements is presented to simulate collapse of continuum structures. The element removal technique merged with the general contact algorithm is adapted in the FE approach to achieve modeling for a transition from continua to discontinua, that is, fracture, fragmentation, and collapse. Collapse process of Meihua masonry arch dam, which is a famous disaster in dam engineering in China, is simulated and the failure mechanism is studied. The collapse process obtained from the presented procedure coincides with the field observation after the dam failure. The failure of Meihua arch dam can be attributed to reducing shear strength of the peripheral joint between the dam body and the concrete pedestal by daubing a layer of asphalt there. With low sliding resistance strength, the masonry dam body may slide upwards along the peripheral joint under hydrostatic pressure, leading to weakening of the arch action, fracturing, and final collapse of the dam.

  8. An extended finite element formulation for modeling the response of polycrystalline materials to shock loading

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas


    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static mesoscale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Benson et al. [2] and Belytchko et al. [3] to model shock loading of polycrystalline material. Through several demonstration problems we evaluate the method for modeling the shock response of polycrystalline materials at the mesoscale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries. ([1] N. Moes, J. Dolbow, J and T. Belytschko, 1999,``A finite element method for crack growth without remeshing,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 46, 131-150. [2] E. Vitali, and D. J. Benson, 2006, ``An extended finite element formulation for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian calculations,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 1420-1444. [3] J-H Song, P. M. A. Areias and T. Belytschko, 2006, ``A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation with phantom nodes,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 868-893.)

  9. Translating the common elements approach: social work's experiences in education, practice, and research.

    Barth, Richard P; Kolivoski, Karen M; Lindsey, Michael A; Lee, Bethany R; Collins, Kathryn S


    The expansion of the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in mental health services is well under way and social work seeks to further its appropriate implementation in both specialty and nonspecialty mental health settings. The common elements approach is now recognized as demonstrating promise for use in a range of settings. This article discusses the attractiveness of the common elements approach and describes several efforts to integrate its content into social work education and to disseminate this approach into the field. Then the article presents research initiatives regarding two areas of nonspecialty mental health practice with children and families: (a) engaging clients in mental health services and (b) preventing the need for out-of-home placement for youth. Finally, we consider the challenges of the common elements framework for social work education and practice and future directions for research.

  10. Finite-element-model updating using computational intelligence techniques applications to structural dynamics

    Marwala, Tshilidzi


    Finite element models (FEMs) are widely used to understand the dynamic behaviour of various systems. FEM updating allows FEMs to be tuned better to reflect measured data and may be conducted using two different statistical frameworks: the maximum likelihood approach and Bayesian approaches. Finite Element Model Updating Using Computational Intelligence Techniques applies both strategies to the field of structural mechanics, an area vital for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Vibration data is used for the updating process. Following an introduction a number of computational intelligence techniques to facilitate the updating process are proposed; they include: • multi-layer perceptron neural networks for real-time FEM updating; • particle swarm and genetic-algorithm-based optimization methods to accommodate the demands of global versus local optimization models; • simulated annealing to put the methodologies into a sound statistical basis; and • response surface methods and expectation m...

  11. Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Finite Element Computational Models for Biomedical Engineering: Characterization and Propagation.

    Mangado, Nerea; Piella, Gemma; Noailly, Jérôme; Pons-Prats, Jordi; Ballester, Miguel Ángel González


    Computational modeling has become a powerful tool in biomedical engineering thanks to its potential to simulate coupled systems. However, real parameters are usually not accurately known, and variability is inherent in living organisms. To cope with this, probabilistic tools, statistical analysis and stochastic approaches have been used. This article aims to review the analysis of uncertainty and variability in the context of finite element modeling in biomedical engineering. Characterization techniques and propagation methods are presented, as well as examples of their applications in biomedical finite element simulations. Uncertainty propagation methods, both non-intrusive and intrusive, are described. Finally, pros and cons of the different approaches and their use in the scientific community are presented. This leads us to identify future directions for research and methodological development of uncertainty modeling in biomedical engineering.

  12. Generation of Random Particle Packings for Discrete Element Models

    Abe, S.; Weatherley, D.; Ayton, T.


    An important step in the setup process of Discrete Element Model (DEM) simulations is the generation of a suitable particle packing. There are quite a number of properties such a granular material specimen should ideally have, such as high coordination number, isotropy, the ability to fill arbitrary bounding volumes and the absence of locked-in stresses. An algorithm which is able to produce specimens fulfilling these requirements is the insertion based sphere packing algorithm originally proposed by Place and Mora, 2001 [2] and extended in this work. The algorithm works in two stages. First a number of "seed" spheres are inserted into the bounding volume. In the second stage the gaps between the "seed" spheres are filled by inserting new spheres in a way so they have D+1 (i.e. 3 in 2D, 4 in 3D) touching contacts with either other spheres or the boundaries of the enclosing volume. Here we present an implementation of the algorithm and a systematic statistical analysis of the generated sphere packings. The analysis of the particle radius distribution shows that they follow a power-law with an exponent ≈ D (i.e. ≈3 for a 3D packing and ≈2 for 2D). Although the algorithm intrinsically guarantees coordination numbers of at least 4 in 3D and 3 in 2D, the coordination numbers realized in the generated packings can be significantly higher, reaching beyond 50 if the range of particle radii is sufficiently large. Even for relatively small ranges of particle sizes (e.g. Rmin = 0.5Rmax) the maximum coordination number may exceed 10. The degree of isotropy of the generated sphere packing is also analysed in both 2D and 3D, by measuring the distribution of orientations of vectors joining the centres of adjacent particles. If the range of particle sizes is small, the packing algorithm yields moderate anisotropy approaching that expected for a face-centred cubic packing of equal-sized particles. However, once Rmin 2D and 3D. The analysis demonstrates that this space

  13. Multiscale approach for bone remodeling simulation based on finite element and neural network computation

    Hambli, Ridha


    The aim of this paper is to develop a multiscale hierarchical hybrid model based on finite element analysis and neural network computation to link mesoscopic scale (trabecular network level) and macroscopic (whole bone level) to simulate bone remodelling process. Because whole bone simulation considering the 3D trabecular level is time consuming, the finite element calculation is performed at macroscopic level and a trained neural network are employed as numerical devices for substituting the finite element code needed for the mesoscale prediction. The bone mechanical properties are updated at macroscopic scale depending on the morphological organization at the mesoscopic computed by the trained neural network. The digital image-based modeling technique using m-CT and voxel finite element mesh is used to capture 2 mm3 Representative Volume Elements at mesoscale level in a femur head. The input data for the artificial neural network are a set of bone material parameters, boundary conditions and the applied str...

  14. A relaxation-based approach to damage modeling

    Junker, Philipp; Schwarz, Stephan; Makowski, Jerzy; Hackl, Klaus


    Material models, including softening effects due to, for example, damage and localizations, share the problem of ill-posed boundary value problems that yield mesh-dependent finite element results. It is thus necessary to apply regularization techniques that couple local behavior described, for example, by internal variables, at a spatial level. This can take account of the gradient of the internal variable to yield mesh-independent finite element results. In this paper, we present a new approach to damage modeling that does not use common field functions, inclusion of gradients or complex integration techniques: Appropriate modifications of the relaxed (condensed) energy hold the same advantage as other methods, but with much less numerical effort. We start with the theoretical derivation and then discuss the numerical treatment. Finally, we present finite element results that prove empirically how the new approach works.

  15. Using clinical element models for pharmacogenomic study data standardization.

    Zhu, Qian; Freimuth, Robert R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Chute, Christopher G


    Standardized representations for pharmacogenomics data are seldom used, which leads to data heterogeneity and hinders data reuse and integration. In this study, we attempted to represent data elements from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) that are related to four categories, patient, drug, disease and laboratory, in a standard way using Clinical Element Models (CEMs), which have been adopted in the Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Project, secondary use of EHR (SHARPn) as a library of common logical models that facilitate consistent data representation, interpretation, and exchange within and across heterogeneous sources and applications. This was accomplished by grouping PGRN data elements into categories based on UMLS semantic type, then mapping each to one or more CEM attributes using a web-based tool that was developed to support curation activities. This study demonstrates the successful application of SHARPn CEMs to the pharmacogenomic domain. It also identified several categories of data elements that are not currently supported by SHARPn CEMs, which represent opportunities for further development and collaboration.

  16. Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model

    Lucht, Tore


    A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...

  17. 2D - Finite element model of a CIGS module

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Slooff, L.H.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    The performance of thin-film CIGS modules is often limited due to inhomogeneities in CIGS layers. A 2-dimensional Finite Element Model for CIGS modules is demonstrated that predicts the impact of such inhomogeneities on the module performance. Results are presented of a module with a region of poor diode characteristics. It is concluded that according to this model the effects of poor diodes depend strongly on their location in the module and on their dispersion over the module surface. Due to its generic character the model can also be applied to other series connections of photovoltaic cells.

  18. Investigation of perpetual pavement using finite element modelling

    Monireh Zokaei


    Full Text Available With considering numerous failures which exist in flexible pavements, a huge amount of money is spending on treatment and reconstructing pavements. Many researches have been performed to with improving pavement quality, increased the performance and pavements life. One type of long lasting pavements is perpetual pavement. In this research ABAQUS software is used to simulate pavement. . Materials are modelled as visco-elastic type and loading wheel is assumed to be moving. After gaining results, the effects of different parameters on pavements function is assessed. Modelling movements of loading wheel is very effective in viscoelastic condition, increase more accuracy of the finite-element model.

  19. Elements of a collaborative systems model within the aerospace industry

    Westphalen, Bailee R.


    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine the components of current aerospace collaborative efforts. There were 44 participants from two selected groups surveyed for this study. Nineteen were from the Oklahoma Air National Guard based in Oklahoma City representing the aviation group. Twenty-five participants were from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston representing the aerospace group. The surveys for the aviation group were completed in reference to planning missions necessary to their operations. The surveys for the aerospace group were completed in reference to a well-defined and focused goal from a current mission. A questionnaire was developed to survey active participants of collaborative systems in order to consider various components found within the literature. Results were analyzed and aggregated through a database along with content analysis of open-ended question comments from respondents. Findings and conclusions. This study found and determined elements of a collaborative systems model in the aerospace industry. The elements were (1) purpose or mission for the group or team; (2) commitment or dedication to the challenge; (3) group or team meetings and discussions; (4) constraints of deadlines and budgets; (5) tools and resources for project and simulations; (6) significant contributors to the collaboration; (7) decision-making formats; (8) reviews of project; (9) participants education and employment longevity; (10) cross functionality of team or group members; (11) training on the job plus teambuilding; (12) other key elements identified relevant by the respondents but not included in the model such as communication and teamwork; (13) individual and group accountability; (14) conflict, learning, and performance; along with (15) intraorganizational coordination. These elements supported and allowed multiple individuals working together to solve a common problem or to develop innovation that could not have been

  20. Field Test of a Hybrid Finite-Difference and Analytic Element Regional Model.

    Abrams, D B; Haitjema, H M; Feinstein, D T; Hunt, R J


    Regional finite-difference models often have cell sizes that are too large to sufficiently model well-stream interactions. Here, a steady-state hybrid model is applied whereby the upper layer or layers of a coarse MODFLOW model are replaced by the analytic element model GFLOW, which represents surface waters and wells as line and point sinks. The two models are coupled by transferring cell-by-cell leakage obtained from the original MODFLOW model to the bottom of the GFLOW model. A real-world test of the hybrid model approach is applied on a subdomain of an existing model of the Lake Michigan Basin. The original (coarse) MODFLOW model consists of six layers, the top four of which are aggregated into GFLOW as a single layer, while the bottom two layers remain part of MODFLOW in the hybrid model. The hybrid model and a refined "benchmark" MODFLOW model simulate similar baseflows. The hybrid and benchmark models also simulate similar baseflow reductions due to nearby pumping when the well is located within the layers represented by GFLOW. However, the benchmark model requires refinement of the model grid in the local area of interest, while the hybrid approach uses a gridless top layer and is thus unaffected by grid discretization errors. The hybrid approach is well suited to facilitate cost-effective retrofitting of existing coarse grid MODFLOW models commonly used for regional studies because it leverages the strengths of both finite-difference and analytic element methods for predictions in mildly heterogeneous systems that can be simulated with steady-state conditions.

  1. A vortex model for Darrieus turbine using finite element techniques

    Ponta, Fernando L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Electrotecnia, Grupo ISEP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jacovkis, Pablo M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Computacion and Inst. de Calculo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Since 1970 several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus turbine. We can identify two families of models: stream-tube and vortex. The former needs much less computation time but the latter is more accurate. The purpose of this paper is to show a new option for modelling the aerodynamic behaviour of Darrieus turbines. The idea is to combine a classic free vortex model with a finite element analysis of the flow in the surroundings of the blades. This avoids some of the remaining deficiencies in classic vortex models. The agreement between analysis and experiment when predicting instantaneous blade forces and near wake flow behind the rotor is better than the one obtained in previous models. (Author)

  2. Critical elements on fitting the Bayesian multivariate Poisson Lognormal model

    Zamzuri, Zamira Hasanah binti


    Motivated by a problem on fitting multivariate models to traffic accident data, a detailed discussion of the Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MPL) model is presented. This paper reveals three critical elements on fitting the MPL model: the setting of initial estimates, hyperparameters and tuning parameters. These issues have not been highlighted in the literature. Based on simulation studies conducted, we have shown that to use the Univariate Poisson Model (UPM) estimates as starting values, at least 20,000 iterations are needed to obtain reliable final estimates. We also illustrated the sensitivity of the specific hyperparameter, which if it is not given extra attention, may affect the final estimates. The last issue is regarding the tuning parameters where they depend on the acceptance rate. Finally, a heuristic algorithm to fit the MPL model is presented. This acts as a guide to ensure that the model works satisfactorily given any data set.

  3. 3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip

    Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong


    Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.

  4. An extended finite element model for modelling localised fracture of reinforced concrete beams in fire

    Liao, F; Huang, Z.


    Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under a Creative Commons license. A robust finite element procedure for modelling the localised fracture of reinforced concrete beams at elevated temperatures is developed. In this model a reinforced concrete beam is represented as an assembly of 4-node quadrilateral plain concrete, 3-node main reinforcing steel bar, and 2-node bond-link elements. The concrete element is subdivided into layers for considering the temp...

  5. Modeling of the condyle elements within a biomechanical knee model

    Ribeiro, Ana; Rasmussen, John; Flores, Paulo


    The development of a computational multibody knee model able to capture some of the fundamental properties of the human knee articulation is presented. This desideratum is reached by including the kinetics of the real knee articulation. The research question is whether an accurate modeling of the...

  6. Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates

    Gaiotti, m.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim;


    The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.e., d...... by finite elements using different techniques. Results obtained with different finite element models are compared and discussed.......The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i...... of the buckling strength of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled...

  7. Finite element model of reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    Jin-xia XU; Lin-hua JIANG; Qi WANG


    A nonlinear finite element model (FEM) of the corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete has been successfully developed on the basis of mathematical analysis of the electrochemical process of steel corrosion in concrete. The influences of the area ratio and the Tafel constants of the anode and cathode on the potential and corrosion current density have been examined with the model. It has been found that the finite element calculation is more suitable for assessing the corrosion condition of steel reinforcement than ordinary electrochemical techniques due to the fact that FEM can obtain the distributions of potential and corrosion current density on the steel surface. In addition, the local corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete is strengthened with the decrease of both the area ratio and the Tafel constants. These results provide valuable information to the researchers who investigate steel corrosion.

  8. Unified viscoelasticity: Applying discrete element models to soft tissues with two characteristic times.

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Bucchi, Andrea; Bader, Dan L


    Discrete element models have often been the primary tool in investigating and characterising the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. However, studies have employed varied configurations of these models, based on the choice of the number of elements and the utilised formation, for different subject tissues. This approach has yielded a diverse array of viscoelastic models in the literature, each seemingly resulting in different descriptions of viscoelastic constitutive behaviour and/or stress-relaxation and creep functions. Moreover, most studies do not apply a single discrete element model to characterise both stress-relaxation and creep behaviours of tissues. The underlying assumption for this disparity is the implicit perception that the viscoelasticity of soft tissues cannot be described by a universal behaviour or law, resulting in the lack of a unified approach in the literature based on discrete element representations. This paper derives the constitutive equation for different viscoelastic models applicable to soft tissues with two characteristic times. It demonstrates that all possible configurations exhibit a unified and universal behaviour, captured by a single constitutive relationship between stress, strain and time as: σ+Aσ̇+Bσ¨=Pε̇+Qε¨. The ensuing stress-relaxation G(t) and creep J(t) functions are also unified and universal, derived as [Formula: see text] and J(t)=c2+(ε0-c2)e(-PQt)+σ0Pt, respectively. Application of these relationships to experimental data is illustrated for various tissues including the aortic valve, ligament and cerebral artery. The unified model presented in this paper may be applied to all tissues with two characteristic times, obviating the need for employing varied configurations of discrete element models in preliminary investigation of the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Prognosis Using a Surrogate Model Trained Via 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo


    Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.

  10. Voxel-based approach to generate entire human metacarpal bone with microscopic architecture for finite element analysis.

    Tang, C Y; Tsui, C P; Tang, Y M; Wei, L; Wong, C T; Lam, K W; Ip, W Y; Lu, W W J; Pang, M Y C


    With the development of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, it is possible to construct three-dimensional (3D) models of human bone without destruction of samples and predict mechanical behavior of bone using finite element analysis (FEA). However, due to large number of elements required for constructing the FE models of entire bone, this demands a substantial computational effort and the analysis usually needs a high level of computer. In this article, a voxel-based approach for generation of FE models of entire bone with microscopic architecture from micro-CT image data is proposed. To enable the FE analyses of entire bone to be run even on a general personal computer, grayscale intensity thresholds were adopted to reduce the amount of elements. Human metacarpal bone (MCP) bone was used as an example for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. The micro-CT images of the MCP bone were combined and converted into 3D array of pixels. Dual grayscale intensity threshold parameters were used to distinguish the pixels of bone tissues from those of surrounding soft tissues and improve predictive accuracy for the FE analyses with different sizes of elements. The method of selecting an appropriate value of the second grayscale intensity threshold was also suggested to minimize the area error for the reconstructed cross-sections of a FE structure. Experimental results showed that the entire FE MCP bone with microscopic architecture could be modeled and analyzed on a personal computer with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol


    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  12. Study of gap conductance model for thermo mechanical fully coupled finite element model

    Kim, Hyo Cha; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod consists of zirconium alloy cladding and uranium dioxide pellets, with a slight gap between them. Therefore, the mechanical integrity of zirconium alloy cladding is the most critical issue, as it is an important barrier for fission products released into the environment. To evaluate the stress and strain of the cladding during operation, fuel performance codes with a one-dimensional (1D) approach have been reported since the 1970s. However, it is difficult for a 1D model to simulate the stress and strain of the cladding accurately owing to a lack of degree of freedom. A LWR fuel performance code should include thermo-mechanical coupled model owing to the existence of the fuel-cladding gap. Generally, the gap that is filled with helium gas results in temperature drop along radius direction. The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient within the gap is very sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several microns in certain region, difference of surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Consequently, the Finite Element (FE) module, which can simulate a higher degree of freedom numerically, is an indispensable requirement to understand the thermomechanical behavior of cladding. FRAPCON-3, which is reliable performance code, has iterative loop for thermo-mechanical coupled calculation to solve 1D gap conductance model. In FEMAXI-III, 1D thermal analysis module and FE module for stress-strain analysis were separated. 1D thermal module includes iterative analysis between them. DIONISIO code focused on thermal contact model as function of surface roughness and contact pressure when the gap is closed. In previous works, gap conductance model has been developed only for 1D model or hybrid model (1D and FE). To simulate temperature, stress and strain

  13. Density Functional Modelling of Elastic Properties of Elemental Semiconductors

    M. Verma


    Full Text Available The expressions for bulk modulus, its first and second pressure derivatives for elemental semiconductors are derived using the ab initio pseudopotential approach to the total crystal energy within the framework of local Density Functional formalism. The expression for the second pressure derivative of the bulk modulus for four-fold crystal structures are derived for the first time within the pseudopotential framework. The computed results for the semiconductors under study are very close to the available experimental data and will be useful in the study of equation of states.

  14. Finite element based micro-mechanics modeling of textile composites

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.


    Textile composites have the advantage over laminated composites of a significantly greater damage tolerance and resistance to delamination. Currently, a disadvantage of textile composites is the inability to examine the details of the internal response of these materials under load. Traditional approaches to the study fo textile based composite materials neglect many of the geometric details that affect the performance of the material. The present three dimensional analysis, based on the representative volume element (RVE) of a plain weave, allows prediction of the internal details of displacement, strain, stress, and failure quantities. Through this analysis, the effect of geometric and material parameters on the aforementioned quantities are studied.

  15. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal loading

    Praveen Kumar Pinnoji; Puneet Mahajan


    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. The foam is taken as elasto-plastic, the brain is assumed to be viscoelastic and all other components are taken as elastic. The contact forces and coup pressures with helmet on the head are much lower than in the absence of the helmet. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of liner thickness and density on the contact forces, pressures and energy absorption during impact. For 4 ms-1 velocity, expanded poly styrene (EPS) foam of density 24 kg m-3 gave the lowest contact forces and for the velocities considered, thickness of the foam did not affect the contact forces.

  16. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon


    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  17. A novel approach to quantifying algal contributions to suspended organic matter from elemental composition

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Richardson, D. C.; Newbold, J. D.; Bukaveckas, P. A.; Angradi, T. R.


    Quantitatively distinguishing allochthonous and autochthonous sources of organic matter (OM) transported by stream and river ecosystems has long been a challenge. Stable carbon isotope ratios of algal carbon are temporally and spatially variable in freshwaters and thus poorly constrain OM sources. Here we present a new quantitative approach to estimating algal contributions to suspended particulate OM, based on elemental signatures (%OC, %N) of three particle-type end-members (plant detritus, algae, and mineral-complexed OM). We then applied the mixing model analysis with Monte-Carlo error estimation to quantify the contributions of these three particle types to suspended OM at ~450 river sites in the US Great Rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers), at over 100 sites in the Amazon River system and from ~600 samples from one site in the 3rd-order White Clay Creek in the SE Pennsylvania piedmont. We compare model results with measurements of stable isotopes, chlorophyll, nutrients and other variables at this extreme diversity sites with contrasting climate, land use and hydrological conditions. We find that algae typically contribute negligibly to OM in the Amazon but can be very important sources at many sites in the US Great Rivers, but site-specific exceptions to these overall trends can be very informative. In WCC, algal contributions vary seasonally. We then try to explain these differences as a function of differing basin-scale and landuse conditions.

  18. Selection of finite-element mesh parameters in modeling the growth of hydraulic fracturing cracks

    Kurguzov, V. D.


    The effect of the mesh geometry on the accuracy of solutions obtained by the finite-element method for problems of linear fracture mechanics is investigated. The guidelines have been formulated for constructing an optimum mesh for several routine problems involving elements with linear and quadratic approximation of displacements. The accuracy of finite-element solutions is estimated based on the degree of the difference between the calculated stress-intensity factor (SIF) and its value obtained analytically. In problems of hydrofracturing of oil-bearing formation, the pump-in pressure of injected water produces a distributed load on crack flanks as opposed to standard fracture mechanics problems that have analytical solutions, where a load is applied to the external boundaries of the computational region and the cracks themselves are kept free from stresses. Some model pressure profiles, as well as pressure profiles taken from real hydrodynamic computations, have been considered. Computer models of cracks with allowance for the pre-stressed state, fracture toughness, and elastic properties of materials are developed in the MSC.Marc 2012 finite-element analysis software. The Irwin force criterion is used as a criterion of brittle fracture and the SIFs are computed using the Cherepanov-Rice invariant J-integral. The process of crack propagation in a linearly elastic isotropic body is described in terms of the elastic energy release rate G and modeled using the VCCT (Virtual Crack Closure Technique) approach. It has been found that the solution accuracy is sensitive to the mesh configuration. Several parameters that are decisive in constructing effective finite-element meshes, namely, the minimum element size, the distance between mesh nodes in the vicinity of a crack tip, and the ratio of the height of an element to its length, have been established. It has been shown that a mesh that consists of only small elements does not improve the accuracy of the solution.

  19. Urban Modelling with Typological Approach. Case Study: Merida, Yucatan, Mexico

    Rodriguez, A.


    In three-dimensional models of urban historical reconstruction, missed contextual architecture faces difficulties because it does not have much written references in contrast to the most important monuments. This is the case of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during the Colonial Era (1542-1810), which has lost much of its heritage. An alternative to offer a hypothetical view of these elements is a typological - parametric definition that allows a 3D modeling approach to the most common features of this heritage evidence.

  20. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.


    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  1. Enterprise Projects Set Risk Element Transmission Chaotic Genetic Model

    Cunbin Li


    Full Text Available In order to research projects set risk transfer process and improve risk management efficiency in projects management, combining chaos theory and genetic algorithm, put forward enterprise projects set risk element transmission chaos genetic model. Using logistic chaos mapping and chebyshev chaos mapping mixture, constructed a hybrid chaotic mapping system. The steps of adopting hybrid chaos mapping for genetic operation include projects set initialization, calculation of fitness, selection, crossover and mutation operators, fitness adjustment and condition judgment. The results showed that the model can simulate enterprise projects set risk transmission process very well and it also provides the basis for the enterprise managers to make decisions.

  2. A New Finite Element Approach for Prediction of Aerothermal Loads: Progress in Inviscid Flow Computations

    Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.


    Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commerically available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.

  3. A new finite element approach for prediction of aerothermal loads - Progress in inviscid flow computations

    Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.


    Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commercially available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.

  4. A perturbation approach for geometrically nonlinear structural analysis using a general purpose finite element code

    Rahman, T.


    In this thesis, a finite element based perturbation approach is presented for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin-walled structures. Geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are essential for this class of structures. Nowadays nonlinear analysis of thin-walled shell structures is oft

  5. Validation of a finite element model of the human metacarpal.

    Barker, D S; Netherway, D J; Krishnan, J; Hearn, T C


    Implant loosening and mechanical failure of components are frequently reported following metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint replacement. Studies of the mechanical environment of the MCP implant-bone construct are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of a finite element model of the intact second human metacarpal to provide a validated baseline for further mechanical studies. A right index human metacarpal was subjected to torsion and combined axial/bending loading using strain gauge (SG) and 3D finite element (FE) analysis. Four different representations of bone material properties were considered. Regression analyses were performed comparing maximum and minimum principal surface strains taken from the SG and FE models. Regression slopes close to unity and high correlation coefficients were found when the diaphyseal cortical shell was modelled as anisotropic and cancellous bone properties were derived from quantitative computed tomography. The inclusion of anisotropy for cortical bone was strongly influential in producing high model validity whereas variation in methods of assigning stiffness to cancellous bone had only a minor influence. The validated FE model provides a tool for future investigations of current and novel MCP joint prostheses.

  6. A new class of finite element variational multiscale turbulence models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics

    Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A; Pawlowski, Roger P; Cyr, Eric C; Smith, Tom M


    New large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) derived from the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation for finite element simulations are introduced. The new models include the variational multiscale formulation, a residual-based eddy viscosity model, and a mixed model that combines both of these component models. Each model contains terms that are proportional to the residual of the incompressible MHD equations and is therefore numerically consistent. Moreover, each model is also dynamic, in that its effect vanishes when this residual is small. The new models are tested on the decaying MHD Taylor Green vortex at low and high Reynolds numbers. The evaluation of the models is based on comparisons with available data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the time evolution of energies as well as energy spectra at various discrete times. A numerical study, on a sequence of meshes, is presented that demonstrates that the large eddy simulation approaches the ...

  7. [Evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight].

    Li, Yang; Xia, Peng-Fei; Ma, Xiao; Fan, Qin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Ya-Li; Liu, Xiong


    To investigate the utilization of fuzzy matter-element model in evaluating the quality of Angelica sinensis. The quality of Angelica sinensis from different habitats was evaluated by determining six main compositions contained in the samples with fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight. Angelica sinensis collected from 22 hatitats were divided into three ranges based on the values of approach degrees. Fuzzy matter-element model based on variation coefficient weight can judge the quality of Angelica sinensis objectively and feasibly.

  8. A Finite Element Cable Model and Its Applications Based on the Cubic Spline Curve

    方子帆; 贺青松; 向兵飞; 肖化攀; 何孔德; 杜义贤


    For accurate prediction of the deformation of cable in the towed system, a new finite element model is presented that provides a representation of both the bending and torsional effects. In this paper, the cubic spline interpolation function is applied as the trial solution. By using a weighted residual approach, the discretized motion equations for the new finite element model are developed. The model is calculated with the computation program complier by Matlab. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the numerical schemes. The results of numerical simulation are stable and valid, and consistent with the mechanical properties of the cable. The model can be applied to kinematics analysis and the design of ocean cable, such as mooring lines, towing, and ROV umbilical cables.

  9. Finite element methods for a class of continuum models for immiscible flows with moving contact lines

    Reusken, A; Zhang, L


    In this paper we present a finite element method (FEM) for two-phase incompressible flows with moving contact lines. We use a sharp interface Navier-Stokes model for the bulk phase fluid dynamics. Surface tension forces, including Marangoni forces and viscous interfacial effects, are modeled. For describing the moving contact we consider a class of continuum models which contains several special cases known from the literature. For the whole model, describing bulk fluid dynamics, surface tension forces and contact line forces, we derive a variational formulation and a corresponding energy estimate. For handling the evolving interface numerically the level-set technique is applied. The discontinuous pressure is accurately approximated by using a stabilized extended finite element space (XFEM). We apply a Nitsche technique to weakly impose the Navier slip conditions on the solid wall. A unified approach for discretization of the (different types of) surface tension forces and contact line forces is introduced. ...

  10. Multiple-contact discrete-element model for simulating dense granular media

    Brodu, Nicolas; Dijksman, Joshua A.; Behringer, Robert P.


    This article presents a new force model for performing quantitative simulations of dense granular materials. Interactions between multiple contacts (MC) on the same grain are explicitly taken into account. Our readily applicable MC-DEM method retains all the advantages of discrete-element method simulations and does not require the use of costly finite-element methods. The new model closely reproduces our recent experimental measurements, including contact force distributions in full 3D, at all compression levels of the packing up to the experimental maximum limit of 13%. Comparisons with classic simulations using the nondeformable spheres approach, as well as with alternative models for interactions between multiple contacts, are provided. The success of our model, compared to these alternatives, demonstrates that interactions between multiple contacts on each grain must be included for dense granular packings.

  11. Active magnetic bearing control loop modeling for a finite element rotordynamics code

    Genta, Giancarlo; Delprete, Cristiana; Carabelli, Stefano


    A mathematical model of an active electromagnetic bearing which includes the actuator, the sensor and the control system is developed and implemented in a specialized finite element code for rotordynamic analysis. The element formulation and its incorporation in the model of the machine are described in detail. A solution procedure, based on a modal approach in which the number of retained modes is controlled by the user, is then shown together with other procedures for computing the steady-state response to both static and unbalance forces. An example of application shows the numerical results obtained on a model of an electric motor suspended on a five active-axis magnetic suspension. The comparison of some of these results with the experimental characteristics of the actual system shows the ability of the present model to predict its performance.

  12. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Dimitrios Tsonos


    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  13. Finite element modeling of consolidation of composite laminates

    Xiangqiao Yan


    Advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites have been increasingly applied to various structural corn-ponents.One of the important processes to fabricate high performance laminated composites is an autoclave assisted prepreg lay-up.Since the quality of laminated composites is largely affected by the cure cycle,selection of an appropriate cure cycle for each application is important and must be opti-mized.Thus.some fundamental model of the consolidation and cure processes is necessary for selecting suitable param-eters for a specific application.This article is concerned with the "flow-compaction" model during the autoclave process-ing of composite materials.By using a weighted residual method,two-dimensional finite element formulation for the consolidation process of thick thermosetting composites is presented and the corresponding finite element code is developed.Numerical examples.including comparison of the present numerical results with one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions,are given to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed finite element formulation.In addition,a consolidation simulation of As4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminate is carried out and compared with the experimental results available in the literature.

  14. Hierarchical multiscale modeling for flows in fractured media using generalized multiscale finite element method

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.


    In this paper, we develop a multiscale finite element method for solving flows in fractured media. Our approach is based on generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM), where we represent the fracture effects on a coarse grid via multiscale basis functions. These multiscale basis functions are constructed in the offline stage via local spectral problems following GMsFEM. To represent the fractures on the fine grid, we consider two approaches (1) discrete fracture model (DFM) (2) embedded fracture model (EFM) and their combination. In DFM, the fractures are resolved via the fine grid, while in EFM the fracture and the fine grid block interaction is represented as a source term. In the proposed multiscale method, additional multiscale basis functions are used to represent the long fractures, while short-size fractures are collectively represented by a single basis functions. The procedure is automatically done via local spectral problems. In this regard, our approach shares common concepts with several approaches proposed in the literature as we discuss. We would like to emphasize that our goal is not to compare DFM with EFM, but rather to develop GMsFEM framework which uses these (DFM or EFM) fine-grid discretization techniques. Numerical results are presented, where we demonstrate how one can adaptively add basis functions in the regions of interest based on error indicators. We also discuss the use of randomized snapshots (Calo et al. Randomized oversampling for generalized multiscale finite element methods, 2014), which reduces the offline computational cost.

  15. Autoregressive modelling for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    Al-Bugharbee, H.; Trendafilova, I.


    In this study, time series analysis and pattern recognition analysis are used effectively for the purposes of rolling bearing fault diagnosis. The main part of the suggested methodology is the autoregressive (AR) modelling of the measured vibration signals. This study suggests the use of a linear AR model applied to the signals after they are stationarized. The obtained coefficients of the AR model are further used to form pattern vectors which are in turn subjected to pattern recognition for differentiating among different faults and different fault sizes. This study explores the behavior of the AR coefficients and their changes with the introduction and the growth of different faults. The idea is to gain more understanding about the process of AR modelling for roller element bearing signatures and the relation of the coefficients to the vibratory behavior of the bearings and their condition.

  16. Adaptive model reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation

    Servin, Martin


    A method for adaptive model order reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation is developed and analysed in numerical experiments. Regions of the granular media that collectively move as rigid bodies are substituted with rigid bodies of the corresponding shape and mass distribution. The method also support particles merging with articulated multibody systems. A model approximation error is defined used for deriving and conditions for when and where to apply model reduction and refinement back into particles and smaller rigid bodies. Three methods for refinement are proposed and tested: prediction from contact events, trial solutions computed in the background and using split sensors. The computational performance can be increased by 5 - 50 times for model reduction level between 70 - 95 %.

  17. Boundary element modeling of nondissipative and dissipative waves

    Chen, Genmeng [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.; Zhou, Huawei [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geosciences


    A boundary element (BE) algorithm is developed to compute acoustic or SH-waves in models consisting of limited or unlimited volumes and irregular interfaces. The authors solve the BE system in the frequency domain so that anelasticity can be easily represented by different viscoelastic models, such as the Kelvin-Voigt type. Three illustrative computations are shown. The waveform given by the BE method for a circular inclusion model agrees well with that given by the finite-difference (FD) method. Dissipation of waves at high frequency caused by the presence of multi-cracks in an elastic medium resembles the masking effect of anelasticity. The waveforms for nondissipative and dissipative models containing hexagonal inclusions illustrate some interesting characteristics of the composite media.


    Asterios KOSMARAS


    Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.

  19. Three Different Ways of Calibrating Burger's Contact Model for Viscoelastic Model of Asphalt Mixtures by Discrete Element Method

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik


    modulus. Three different approaches have been used and compared for calibrating the Burger's contact model. Values of the dynamic modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting DE simulation under dynamic strain control loading. The excellent agreement between the predicted......In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional discrete element method. Combined with Burger's model, three contact models were used for the construction of constitutive asphalt mixture model with viscoelastic properties...... in the commercial software PFC3D, including the slip model, linear stiffness-contact model, and contact bond model. A macro-scale Burger's model was first established and the input parameters of Burger's contact model were calibrated by adjusting them so that the model fitted the experimental data for the complex...

  20. Parallel Semi-Implicit Spectral Element Atmospheric Model

    Fournier, A.; Thomas, S.; Loft, R.


    The shallow-water equations (SWE) have long been used to test atmospheric-modeling numerical methods. The SWE contain essential wave-propagation and nonlinear effects of more complete models. We present a semi-implicit (SI) improvement of the Spectral Element Atmospheric Model to solve the SWE (SEAM, Taylor et al. 1997, Fournier et al. 2000, Thomas & Loft 2000). SE methods are h-p finite element methods combining the geometric flexibility of size-h finite elements with the accuracy of degree-p spectral methods. Our work suggests that exceptional parallel-computation performance is achievable by a General-Circulation-Model (GCM) dynamical core, even at modest climate-simulation resolutions (>1o). The code derivation involves weak variational formulation of the SWE, Gauss(-Lobatto) quadrature over the collocation points, and Legendre cardinal interpolators. Appropriate weak variation yields a symmetric positive-definite Helmholtz operator. To meet the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition and avoid spurious modes, we use a staggered grid. The SI scheme combines leapfrog and Crank-Nicholson schemes for the nonlinear and linear terms respectively. The localization of operations to elements ideally fits the method to cache-based microprocessor computer architectures --derivatives are computed as collections of small (8x8), naturally cache-blocked matrix-vector products. SEAM also has desirable boundary-exchange communication, like finite-difference models. Timings on on the IBM SP and Compaq ES40 supercomputers indicate that the SI code (20-min timestep) requires 1/3 the CPU time of the explicit code (2-min timestep) for T42 resolutions. Both codes scale nearly linearly out to 400 processors. We achieved single-processor performance up to 30% of peak for both codes on the 375-MHz IBM Power-3 processors. Fast computation and linear scaling lead to a useful climate-simulation dycore only if enough model time is computed per unit wall-clock time. An efficient SI

  1. Modeling colliding beams with an element by element representation of the storage ring guide field

    D. L. Rubin


    Full Text Available A detailed model of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR guide field, including beam-beam interaction computed in the weak-strong regime, is the basis for a multiturn simulation of luminosity. The simulation reproduces the dependence of luminosity on bunch current that is measured in the storage ring, at both high-energy (5.3   GeV/beam and in the wiggler-dominated low energy (CESR-c configuration (1.9   GeV/beam. Dynamics are determined entirely by the physics of propagation through the individual guide field elements with no free parameters. Energy dependence of the compensation of the transverse coupling introduced by the experimental solenoid is found to significantly degrade specific luminosity. The simulation also indicates a strong dependence of limiting beam-beam tune shift parameter on the geometric mean of synchrotron tune and bunch length.

  2. Finite element modelling of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Calius, Emilio; Xie, Shane; Anderson, Iain


    This paper presents an experimentally validated finite element model suitable for simulating the quasi-static behaviour of Dielectric Elastomer Minimum Energy Structure(s) (DEMES). A DEMES consists of a pre-stretched Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA) adhered to a thin, flexible frame. The tension in the stretched membrane causes the frame to curl up, and when a voltage is applied, the frame returns to its initial planar state thus forming a useful bending actuator. The simulation method presented here incorporates a novel strain energy function suitable for simulating general DEA actuator elements. When compared against blocked force data from our previous work, the new model provides a good fit with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time. Furthermore, the model accurately matched experimental data on the free displacement of DEMES formed with non-equibiaxially pre-stretched VHB4905 membranes driven by 2500 V. Non-equibiaxially pre-stretching the membranes allowed control of effective frame stiffness and bending moment, this was exploited by using the model to optimise stroke at 2500 V in a hypothetical case study. Dielectric constant measurements for non-equibiaxially stretched VHB4905 are also presented.

  3. Crystallographic effects during micromachining — A finite-element model

    Song, Shin-Hyung; Choi, Woo Chun


    Mechanical micromachining is a powerful and effective way for manufacturing small sized machine parts. Even though the micromachining process is similar to the traditional machining, the material behavior during the process is much different. In particular, many researchers report that the basic mechanics of the work material is affected by microstructures and their crystallographic orientations. For example, crystallographic orientations of the work material have significant influence on force response, chip formation and surface finish. In order to thoroughly understand the effect of crystallographic orientations on the micromachining process, finite-element model (FEM) simulating orthogonal cutting process of single crystallographic material was presented. For modeling the work material, rate sensitive single crystal plasticity of face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal was implemented. For the chip formation during the simulation, element deletion technique was used. The simulation model is developed using ABAQUS/explicit with user material subroutine via user material subroutine (VUMAT). Simulations showed that variation of the specific cutting energy at different crystallographic orientations of work material shows significant anisotropy. The developed FEM model can be a useful prediction tool of micromachining of crystalline materials.

  4. Finite element model calibration of a nonlinear perforated plate

    Ehrhardt, David A.; Allen, Matthew S.; Beberniss, Timothy J.; Neild, Simon A.


    This paper presents a case study in which the finite element model for a curved circular plate is calibrated to reproduce both the linear and nonlinear dynamic response measured from two nominally identical samples. The linear dynamic response is described with the linear natural frequencies and mode shapes identified with a roving hammer test. Due to the uncertainty in the stiffness characteristics from the manufactured perforations, the linear natural frequencies are used to update the effective modulus of elasticity of the full order finite element model (FEM). The nonlinear dynamic response is described with nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) measured using force appropriation and high speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC). The measured NNMs are used to update the boundary conditions of the full order FEM through comparison with NNMs calculated from a nonlinear reduced order model (NLROM). This comparison revealed that the nonlinear behavior could not be captured without accounting for the small curvature of the plate from manufacturing as confirmed in literature. So, 3D-DIC was also used to identify the initial static curvature of each plate and the resulting curvature was included in the full order FEM. The updated models are then used to understand how the stress distribution changes at large response amplitudes providing a possible explanation of failures observed during testing.

  5. Updating the Finite Element Model of the Aerostructures Test Wing using Ground Vibration Test Data

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi


    Improved and/or accelerated decision making is a crucial step during flutter certification processes. Unfortunately, most finite element structural dynamics models have uncertainties associated with model validity. Tuning the finite element model using measured data to minimize the model uncertainties is a challenging task in the area of structural dynamics. The model tuning process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of the mass and stiffness properties of the structures. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. By utilizing the multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool in order to optimize the objective function and constraints; the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes can be matched to the target data to retain the mass matrix orthogonality. This approach has been applied to minimize the model uncertainties for the structural dynamics model of the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW), which was designed and tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) (Edwards, California). This study has shown that natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes from the updated finite element model have excellent agreement with corresponding measured data.

  6. Validation of Modeling Flow Approaching Navigation Locks


    instrumentation, direction vernier . ........................................................................ 8  Figure 11. Plan A lock approach, upstream approach...13-9 8 Figure 9. Tools and instrumentation, bracket attached to rail. Figure 10. Tools and instrumentation, direction vernier . Numerical model

  7. From Rock Scissor Paper to study and modeling of Chinese Five Elements: Evolutionary Game Theory

    Gu, Shangdong


    In this thesis, we have developed a model to study the behavior of an extended version of evolutionary game "Rock-Scissor-Paper", that is "Five Elements". The origin of five elements are from "Chinese five elements" in which five different types of elements compete with each other in a similar way as in a SIR model. Elements are affecting each other in two different ways, either to compete with each other or to help some particular elements in resisting their sup...


    GUO Qintao; ZHANG Lingmi; TAO Zheng


    Thin wall component is utilized to absorb impact energy of a structure. However, the dynamic behavior of such thin-walled structure is highly non-linear with material, geometry and boundary non-linearity. A model updating and validation procedure is proposed to build accurate finite element model of a frame structure with a non-linear thin-walled component for dynamic analysis. Design of experiments (DOE) and principal component decomposition (PCD) approach are applied to extract dynamic feature from nonlinear impact response for correlation of impact test result and FE model of the non-linear structure. A strain-rate-dependent non-linear model updating method is then developed to build accurate FE model of the structure. Computer simulation and a real frame structure with a highly non-linear thin-walled component are employed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Meso-damage modelling of polymer based particulate composites using finite element technique

    Tsui, Chi Pong

    To develop a new particulate polymer composite (PPC) with desired mechanical properties is usually accomplished by an experimental trial-and-error approach. A new technique, which predicts the damage mechanism and its effects on the mechanical properties of PPC, has been proposed. This meso-mechanical modelling technique, which offers a means to bridge the micro-damage mechanism and the macro-structural behaviour, has been implemented in a finite element code. A three-dimensional finite element meso-cell model has been designed and constructed to simulate the damage mechanism of PPC. The meso-cell model consists of a micro-particle, an interface, and a matrix. The initiation of the particle/polymer matrix debonding process has been predicted on the basis of a tensile criterion. By considering the meso-cell model as a representative volume element (RVE), the effects of damage on the macro-structural constitutive behaviour of PPC have been determined. An experimental investigation has been made on glass beads (GB) reinforced polyphenylene oxides (PPO) for verification of the meso-cell model and the meso-mechanical finite element technique. The predicted constitutive relation has been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The results of the in-situ microscopic test also verify the correctness of the meso-cell model. The application of the meso-mechanical finite element modelling technique has been extended to a macro-structural analysis to simulate the response an engineering structure made of PPC under a static load. In the simulation, a damage variable has been defined in terms of the computational results of the cell model in meso-scale. Hence, the damage-coupled constitutive relation of the GB/PPO composite could be derived. A user-defined subroutine VUMAT in FORTRAN language describing the damage-coupled constitutive behaviour has then been incorporated into the ABAQUS finite element code. On a macro-scale, the ABAQUS finite element code

  10. Efficient inversion of three-dimensional finite element models of volcano deformation

    Charco, M.; Galán del Sastre, P.


    Numerical techniques, as such as finite element method, allow for the inclusion of features, such as topography and/or mechanical heterogeneities, for the interpretation of volcanic deformation. However, models based on these numerical techniques usually are not suitable to be included in non-linear estimations of source parameters based on explorative optimization schemes because they require a calculation of the numerical approach for every evaluation of the misfit function. We present a procedure for finite element (FE) models that can be combined with explorative inversion schemes. The methodology is based on including a body force term representing an infinitesimal source in the model formulation that is responsible for pressure (volume) changes in the medium. This provides significant savings in both the time required for mesh generation and actual computational time of the numerical approach. Furthermore, we develop an inversion algorithm to estimate those parameters that characterize the changes in location and pressure (volume) of deformation sources. Both provide FE inversions in a single step, avoiding remeshing and assembly of the linear system of algebraic equations that define the numerical approach and/or the automatic mesh generation. After providing the theoretical basis for the model, the numerical approach and the algorithm for the inversions, we test the methodology using a synthetic example in a stratovolcano. Our results suggest that the FE inversion methodology can be considered suitable for efficiently save time in quantitative interpretations of volcano deformation.

  11. Finite element model selection using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Mthembu, Linda; Friswell, Michael I; Adhikari, Sondipon


    This paper proposes the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to the problem of finite element model (FEM) selection. This problem arises when a choice of the best model for a system has to be made from set of competing models, each developed a priori from engineering judgment. PSO is a population-based stochastic search algorithm inspired by the behaviour of biological entities in nature when they are foraging for resources. Each potentially correct model is represented as a particle that exhibits both individualistic and group behaviour. Each particle moves within the model search space looking for the best solution by updating the parameters values that define it. The most important step in the particle swarm algorithm is the method of representing models which should take into account the number, location and variables of parameters to be updated. One example structural system is used to show the applicability of PSO in finding an optimal FEM. An optimal model is defined as the model that has t...

  12. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    Jinkui Hou


    Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

  13. Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design

    Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel


    This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.

  14. Development and Calibration of a System-Integrated Rotorcraft Finite Element Model for Impact Scenarios

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.


    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber (DEA) under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. The presence of this energy absorbing device reduced the peak impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system-integrated finite element model of the test article developed in parallel with the test program. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests were conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components and subsystems, including new crush tubes and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined for the system-integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the full-scale crash test without the DEA. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods identified modeling deficiencies, evaluated parameter importance, and proposed required model changes. The multidimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were

  15. Modelling of Rotational Capacity in Reinforced Linear Elements

    Hestbech, Lars; Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob


    The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented ...... as the effect of shear cracking on the length of the plastic zone.......The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented...... reinforced concrete elements. The model is taking several important parameters into account. Empirical values is avoided which is considered an advantage compared to previous models. Furthermore, the model includes force variations in the reinforcement due to moment distributions and shear as well...

  16. A Finite element model of tactile flow for softness perception.

    Battaglia, Edoardo; Bianchi, Matteo; D'Angelo, Maria Laura; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Cannella, Ferdinando; Scilingo, Enzo P; Bicchi, Antonio


    Touch is an extremely dynamic sense. To take into account this aspect, it has been hypothesized that there are mechanisms in the brain that specialize in processing dynamic tactile stimuli, in a way not too dissimilar from what happens for optical flow in dynamic vision. The concept of tactile flow, related to the rate of expansion of isostrain volumes in the human fingerpad, was used to explain some perceptual illusions as well as mechanisms of human softness perception. In this paper we describe a computational model of tactile flow, and apply it to a finite element model of interaction between deformable bodies. The shape and material properties of the bodies are modeled from those of a human fingertip interacting with specimens with different softness properties. Results show that the rate of expansion of isostrain volumes can be used to discriminate different materials in terms of their softness characteristics.

  17. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Donnelly, Christine


    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  18. Adaptive model reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation

    Servin, Martin; Wang, Da


    A method for adaptive model order reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation is developed and analysed in numerical experiments. Regions of the granular media that collectively move as rigid bodies are substituted with rigid bodies of the corresponding shape and mass distribution. The method also support particles merging with articulated multibody systems. A model approximation error is defined and used to derive conditions for when and where to apply reduction and refinement back into particles and smaller rigid bodies. Three methods for refinement are proposed and tested: prediction from contact events, trial solutions computed in the background and using split sensors. The computational performance can be increased by 5-50 times for model reduction level between 70-95 %.

  19. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.


    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Hybrid graded element model for transient heat conduction in functionally graded materials

    Lei-Lei Cao; Qing-Hua Qin; Ning Zhao


    This paper presents a hybrid graded element model for the transient heat conduction problem in functionally graded materials (FGMs).First,a Laplace transform approach is used to handle the time variable.Then,a fundamental solution in Laplace space for FGMs is constructed.Next,a hybrid graded element is formulated based on the obtained fundamental solution and a frame field.As a result,the graded properties of FGMs are naturally reflected by using the fundamental solution to interpolate the intra-element field.Further,Stefest's algorithm is employed to convert the results in Laplace space back into the time-space domain.Finally,the performance of the proposed method is assessed by several benchmark examples.The results demonstrate well the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. A finite element approach for the dynamic analysis of joint-dominated structures

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Shih-Chin


    A finite element method to model dynamic structural systems undergoing large rotations is presented. The dynamic systems are composed of rigid joint bodies and flexible beam elements. The configurations of these systems are subject to change due to the relative motion in the joints among interconnected elastic beams. A body fixed reference is defined for each joint body to describe the joint body's displacements. Using the finite element method and the kinematic relations between each flexible element and its corotational reference, the total displacement field of an element, which contains gross rigid as well as elastic effects, can be derived in terms of the translational and rotational displacements of the two end nodes. If one end of an element is hinged to a joint body, the joint body's displacements and the hinge degree of freedom at the end are used to represent the nodal displacements. This results in a highly coupled system of differential equations written in terms of hinge degrees of freedom as well as the rotational and translational displacements of joint bodies and element nodes.

  2. Leukocyte deformability: finite element modeling of large viscoelastic deformation.

    Dong, C; Skalak, R


    An axisymmetric deformation of a viscoelastic sphere bounded by a prestressed elastic thin shell in response to external pressure is studied by a finite element method. The research is motivated by the need for understanding the passive behavior of human leukocytes (white blood cells) and interpreting extensive experimental data in terms of the mechanical properties. The cell at rest is modeled as a sphere consisting of a cortical prestressed shell with incompressible Maxwell fluid interior. A large-strain deformation theory is developed based on the proposed model. General non-linear, large strain constitutive relations for the cortical shell are derived by neglecting the bending stiffness. A representation of the constitutive equations in the form of an integral of strain history for the incompressible Maxwell interior is used in the formulation of numerical scheme. A finite element program is developed, in which a sliding boundary condition is imposed on all contact surfaces. The mathematical model developed is applied to evaluate experimental data of pipette tests and observations of blood flow.

  3. A modified discrete element model for sea ice dynamics

    LI Baohui; LI Hai; LIU Yu; WANG Anliang; JI Shunying


    Considering the discontinuous characteristics of sea ice on various scales, a modified discrete element mod-el (DEM) for sea ice dynamics is developed based on the granular material rheology. In this modified DEM, a soft sea ice particle element is introduced as a self-adjustive particle size function. Each ice particle can be treated as an assembly of ice floes, with its concentration and thickness changing to variable sizes un-der the conservation of mass. In this model, the contact forces among ice particles are calculated using a viscous-elastic-plastic model, while the maximum shear forces are described with the Mohr-Coulomb fric-tion law. With this modified DEM, the ice flow dynamics is simulated under the drags of wind and current in a channel of various widths. The thicknesses, concentrations and velocities of ice particles are obtained, and then reasonable dynamic process is analyzed. The sea ice dynamic process is also simulated in a vortex wind field. Taking the influence of thermodynamics into account, this modified DEM will be improved in the future work.

  4. Finite-Element Model-Based Design Synthesis of Axial Flux PMBLDC Motors

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech


    This paper discusses design synthesis of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) machine using a finite element (FE) model. This work differentiates itself from the past studies by following a synthesis approach, in which many designs that satisfy performance criteria are considered instead...... of a unique solution. The designer can later select a design, based on comparing parameters of the designs, which are critical to the application that the motor will be used. The presented approach makes it easier to define constraints for a design synthesis problem. A detailed description of the setting up...... is demonstrated by designing a segmented axial torus PMBLDC motor for an electric two-wheeler....

  5. Assessment of the performance of rigid pavement back-calculation through finite element modeling

    Shoukry, Samir N.; William, Gergis W.; Martinelli, David R.


    This study focuses on examining the behavior of rigid pavement layers during the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Factors affecting the design of a concrete slab, such as whether the joints are doweled or undoweled and the spacing between the transverse joints, were considered in this study. Explicit finite element analysis was employed to investigate pavement layers' responses to the action of the impulse of the FWD test. Models of various dimensions were developed to satisfy the factors under consideration. The accuracy of the finite element models developed in this investigation was verified by comparing the finite element- generated deflection basin with that experimentally measured during an actual test. The results showed that the measured deflection basin can be reproduced through finite element modeling of the pavement structure. The resulting deflection basins from the use FE modeling was processed in order to backcalculate pavement layer moduli. This approach provides a method for the evaluation of the performance of existing backcalculation programs which are based on static elastic layer analysis. Based upon the previous studies conducted for the selection of software, three different backcalculation programs were chosen for the evaluation: MODULUS5.0, EVERCALC4.0, and MODCOMP3. The results indicate that ignoring the dynamic nature of the load may lead to crude results, especially during backcalculation procedures.

  6. Finite element modelling of a rotating piezoelectric ultrasonic motor.

    Frangi, A; Corigliano, A; Binci, M; Faure, P


    The evaluation of the performance of ultrasonic motors as a function of input parameters such as the driving frequency, voltage input and pre-load on the rotor is of key importance to their development and is here addressed by means of a finite element three-dimensional model. First the stator is simulated as a fully deformable elastic body and the travelling wave dynamics is accurately reproduced; secondly the interaction through contact between the stator and the rotor is accounted for by assuming that the rotor behaves as a rigid surface. Numerical results for the whole motor are finally compared to available experimental data.

  7. A finite element model investigation of gunshot injury.

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Franck; Geraut, Annie; Willinger, Rémy; Ludes, Bertrand


    Multiple gunshot suicide can be a controversial subject mainly because of wrong opinions concerning immediate incapacitation or alleged backwards hurling. For the last 20 years, experts in medicine and physics have tried to demonstrate what really happens during a gunshot wound. Different methods have been used to achieve this aim such as basic physics or the use of empirical evidence. In this paper, using a finite element model of the human head, we demonstrate that no incapacitation or backwards hurling can occur from a gunshot fired between the eyes which did not enter the cerebrum.

  8. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano


    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  9. The Establishment and Development of Finite Element Model of Human Cervical Vertebra and Its Application Example

    SHEN Xiao-wen; YU Hang-ping; ZOU Wei


    .The incidence rate of cervical spondylosis is high,and due to the complicacy of cervical vertebra structure, irregularity of shapes and non-uniformity of components, sometimes it's difficult to achieve planned objectives by experiments in vitro through stress and strain analysis. Besides, the biomechanical factors are of vital significance in the cause of spinal disorders. In this paper the author makes a summary of the present modeling of human cervical vertebra and describes the major methods of establishing the finite element model of human cervical vertebra through several self-constructed models. With the advance of computer technology, the finite element methods have been rapidly developed in cervical vertebra biomechanical researches and have became a major approach for biomechanical researches to simulate more and more clinical conditions.

  10. Finite Elements Modeling in Diagnostics of Small Closed Pneumothorax.

    Lorkowski, J; Mrzygłód, M; Grzegorowska, O


    Posttraumatic pneumothorax still remains to be a serious clinical problem and requires a comprehensive diagnostic and monitoring during treatment. The aim of this paper is to present a computer method of modeling of small closed pneumothorax. Radiological images of 34 patients of both sexes with small closed pneumothorax were taken into consideration. The control group consisted of X-rays of 22 patients treated because of tension pneumothorax. In every single case the model was correlated with the clinical manifestations. The procedure of computational rapid analysis (CRA) for in silico analysis of surgical intervention was introduced. It included implementation of computerize tomography images and their automatic conversion into 3D finite elements model (FEM). In order to segmentize the 3D model, an intelligent procedure of domain recognition was used. In the final step, a computer simulation project of fluid-structure interaction was built, using the ANSYS\\Workbench environment of multi-physics analysis. The FEM model and computer simulation project were employed in the analysis in order to optimize surgical intervention. The model worked out well and was compatible with the clinical manifestations of pneumothorax. We conclude that the created FEM model is a promising tool for facilitation of diagnostic procedures and prognosis of treatment in the case of small closed pneumothorax.

  11. Design Through Manufacturing: The Solid Model - Finite Element Analysis Interface

    Rubin, Carol


    State-of-the-art computer aided design (CAD) presently affords engineers the opportunity to create solid models of machine parts which reflect every detail of the finished product. Ideally, these models should fulfill two very important functions: (1) they must provide numerical control information for automated manufacturing of precision parts, and (2) they must enable analysts to easily evaluate the stress levels (using finite element analysis - FEA) for all structurally significant parts used in space missions. Today's state-of-the-art CAD programs perform function (1) very well, providing an excellent model for precision manufacturing. But they do not provide a straightforward and simple means of automating the translation from CAD to FEA models, especially for aircraft-type structures. The research performed during the fellowship period investigated the transition process from the solid CAD model to the FEA stress analysis model with the final goal of creating an automatic interface between the two. During the period of the fellowship a detailed multi-year program for the development of such an interface was created. The ultimate goal of this program will be the development of a fully parameterized automatic ProE/FEA translator for parts and assemblies, with the incorporation of data base management into the solution, and ultimately including computational fluid dynamics and thermal modeling in the interface.

  12. Coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element models for soft tissues using ABAQUS.

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Simon, B R; Rigby, Paul H; Newberg, Tyler P


    Finite element models (FEMs) including characteristic large deformations in highly nonlinear materials (hyperelasticity and coupled diffusive/convective transport of neutral mobile species) will allow quantitative study of in vivo tissues. Such FEMs will provide basic understanding of normal and pathological tissue responses and lead to optimization of local drug delivery strategies. We present a coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element approach developed using a commercially available ABAQUS finite element software. The PHEXPT transient simulations are based on sequential solution of the porohyperelastic (PHE) and mass transport (XPT) problems where an Eulerian PHE FEM is coupled to a Lagrangian XPT FEM using a custom-written FORTRAN program. The PHEXPT theoretical background is derived in the context of porous media transport theory and extended to ABAQUS finite element formulations. The essential assumptions needed in order to use ABAQUS are clearly identified in the derivation. Representative benchmark finite element simulations are provided along with analytical solutions (when appropriate). These simulations demonstrate the differences in transient and steady state responses including finite deformations, total stress, fluid pressure, relative fluid, and mobile species flux. A detailed description of important model considerations (e.g., material property functions and jump discontinuities at material interfaces) is also presented in the context of finite deformations. The ABAQUS-based PHEXPT approach enables the use of the available ABAQUS capabilities (interactive FEM mesh generation, finite element libraries, nonlinear material laws, pre- and postprocessing, etc.). PHEXPT FEMs can be used to simulate the transport of a relatively large neutral species (negligible osmotic fluid flux) in highly deformable hydrated soft tissues and tissue-engineered materials.

  13. 3D Finite Element Modelling of Drilling Process of Al2024-T3 Alloy with solid tooling and Experimental Validation

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido


    Drilling is an indispensable process for many manufacturing industries due to its importance for assembling components. This study presents a 3D finite element modelling (3D FEM) approach for drilling process of aluminium 2024-T3. The 3D model of drilling tools for two facet HSSCo and four facet...

  14. 3D Finite Element Modelling of Drilling Process of Al2024-T3 Alloy with solid tooling and Experimental Validation

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    Drilling is an indispensable process for many manufacturing industries due to the importance of the process for assembling components. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for drilling process of aluminum 2024-T3. The 3D model of tool for two facet HSSCo and four facet...

  15. Learning Action Models: Qualitative Approach

    Bolander, T.; Gierasimczuk, N.; van der Hoek, W.; Holliday, W.H.; Wang, W.-F.


    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite

  16. The finite element method for the global gravity field modelling

    Kollár, Michal; Macák, Marek; Mikula, Karol; Minarechová, Zuzana


    We present a finite element approach for solving the fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem on a global level. To that goal, we have defined the computational domain bounded by the real topography and a chosen satellite level. The boundary-value problem consists of the Laplace equation for the disturbing potential and the Neumann boundary condition given by the gravity disturbances applied on the bottom boundary, and the Dirichlet boundary condition given by the disturbing potential applied on the upper boundary. Afterwards, the computational domain is meshed with several different meshes chosen to avoid the problem of simple spherical meshes that contain a singularity at poles. Our aim has been to show how the right mesh can improve results as well as significantly reduce the computational time. The practical implementation has been done in the FEM software ANSYS using 3D linear elements SOLID70 and for solving the linear system of equations, the preconditioned conjugate gradients method has been chosen. The obtained disturbing potential has been applied to calculate the geopotential value W0.

  17. Three-dimensional finite element models of the human pubic symphysis with viscohyperelastic soft tissues.

    Li, Zuoping; Alonso, Jorge E; Kim, Jong-Eun; Davidson, James S; Etheridge, Brandon S; Eberhardt, Alan W


    Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of human pubic symphyses were constructed from computed tomography image data of one male and one female cadaver pelvis. The pubic bones, interpubic fibrocartilaginous disc and four pubic ligaments were segmented semi-automatically and meshed with hexahedral elements using automatic mesh generation schemes. A two-term viscoelastic Prony series, determined by curve fitting results of compressive creep experiments, was used to model the rate-dependent effects of the interpubic disc and the pubic ligaments. Three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin material coefficients were calculated for the discs using a heuristic FE approach based on average experimental joint compression data. Similarly, a transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model was applied to the ligaments to capture average tensile responses. Linear elastic isotropic properties were assigned to bone. The applicability of the resulting models was tested in bending simulations in four directions and in tensile tests of varying load rates. The model-predicted results correlated reasonably with the joint bending stiffnesses and rate-dependent tensile responses measured in experiments, supporting the validity of the estimated material coefficients and overall modeling approach. This study represents an important and necessary step in the eventual development of biofidelic pelvis models to investigate symphysis response under high-energy impact conditions, such as motor vehicle collisions.

  18. Current approaches to model extracellular electrical neural microstimulation

    Sébastien eJoucla


    Full Text Available Nowadays, high-density microelectrode arrays provide unprecedented possibilities to precisely activate spatially well-controlled central nervous system (CNS areas. However, this requires optimizing stimulating devices, which in turn requires a good understanding of the effects of microstimulation on cells and tissues. In this context, modeling approaches provide flexible ways to predict the outcome of electrical stimulation in terms of CNS activation. In this paper, we present state-of-the-art modeling methods with sufficient details to allow the reader to rapidly build numerical models of neuronal extracellular microstimulation. These include 1 the computation of the electrical potential field created by the stimulation in the tissue, and 2 the response of a target neuron to this field. Two main approaches are described: First we describe the classical hybrid approach that combines the finite element modeling of the potential field with the calculation of the neuron’s response in a cable equation framework (compartmentalized neuron models. Then, we present a whole finite element approach allows the simultaneous calculation of the extracellular and intracellular potentials, by representing the neuronal membrane with a thin-film approximation. This approach was previously introduced in the frame of neural recording, but has never been implemented to determine the effect of extracellular stimulation on the neural response at a sub-compartment level. Here, we show on an example that the latter modeling scheme can reveal important sub-compartment behavior of the neural membrane that cannot be resolved using the hybrid approach. The goal of this paper is also to describe in detail the practical implementation of these methods to allow the reader to easily build new models using standard software packages. These modeling paradigms, depending on the situation, should help build more efficient high-density neural prostheses for CNS rehabilitation.

  19. A surrogate approach to study the evolution of noncoding DNA elements that organize eukaryotic genomes.

    Vermaak, Danielle; Bayes, Joshua J; Malik, Harmit S


    Comparative genomics provides a facile way to address issues of evolutionary constraint acting on different elements of the genome. However, several important DNA elements have not reaped the benefits of this new approach. Some have proved intractable to current day sequencing technology. These include centromeric and heterochromatic DNA, which are essential for chromosome segregation as well as gene regulation, but the highly repetitive nature of the DNA sequences in these regions make them difficult to assemble into longer contigs. Other sequences, like dosage compensation X chromosomal sites, origins of DNA replication, or heterochromatic sequences that encode piwi-associated RNAs, have proved difficult to study because they do not have recognizable DNA features that allow them to be described functionally or computationally. We have employed an alternate approach to the direct study of these DNA elements. By using proteins that specifically bind these noncoding DNAs as surrogates, we can indirectly assay the evolutionary constraints acting on these important DNA elements. We review the impact that such "surrogate strategies" have had on our understanding of the evolutionary constraints shaping centromeres, origins of DNA replication, and dosage compensation X chromosomal sites. These have begun to reveal that in contrast to the view that such structural DNA elements are either highly constrained (under purifying selection) or free to drift (under neutral evolution), some of them may instead be shaped by adaptive evolution and genetic conflicts (these are not mutually exclusive). These insights also help to explain why the same elements (e.g., centromeres and replication origins), which are so complex in some eukaryotic genomes, can be simple and well defined in other where similar conflicts do not exist.

  20. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Shurygin A. M.


    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  1. Finite element modeling of electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Wu, P. H.; Shu, Y. C.


    Finite element models are developed for designing electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters. They account for the consideration of common interface circuits such as the standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits, as well as complicated structural configurations such as arrays of piezoelectric oscillators. The idea is to replace the energy harvesting circuit by the proposed equivalent load impedance together with the capacitance of negative value. As a result, the proposed framework is capable of being implemented into conventional finite element solvers for direct system-level design without resorting to circuit simulators. The validation based on COMSOL simulations carried out for various interface circuits by the comparison with the standard modal analysis model. The framework is then applied to the investigation on how harvested power is reduced due to fabrication deviations in geometric and material properties of oscillators in an array system. Remarkably, it is found that for a standard array system with strong electromechanical coupling, the drop in peak power turns out to be insignificant if the optimal load is carefully chosen. The second application is to design broadband energy harvesting by developing array systems with suitable interface circuits. The result shows that significant broadband is observed for the parallel (series) connection of oscillators endowed with the parallel-SSHI (series-SSHI) circuit technique.

  2. Long Fibre Composite Modelling Using Cohesive User's Element

    Kozák, Vladislav; Chlup, Zdeněk


    The development glass matrix composites reinforced by unidirectional long ceramic fibre has resulted in a family of very perspective structural materials. The only disadvantage of such materials is relatively high brittleness at room temperature. The main micromechanisms acting as toughening mechanism are the pull out, crack bridging, matrix cracking. There are other mechanisms as crack deflection etc. but the primer mechanism is mentioned pull out which is governed by interface between fibre and matrix. The contribution shows a way how to predict and/or optimise mechanical behaviour of composite by application of cohesive zone method and write user's cohesive element into the FEM numerical package Abaqus. The presented results from numerical calculations are compared with experimental data. Crack extension is simulated by means of element extinction algorithms. The principal effort is concentrated on the application of the cohesive zone model with the special traction separation (bridging) law and on the cohesive zone modelling. Determination of micro-mechanical parameters is based on the combination of static tests, microscopic observations and numerical calibration procedures.

  3. A shell finite element model of the pelvic floor muscles.

    d'Aulignac, D; Martins, J A C; Pires, E B; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M Natal


    The pelvic floor gives support to the organs in the abdominal cavity. Using the dataset made public in (Janda et al. J. Biomech. (2003) 36(6), pp. 749-757), we have reconstructed the geometry of one of the most important parts of the pelvic floor, the levator ani, using NURB surfaces. Once the surface is triangulated, the corresponding mesh is used in a finite element analysis with shell elements. Based on the 3D behavior of the muscle we have constructed a shell that takes into account the direction of the muscle fibers and the incompressibility of the tissue. The constitutive model for the isotropic strain energy and the passive strain energy stored in the fibers is adapted from Humphrey's model for cardiac muscles. To this the active behavior of the skeletal muscle is added. We present preliminary results of a simulation of the levator ani muscle under pressure and with active contraction. This research aims at helping simulate the damages to the pelvic floor that can occur after childbirth.

  4. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    Monteiro, André O.


    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. An Application of Finite Element Modelling to Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

    R. Ramasamy


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to introduce and to give an overview of the Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs as a whole and to discuss its numerical modelling, using the Finite Element (FE Method. Thus, more information to understand on its behaviour in generating force for actuation was obtained. The construction of PAMs was mainly consists of flexible, inflatable membranes which having orthotropic material behaviour. The main properties influencing the PAMs will be explained in terms of their load-carrying capacity and low weight in assembly. Discussion on their designs and capacity to function as locomotion device in robotics applications will be laid out, followed by FE modelling to represent PAMs overall structural behaviour under any potential operational conditions.


    Hasan YILDIZ


    Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.


    Maria Paola Mazzeo


    Full Text Available In a previous paper we outlined a geometric model for the thermodynamic description of extrinsic semiconductors with defects of dislocation.Applying a geometrization technique, within the rationalextended irreversible thermodynamics with internal variables, the dynamical system for simple material elements of these media, the expressions of the entropy function and the entropy 1-form were obtained. In this contribution we deepen the study of this geometric model. We give a detailed description of the defective media under consideration and of the dislocation core tensor, we introduce the transformation induced by the process and, applying the closure conditions for the entropy 1-form, we derive the necessary conditions for the existence of the entropy function. These and other results are new in the paper.The derivation of the relevant entropy 1-form is the starting point to introduce an extended thermodynamical phase space.

  8. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Ross, H. Richard


    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  9. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina


    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning......In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...

  10. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.


    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical

  11. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.


    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notio

  12. Model based feature fusion approach

    Schwering, P.B.W.


    In recent years different sensor data fusion approaches have been analyzed and evaluated in the field of mine detection. In various studies comparisons have been made between different techniques. Although claims can be made for advantages for using certain techniques, until now there has been no si

  13. Electroencephalography (EEG) Forward Modeling via H(div) Finite Element Sources with Focal Interpolation

    Pursiainen, Sampsa; Wolters, Carsten H


    The goal of this study is to develop focal, accurate and robust finite element method (FEM) based approaches which can predict the electric potential on the surface of the computational domain given its structure and internal primary source current distribution. While conducting an EEG evaluation, the placement of source currents to the geometrically complex grey matter compartment is a challenging but necessary task to avoid forward errors attributable to tissue conductivity jumps. Here, this task is approached via a mathematically rigorous formulation, in which the current field is modeled via divergence conforming H(div) basis functions. Both linear and quadratic functions are used while the potential field is discretized via the standard linear Lagrangian (nodal) basis. The resulting model includes dipolar sources which are interpolated into a random set of positions and orientations utilizing two alternative approaches: the position based optimization (PBO) and the mean position/orientation (MPO) method....

  14. General and efficient parallel approach of finite element-boundary integral-multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Pan Xiaomin; Sheng Xinqing


    A general and efficient parallel approach is proposed for the first time to parallelize the hybrid finite-element-boundary-integral-multi-level fast multipole algorithm (FE-BI-MLFMA). Among many algorithms of FE-BI-MLFMA, the decomposition algorithm (DA) is chosen as a basis for the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA because of its distinct numerical characteristics suitable for parallelization. On the basis of the DA, the parallelization of FE-BI-MLFMA is carried out by employing the parallelized multi-frontal method for the matrix from the finite-element method and the parallelized MLFMA for the matrix from the boundary integral method respectively. The programming and numerical experiments of the proposed parallel approach are carried out in the high perfor-mance computing platform CEMS-Liuhui. Numerical experiments demonstrate that FE-BI-MLFMA is efficiently parallelized and its computational capacity is greatly improved without losing accuracy, efficiency, and generality.

  15. Finite element model for linear-elastic mixed mode loading using adaptive mesh strategy


    An adaptive mesh finite element model has been developed to predict the crack propagation direction as well as to calculate the stress intensity factors (SIFs), under linear-elastic assumption for mixed mode loading application. The finite element mesh is generated using the advancing front method. In order to suit the requirements of the fracture analysis, the generation of the background mesh and the construction of singular elements have been added to the developed program. The adaptive remeshing process is carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. Previous works of the authors have proposed techniques for adaptive mesh generation of 2D cracked models. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the SIF. The fracture is modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The SIFs values for two different case studies were estimated and validated by direct comparisons with other researchers work.

  16. Infill architecture: Design approaches for in-between buildings and 'bond' as integrative element

    Alfirević Đorđe


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the view that the two key elements in achieving good quality of architecture infill in immediate, current surroundings, are the selection of optimal creative method of infill architecture and adequate application of 'the bond' as integrative element, The success of achievement and the quality of architectural infill mainly depend on the assessment of various circumstances, but also on the professionalism, creativity, sensibility, and finally innovativeness of the architect, In order for the infill procedure to be carried out adequately, it is necessary to carry out the assessment of quality of the current surroundings that the object will be integrated into, and then to choose the creative approach that will allow the object to establish an optimal dialogue with its surroundings, On a wider scale, both theory and the practice differentiate thee main creative approaches to infill objects: amimetic approach (mimesis, bassociative approach and ccontrasting approach, Which of the stated approaches will be chosen depends primarily on the fact whether the existing physical structure into which the object is being infilled is 'distinct', 'specific' or 'indistinct', but it also depends on the inclination of the designer, 'The bond' is a term which in architecture denotes an element or zone of one object, but in some instances it can refer to the whole object which has been articulated in a specific way, with an aim of reaching the solution for the visual conflict as is often the case in situations when there is a clash between the existing objects and the newly designed or reconstructed object, This paper provides in-depth analysis of different types of bonds, such as 'direction as bond', 'cornice as bond', 'structure as bond', 'texture as bond' and 'material as bond', which indicate complexity and multiple layers of the designing process of object interpolation.

  17. A reciprocal space approach for locating symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps

    Hendrixson, T.


    A method for determining the location and possible existence of symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps has been developed. A comparison of the original superposition map and a superposition map operated on by the symmetry element gives possible translations to the location of the symmetry element. A reciprocal space approach using structure factor-like quantities obtained from the Fourier transform of the superposition function is then used to determine the best'' location of the symmetry element. Constraints based upon the space group requirements are also used as a check on the locations. The locations of the symmetry elements are used to modify the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition function to give an approximation of the structure factors, which are then refined using the EG relation. The analysis of several compounds using this method is presented. Reciprocal space techniques for locating multiple images in the superposition function are also presented, along with methods to remove the effect of multiple images in the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition map. In addition, crystallographic studies of the extended chain structure of (NHC{sub 5}H{sub 5})SbI{sub 4} and of the twinning method of the orthorhombic form of the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} are presented. 54 refs.

  18. The implant neck: smooth or provided with retention elements. A biomechanical approach.

    Hansson, S


    A combined three-dimensional and axisymmetric finite element analysis was made of the effect upon the peak interfacial shear stress of providing an axially loaded mandibular dental implant with retention elements all the way up to the crest of the implant as opposed to a smooth neck. The effect of increased wall thickness of the implant and of using bi-cortical fixation as opposed to uni-cortical fixation was also studied. Retention elements at the implant neck were found to bring about a major decrease in the peak interfacial shear stress. Increased wall thickness and bi-cortical fixation also resulted in decreased peak interfacial shear stress but this effect was minor. The interpretation of this was that all these three measures increase the capacity of the implant to carry axial loads. Thus from a biomechanical viewpoint it appears to be advantageous to provide the neck of screw-shaped implants with retention elements, for example a rough surface of suitable micro-architecture and/or a micro-thread. It is furthermore suggested that retention elements at the implant neck will counteract marginal bone resorption in accordance with Wolff's law. This paper is a revision of: Hansson, S. (1997) Some steps to improve the capacity of dental implants to resist axial loads. In: Hansson, S., ed. Towards an optimized dental implant and implant bridge design: A biomechanical approach. Thesis. Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology.

  19. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Dale, Michael


    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  20. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    Crystal, Jonathon D


    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  1. Finite element code development for modeling detonation of HMX composites

    Duran, Adam V.; Sundararaghavan, Veera


    In this work, we present a hydrodynamics code for modeling shock and detonation waves in HMX. A stable efficient solution strategy based on a Taylor-Galerkin finite element (FE) discretization was developed to solve the reactive Euler equations. In our code, well calibrated equations of state for the solid unreacted material and gaseous reaction products have been implemented, along with a chemical reaction scheme and a mixing rule to define the properties of partially reacted states. A linear Gruneisen equation of state was employed for the unreacted HMX calibrated from experiments. The JWL form was used to model the EOS of gaseous reaction products. It is assumed that the unreacted explosive and reaction products are in both pressure and temperature equilibrium. The overall specific volume and internal energy was computed using the rule of mixtures. Arrhenius kinetics scheme was integrated to model the chemical reactions. A locally controlled dissipation was introduced that induces a non-oscillatory stabilized scheme for the shock front. The FE model was validated using analytical solutions for SOD shock and ZND strong detonation models. Benchmark problems are presented for geometries in which a single HMX crystal is subjected to a shock condition.

  2. Three Case Studies in Finite Element Model Updating

    M. Imregun


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the basic formulation of two well-established finite element model (FEM updating techniques for improved dynamic analysis, namely the response function method (RFM and the inverse eigensensitivity method (IESM. Emphasis is placed on the similarities in their mathematical formulation, numerical treatment, and on the uniqueness of the resulting updated models. Three case studies that include welded L-plate specimens, a car exhaust system, and a highway bridge were examined in some detail and measured vibration data were used throughout the investigation. It was experimentally observed that significant dynamic behavior discrepancies existed between some of the nominally identical structures, a feature that makes the task of model updating even more difficult because no unequivocal reference data exist in this particular case. Although significant improvements were obtained in all cases where the updating of the FE model was possible, it was found that the success of the updated models depended very heavily on the parameters used, such as the selection and number of the frequency points for RFM, and the selection of modes and the balancing of the sensitivity matrix for IESM. Finally, the performance of the two methods was compared from general applicability, numerical stability, and computational effort standpoints.

  3. Calibration under uncertainty for finite element models of masonry monuments

    Atamturktur, Sezer,; Hemez, Francois,; Unal, Cetin


    Historical unreinforced masonry buildings often include features such as load bearing unreinforced masonry vaults and their supporting framework of piers, fill, buttresses, and walls. The masonry vaults of such buildings are among the most vulnerable structural components and certainly among the most challenging to analyze. The versatility of finite element (FE) analyses in incorporating various constitutive laws, as well as practically all geometric configurations, has resulted in the widespread use of the FE method for the analysis of complex unreinforced masonry structures over the last three decades. However, an FE model is only as accurate as its input parameters, and there are two fundamental challenges while defining FE model input parameters: (1) material properties and (2) support conditions. The difficulties in defining these two aspects of the FE model arise from the lack of knowledge in the common engineering understanding of masonry behavior. As a result, engineers are unable to define these FE model input parameters with certainty, and, inevitably, uncertainties are introduced to the FE model.

  4. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea.

    Irene Simonini

    Full Text Available To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK.Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea.Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP.Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK. Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery.

  5. Vibration Response of Multi Storey Building Using Finite Element Modelling

    Chik, T. N. T.; Zakaria, M. F.; Remali, M. A.; Yusoff, N. A.


    Interaction between building, type of foundation and the geotechnical parameter of ground may trigger a significant effect on the building. In general, stiffer foundations resulted in higher natural frequencies of the building-soil system and higher input frequencies are often associated with other ground. Usually, vibrations transmitted to the buildings by ground borne are often noticeable and can be felt. It might affect the building and become worse if the vibration level is not controlled. UTHM building is prone to the ground borne vibration due to closed distance from the main road, and the construction activities adjacent to the buildings. This paper investigates the natural frequency and vibration mode of multi storey office building with the presence of foundation system and comparison between both systems. Finite element modelling (FEM) package software of LUSAS is used to perform the vibration analysis of the building. The building is modelled based on the original plan with the foundation system on the structure model. The FEM results indicated that the structure which modelled with rigid base have high natural frequency compare to the structure with foundation system. These maybe due to soil structure interaction and also the damping of the system which related to the amount of energy dissipated through the foundation soil. Thus, this paper suggested that modelling with soil is necessary to demonstrate the soil influence towards vibration response to the structure.

  6. Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect

    Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan


    When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future.

  7. Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model for Manufacturing Costs Estimation of Piping Elements

    Nibaldo Rodriguez


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an estimation model of manufacturing costs of piping elements through the application of a Reduced Multivariate Polynomial (RMP. The model allows obtaining accurate estimations, even when enough and adequate information is not available. This situation typically occurs in the early stages of the design process of industrial products. The experimental evaluations show that the approach is capable, with a low complexity, of reducing uncertainties and to predict costs with significant precision. Comparisons with a neural network showed also that the RMP performs better considering a set of classical performance measures with the corresponding lower complexity and higher accuracy.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow: Coupling Finite Elements with Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas


    A variational multi scale approach to model blood flow through arteries is proposed. A finite element discretization to represent the coarse scales (macro size), is coupled to smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that captures the fine scale features (micro scale). Blood is assumed to be incompressible, and flow is described through the Navier Stokes equation. The proposed cou- pling is tested with two benchmark problems, in fully coupled systems. Further refinements of the model can be incorporated in order to explicitly include blood constituents and non-Newtonian behavior. The suggested algorithm can be used with any particle-based method able to solve the Navier-Stokes equation.


    Grzegorz SZALA


    Full Text Available In the paper there was attempted to analyse models of fatigue life curves possible to apply in calculations of fatigue life of machine elements. The analysis was limited to fatigue life curves in stress approach enabling cyclic stresses from the range of low cycle fatigue (LCF, high cycle fatigue (HCF, fatigue limit (FL and giga cycle fatigue (GCF appearing in the loading spectrum at the same time. Chosen models of the analysed fatigue live curves will be illustrated with test results of steel and aluminium alloys.

  10. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Combining Artificial Intelligence and Finite Element Method

    Quiza, Ramón; Davim, J Paulo


    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and the finite element method (FEM) are both powerful computing tools, which are extensively used for modeling and optimizing manufacturing processes. The combination of these tools has resulted in a new flexible and robust approach as several recent studies have shown. This book aims to review the work already done in this field as well as to expose the new possibilities and foreseen trends. The book is expected to be useful for postgraduate students and researchers, working in the area of modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  11. A POMDP approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Keller, E.; Marinaro, M.; Bratanic, M.


    We propose a novel approach to developing a dialogue model that is able to take into account some aspects of the user's affective state and to act appropriately. Our dialogue model uses a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process approach with observations composed of the observed user's

  12. The chronic diseases modelling approach

    Hoogenveen RT; Hollander AEM de; Genugten MLL van; CCM


    A mathematical model structure is described that can be used to simulate the changes of the Dutch public health state over time. The model is based on the concept of demographic and epidemiologic processes (events) and is mathematically based on the lifetable method. The population is divided over s

  13. Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

    McWilliam, Michael K.; Crawford, Curran


    This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane.

  14. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina


    identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power......—they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...

  15. Finite element analysis of nano-scale Timoshenko beams using the integral model of nonlocal elasticity

    Norouzzadeh, A.; Ansari, R.


    Stress-strain relation in Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory was originally formulated within the framework of an integral model. Due to difficulty of working with that integral model, the differential model of nonlocal constitutive equation is widely used for nanostructures. However, paradoxical results may be obtained by the differential model for some boundary and loading conditions. Presented in this article is a finite element analysis of Timoshenko nano-beams based on the integral model of nonlocal continuum theory without employing any simplification in the model. The entire procedure of deriving equations of motion is carried out in the matrix form of representation, and hence, they can be easily used in the finite element analysis. For comparison purpose, the differential counterparts of equations are also derived. To study the outcome of analysis based on the integral and differential models, some case studies are presented in which the influences of boundary conditions, nonlocal length scale parameter and loading factor are analyzed. It is concluded that, in contrast to the differential model, there is no paradox in the numerical results of developed integral model of nonlocal continuum theory for different situations of problem characteristics. So, resolving the mentioned paradoxes by means of a purely numerical approach based on the original integral form of nonlocal elasticity theory is the major contribution of present study.

  16. Dynamic modeling and analysis of the PZT-bonded composite Timoshenko beams: Spectral element method

    Lee, Usik; Kim, Daehwan; Park, Ilwook


    The health of thin laminated composite beams is often monitored using the ultrasonic guided waves excited by wafer-type piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Thus, for the smart composite beams which consist of a laminated composite base beam and PZT layers, it is very important to develop a very reliable mathematical model and to use a very accurate computational method to predict accurate dynamic characteristics at very high ultrasonic frequency. In this paper, the axial-bending-shear-lateral contraction coupled differential equations of motion are derived first by the Hamilton's principle with Lagrange multipliers. The smart composite beam is represented by a Timoshenko beam model by adopting the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the laminated composite base beam. The axial deformation of smart composite beam is improved by taking into account the effects of lateral contraction by adopting the concept of Mindlin-Herrmann rod theory. The spectral element model is then formulated by the variation approach from coupled differential equations of motion transformed into the frequency domain via the discrete Fourier transform. The high accuracy of the present spectral element model is verified by comparing with other solution methods: the finite element model developed in this paper and the commercial FEA package ANSYS. Finally the dynamics and wave characteristics of some example smart composite beams are investigated through the numerical studies.

  17. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera

    Xu Jia


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function. Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies.

  18. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera.

    Jia, Xu; Liao, Shenghui; Duan, Xuanchu; Zheng, Wanqiu; Zou, Beiji


    Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function. Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies.

  19. Numerical modeling of rock fracture and fragmentation under impact loading using discrete element method

    Enan Chi


    Full Text Available The fracture and fragmentation of rock materials are basic and important problem in geomechanics and blasting engineering. An approach, which can simulate the process of fracture and fragmentation of rock materials, is introduced in this work. A beam–particle model is first introduced in the frame of the discrete element method. In the beam–particle model, the neighboring elements are connected by beams. Consequently, a beam network is formed in the particle system. The strength characteristics of rock materials are reflected by the beam network. The strength criterion was then built to verify whether a beam exists or not. The process of rock fracture and fragmentation is described by the gradual disappearance of beams. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Patella Alta: A Patellofemoral Instability Model

    Duchman, Kyle R.; Grosland, Nicole M.; Bollier, Matthew J.


    Abstract Background: This study aims to provide biomechanical data on the effect of patella height in the setting of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using finite element analysis. The study will also examine patellofemoral joint biomechanics using variable femoral insertion sites for MPFL reconstruction. Methods: A previously validated finite element knee model was modified to study patella alta and baja by translating the patella a given distance to achieve each patella height ratio. Additionally, the models were modified to study various femoral insertion sites of the MPFL (anatomic, anterior, proximal, and distal) for each patella height model, resulting in 32 unique scenarios available for investigation. Results: In the setting of patella alta, the patellofemoral contact area decreased, resulting in a subsequent increase in maximum patellofemoral contact pressures as compared to the scenarios with normal patellar height. Additionally, patella alta resulted in decreased lateral restraining forces in the native knee scenario as well as following MPFL reconstruction. Changing femoral insertion sites had a variable effect on patellofemoral contact pressures; however, distal and anterior femoral tunnel malpositioning in the setting of patella alta resulted in grossly elevated maximum patellofemoral contact pressures as compared to other scenarios. Conclusions: Patella alta after MPFL reconstruction results in decreased lateral restraining forces and patellofemoral contact area and increased maximum patellofemoral contact pressures. When the femoral MPFL tunnel is malpositioned anteriorly or distally on the femur, the maximum patellofemoral contact pressures increase with severity of patella alta. Clinical Relevance: When evaluating patients with patellofemoral instability, it is important to recognize patella alta as a potential aggravating factor. Failure to address patella alta in the setting of MPFL femoral tunnel malposition may result in

  1. Use of Elements of the Stewart Model (Strong Ion Approach) - SID3, SID4, Atot/A-, SIDe and SIG for the Diagnostics of Respiratory Acidosis in Brachycephalic Dogs.

    Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G; Sobieraj, B


    Buffer systems of blood and tissues, which have the ability to bind with and give up hydrogen ions, participate in maintaining the acid-base balance (ABB) of the organism. According to the classic model, the system of carbonic acid and bicarbonates, where the first component serves the role of an acid and the second a base, determines plasma pH. The so-called Stewart model, which assumes that ions in blood serum can be separated into completely dissociated - nonbuffer and not dissociated - buffer ions which may give up or accept H+ions, also describes the ABB of the organism. The goal of the study was to find out whether, during respiratory acidosis, the values of SID3, SID4, Atot/A-, SIDe and SIG change. The study was carried out on 60 adult dogs of the boxer breed (32 males and 28 females) in which, on the basis of an arterial blood test, respiratory acidosis was found. A strong overgrowth of the soft palate tissue requiring a surgical correction was the cause of the ABB disorder. Prior to surgery and on the 14th day after the surgery, venous and arterial blood was drawn from each dog. ABB parameters were determined in the arterial blood sample: the blood pH, pCO2 and HCO3-. In the venous blood, concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate-, albumins, and Pinorganic was determined. On the basis of the obtained data, the values of SID3, SID4, SIDe, A- and SIG, before and after the surgery, were calculated. In spite of the fact that the average concentration of ions, albumins, Pinorganic and lactate in the blood serum of dogs before and after the surgical procedure was similar and within the physiological norms, the values of SID3, SIDe and SIG, calculated on the basis of the former, displayed statistically significant differences. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be stated that the values of SID3, SIDe and SIG change during respiratory acidosis and may be helpful in the diagnostics of ABB disorders in brachycephalic dogs.

  2. A methodology to ensure local mass conservation for porous media models under finite element formulations based on convex optimization

    Chang, J.; Nakshatrala, K.


    It is well know that the standard finite element methods, in general, do not satisfy element-wise mass/species balance properties. It is, however, desirable to have element-wide mass balance property in subsurface modeling. Several studies over the years have aimed to overcome this drawback of finite element formulations. Currently, a post-processing optimization-based methodology is commonly employed to recover the local mass balance for porous media models. However, such a post-processing technique does not respect the underlying variational structure that the finite element formulation may enjoy. Motivated by this, a consistent methodology to satisfy element-wise local mass balance for porous media models is constructed using convex optimization techniques. The assembled system of global equations is reconstructed into a quadratic programming problem subjected to bounded equality constraints that ensure conservation at the element level. The proposed methodology can be applied to any computational mesh and to any non-locally conservative nodal-based finite element method. Herein, we integrate our proposed methodology into the framework of the classical mixed Galerkin formulation using Taylor-Hood elements and the least-squares finite element formulation. Our numerical studies will include computational cost, numerical convergence, and comparision with popular methods. In particular, it will be shown that the accuracy of the solutions is comparable with that of several popular locally conservative finite element formulations like the lowest order Raviart-Thomas formulation. We believe the proposed optimization-based approach is a viable approach to preserve local mass balance on general computational grids and is amenable for large-scale parallel implementation.

  3. A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger


    of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we......SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal...

  4. A Quantitative Model-Driven Comparison of Command Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model


    12TH ICCRTS “Adapting C2 to the 21st Century” A Quantitative Model-Driven Comparison of Command Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model Tracks...Lenahan2 identified metrics and techniques for adversarial C2 process modeling . We intend to further that work by developing a set of adversarial process ...Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  5. Towards GLUE2 evolution of the computing element information model

    Andreozzi, S; Field, L; Kónya, B


    A key advantage of Grid systems is the ability to share heterogeneous resources and services between traditional administrative and organizational domains. This ability enables virtual pools of resources to be created and assigned to groups of users. Resource awareness, the capability of users or user agents to have knowledge about the existence and state of resources, is required in order utilize the resource. This awareness requires a description of the services and resources typically defined via a community-agreed information model. One of the most popular information models, used by a number of Grid infrastructures, is the GLUE Schema, which provides a common language for describing Grid resources. Other approaches exist, however they follow different modeling strategies. The presence of different flavors of information models for Grid resources is a barrier for enabling inter-Grid interoperability. In order to solve this problem, the GLUE Working Group in the context of the Open Grid Forum was started. ...

  6. Discrete Element Crowd Model for Pedestrian Evacuation Through an Exit

    Lin, Peng; Lo, Siuming


    A series of accidents caused by crowd within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which human body is simplified as self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of human body is simulated by applying the second Newton's law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the velocity of desired is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6m/s or above, leading to fas...

  7. Finite element based model of parchment coffee drying

    Preeda Prakotmak


    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer in the parchment coffee during convective drying represents a complicated phenomena since it is important to consider not only the transport phenomena during drying but also the various changes of the drying materials. In order to describe drying of biomaterials adequately, a suitable mathematical model is needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a 3-D finite element model to simulate the transport of heat and mass within parchment coffee during the thin layer drying. Thin layer drying experiments of coffee bean and parchment coffee were conducted in the temperature range of 40-60o C, the relative humidity ranged from 14 to 28% and drying air velocity of 1.4 m/s. The moisture diffusivities in different coffee’s components (parchment and coffee bean were determined by minimizing the RMSE between the predicted and the experimental data of moisture contents. The simulated results showed that the moisture diffusivities of coffee bean were three orders of magnitude higher than those of the parchment. Moisture diffusivities of coffee components were found to significantly increase (P<0.05 with the increase in drying air temperature and were expressed by Arrhenius-type equations. Moreover, the model was also used to predict the moisture gradient in coffee bean during drying. The model simulates the moisture contents in different components of parchment coffee well and it provides a better understanding of the transport processes in the different components of the parchment coffee

  8. Discrete element modelling of sediment falling in water.

    Wang, Dong; Ho-Minh, Dao; Tan, Danielle S


    The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a discrete, particle-based method commonly used in studies involving granular media, e.g. sediment transport, and geomechanics. It is heavily dependent on particle properties, and one important component is the force model, which relates the relative positions and velocities of the simulated particles to the forces they experience. In this paper we model a collection of lightly compacted granular material, released at a short distance above a flat base in a quiescent fluid --similar to the process whereby sediment tailings are released back into the sea during nodule harvesting. We employ different typical force models, and consider how their varying components affect the simulated outcome. The results are compared with a physical experiment of similar dimensions. We find that a realistic simulation is achieved when the force model considers the local solid fraction in the drag force, and incorporates the hydrodynamic effect of neighbouring particles. The added mass effect increases the accuracy of the outcome, but does not contribute significantly in a qualitative sense.

  9. A finite element model for thermomechanical analysis in casting processes

    Celentano, D. (International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering, E.T.S. d' Enginyers de Camins, Canals i Ports, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)); Oller, S. (International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering, E.T.S. d' Enginyers de Camins, Canals i Ports, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)); Onate, E. (International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering, E.T.S. d' Enginyers de Camins, Canals i Ports, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain))


    This paper summarizes the recent work of the authors in the numerical simulation of casting processes. In particular, a coupled thermomechanical model to simulate the solidification problem in casting has been developed. The model, based on a general isotropic thermoelasto-plasticity theory and formulated in a macroscopical point of view, includes generalized phase-change effects and considers the different thermomechanical behaviour of the solidifying material during its evolution from liquid to solid. For this purpose, a phase-change variable, plastic evolution equations and a temperature-dependent material constitutive law have been defined. Some relevant aspects of this model are presented here. Full thermomechanical coupling terms have been considered as well as variable thermal and mechanical boundary conditions: the first are due to air gap formation, while the second involve a contact formulation. Particular details concerning the numerical implementation of this model are also mentioned. An enhanced staggered scheme, used to solve the highly non-linear fully coupled finite element equations, is proposed. Furthermore, a proper convergence criterion to stop the iteration process is adopted and, although the quadratic convergence of Newton-Rapshon's method is not achieved, several numerical experiments demonstrate reasonable convergence rates. Finally, an experimental cylindrical casting test problem, including phase-change phenomena, temperature-dependent constitutive properties and contact effects, is analyzed. Numerical results are compared with some laboratory measurements. (orig.).

  10. Discrete element crowd model for pedestrian evacuation through an exit

    Peng, Lin; Jian, Ma; Siuming, Lo


    A series of accidents caused by crowds within the last decades evoked a lot of scientific interest in modeling the movement of pedestrian crowds. Based on the discrete element method, a granular dynamic model, in which the human body is simplified as a self-driven sphere, is proposed to simulate the characteristics of crowd flow through an exit. In this model, the repulsive force among people is considered to have an anisotropic feature, and the physical contact force due to body deformation is quantified by the Hertz contact model. The movement of the human body is simulated by applying the second Newton’s law. The crowd flow through an exit at different desired velocities is studied and simulation results indicated that crowd flow exhibits three distinct states, i.e., smooth state, transition state and phase separation state. In the simulation, the clogging phenomenon occurs more easily when the desired velocity is high and the exit may as a result be totally blocked at a desired velocity of 1.6 m/s or above, leading to faster-to-frozen effect. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71473207, 51178445, and 71103148), the Research Grant Council, Government of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU119011), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014CX103 and 2682014RC05).

  11. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)


    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  12. A Model for Siderophile Element Distribution in Planetary Differentiation

    Humayun, M.; Rushmer, T.; Rankenburg, K.; Brandon, A. D.


    Planetary differentiation begins with partial melting of small planetesimals. At low degrees of partial melting, a sulfur-rich liquid segregates by physical mechanisms including deformation-assisted porous flow. Experimental studies of the physical mechanisms by which Fe-S melts segregate from the silicate matrix of a molten H chondrite are part of a companion paper. Geochemical studies of these experimental products revealed that metallic liquids were in equilibrium with residual metal in the H chondrite matrix. This contribution explores the geochemical signatures produced by early stages of core formation. Particularly, low-degree partial melt segregation of Fe-S liquids leaves residual metal in the silicate matrix. Some achondrites appear to be residues of partial melting, e.g., ureilites, which are known to contain metal. The metal in these achondrites may show a distinct elemental signature. To quantify the effect of sulfur on siderophile element contents of residual metal we have developed a model based on recent parametrizations of equilibrium solid metal-liquid metal partitioning experiments.

  13. Analytical approach using KS elements to near-earth orbit predictions including drag

    Sharma, Ram Krishnan


    An analytical theory for the motion of near-earth satellite orbits with the air drag effect is evolved in terms of the KS elements, using an analytical oblate exponential atmospheric density model. Due to the symmetry of the KS element equations, only one of the eight equations is integrated analytically to acquire the state vector at the close of each revolution. In the numerical studies performed, it is shown that after 100 revolutions, with a ballistic coefficient of 50, a maximum difference of 39 meters is found in the semimajor axis comparison for a very small eccentricity (0.001) instance having an initial perigee height of 391.425 km.


    Eser ÖRDEM


    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to propose Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1998, 2002; Harwood, 2002 and a model for teaching Turkish as a foreign language so that this model can be used in classroom settings. This model was created by the researcher as a result of the studies carried out in applied linguistics (Hill, 20009 and memory (Murphy, 2004. Since one of the main problems of foreign language learners is to retrieve what they have learnt, Lewis (1998 and Wray (2008 assume that lexical approach is an alternative explanation to solve this problem.Unlike grammar translation method, this approach supports the idea that language is not composed of general grammar but strings of word and word combinations.In addition, lexical approach posits the idea that each word has tiw gramamtical properties, and therefore each dictionary is a potential grammar book. Foreign language learners can learn to use collocations, a basic principle of Lexical approach. Thus, learners can increase the level of retention.The concept of retrieval clue (Murphy, 2004 is considered the main element in this collocational study model because the main purpose of this model is boost fluency and help learners gain native-like accuracy while producing the target language. Keywords: Foreign language teaching, lexical approach, collocations, retrieval clue

  15. A three-dimensional finite element model for the mechanics of cell-cell interactions.

    Viens, Denis; Brodland, G Wayne


    Technical challenges, including significant ones associated with cell rearrangement, have hampered the development of three-dimensional finite element models for the mechanics of embryonic cells. These challenges have been overcome by a new formulation in which the contents of each cell, assumed to have a viscosity mu, are modeled using a system of orthogonal dashpots. This approach overcomes a stiffening artifact that affects more traditional models, in which space-filling viscous elements are used to model the cytoplasm. Cells are assumed to be polyhedral in geometry, and each n-sided polygonal face is subdivided into n triangles with a common node at the face center so that it needs not remain flat. A constant tension gamma is assumed to act along each cell-cell interface, and cell rearrangements occur through one of two complementary topological transformations. The formulation predicts mechanical interactions between pairs of similar or dissimilar cells that are consistent with experiments, two-dimensional simulations, contact angle theory, and intracellular pressure calculations. Simulations of the partial engulfment of one tissue type by another show that the formulation is able to model aggregates of several hundred cells without difficulty. Simulations carried out using this formulation suggest new experimental approaches for measuring cell surface tensions and interfacial tensions. The formulation holds promise as a tool for gaining insight into the mechanics of isolated or aggregated embryonic cells and for the design and interpretation of experiments that involve them.

  16. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    Ellegaard, Peter


    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... area over the joint lines. The finite-element model is based on the Foschi model, but with further improvements. After the theory of the model is described, results from experimental tests with two types of nail plate joints are compared with predictions given by the model. The model estimates...

  17. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi


    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell–cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure–distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  18. A new approach to dissolution testing by UV imaging and finite element simulations

    Bøtker, Johan Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas


    PURPOSE: Most dissolution testing systems rely on analyzing samples taken remotely from the dissolving sample surface at different time points with poor time resolution and therefore provide relatively unresolved temporally and spatially information on the dissolution process. In this study......, a flexible numerical model was combined with a novel UV imaging system, allowing monitoring of the dissolution process with sub second time resolution. METHODS: The dissolution process was monitored by both effluent collection and UV imaging of compacts of paracetamol. A finite element model (FEM) was used...... to characterize the UV imaging system. RESULTS: A finite element model of the UV imaging system was successfully built. The dissolution of paracetamol was studied by UV imaging and by analysis of the effluent. The dissolution rates obtained from the collected effluent were in good agreement with the numerical...

  19. Development and application of a three-dimensional finite element vapor intrusion model.

    Pennell, Kelly G; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M


    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings.

  20. Asteroid fragmentation approaches for modeling atmospheric energy deposition

    Register, Paul J.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Wheeler, Lorien F.


    During asteroid entry, energy is deposited in the atmosphere through thermal ablation and momentum-loss due to aerodynamic drag. Analytic models of asteroid entry and breakup physics are used to compute the energy deposition, which can then be compared against measured light curves and used to estimate ground damage due to airburst events. This work assesses and compares energy deposition results from four existing approaches to asteroid breakup modeling, and presents a new model that combines key elements of those approaches. The existing approaches considered include a liquid drop or "pancake" model where the object is treated as a single deforming body, and a set of discrete fragment models where the object breaks progressively into individual fragments. The new model incorporates both independent fragments and aggregate debris clouds to represent a broader range of fragmentation behaviors and reproduce more detailed light curve features. All five models are used to estimate the energy deposition rate versus altitude for the Chelyabinsk meteor impact, and results are compared with an observationally derived energy deposition curve. Comparisons show that four of the five approaches are able to match the overall observed energy deposition profile, but the features of the combined model are needed to better replicate both the primary and secondary peaks of the Chelyabinsk curve.

  1. Assembly Finite Element Models as a Basis to Save Time for Creating Spacecraft Detailed Thermal Mathematical Models

    D. S. Kulikov


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the role of mathematical modeling in thermal design at different stages of spacecraft development. It analyses the current state of the issue and the approach used to solve this problem in the aerospace industry. The paper suggests using the assembly finite elements models (AFEM for detailed thermal mathematical models (DTMM at the stages of conceptual design, production of technical documentation, and technology groundwork. It shows advantages of the proposed approach such as an increased productivity, a possibility of real-time correction of the thermal models and their reuse when designing the next generation of products or upgrading. There are the ways of creating finite element models of assemblies and their applicability in matters of a descending, ascending and combined thermal design styles. A honeycomb panel «+ Z», a part of the construction of small spacecraft "AIST-2D", is used, as an example, to consider the process of creating the assembly finite element model (AFEM in the software package Siemens NX.During the AFEM application tests when building the detailed thermal mathematical models of small spacecraft "AIST" and "AICT-2D" was revealed an essential feature inherent in the proposed technology that is a need to use thermal couplings because the meshes of various components do not involve a mate "node to node ".A test problem has been solved by analytical and numerical methods in order to verify the proper use of thermal couplings when building the detailed thermal mathematical models of small spacecraft. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been estimated in terms of saving time to create DTMM, with the benefit of hindsight of its use as applied to the functioning and newly developed small spacecraft.

  2. A finite element formulation for modeling dynamic wetting on flexible substrates and in deformable porous media.

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Cairncross, Richard A. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA); Madasu, S. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA)


    This report summarizes research advances pursued with award funding issued by the DOE to Drexel University through the Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) program. Professor Rich Cairncross was the recipient of this award in 1997. With it he pursued two related research topics under Sandia's guidance that address the outstanding issue of fluid-structural interactions of liquids with deformable solid materials, focusing mainly on the ubiquitous dynamic wetting problem. The project focus in the first four years was aimed at deriving a predictive numerical modeling approach for the motion of the dynamic contact line on a deformable substrate. A formulation of physical model equations was derived in the context of the Galerkin finite element method in an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The formulation was successfully integrated in Sandia's Goma finite element code and tested on several technologically important thin-film coating problems. The model equations, the finite-element implementation, and results from several applications are given in this report. In the last year of the five-year project the same physical concepts were extended towards the problem of capillary imbibition in deformable porous media. A synopsis of this preliminary modeling and experimental effort is also discussed.

  3. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled


    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  4. A Successive Selection Method for finite element model updating

    Gou, Baiyong; Zhang, Weijie; Lu, Qiuhai; Wang, Bo


    Finite Element (FE) model can be updated effectively and efficiently by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). However, it often involves performance trade-offs such as high computational cost for better accuracy or loss of efficiency for lots of design parameter updates. This paper proposes a Successive Selection Method (SSM), which is based on the linear Response Surface (RS) function and orthogonal design. SSM rewrites the linear RS function into a number of linear equations to adjust the Design of Experiment (DOE) after every FE calculation. SSM aims to interpret the implicit information provided by the FE analysis, to locate the Design of Experiment (DOE) points more quickly and accurately, and thereby to alleviate the computational burden. This paper introduces the SSM and its application, describes the solution steps of point selection for DOE in detail, and analyzes SSM's high efficiency and accuracy in the FE model updating. A numerical example of a simply supported beam and a practical example of a vehicle brake disc show that the SSM can provide higher speed and precision in FE model updating for engineering problems than traditional RSM.

  5. The language of worry: examining linguistic elements of worry models.

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet


    Despite strong evidence that worry is a verbal process, studies examining linguistic features in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are lacking. The aim of the present study is to investigate language use in individuals with GAD and controls based on GAD and worry theoretical models. More specifically, the degree to which linguistic elements of the avoidance and intolerance of uncertainty worry models can predict diagnostic status was analysed. Participants were 19 women diagnosed with GAD and 22 control women and their children. After participating in a diagnostic semi-structured interview, dyads engaged in a free-play interaction where mothers' language sample was collected. Overall, the findings provided evidence for distinctive linguistic features of individuals with GAD. That is, after controlling for the effect of demographic variables, present tense, future tense, prepositions and number of questions correctly classified those with GAD and controls such that a considerable amount of the variance in diagnostic status was explained uniquely by language use. Linguistic confirmation of worry models is discussed.

  6. Full Stokes finite-element modeling of ice sheets using a graphics processing unit

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.


    Thermo-mechanical simulation of ice sheets is an important approach to understand and predict their evolution in a changing climate. For that purpose, higher order (e.g., ISSM, BISICLES) and full Stokes (e.g., Elmer/Ice, models are increasingly used to more accurately model the flow of entire ice sheets. In parallel to this development, the rapidly improving performance and capabilities of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) allows to efficiently offload more calculations of complex and computationally demanding problems on those devices. Thus, in order to continue the trend of using full Stokes models with greater resolutions, using GPUs should be considered for the implementation of ice sheet models. We developed the GPU-accelerated ice-sheet model Sainō. Sainō is an Elmer ( derivative implemented in Objective-C which solves the full Stokes equations with the finite element method. It uses the standard OpenCL language ( to offload the assembly of the finite element matrix on the GPU. A mesh-coloring scheme is used so that elements with the same color (non-sharing nodes) are assembled in parallel on the GPU without the need for synchronization primitives. The current implementation shows that, for the ISMIP-HOM experiment A, during the matrix assembly in double precision with 8000, 87,500 and 252,000 brick elements, Sainō is respectively 2x, 10x and 14x faster than Elmer/Ice (when both models are run on a single processing unit). In single precision, Sainō is even 3x, 20x and 25x faster than Elmer/Ice. A detailed description of the comparative results between Sainō and Elmer/Ice will be presented, and further perspectives in optimization and the limitations of the current implementation.

  7. A global finite-element shallow-water model supporting continuous and discontinuous elements

    P. A. Ullrich


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel nodal finite element method for either continuous and discontinuous elements, as applied to the 2-D shallow-water equations on the cubed-sphere. The cornerstone of this method is the construction of a robust derivative operator which can be applied to compute discrete derivatives even over a discontinuous function space. A key advantage of the robust derivative is that it can be applied to partial differential equations in either conservative or non-conservative form. However, it is also shown that discontinuous penalization is required to recover the correct order of accuracy for discontinuous elements. Two versions with discontinuous elements are examined, using either the g1 and g2 flux correction function for distribution of boundary fluxes and penalty across nodal points. Scalar and vector hyperviscosity operators valid for both continuous and discontinuous elements are also derived for stabilization and removal of grid-scale noise. This method is validated using three standard shallow-water test cases, including geostrophically balanced flow, a mountain-induced Rossby wave train and a barotropic instability. The results show that although the discontinuous basis requires a smaller time step size than that required for continuous elements, the method exhibits better stability and accuracy properties in the absence of hyperviscosity.

  8. Szekeres models: a covariant approach

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S


    We exploit the 1+1+2 formalism to covariantly describe the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres models. It is shown that an \\emph{average scale length} can be defined \\emph{covariantly} which satisfies a 2d equation of motion driven from the \\emph{effective gravitational mass} (EGM) contained in the dust cloud. The contributions to the EGM are encoded to the energy density of the dust fluid and the free gravitational field $E_{ab}$. In addition the notions of the Apparent and Absolute Apparent Horizons are briefly discussed and we give an alternative gauge-invariant form to define them in terms of the kinematical variables of the spacelike congruences. We argue that the proposed program can be used in order to express the Sachs optical equations in a covariant form and analyze the confrontation of a spatially inhomogeneous irrotational overdense fluid model with the observational data.

  9. Matrix Model Approach to Cosmology

    Chaney, A; Stern, A


    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to matrix models, or more specifically the bosonic sector of Lorentzian IKKT-type matrix models, in dimensions $d$ less than ten, specifically $d=3$ and $d=5$. After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield $d-1$ dimensional space-time surfaces, with an attached Poisson structure, which can be associated with closed, open or static cosmologies. For $d=3$, we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a matrix resolution of cosmological singularities. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the $d=3$ soluti...

  10. Statistical Modeling for Wind-Temperature Meteorological Elements in Troposphere

    Virtser, A; Golbraikh, E


    A comprehensive statistical model for vertical profiles of the horizontal wind and temperature throughout the troposphere is presented. The model is based on radiosonde measurements of wind and temperature during several years. The profiles measured under quite different atmospheric conditions exhibit qualitative similarity, and a proper choice of the reference scales for the wind, temperature and altitude levels allows to consider the measurement data as realizations of a random process with universal characteristics: means, the basic functions and parameters of standard distributions for transform coefficients of the Principal Component Analysis. The features of the atmospheric conditions are described by statistical characteristics of the wind-temperature ensemble of dimensional reference scales. The high effectiveness of the proposed approach is provided by a similarity of wind - temperature vertical profiles, which allow to carry out the statistical modeling in the low-dimension space of the dimensional ...

  11. An electromechanical finite element model for piezoelectric energy harvester plates

    De Marqui Junior, Carlos; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel J.


    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been investigated by several researchers over the last decade. The goal in this research field is to power small electronic components by converting the waste vibration energy available in their environment into electrical energy. Recent literature shows that piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention for vibration-to-electricity conversion. In practice, cantilevered beams and plates with piezoceramic layers are employed as piezoelectric energy harvesters. The existing piezoelectric energy harvester models are beam-type lumped parameter, approximate distributed parameter and analytical distributed parameter solutions. However, aspect ratios of piezoelectric energy harvesters in several cases are plate-like and predicting the power output to general (symmetric and asymmetric) excitations requires a plate-type formulation which has not been covered in the energy harvesting literature. In this paper, an electromechanically coupled finite element (FE) plate model is presented for predicting the electrical power output of piezoelectric energy harvester plates. Generalized Hamilton's principle for electroelastic bodies is reviewed and the FE model is derived based on the Kirchhoff plate assumptions as typical piezoelectric energy harvesters are thin structures. Presence of conductive electrodes is taken into account in the FE model. The predictions of the FE model are verified against the analytical solution for a unimorph cantilever and then against the experimental and analytical results of a bimorph cantilever with a tip mass reported in the literature. Finally, an optimization problem is solved where the aluminum wing spar of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is modified to obtain a generator spar by embedding piezoceramics for the maximum electrical power without exceeding a prescribed mass addition limit.

  12. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Vampola T.


    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  13. On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model.

    Takhounts, Erik G; Eppinger, Rolf H; Campbell, J Quinn; Tannous, Rabih E; Power, Erik D; Shook, Lauren S


    The SIMon (Simulated Injury Monitor) software package is being developed to advance the interpretation of injury mechanisms based on kinematic and kinetic data measured in the advanced anthropomorphic test dummy (AATD) and applying the measured dummy response to the human mathematical models imbedded in SIMon. The human finite element head model (FEHM) within the SIMon environment is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional head kinematic data in the form of either a nine accelerometer array or three linear CG head accelerations combined with three angular velocities serves as an input to the model. Three injury metrics are calculated: Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) - a correlate for diffuse axonal injury (DAI); Dilatational damage measure (DDM) - to estimate the potential for contusions; and Relative motion damage measure (RMDM) - a correlate for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). During the development, the SIMon FEHM was tuned using cadaveric neutral density targets (NDT) data and further validated against the other available cadaveric NDT data and animal brain injury experiments. The hourglass control methods, integration schemes, mesh density, and contact stiffness penalty coefficient were parametrically altered to investigate their effect on the model's response. A set of numerical and physical parameters was established that allowed a satisfactory prediction of the motion of the brain with respect to the skull, when compared with the NDT data, and a proper separation of injury/no injury cases, when compared with the brain injury data. Critical limits for each brain injury metric were also established. Finally, the SIMon FEHM performance was compared against HIC15 through the use of NHTSA frontal and side impact crash test data. It was found that the injury metrics in the current SIMon model predicted injury in all cases where HIC15 was greater than 700 and several cases from the side impact test data where HIC15 was relatively small. Side impact was

  14. A new approach to adaptive data models

    Ion LUNGU


    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in the volume and complexity of data we collect, store and process. We are now aware of the increasing demand for real time data processing in every continuous business process that evolves within the organization. We witness a shift from a traditional static data approach to a more adaptive model approach. This article aims to extend understanding in the field of data models used in information systems by examining how an adaptive data model approach for managing business processes can help organizations accommodate on the fly and build dynamic capabilities to react in a dynamic environment.

  15. The Blended Finite Element Method for Multi-fluid Plasma Modeling


    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07 June 2016 - 01 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Blended Finite Element Method for Multi-fluid Plasma ...BLENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR MULTI-FLUID PLASMA MODELING Éder M. Sousa1, Uri Shumlak2 1ERC INC., IN-SPACE PROPULSION BRANCH (RQRS) AIR FORCE RESEARCH...MULTI-FLUID PLASMA MODEL 2 BLENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Blended Finite Element Method Nodal Continuous Galerkin Modal Discontinuous Galerkin Model

  16. Mixed isoparametric finite element models of laminated composite shells

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.


    Mixed shear-flexible isoparametric elements are presented for the stress and free vibration analysis of laminated composite shallow shells. Both triangular and quadrilateral elements are considered. The 'generalized' element stiffness, consistent mass, and consistent load coefficients are obtained by using a modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. Group-theoretic techniques are used in conjunction with computerized symbolic integration to obtain analytic expressions for the stiffness, mass and load coefficients. A procedure is outlined for efficiently handling the resulting system of algebraic equations. The accuracy of the mixed isoparametric elements developed is demonstrated by means of numerical examples, and their advantages over commonly used displacement elements are discussed.

  17. Modeling software behavior a craftsman's approach

    Jorgensen, Paul C


    A common problem with most texts on requirements specifications is that they emphasize structural models to the near exclusion of behavioral models-focusing on what the software is, rather than what it does. If they do cover behavioral models, the coverage is brief and usually focused on a single model. Modeling Software Behavior: A Craftsman's Approach provides detailed treatment of various models of software behavior that support early analysis, comprehension, and model-based testing. Based on the popular and continually evolving course on requirements specification models taught by the auth

  18. Discrete element modelling of the quasi-static uniaxial compression of individual infant formula agglomerates

    Kevin J. Hanley; Catherine O'Sullivan; Edmond P. Byrne; Kevin Cronin


    Infant formula is usually produced in an agglomerated powder form.These agglomerates are subjected to many transient forces following their manufacture.These can be difficult to quantify experimentally because of their small magnitudes and short durations.Numerical models have the potential to address this gap in the experimental data.The objective of the research described here was to calibrate a discrete element model for these agglomerates using experimental data obtained for quasi-static loading,and to use this model to study the mechanics of the particle response in detail.The Taguchi method was previously proposed as a viable calibration approach for discrete element models.In this work,the method was assessed for calibration of the model parameters (e.g.,bond stiffnesses and strengths) considering three responses: the force at failure,strain at failure and agglomerate stiffness.The Weibull moduli for the simulation results and the experimental data were almost identical following calibration and the 37% characteristic stresses were similar.An analysis of the energy terms in the model provided useful insight into the model response.The bond energy and the normal force exerted on the platens were strongly correlated,and bond breakage events coincided with the highest energy dissipation rates.

  19. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V


    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  20. FEMSA: A Finite Element Simulation Tool for Quasi-static Seismic Deformation Modeling

    Volpe, M.; Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.


    Modeling postseismic deformation is an increasingly valuable tool in earthquake seismology. In particular, the Finite Element (FE) numerical method allows accurate modeling of complex faulting geometry, inhomogeneous materials and realistic viscous flow, appearing an excellent tool to investigate a lot of specific phenomena related with earthquakes. We developed a FE simulation tool, FEMSA (Finite Element Modeling for Seismic Applications), to model quasi-static deformation generated by faulting sources. The approach allows to automatically implement arbitrary faulting sources and calculate displacement and stress fields induced by slip on the fault. The package makes use of the capabilities of CalculiX, a non commercial FE software designed to solve field problems, and is freely distributed. The main advantages of the method are: reliability, wide diffusion and flexibility, allowing geometrical and/or rheological heterogeneities to be included in a mechanical analysis. We carried out an optimization study on boundary conditions as well as a series of benchmark simulations on test cases and we also verified the capability of our approach to face the presence of 3D heterogeneities within the domain. Here, we present our package and show some simple examples of application.

  1. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies—uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    Dib, Julián R.; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E.; Meinhardt, Friedhelm


    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which—despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria—are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  2. Bioagent Sample Matching using Elemental Composition Data: an Approach to Validation

    Velsko, S P


    Sample matching is a fundamental capability that can have high probative value in a forensic context if proper validation studies are performed. In this report we discuss the potential utility of using the elemental composition of two bioagent samples to decide if they were produced in the same batch, or by the same process. Using guidance from the recent NRC study of bullet lead analysis and other sources, we develop a basic likelihood ratio framework for evaluating the evidentiary weight of elemental analysis data for sample matching. We define an objective metric for comparing two samples, and propose a method for constructing an unbiased population of test samples. We illustrate the basic methodology with some existing data on dry Bacillus thuringiensis preparations, and outline a comprehensive plan for experimental validation of this approach.

  3. [A general approach to the structural shape optimization using genetic algorithms and geometric design elements].

    Annicchiarico, W


    Structural optimization is an engineering field which deal with the improvement of existing solutions or even more find new solutions that are better than the previous ones under some selected criterion. Shape optimization is a research area in this field and it is involved in developing new methodologies to find better structural design based on the shape as resistant element, as for example solutions with the less stress concentration zones and made with the minimum amount of material. The goal of this doctoral dissertation is to present and discuss a general structural shape optimization methodology able to optimize several structural systems or mechanical devices. The approach presented herein is based on global search optimization tools such as Genetic Algorithms and geometric design elements by means of beta-splines curves and surfaces representation. Finally the great versatility of the developed tool is presented and discussed with an application example.

  4. Predicting onset and withdrawal of Indian Summer Monsoon in 2016: results of Tipping elements approach

    Surovyatkina, Elena; Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jurgen


    started to decrease, and after two days meteorological stations reported 'No rain' in the EG and also in areas located across the subcontinent in the direction from the North Pakistan to the Bay of Bengal. Hence, the date of monsoon withdrawal - October 10-th, predicted 70 days in advance, lies within our prediction interval. Our results show that our method allows predicting a future monsoon, and not only retrospectively or hindcast. In 2016 we predicted of the onset and withdrawal dates of the Southwest monsoon over the Eastern Ghats region in Central India for 40 and 70 days in advance respectively. Our general framework for predicting spatial-temporal critical transitions is applicable for systems of different nature. It allows predicting future from observational data only, when the model of a transition does not exist yet. [1] Stolbova, V., E. Surovyatkina, B. Bookhagen, and J. Kurths (2016): Tipping elements of the Indian monsoon: Prediction of onset and withdrawal. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 1-9. [2] [3]

  5. Current approaches to gene regulatory network modelling

    Brazma Alvis


    Full Text Available Abstract Many different approaches have been developed to model and simulate gene regulatory networks. We proposed the following categories for gene regulatory network models: network parts lists, network topology models, network control logic models, and dynamic models. Here we will describe some examples for each of these categories. We will study the topology of gene regulatory networks in yeast in more detail, comparing a direct network derived from transcription factor binding data and an indirect network derived from genome-wide expression data in mutants. Regarding the network dynamics we briefly describe discrete and continuous approaches to network modelling, then describe a hybrid model called Finite State Linear Model and demonstrate that some simple network dynamics can be simulated in this model.

  6. Model Oriented Approach for Industrial Software Development

    P. D. Drobintsev


    Full Text Available The article considers the specifics of a model oriented approach to software development based on the usage of Model Driven Architecture (MDA, Model Driven Software Development (MDSD and Model Driven Development (MDD technologies. Benefits of this approach usage in the software development industry are described. The main emphasis is put on the system design, automated code generation for large systems, verification, proof of system properties and reduction of bug density. Drawbacks of the approach are also considered. The approach proposed in the article is specific for industrial software systems development. These systems are characterized by different levels of abstraction, which is used on modeling and code development phases. The approach allows to detail the model to the level of the system code, at the same time store the verified model semantics and provide the checking of the whole detailed model. Steps of translating abstract data structures (including transactions, signals and their parameters into data structures used in detailed system implementation are presented. Also the grammar of a language for specifying rules of abstract model data structures transformation into real system detailed data structures is described. The results of applying the proposed method in the industrial technology are shown.The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  7. Exploring Differential Effects across Two Decoding Treatments on Item-Level Transfer in Children with Significant Word Reading Difficulties: A New Approach for Testing Intervention Elements

    Steacy, Laura M.; Elleman, Amy M.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Compton, Donald L.


    In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis, little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading…

  8. Exploring Differential Effects across Two Decoding Treatments on Item-Level Transfer in Children with Significant Word Reading Difficulties: A New Approach for Testing Intervention Elements

    Steacy, Laura M.; Elleman, Amy M.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Compton, Donald L.


    In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis, little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading…

  9. Element concentrations and cataract: an experimental animal model.

    Ciaralli, L; Giordano, R; Costantini, S; Sepe, A; Cruciani, F; Moramarco, A; Antonelli, B; Balacco-Gabrieli, C


    The determination of inorganic ions in cataractous human lenses has been the subject of several investigations; nevertheless, few studies have been concerned with trace element contents in lenses, and data are sometimes contradictory. An animal experimental model of induced cataract is here proposed with the aim of evaluating the changes of Ca, Na, K, Cu and Zn concentrations. The cataract was produced by an Nd:YAG Laser treatment of the right eye of sexteen male rabbits. The determination of the elements was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (both flame and flameless methods) after an acid digestion of samples. Compared with the results obtained in left lenses used as a control (Ca 14.4+/-5.7 mg/kg d.w.; Na 1.3+/-0.5 g/kg d.w.; K 9.9+/-1.1 g/kg d.w.; Cu 0.24+/-0.09 mg/kg d.w.; Zn 24.8+/-2.3 mg/kg d.w.), the mean concentration values of opaque lenses showed some significant changes for Ca, Na, and Cu (Ca 123.7+/-106.6 mg/kg d.w.; Na 4.5+/-4.3 g/kg d.w; Cu 0.43+/-0.21 mg/kg d.w.). Potassium showed a tendency to decrease, and zinc to increase. Positive correlations were found between calcium and sodium both in controls (r=0.73, p<0.001) and in treated lenses (r= 0.87, p<0.0001). An inverse correlation between Ca and K confirmed the tendency of potassium to decrease.

  10. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.


    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  11. Multiscale Finite-Element Modeling of Sandwich Honeycomb Composite Structures

    Yu. I. Dimitrienko


    Full Text Available The paper presents a developed multi-scale model of sandwich honeycomb structures. The model allows us both to calculate effective elastic-strength characteristics of honeycomb and forced covering of sandwich, and to find a 3D stress-strain state of structures using the threedimensional elastic theory for non- homogeneous media. On the basis of finite element analysis it is shown, that under four-point bending the maximal value of bending and shear stresses in the sandwich honeycomb structures are realized in the zone of applied force and plate support. Here the local stress maxima approximately 2-3 times exceed the “engineering” theoretical plate values of bending and shear stresses in the middle of panel. It is established that at tests for fourpoint bending there is a failure of the honeycomb sandwich panels because of the local adhesion failure rather than because of the covering exfoliation off the honeycomb core in the middle of panel.

  12. Forward modelling of geophysical survey data using cylindrical elemental volumes

    Xu, X.; Lockerbie, N.A. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics


    A simple model is presented for the gravitational field due to a finite cylinder, and this is elaborated so that (in principle) the gravitational field from a body of any shape may be found in terms of the field of such primitive cylinders. The primitive field is described as a moment-expansion in terms of odd-order Legendre P{sub 2p+1}(cos{theta}),p=0,1,2..., where {theta} is the angle between the field point and the cylinder`s axis, and in terms of the radial distance R of the field point from the centre of mass of the cylinder, such that the parameters describing the shape of the cylinder, and the field point parameters, are separated. This allows gravitational field modelling calculations to be carried out extremely quickly in the space domain for gravitational sources of any shape. Moreover, the form of the solutions-due to the separation mentioned above-allows a clear insight into the underlying physical mechanisms involved in the synthesis of such fields, making such elements suitable in the solution of inverse gravitational problems in the

  13. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.


    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

  14. Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET

    Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.


    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

  15. Modulus reconstruction from prostate ultrasound images using finite element modeling

    Yan, Zhennan; Zhang, Shaoting; Alam, S. Kaisar; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Garra, Brian S.; Feleppa, Ernest J.


    In medical diagnosis, use of elastography is becoming increasingly more useful. However, treatments usually assume a planar compression applied to tissue surfaces and measure the deformation. The stress distribution is relatively uniform close to the surface when using a large, flat compressor but it diverges gradually along tissue depth. Generally in prostate elastography, the transrectal probes used for scanning and compression are cylindrical side-fire or rounded end-fire probes, and the force is applied through the rectal wall. These make it very difficult to detect cancer in prostate, since the rounded contact surfaces exaggerate the non-uniformity of the applied stress, especially for the distal, anterior prostate. We have developed a preliminary 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to simulate prostate deformation in elastography. The model includes a homogeneous prostate with a stiffer tumor in the proximal, posterior region of the gland. A force is applied to the rectal wall to deform the prostate, strain and stress distributions can be computed from the resultant displacements. Then, we assume the displacements as boundary condition and reconstruct the modulus distribution (inverse problem) using linear perturbation method. FEM simulation shows that strain and strain contrast (of the lesion) decrease very rapidly with increasing depth and lateral distance. Therefore, lesions would not be clearly visible if located far away from the probe. However, the reconstructed modulus image can better depict relatively stiff lesion wherever the lesion is located.

  16. Constitutive model for shape memory alloys and its use in design and finite element analysis

    Bose, Sudip; Santhanam, Sridhar


    A constitutive model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) has been developed and validated. The model uses an approach similar to Brinson, Liang and Rogers, and Tanaka. It links key thermomechanical variables: stress, strain, temperature, and martensite fraction. A basic differential form for the SMA constitutive behavior, developed by Tanaka, forms the foundation of the model. The model is completed with a definition of the rules governing the behavior of martensite fraction. Like Brinson, the model distinguishes between de-twinned and twinned martensite. The phase transition temperatures are assumed to be a linear function of applied stress. The forward and reverse phase transformations are described by piecewise exponential functions. There are a number of parameters in the model that need to be determined using experimental data. The critical transformation temperatures are determined by resistivity measurements. All other parameters are determined by mechanical tension testing followed by nonlinear least-squares estimations. Mechanical testing consisted of displacement controlled, tension tests on Nitinol wires at several temperatures. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by its use in the design of an SMA actuated robotic arm. The constitutive model is used in conjunction with a lumped heat transfer model, a kinematic model, and a dynamic model to predict the behavior of the arm. Comparison between predictions and experimentally observed behavior is very good indicating a sound constitutive model. The model is also built into a finite element code that simulates pseudoelastic SMA behavior. The code considers geometric and material nonlinearities. The behavior of a simple pseudoelastic device is shown to be well predicted by the finite element code.

  17. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent


    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  18. Automatic finite elements mesh generation from planar contours of the brain: an image driven 'blobby' approach

    Bucki, M; Bucki, Marek; Payan, Yohan


    In this paper, we address the problem of automatic mesh generation for finite elements modeling of anatomical organs for which a volumetric data set is available. In the first step a set of characteristic outlines of the organ is defined manually or automatically within the volume. The outlines define the "key frames" that will guide the procedure of surface reconstruction. Then, based on this information, and along with organ surface curvature information extracted from the volume data, a 3D scalar field is generated. This field allows a 3D reconstruction of the organ: as an iso-surface model, using a marching cubes algorithm; or as a 3D mesh, using a grid "immersion" technique, the field value being used as the outside/inside test. The final reconstruction respects the various topological changes that occur within the organ, such as holes and branching elements.

  19. A Finite Element Model for Mixed Porohyperelasticity with Transport, Swelling, and Growth.

    Armstrong, Michelle Hine; Buganza Tepole, Adrián; Kuhl, Ellen; Simon, Bruce R; Vande Geest, Jonathan P


    The purpose of this manuscript is to establish a unified theory of porohyperelasticity with transport and growth and to demonstrate the capability of this theory using a finite element model developed in MATLAB. We combine the theories of volumetric growth and mixed porohyperelasticity with transport and swelling (MPHETS) to derive a new method that models growth of biological soft tissues. The conservation equations and constitutive equations are developed for both solid-only growth and solid/fluid growth. An axisymmetric finite element framework is introduced for the new theory of growing MPHETS (GMPHETS). To illustrate the capabilities of this model, several example finite element test problems are considered using model geometry and material parameters based on experimental data from a porcine coronary artery. Multiple growth laws are considered, including time-driven, concentration-driven, and stress-driven growth. Time-driven growth is compared against an exact analytical solution to validate the model. For concentration-dependent growth, changing the diffusivity (representing a change in drug) fundamentally changes growth behavior. We further demonstrate that for stress-dependent, solid-only growth of an artery, growth of an MPHETS model results in a more uniform hoop stress than growth in a hyperelastic model for the same amount of growth time using the same growth law. This may have implications in the context of developing residual stresses in soft tissues under intraluminal pressure. To our knowledge, this manuscript provides the first full description of an MPHETS model with growth. The developed computational framework can be used in concert with novel in-vitro and in-vivo experimental approaches to identify the governing growth laws for various soft tissues.

  20. Stochastic structural model of rock and soil aggregates by continuum-based discrete element method

    WANG; Yuannian; ZHAO; Manhong; LI; Shihai; J.G.; Wang


    This paper first presents a stochastic structural model to describe the random geometrical features of rock and soil aggregates. The stochastic structural model uses mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape to construct the microstructures of aggregates,and introduces two types of structural elements (block element and jointed element) and three types of material elements (rock element, soil element, and weaker jointed element)for this microstructure. Then, continuum-based discrete element method is used to study the deformation and failure mechanism of rock and soil aggregate through a series of loading tests. It is found that the stress-strain curve of rock and soil aggregates is nonlinear, and the failure is usually initialized from weaker jointed elements. Finally, some factors such as mixture ratio, rock size and rock shape are studied in detail. The numerical results are in good agreement with in situ test. Therefore, current model is effective for simulating the mechanical behaviors of rock and soil aggregates.