Sample records for element identifying national



    Magdalena Ziolkowska


    The paper focuses on Polish Old Believers’ anthroponymy as the element identifying the group. The Old Believers are one of the ethnic, religious and national minorities in Poland. They came here shortly after the schism in Russian Orthodox Church. They settled down in North-Eastern Poland in the second half of the 18th century. Their descendants live there till now. After coming to Poland, Russian immigrants were living in hermetic, homogenous communities. This protected their religion and cu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ziolkowska


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on Polish Old Believers’ anthroponymy as the element identifying the group. The Old Believers are one of the ethnic, religious and national minorities in Poland. They came here shortly after the schism in Russian Orthodox Church. They settled down in North-Eastern Poland in the second half of the 18th century. Their descendants live there till now. After coming to Poland, Russian immigrants were living in hermetic, homogenous communities. This protected their religion and culture from strong exterior influence. After the Second World War the community became more open to external world. Nowadays, after a number of civilizing and geopolitical transformations, the isolation practically disappeared making the Old Believers’ culture defenceless against influence of dominant Polish culture. Together with all that changes the Old Believers’ anthroponymy has been transformed. Contemporary Polish Old Believers’ anthroponymy consists of Russian and Polish (in Masuria region – Russian, Polish and German elements, as a result of bilingualism (and multilingualism on Masuria.

  3. Managing Identifiers for Elements of Provenance of the Third National Climate Assessment in the Global Change Information System (Invited) (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.


    A Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of a draft climate report that after extensive review will be considered by the Federal Government in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA). This comprehensive report (1) Integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; (2) Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and (3) Analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The U.S. Global Change Program (USGCRP), composed of the 13 federal agencies most concerned with global change, is building a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will ultimately organize access to all of the research, data, and information about global change from across the system. A prototype of the system has been constructed that captures and presents all of the elements of provenance of the NCA through a coherent data model and friendly front end web site. This work will focus on the globally unique and persistent identifiers used to reference and organize those items. These include externally referenced items, such as DOIs used by scientific journal publishers for research articles or by agencies as dataset identifiers, as well as our own internal approach to identifiers, our overall data model and experiences managing persistent identifiers within the GCIS.

  4. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A


    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at

  5. Identifying splicing regulatory elements with de Bruijn graphs. (United States)

    Badr, Eman; Heath, Lenwood S


    Splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are short, degenerate sequences on pre-mRNA molecules that enhance or inhibit the splicing process via the binding of splicing factors, proteins that regulate the functioning of the spliceosome. Existing methods for identifying SREs in a genome are either experimental or computational. Here, we propose a formalism based on de Bruijn graphs that combines genomic structure, word count enrichment analysis, and experimental evidence to identify SREs found in exons. In our approach, SREs are not restricted to a fixed length (i.e., k-mers, for a fixed k). As a result, we identify 2001 putative exonic enhancers and 3080 putative exonic silencers for human genes, with lengths varying from 6 to 15 nucleotides. Many of the predicted SREs overlap with experimentally verified binding sites. Our model provides a novel method to predict variable length putative regulatory elements computationally for further experimental investigation.

  6. Elemental sulfur identified in urine of cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. (United States)

    Burger, Ben V; Visser, Runine; Moses, Alvira; Le Roux, Maritha


    The urine of the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is almost odorless, and probably for this reason, it has not attracted much attention from scientists. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 27 and 37 constituents in the headspace vapor of the urine of male and female cheetah, respectively. These constituents, composed of hydrocarbons, short-chain ethers, aldehydes, saturated and unsaturated cyclic and acyclic ketones, 2-acetylfuran, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfone, phenol, myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), urea, and elemental sulfur, are all present in the headspace vapor in very small quantities; dimethyl disulfide is present in such a low concentration that it cannot be detected by the human nose. This is only the second example of elemental sulfur being secreted or excreted by an animal. It is hypothesized that the conversion of sulfur-containing compounds in the cheetah's diet to elemental sulfur and to practically odorless dimethyl sulfone enables this carnivore to operate as if "invisible" to the olfactory world of its predators as well as its prey, which would increase its chances of survival.

  7. National Provider Identifier Standard - Data Dissemination (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, NPPES, downloadable file, also referred to as the NPI Downloadable File, contains FOIA disclosable NPPES health...

  8. Mapping elemental contamination on Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Shaver, David K.; Papoulias, Diana M.


    Palmyra Atoll, once a WWII U.S. Navy air station, is now a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge with nearly 50 km2 of coral reef and 275 ha of emergent lands with forests of Pisonia grandistrees and colonies of several bird species. Due to the known elemental and organic contamination from chemicals associated with aviation, power generation and transmission, waste management, and other air station activities, a screening survey to map elemental concentrations was conducted. A map of 1944 Navy facilities was georeferenced and identifiable features were digitized. These data informed a targeted survey of 25 elements in soils and sediment at locations known or suspected to be contaminated, using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. At dozens of locations, concentrations of elements exceeded established soil and marine sediment thresholds for adverse ecological effects. Results were compiled into a publically available geospatial dataset to inform potential remediation and habitat restoration activities.

  9. Identifying elemental genomic track types and representing them uniformly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen Sveinung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recent advances and availability of various high-throughput sequencing technologies, data on many molecular aspects, such as gene regulation, chromatin dynamics, and the three-dimensional organization of DNA, are rapidly being generated in an increasing number of laboratories. The variation in biological context, and the increasingly dispersed mode of data generation, imply a need for precise, interoperable and flexible representations of genomic features through formats that are easy to parse. A host of alternative formats are currently available and in use, complicating analysis and tool development. The issue of whether and how the multitude of formats reflects varying underlying characteristics of data has to our knowledge not previously been systematically treated. Results We here identify intrinsic distinctions between genomic features, and argue that the distinctions imply that a certain variation in the representation of features as genomic tracks is warranted. Four core informational properties of tracks are discussed: gaps, lengths, values and interconnections. From this we delineate fifteen generic track types. Based on the track type distinctions, we characterize major existing representational formats and find that the track types are not adequately supported by any single format. We also find, in contrast to the XML formats, that none of the existing tabular formats are conveniently extendable to support all track types. We thus propose two unified formats for track data, an improved XML format, BioXSD 1.1, and a new tabular format, GTrack 1.0. Conclusions The defined track types are shown to capture relevant distinctions between genomic annotation tracks, resulting in varying representational needs and analysis possibilities. The proposed formats, GTrack 1.0 and BioXSD 1.1, cater to the identified track distinctions and emphasize preciseness, flexibility and parsing convenience.

  10. Using the National Provider Identifier for Health Care... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The establishment in recent years of a National Provider Identifier (NPI) offers a new method for counting and categorizing physicians and other health care...

  11. Identifying the Essential Elements of Effective Science Communication: What Do the Experts Say? (United States)

    Bray, Belinda; France, Bev; Gilbert, John K.


    Experts in science communication were asked to identify the essential elements of a science communication course for post-graduate students. A Delphi methodology provided a framework for a research design that accessed their opinions and allowed them to contribute to, reflect on and identify 10 essential elements. There was a high level of…

  12. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy (United States)

    Unsworth, Kristene


    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  13. Indirect chronology method employing rare earth elements to identify Sagunto Castle mortar construction periods


    Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Lezzerini, Marco; Hernandez, Emilia; Calvo, Matias; Morales, Angel; Pastor, Agustin; de la Guardia, Miguel


    A novel indirect chronology method has been developed to identify Sagunto Castle construction periods. The method is based on the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine rare earth elements (REE) and other trace elements in mortars. Additionally, a no destructive geochemical analysis based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was employed for major elements determination. Collected chemical data were processed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to highlight an...

  14. Close Sequence Comparisons are Sufficient to Identify Humancis-Regulatory Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.


    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons, due to the lack of a universal metric for sequence conservation, and also the paucity of empirically defined benchmark sets of cis-regulatory elements. To address this problem, we developed a general-purpose algorithm (Gumby) that detects slowly-evolving regions in primate, mammalian and more distant comparisons without requiring adjustment of parameters, and ranks conserved elements by P-value using Karlin-Altschul statistics. We benchmarked Gumby predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci, and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using reporter-gene assays in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity and specificity by comparison with 1-5 other eutherian mammals or 6 other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole genome comparative analysis, which explains some of these findings. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for testing at embryonic time points.

  15. Identifying Probable Suicide Clusters in Wales Using National Mortality Data (United States)

    Jones, Phillip; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen; Scourfield, Jonathan; Lloyd, Keith; Huxley, Peter; John, Ann; Kamran, Babar; Wells, Claudia; Dennis, Michael


    Background Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. Methods and findings The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000–2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS). Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15–34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i) suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides) and (ii) for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides). The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides). However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides) identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029) involving 10 deaths amongst 15–34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27th December 2007 to 19th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. Conclusions There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is required. PMID

  16. Identifying probable suicide clusters in wales using national mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000-2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS. Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15-34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides and (ii for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides. The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides. However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029 involving 10 deaths amongst 15-34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27(th December 2007 to 19(th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. CONCLUSIONS: There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is

  17. Identifying and separating magnetic and electric microwave responses of chiral elements (United States)

    Kazantsev, Yu. N.; Kraftmakher, G. A.; Mal'tsev, V. P.


    We propose a technique for identifying the type of resonance excitation by ac magnetic or electric fields in conducting chiral elements by reflection of electromagnetic waves in the standing- and travelingwave modes. The technique was tested experimentally in the microwave range and confirmed numerically. We demonstrate the possibility of broadband matching of composite radar absorbing materials with the use of a lattice of resonance elements excited by magnetic field of the wave rather instead of the traditional quarter- wavelength effects.

  18. Identifying gene-independent noncoding functional elements in the yeast ribosomal DNA by phylogenetic footprinting. (United States)

    Ganley, Austen R D; Hayashi, Kouji; Horiuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takehiko


    Sequences involved in the regulation of genetic and genomic processes are primarily located in noncoding regions. Identifying such cis-acting sequences from sequence data is difficult because their patterns are not readily apparent, and, to date, identification has concentrated on regions associated with gene-coding functions. Here, we used phylogenetic footprinting to look for gene-independent noncoding elements in the ribosomal RNA gene repeats from several Saccharomyces species. Similarity plots of ribosomal intergenic spacer alignments from six closely related Saccharomyces species allowed the identification of previously characterized functional elements, such as the origin-of-replication and replication-fork barrier sites, demonstrating that this method is a powerful predictor of noncoding functional elements. Seventeen previously uncharacterized elements, showing high levels of conservation, were also discovered. The conservation of these elements suggests that they are functional, and we demonstrate the functionality of two classes of these elements, a putative bidirectional noncoding promoter and a series of conserved peaks with matches to the origin-of-replication core consensus. Our results paint a comprehensive picture of the functionality of the Saccharomyces ribosomal intergenic region and demonstrate that functional elements not involved in gene-coding function can be identified by using comparative genomics based on sequence conservation.

  19. Challenges in Identifying Refugees in National Health Data Sets. (United States)

    Semere, Wagahta; Yun, Katherine; Ahalt, Cyrus; Williams, Brie; Wang, Emily A


    To evaluate publicly available data sets to determine their utility for studying refugee health. We searched for keywords describing refugees in data sets within the Society of General Internal Medicine Dataset Compendium and the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research database. We included in our analysis US-based data sets with publicly available documentation and a self-defined, health-related focus that allowed for an examination of patient-level factors. Of the 68 data sets that met the study criteria, 37 (54%) registered keyword matches related to refugees, but only 2 uniquely identified refugees. Few health data sets identify refugee status among participants, presenting barriers to understanding refugees' health and health care needs. Information about refugee status in national health surveys should include expanded demographic questions and focus on mental health and chronic disease.

  20. 49 CFR 350.109 - What are the national program elements? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the national program elements? 350.109... COMMERCIAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 350.109 What are the national program elements? The national program elements include the following five activities: (a) Driver/vehicle inspections...

  1. Model for selecting quality standards for a salad bar through identifying elements of customer satisfaction. (United States)

    Ouellet, D; Norback, J P


    Continuous quality improvement is the new requirement of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. This means that meeting quality standards will not be enough. Dietitians will need to improve those standards and the way they are selected. Because quality is defined in terms of the customers, all quality improvement projects must start by defining what customers want. Using a salad bar as an example, this article presents and illustrates a technique developed in Japan to identify which elements in a product or service will satisfy or dissatisfy consumers. Using a model and a questionnaire format developed by Kano and coworkers, 273 students were surveyed to classify six quality elements of a salad bar. Four elements showed a dominant "must-be" characteristic: food freshness, labeling of the dressings, no spills in the food, and no spills on the salad bar. The two other elements (food easy to reach and food variety) showed a dominant one-dimensional characteristic. By better understanding consumer perceptions of quality elements, foodservice managers can select quality standards that focus on what really matters to their consumers.

  2. Development of a framework identifying domains and elements of importance for arthritis rehabilitation. (United States)

    Klokkerud, Mari; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Kjeken, Ingvild; Bremander, Ann; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Vlieland, Thea Vliet; Grotle, Margreth


    Rehabilitation is effective and beneficial for patients with arthritis. The lack of a common structure for describing the content of rehabilitation makes it difficult to compare, transfer and implement research evidence into clinical practice. To develop a framework comprising domains and elements of importance when describing arthritis rehabilitation. On the basis of a systematic literature search and review, the framework was developed through a 9-step development process, including 5 Delphi consensus rounds within the Scandinavian Team Arthritis Register - European Team Initiative for Care Research (STAR-ETIC) collaboration, a group of clinicians, researchers and patients from northern Europe. Based on Donabedian's healthcare model, the Inter-national Classification of Function, Disability and Health, and a rehabilitation model by D. T. Wade, 4 domains (context, structure, process and outcome) were defined. Within each domain, the most important and relevant key elements for describing rehabilitation were selected. This framework contains 1 key element under context, 9 under structure, 3 under process, and 9 under outcome. The STAR-ETIC framework can be used to describe arthritis rehabilitation, by emphasizing key elements in 4 main domains. A common framework may facilitate comparisons of rehabilitation programmes across countries and different levels of care, and may improve the implementation of rehabilitation research in clinical practice.

  3. Identifying advanced practice: A national survey of a nursing workforce. (United States)

    Gardner, Glenn; Duffield, Christine; Doubrovsky, Anna; Adams, Margaret


    The size and flexibility of the nursing workforce has positioned nursing as central to the goals of health service improvement. Nursing's response to meeting these goals has resulted in proliferation of advanced practice nursing with a confusing array of practice profiles, titles and roles. Whilst numerous models and definitions of advanced practice nursing have been developed there is scant published research of significant scope that supports these models. Consequently there is an ongoing call in the literature for clarity and stability in nomenclature, and confusion in the health industry on how to optimise the utility of advanced practice nursing. To identify and delineate advanced practice from other levels of nursing practice through examination of a national nursing workforce. A cross-sectional electronic survey of nurses using the validated Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool based on the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. Study participants were registered nurses employed in a clinical service environment across all states and territories of Australia. A sample of 5662 registered nurses participated in the study. Domain means for each participant were calculated then means for nursing position titles were calculated. Position titles were grouped by delineation and were compared with one-way analysis of variance on domain means. The alpha for all tests was set at 0.05. Significant effects were examined with Scheffe post hoc comparisons to control for Type 1 error. The survey tool was able to identify position titles where nurses were practicing at an advanced level and to delineate this cohort from other levels of nursing practice, including nurse practitioner. The results show that nurses who practice at an advanced level are characterised by high mean scores across all Domains of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. The mean scores of advanced practice nurses were significantly different from nurse practitioners in the Direct Care Domain and

  4. Complete genome sequence of a novel extrachromosomal virus-like element identified in planarian Girardia tigrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Loura L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planarians are widely used as models for investigation of pattern formation and studies on genetic variation in populations. Despite extensive information on the biology and genetics of planaria, the occurrence and distribution of viruses in these animals remains an unexplored area of research. Results Using a combination of Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH and Mirror Orientation Selection (MOS, we compared the genomes of two strains of freshwater planarian, Girardia tigrina. The novel extrachromosomal DNA-containing virus-like element denoted PEVE (Planarian Extrachromosomal Virus-like Element was identified in one planarian strain. The PEVE genome (about 7.5 kb consists of two unique regions (Ul and Us flanked by inverted repeats. Sequence analyses reveal that PEVE comprises two helicase-like sequences in the genome, of which the first is a homolog of a circoviral replication initiator protein (Rep, and the second is similar to the papillomavirus E1 helicase domain. PEVE genome exists in at least two variant forms with different arrangements of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA stretches that correspond to the Us and Ul regions. Using PCR analysis and whole-mount in situ hybridization, we characterized PEVE distribution and expression in the planarian body. Conclusions PEVE is the first viral element identified in free-living flatworms. This element differs from all known viruses and viral elements, and comprises two potential helicases that are homologous to proteins from distant viral phyla. PEVE is unevenly distributed in the worm body, and is detected in specific parenchyma cells.

  5. Identifying Mental Health Elements among Technical University Students Using Fuzzy Delphi Method (United States)

    Pua, P. K.; Lai, C. S.; Lee, M. F.


    Mental health is a part of our daily life that is often experienced. As a student, mental health issue often encounters a variety of difficult challenges at the higher education institution. A student with good mental health can handle and cope the normal stress of life, capable work productivity, enhance academic performance and able to make contribute to the community. However, rapidly transformation and changing of society have been impacted on students’ mental health, and it will be deteriorated and negatively impact on students if it absence of preventive controlled. This study aimed to identify the element of mental health among the technical university students. A total of 11 experts were selected to analyze the fuzziness consensus of experts. All collected data was analyzed by using the fuzzy Delphi method and the result shows that there are 4 elements of 8 elements that fulfill the requirement consensus of experts, which threshold value is equal and less than 0.2, the percentage of the expert group is more than 75%. The four elements were depression, anxiety, stress, and fear are often experienced by technical university students. In conclusion, precocious actions have to be taken by university and counseling center, parents and non-government organization in order to mitigate the mental health problem faced by students to improve the quality lifestyle students at the university.

  6. Neurotoxic Doses of Chronic Methamphetamine Trigger Retrotransposition of the Identifier Element in Rat Dorsal Dentate Gyrus (United States)

    Moszczynska, Anna; Burghardt, Kyle J.; Yu, Dongyue


    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH) trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID) element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or high doses of binge or chronic METH and sacrificed at three different time points thereafter. DNA methylation analysis, immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on the dorsal dentate gyrus samples. Binge METH triggered hypomethylation, while chronic METH triggered hypermethylation of the CpG-2 site. Both METH regimens were associated with increased intensities in poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1, a SINE regulatory protein)-like immunohistochemical staining in the dentate gyrus. The amplification of several ID element sequences was significantly higher in the chronic METH group than in the control group a week after METH, and they mapped to genes coding for proteins regulating cell growth and proliferation, transcription, protein function as well as for a variety of transporters. The results suggest that chronic METH induces ID element retrotransposition in the dorsal dentate gyrus and may affect hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:28272323

  7. Development of a DNA Microarray to Detect Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Identified in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database


    Frye, Jonathan G.; Lindsey, Rebecca L.; Rondeau, Gaelle; Porwollik, Steffen; Long, Fred; McClelland, Michael; Jackson, Charlene R.; Englen, Mark D.; Meinersmann, Richard J.; Berrang, Mark E.; Davis, Johnnie A.; Barrett, John B.; Turpin, Jennifer B.; Thitaram, Sutawee N.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.


    To understand the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AR), the genetic elements responsible must be identified. Due to the myriad of possible genes, a high-density genotyping technique is needed for initial screening. To achieve this, AR genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank database were identified by their annotations and compiled into a nonredundant list of 775 genes. A DNA microarray was constructed of 70mer oligonucelotide probes designed...

  8. An international survey of MRI qualification and certification frameworks with an emphasis on identifying elements of good practice. (United States)

    Castillo, J; Caruana, C J; Morgan, P S; Westbrook, C; Mizzi, A


    The purpose of the study was to survey MRI qualification and certification frameworks in the major English-speaking countries (Australia, New Zealand, US, Canada, UK, Ireland) with the aim of identifying elements of good practice. The intention is to incorporate these elements in a national framework that could be used in supporting an MRI specialist register. The study was conducted using document analysis of MRI qualification and certification documents from these states with data triangulated through a web-based questionnaire amongst an expert group of MRI radiographers (n = 59) from the same states. Based on the results of the study, recommendations have been put forward for those countries that are in the process of developing such frameworks. The main recommendations include that a professional or regulatory body externally accredits MRI programmes and that learning outcomes be based on an MRI competence profile that addresses current and forecasted needs of the particular country. The MRI competence profile should encompass a novice-to expert continuum and be referenced directly to a national qualification framework. Ideally each level of expertise should be assessed and evidenced by a portfolio of CPD activities, including clinical and management case studies appropriate to that level. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer


    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  10. Regulatory elements of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS identified by phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, R. L., Hamaguchi, L., Busch, M. A., and Weigel, D.


    OAK-B135 In Arabidopsis thaliana, cis-regulatory sequences of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) are located in the second intron. This 3 kb intron contains binding sites for two direct activators of AG, LEAFY (LFY) and WUSCHEL (WUS), along with other putative regulatory elements. We have used phylogenetic footprinting and the related technique of phylogenetic shadowing to identify putative cis-regulatory elements in this intron. Among 29 Brassicaceae, several other motifs, but not the LFY and WUS binding sites previously identified, are largely invariant. Using reporter gene analyses, we tested six of these motifs and found that they are all functionally important for activity of AG regulatory sequences in A. thaliana. Although there is little obvious sequence similarity outside the Brassicaceae, the intron from cucumber AG has at least partial activity in A. thaliana. Our studies underscore the value of the comparative approach as a tool that complements gene-by-gene promoter dissection, but also highlight that sequence-based studies alone are insufficient for a complete identification of cis-regulatory sites.

  11. A Human-Computer Collaborative Approach to Identifying Common Data Elements in Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria (United States)

    Luo, Zhihui; Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua


    Objective To identify Common Data Elements (CDEs) in eligibility criteria of multiple clinical trials studying the same disease using a human-computer collaborative approach. Design A set of free-text eligibility criteria from clinical trials on two representative diseases, breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, was sampled to identify disease-specific eligibility criteria CDEs. In this proposed approach, a semantic annotator is used to recognize Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) terms within the eligibility criteria text. The Apriori algorithm is applied to mine frequent disease-specific UMLS terms, which are then filtered by a list of preferred UMLS semantic types, grouped by similarity based on the Dice coefficient, and, finally, manually reviewed. Measurements Standard precision, recall, and F-score of the CDEs recommended by the proposed approach were measured with respect to manually identified CDEs. Results Average precision and recall of the recommended CDEs for the two diseases were 0.823 and 0.797, respectively, leading to an average F-score of 0.810. In addition, the machine-powered CDEs covered 80% of the cardiovascular CDEs published by The American Heart Association and assigned by human experts. Conclusion It is feasible and effort saving to use a human-computer collaborative approach to augment domain experts for identifying disease-specific CDEs from free-text clinical trial eligibility criteria. PMID:22846169

  12. Hundreds of circular novel plasmids and DNA elements identified in a rat cecum metamobilome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Sparholt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches are widespread in microbiological research, but so far, the knowledge on extrachromosomal DNA diversity and composition has largely remained dependant on cultivating host organisms. Even with the emergence of metagenomics, complete circular sequences are rarely identified, and have required manual curation. We propose a robust in silico procedure for identifying complete small plasmids in metagenomic datasets from whole genome shotgun sequencing. From one very pure and exhaustively sequenced metamobilome from rat cecum, we identified a total of 616 circular sequences, 160 of which were carrying a gene with plasmid replication domain. Further homology analyses indicated that the majority of these plasmid sequences are novel. We confirmed the circularity of the complete plasmid candidates using an inverse-type PCR approach on a subset of sequences with 95% success, confirming the existence and length of discrete sequences. The implication of these findings is a broadened understanding of the traits of circular elements in nature and the possibility of massive data mining in existing metagenomic datasets to discover novel pools of complete plasmids thus vastly expanding the current plasmid database.

  13. SeqGL Identifies Context-Dependent Binding Signals in Genome-Wide Regulatory Element Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Setty


    Full Text Available Genome-wide maps of transcription factor (TF occupancy and regions of open chromatin implicitly contain DNA sequence signals for multiple factors. We present SeqGL, a novel de novo motif discovery algorithm to identify multiple TF sequence signals from ChIP-, DNase-, and ATAC-seq profiles. SeqGL trains a discriminative model using a k-mer feature representation together with group lasso regularization to extract a collection of sequence signals that distinguish peak sequences from flanking regions. Benchmarked on over 100 ChIP-seq experiments, SeqGL outperformed traditional motif discovery tools in discriminative accuracy. Furthermore, SeqGL can be naturally used with multitask learning to identify genomic and cell-type context determinants of TF binding. SeqGL successfully scales to the large multiplicity of sequence signals in DNase- or ATAC-seq maps. In particular, SeqGL was able to identify a number of ChIP-seq validated sequence signals that were not found by traditional motif discovery algorithms. Thus compared to widely used motif discovery algorithms, SeqGL demonstrates both greater discriminative accuracy and higher sensitivity for detecting the DNA sequence signals underlying regulatory element maps. SeqGL is available at

  14. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): National Identifier Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) National Identifier Grid is derived from the land area grid to create a raster surface where pixels (cells) that...

  15. Typical structural elements of seismicity and impact crater morphology identified in GIS ENDDB digital models. (United States)

    Mikheeva, Anna


    The subject database of the ENDDB system (Earth's Natural Disasters Database) is a combination of the EISC catalog (Earth's impact structures Catalog [1]) and seismological data of more than 60 earthquake catalogs (EC). ENDDB geographic subsystem uses the NASA ASTER GDEM data arrays to obtain a high-resolution (1 arc-second) shaded relief model, as well as the digital mapping technology, which consists in shading surface points according to their brightness controlled by the illumination angle. For example, the identifying impact craters by means of ENDDB begins with selecting the optimum base colors of the image, the parameters of illumination and shadow depth for constructing a shaded model on a regular grid of values. This procedure allows obtaining precise 3D images of the terrain and gravity patterns, and, moreover, furnishes data for recognizing standard morphological elements according to which impact structures can be visually detected. For constructing a shaded gravity anomaly with the ENDDB tools, Global marine gravity data (of models V16.1 and V18.1 [2]) are embedded into the system. These models, which are arrays of gravity pixel values, are of the resolution increased from the equator to the poles, being 30 arc-seconds per point on average. This resolution is the same as in the more recent V21.1 model. Due to these data, new morphological elements typical of impact structures, which are expressed in the shaded elevation and gravity models (identified using the ENDDB visualization tools) was found and compared in hundreds of craters from the EISC-catalog: tail-shaped asymmetry of relief, heart-shaped geometry of craters, and tail-shaped gravity lows [3] and so on. New diagnostic criteria associated with typical morphological elements revealed with advanced image processing technologies are very important to confirm the impact origin for many potential craters. The basic hypothesis of the impact-explosive tectonics [4] is that meteorite craters on the

  16. Information Operations: The Least Applied Element of U.S. National Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Quill


    Information operations, one of the four elements of U.S. national power, is supreme in defending the country against foreign or domestic adversaries and winning hearts and minds both at home and internationally...

  17. Regulatory element-based prediction identifies new susceptibility regulatory variants for osteoporosis. (United States)

    Yao, Shi; Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Hao, Ruo-Han; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Yi-Xiao; Chen, Jia-Bin; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tie-Lin


    Despite genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, it still leaves a large part of missing heritability to be discovered. Integrating regulatory information and GWASs could offer new insights into the biological link between the susceptibility SNPs and osteoporosis. We generated five machine learning classifiers with osteoporosis-associated variants and regulatory features data. We gained the optimal classifier and predicted genome-wide SNPs to discover susceptibility regulatory variants. We further utilized Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis Consortium (GEFOS) and three in-house GWASs samples to validate the associations for predicted positive SNPs. The random forest classifier performed best among all machine learning methods with the F1 score of 0.8871. Using the optimized model, we predicted 37,584 candidate SNPs for osteoporosis. According to the meta-analysis results, a list of regulatory variants was significantly associated with osteoporosis after multiple testing corrections and contributed to the expression of known osteoporosis-associated protein-coding genes. In summary, combining GWASs and regulatory elements through machine learning could provide additional information for understanding the mechanism of osteoporosis. The regulatory variants we predicted will provide novel targets for etiology research and treatment of osteoporosis.

  18. A new family of retroviral long terminal repeat elements in the human genome identified by their homologies to an element 5{prime} to the spider monkey haptoglobin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.M.; Maeda, N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    A new family of retroviral long terminal repeats that we name Spm-LTR has been identified as a result of DNA sequence comparisons between the entire Gen-Bank databank and an element, SPHP, located 5{prime} to the haptoglobin gene of spider monkeys. The 18 human Spm-LTR sequences so identified fall into three subtypes. There is no sequence similarity between Spm-LTR elements and any endogenous retroviral LTR sequences previously reported except for general features that define LTRs. However, a previously described repeated sequence (MER-4) forms a portion of the Spm-LTR sequence. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Analysis of National Drug Code Identifiers in Ambulatory E-Prescribing. (United States)

    Dhavle, Ajit A; Ward-Charlerie, Stacy; Rupp, Michael T; Amin, Vishal P; Ruiz, Joshua


    Communication of an accurate and interpretable drug identifier between prescriber and pharmacist is critically important for realizing the potential benefits of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) while minimizing its risk. The National Drug Code (NDC) is the most commonly used codified drug identifier in ambulatory care e-prescribing, but concerns have been raised regarding its use for this purpose.  To (a) assess the frequency of NDC identifier transmission in ambulatory e-prescribing; (b) characterize the type of NDC identifier transmitted (representative, repackaged, obsolete, private label, and unit dose); and (c) assess the level of agreement between drug descriptions corresponding to NDC identifiers in electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions) and the free-text drug descriptions that were entered by prescribers.  We analyzed a sample of 49,997 e-prescriptions that were transmitted by ambulatory care prescribers to outlets of a national retail drugstore chain during a single day in April 2014. The First Databank MedKnowledge drug database was used as the primary reference data base to assess the frequency and types of NDC numbers in the e-prescription messages. The FDA's Comprehensive NDC Standard Product Labeling Data Elements File and the National Library of Medicine's RxNorm data file were used as secondary and tertiary references, respectively, to identify NDC numbers that could not be located in the primary reference file. Three experienced reviewers compared the free-text drug description that had been entered by the prescriber with the drug description corresponding to the NDC number from 1 of the 3 reference database files to identify discrepancies. Two licensed pharmacists with residency training and ambulatory care experience served as final adjudicators. A total of 42,602 e-prescriptions contained a value in the NDC field, of which 42,335 (84.71%) were found in 1 of the 3 study reference databases and were thus considered to be valid NDC

  20. Trace element profiles as unique identifiers of western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.R.; Lank, D.B.; Pither, J.; Chipley, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Kyser, T.K.


    Understanding the ecology and evolution of migratory animals requires information on how populations are geographically linked between periods of the annual cycle. To examine whether trace elements could be used to track migratory birds, we analyzed concentrations of 42 trace elements in feathers of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Зеленкова


    Full Text Available The use of national symbolism is considered, as an inalienable, polysemantic element of human culture, whichthe coded information which knows the certain group of people. It is analysed, that national symbolism, as anelement of polysemantic sphere is applied in the design of interiors of the aerostation spaces

  2. Comprehensive analysis of microRNA genomic loci identifies pervasive repetitive-element origins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borchert, Glen M; Holton, Nathaniel W; Williams, Jonathan D; Hernan, William L; Bishop, Ian P; Dembosky, Joel A; Elste, James E; Gregoire, Nathaniel S; Kim, Jee-Ah; Koehler, Wesley W; Lengerich, Joe C; Medema, Arianna A; Nguyen, Marilyn A; Ower, Geoffrey D; Rarick, Michelle A; Strong, Brooke N; Tardi, Nicholas J; Tasker, Nathan M; Wozniak, Darren J; Gatto, Craig; Larson, Erik D


    .... Descriptions of the molecular origins of independent miR molecules currently support the hypothesis that miR hairpin generation is based on the adjacent insertion of two related transposable elements (TEs...

  3. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: critical element management concept. Volume I. Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    CEM is oriented towards identifying, quantifying and curtailing probable impediments to a program originating from both the internal and external program environments. Critical elements are defined as events, trends or conditions that could generate potential uncertainties in the program. The critical elements are broken down into components against which management action is initiated.

  4. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael


    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  5. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  6. Soviet Nationality Policy and National Identify in the Transcaucasian Republics: Drawing Together or Tearing Apart? (United States)


    34 -.. .. t t, r , tIhI lltcttlOg I f n0rI Om t Id Io nPnii ’e-lqa’ woein estre b’en el • f O v Oth r dwct Of An.$ ,MOuO" t dsr’•MqtlOn Hea0Q.arV’er...Stalin ascribed to a nation in 1913: "A nation is a historically evolved, stable community of language, territory, economic life, and psychological


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the analysis of two dimensional images of embroidery elements and the development of techniques for shape and color segmentation in the automation of embroidery designs. A document camera is used as a tool for obtaining of color digital images of embroidery elements from Bulgarian national folk costume. Also are devised some techniques for color restoration of elements and their skeletons. Files for embroidery machines are described and obtained then the results are checked with commercial software. A website is created for presentation of the results of this work

  8. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Identifying Key Elements in the NLA .AU Domain Harvest (United States)

    Fellows, Geoff; Harvey, Ross; Lloyd, Annemaree; Pymm, Bob; Wallis, Jake


    In 2005 and 2006 the National Library of Australia (NLA) carried out two whole-domain web harvests which complement the selective web archiving approach taken by PANDORA. Web harvests of this size pose significant challenges to their use. Despite these challenges, such harvests present fascinating research opportunities. The NLA has provided…

  9. [Determination of 27 elements in Maca nationality's medicine by microwave digestion ICP-MS]. (United States)

    Yu, Gui-fang; Zhong, Hai-jie; Hu, Jun-hua; Wang, Jing; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei


    An analysis method has been established to test 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Hg, Pb, Bi) in Maca nationality's medicine with microwave digestion-ICP-MS. Sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion, and the contents of elements were calculated according to their calibration curves, and internal standard method was adopted to reduce matrix effect and other interference effects. The experimental results showed that the linear relations of all the elements were very good; the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994-1.0000 (Hg was 0.9982) ; the limits of detection were 0.003-2.662 microg x L(-1); the relative standard deviations for all elements of reproducibility were lower than 5% (except the individual elements); the recovery rate were 78.5%-123.7% with RSD lower than 5% ( except the individual elements). The analytical results of standard material showed acceptable agreement with the certified values. This method was applicable to determinate the contents of multi-elements in Maca which had a high sensitivity, good specificity and good repeatability, and provide basis for the quality control of Maca.

  10. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). (United States)

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C


    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying Critical Elements of Treatment: Examining the Use of Turn Taking in Autism Intervention (United States)

    Reith, Sarah R.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Schreibman, Laura; Kennedy, Joanna; Ross, Benjamin


    Evidence-based treatments for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are comprised of components that identify therapist behavior necessary to implement the treatment with integrity. Some components are shared across approaches from diverse theoretical backgrounds. One component included in several interventions that has not been researched in isolation…

  12. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Konge, Lars; Schroeder, T V


    a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. DESIGN AND METHODS: A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase...... to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved...... eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. CONCLUSION: A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons...

  13. Pheochromocytoma in Denmark 1977-2016: Identifying a national cohort using patterns of health registrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehoj, A; Jacobsen, Sarah Forslund; Trolle, Christian

    of PPGL. Patients and methods: We obtained data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, the National Pathology Registry and the Danish Registry of Causes of Death for all persons registered with pheochromocytoma or catecholamine-hypersecretion in Denmark 1977-2016. We then reviewed health records...... for pheochromocytoma had a low validity in several individual health registries. However, with a combination of registries we could identify a near-complete national cohort of PPGL patients in Denmark, as a valuable source for epidemiological research....

  14. Caged Gammarus as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect gammarid densities at the French national scale. (United States)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Recoura-Massaquant, Rémi; Chandesris, André; François, Adeline; Coquery, Marina; Ferréol, Martial; Geffard, Olivier


    Bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic elements in biomonitor invertebrate species have already been used to successfully link metal bioavailability and impairments of stream macroinvertebrate communities at the scale of the watershed. However, implementing this empirical comparative approach at a greater spatial scale remains a challenge due to the diversity of biogeographical contexts encompassed by regional and national scales. We showed in previous studies that the use of standard organisms caged permits the use of a common biomonitor over a far greater geographical range, while limiting the influence of confounding factors on levels of bioavailable contamination. In this study, levels of Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb contamination assessed by active biomonitoring with caged Gammarus fossarum were compared to abundances of on-site gammarids on 94 sites in France. Based on this national dataset of in situ bioassays, we first re-determined bioavailable background assessment concentrations (BBACs), i.e. concentrations measured in caged G. fossarum indicating a significant bioavailable contamination, which we had previously defined at a regional scale for these four metallic elements. On-site gammarid abundances were retrieved from monitoring programs implemented by French water agencies for the evaluation of ecological status for the European Water Framework Directive. These abundances were corrected for the influence of stream physico-chemical typology in order to permit a reliable comparison of gammarid densities between sites at the national scale. Clear trends of degradation of gammarid densities with increasing levels of bioaccumulated concentrations were identified for three of the four elements (Cd, Ni and Pb). Threshold concentrations in caged organisms above which the numbers of free-ranging gammarids were abnormally low - namely bioavailable ecological assessment concentrations (BEACs) - were determined. The reliability and validity of the BEACs, their comparison

  15. Identifying elements of patient-centered care in underserved populations: a qualitative study of patient perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raja

    Full Text Available Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes.

  16. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials. (United States)

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M


    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  17. Identifying Key Elements to Inform the Development of an HIV Health Behavior Maintenance Intervention. (United States)

    Hile, Stephen J; Feldman, Matthew B; Raker, Amanda R; Irvine, Mary K


    To collect information that will inform the development of an intervention to support the maintenance of HIV-related health-promoting behaviors. Focused, in-depth individual and group interviews. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) and DOHMH-funded community-based organizations that primarily serve low-income people living with HIV within the five boroughs of NYC. A total of 42 individuals who had participated in The Positive Life Workshop-an HIV self-management intervention adapted and implemented by the NYC DOHMH. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Five 60- to 90-minute focus groups (n = 38) and 4 individual interviews were conducted to assess motivations for and barriers to maintaining HIV-related health-promoting behaviors and to elicit feedback on the content and format for the proposed maintenance intervention. Thematic analysis was used to summarize the data. Participants reported that relationships with family, a responsibility to protect others from HIV, and faith/spirituality supported the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors. Barriers to behavior maintenance included substance use and mental health issues. Meeting in small groups was also highlighted as a motivator to sustaining health behaviors, particularly in decreasing isolation and receiving affirmation from others. Participants identified several factors that could be incorporated into an intervention to support HIV-related health-promoting behavior maintenance that could supplement existing HIV self-management interventions.

  18. 42 CFR 403.812 - HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data... Prescription Drug Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.812 HIPAA privacy, security, administrative data standards, and national identifiers. (a) HIPAA covered entities. An endorsed sponsor is a...

  19. Development of a DNA microarray to detect antimicrobial resistance genes identified in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan G; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Rondeau, Gaelle; Porwollik, Steffen; Long, Fred; McClelland, Michael; Jackson, Charlene R; Englen, Mark D; Meinersmann, Richard J; Berrang, Mark E; Davis, Johnnie A; Barrett, John B; Turpin, Jennifer B; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J


    To understand the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AR), the genetic elements responsible must be identified. Due to the myriad of possible genes, a high-density genotyping technique is needed for initial screening. To achieve this, AR genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank database were identified by their annotations and compiled into a nonredundant list of 775 genes. A DNA microarray was constructed of 70mer oligonucelotide probes designed to detect these genes encoding resistances to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, chloramphenicols, glycopeptides, heavy metals, lincosamides, macrolides, metronidazoles, polyketides, quaternary ammonium compounds, streptogramins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprims as well as resistance transfer genes. The microarray was validated with two fully sequenced control strains of Salmonella enterica: Typhimurium LT2 (sensitive) and Typhi CT18 (multidrug resistance [MDR]). All resistance genes encoded on the MDR plasmid, pHCM1, harbored by CT18 were detected in that strain, whereas no resistance genes were detected in LT2. The microarray was also tested with a variety of bacteria, including MDR Salmonella enterica serovars, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria spp., and Clostridium difficile. The results presented here demonstrate that a microarray can be designed to detect virtually all AR genes found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, thus reducing the subsequent assays necessary to identify specific resistance gene alleles.

  20. Identifying the elements of physics courses that impact student learning: Curriculum, instructor, peers, and assessment (United States)

    West, Emily Lincoln Ashbaugh

    Prior research across hundreds for introductory physics courses has demonstrated that traditional physics instruction does not generally lead to students learning physics concepts in a meaningful way, but that interactive-engagement physics courses do sometimes promote a great deal more student learning. In this work I analyze a reform effort in a large-enrollment, introductory, physics course. I find that evaluating a curriculum in isolation from other influences, such as the instructor implementation and the student population, is problematical. Instead, I propose a model of classroom culture identifying the curriculum, instructor, and student peer group as key components to creating a learning environment. Assessment, a key influence of classroom culture, is considered a product of the instructor/curriculum interaction. All three aspects of the classroom culture have the potential to influence student learning outcomes. I analyze the implementation of two different reformed physics series in terms of classroom culture. In a calculus-based course, I evaluate a new reform-based curriculum for the first and third quarters of instruction. In the first quarter, mechanics, I find that having an instructor teach in alignment with the philosophy of the reformed curriculum is essential, with students of only certain section instructors having improved outcomes over traditional instruction on measures of conceptual understanding. In the electromagnetism quarter of instruction, student outcomes for all reformed sections are higher than those from traditional sections in spite of variations in instructor implementation. The vast range of instructor-student interactions within such a reformed course are analyzed in an observational study, finding that some types of interactions are characteristic of particular instructors, regardless of the content studied that day. An analysis of assessment proposes an alternative grading method that is superior to the traditional grading

  1. ICEApl1, an integrative conjugative element related to ICEHin1056, identified in the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine T Bosse


    Full Text Available ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus, conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia.

  2. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Angelici, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Lo Giudice, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Maupas, E. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Massi, M.; Mando, P.A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Borghi, A. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Gallo, L.M. [Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Firenze (Italy); Museo di Storia Naturale, Firenze (Italy)


    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification. (orig.)

  3. An extensible and successful method of identifying collaborators for National Library of Medicine informationist projects. (United States)

    Williams, Jeff D; Rambo, Neil H


    The New York University (NYU) Health Sciences Library used a new method to arrange in-depth discussions with basic science researchers. The objective was to identify collaborators for a new National Library of Medicine administrative supplement. The research took place at the NYU Health Sciences Library. Using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RePORTER, forty-four researchers were identified and later contacted through individualized emails. Nine researchers responded to the email followed by six in-person or phone discussions. At the conclusion of this process, two researchers submitted applications for supplemental funding, and both of these applications were successful. This method confirmed these users could benefit from the skills and knowledge of health sciences librarians, but they are largely unaware of this.

  4. Trace element concentrations in cetacean liver tissues archived in the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank. (United States)

    Mackey, E A; Demiralp, R; Becker, P R; Greenberg, R R; Koster, B J; Wise, S A


    The National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB), a collaborative project of several U.S. government agencies, includes marine mammal tissues collected for the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank (NMMTB). Tissues were collected from 139 animals representing 13 species of marine mammals from around the U.S. Recently, concentrations for up to 30 elements in liver tissues of nine long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), six harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and four white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from the NMMTB were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results from analyses of these tissues are presented, compared with results for liver tissues from other marine mammals from the AMMTAP, and compared with published values.

  5. Identifying relapse prevention elements during psychological treatment of depression: Development of an observer-based rating instrument. (United States)

    Machmutow, Katja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Krieger, Tobias; Watzke, Birgit


    Although observer-rated instruments assessing therapist's adherence to relapse-preventive treatments are available, they do not adequately cover specific relapse-preventive elements that focus on implementation of strategies after terminating treatment. This study describes the development of the KERI-D (Kodierbogen zur Erfassung Rückfallprophylaktischer Interventionen bei Depression/Coding System to Assess Interventions of Relapse Prevention in Depression). The KERI-D is a new observer-based rating tool for acute or continuation/maintenance-phase sessions and assesses relapse-prevention elements including implementation into patient's daily routines. The development of the KERI-D included iterative steps referring to theoretical, clinical and empirical sources. It consists of 19 content items within four categories (self-care, early warning signs, triggering events/situations, termination of therapy) and one global item. For empirical analyses, videotaped psychotherapy sessions of 36 psychotherapies were rated by three independent observers and analyzed for their psychometric properties. Most items showed moderate to good inter-rater reliability (median ICC = .80) and retest reliability (median ICC = .93). Principal-axis factor analysis revealed three subscales, and first evidence of content validity was demonstrated. No associations with clinical follow-up data were found. Analysis was limited to a relatively small sample of selected psychotherapy sessions. Evaluation of predictive validity is a desirable next step to further examine applicability and scope of the instrument. The KERI-D is the first observer-based rating instrument measuring specific relapse-prevention strategies in psychotherapy for depression. It may help to identify elements that prove effective in reducing relapse/recurrence in the long-term and thereby help to optimize effect duration of depression treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Toward a Broader Concept of Value: Identifying and Defining Elements for an Expanded Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Kamal-Bahl, Sachin; Towse, Adrian


    This commentary identifies and defines potentially useful expansions to traditional cost-effectiveness analysis as often used in health technology assessment. Since the seminal 1977 article by Weinstein and Stason, the recommended approach has been the use of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio based on the metric of the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, allowing comparisons across different technologies. An expanded framework, incorporating a wider range of the elements of value, is proposed. In addition to the core value drivers of health gain and other health system cost savings (if any), we propose adding other less recognized elements related to the value of knowing and informational externalities. We describe each of five factors related to the value of knowing: 1) a reduction in uncertainty, reflecting the benefit of a companion diagnostic increasing the certainty of a patient׳s response to a medicine; 2) insurance value related to greater peace of mind due to protection against catastrophic health and financial loss; 3) the value of hope for a "cure," leading individuals to become risk seekers in some circumstances; 4) real option value due to life extension opening possibilities for individuals to benefit from future innovation; and 5) spillovers or externalities arising from benefits of scientific advances that cannot be entirely appropriated by those making the advances. Further thought and research are needed on how best to measure and integrate these elements into an incremental value framework and on coverage and pricing decisions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter-rater reliability of data elements from a prototype of the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehner Susan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry (PCNASR is a U.S. based national registry designed to monitor and improve the quality of acute stroke care delivered by hospitals. The registry monitors care through specific performance measures, the accuracy of which depends in part on the reliability of the individual data elements used to construct them. This study describes the inter-rater reliability of data elements collected in Michigan's state-based prototype of the PCNASR. Methods Over a 6-month period, 15 hospitals participating in the Michigan PCNASR prototype submitted data on 2566 acute stroke admissions. Trained hospital staff prospectively identified acute stroke admissions, abstracted chart information, and submitted data to the registry. At each hospital 8 randomly selected cases were re-abstracted by an experienced research nurse. Inter-rater reliability was estimated by the kappa statistic for nominal variables, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for ordinal and continuous variables. Factors that can negatively impact the kappa statistic (i.e., trait prevalence and rater bias were also evaluated. Results A total of 104 charts were available for re-abstraction. Excellent reliability (kappa or ICC > 0.75 was observed for many registry variables including age, gender, black race, hemorrhagic stroke, discharge medications, and modified Rankin Score. Agreement was at least moderate (i.e., 0.75 > kappa ≥; 0.40 for ischemic stroke, TIA, white race, non-ambulance arrival, hospital transfer and direct admit. However, several variables had poor reliability (kappa Conclusion The excellent reliability of many of the data elements supports the use of the PCNASR to monitor and improve care. However, the poor reliability for several variables, particularly time-related events in the emergency department, indicates the need for concerted efforts to improve the quality of data collection. Specific recommendations

  8. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents (United States)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu


    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  9. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training. (United States)

    Nayahangan, L J; Konge, L; Schroeder, T V; Paltved, C; Lindorff-Larsen, K G; Nielsen, B U; Eiberg, J P


    Practical skills training in vascular surgery is facing challenges because of an increased number of endovascular procedures and fewer open procedures, as well as a move away from the traditional principle of "learning by doing." This change has established simulation as a cornerstone in providing trainees with the necessary skills and competences. However, the development of simulation based programs often evolves based on available resources and equipment, reflecting convenience rather than a systematic educational plan. The objective of the present study was to perform a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved elimination and ranking of procedures. The response rate for round 1 was 70%, with 36 procedures identified. Round 2 had a 76% response rate and resulted in a preliminary prioritised list after exploring the need for simulation based training. Round 3 had an 85% response rate; 17 procedures were eliminated, resulting in a final prioritised list of 19 technical procedures. A national needs assessment using a standardised Delphi method identified a list of procedures that are highly suitable and may provide the basis for future simulation based training programs for vascular surgeons in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  11. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  12. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija


    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  13. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini


    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  14. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie


    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  15. A Novel Analytical Strategy to Identify Fusion Transcripts between Repetitive Elements and Protein Coding-Exons Using RNA-Seq (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Fargo, David C.; Shen, Li; Riadi, Gonzalo; Keeley, Elizabeth; Rosh, Zachary S.; Nestler, Eric J.; Woychik, Richard P.


    Repetitive elements (REs) comprise 40–60% of the mammalian genome and have been shown to epigenetically influence the expression of genes through the formation of fusion transcript (FTs). We previously showed that an intracisternal A particle forms an FT with the agouti gene in mice, causing obesity/type 2 diabetes. To determine the frequency of FTs genome-wide, we developed a TopHat-Fusion-based analytical pipeline to identify FTs with high specificity. We applied it to an RNA-seq dataset from the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice repeatedly exposed to cocaine. Cocaine was previously shown to increase the expression of certain REs in this brain region. Using this pipeline that can be applied to single- or paired-end reads, we identified 438 genes expressing 813 different FTs in the NAc. Although all types of studied repeats were present in FTs, simple sequence repeats were underrepresented. Most importantly, reverse-transcription and quantitative PCR validated the expression of selected FTs in an independent cohort of animals, which also revealed that some FTs are the prominent isoforms expressed in the NAc by some genes. In other RNA-seq datasets, developmental expression as well as tissue specificity of some FTs differed from their corresponding non-fusion counterparts. Finally, in silico analysis predicted changes in the structure of proteins encoded by some FTs, potentially resulting in gain or loss of function. Collectively, these results indicate the robustness of our pipeline in detecting these new isoforms of genes, which we believe provides a valuable tool to aid in better understanding the broad role of REs in mammalian cellular biology. PMID:27415830

  16. A geospatial approach to identify water quality issues for National Wildlife Refuges in Oregon and Washington (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Chojnacki, Kimberly; Finger, Susan E.; Linder, Greg; Kilbride, Kevin


    Many National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) have impaired water quality resulting from historic and current land uses, upstream sources, and aerial pollutant deposition. Competing duties limit the time available for Refuge staff to identify and evaluate potential water quality issues. As a result, water quality–related issues may not be resolved until a problem has already arisen. This study developed a geospatial approach for identifying and prioritizing water quality issues affecting natural resources (including migratory birds and federally listed species) within Refuge boundaries. We assessed the location and status of streams pursuant to the Clean Water Act in relation to individual Refuges in Oregon and Washington, United States. Although twelve Refuges in Oregon (60%) and eight Refuges in Washington (40%) were assessed under the Clean Water Act, only 12% and 3% of total Refuge stream lengths were assessed, respectively. Very few assessed Refuge streams were not designated as impaired (0% in Oregon, 1% in Washington). Despite the low proportions of stream lengths assessed, most Refuges in Oregon (70%) and Washington (65%) are located in watersheds with approved total maximum daily loads. We developed summaries of current water quality issues for individual Refuges and identified large gaps for Refuge-specific water quality data and habitat utilization by sensitive species. We conclude that monitoring is warranted on many Refuges to better characterize water quality under the Clean Water Act.

  17. Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Lešnik


    Full Text Available Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School Ski school programmes in different countries are adapted to the local conditions and skiing trends. The aim of the study was to establish the progressivity of the three basic elements of the Slovenian ski school in terms of the duration of individual turns and their phases. Eight participants were recorded as they performed three basic elements of the Slovenian national ski school: wedge curves – E1, turns with a wedge push-off – E2 and basic swinging – E3. According to the ski school, the elements were divided into phases. The results of the computer-aided video analysis showed that in the beginning types of skiing in the same conditions on the same length of terrain, the average durations of turns and the times of comparable initiation and steering phases of the elements shortened on the methodical upward scale (from E1 to E3. The number of turns executed on the same length of terrain from E1 to E3 increased. A larger step in motor task complexity was indicated when a pole plant was included in skiing elements. Further, relatively large differences were observed in time durations among subjects executing the same elements. In conclusion, it can be assessed that the basic elements of the ski school are placed gradually in terms of progressivity in time durations. Progresivita základních elementů slovinské národní školy alpského lyžování Programy lyžařských škol v různých zemích jsou přizpůsobeny místním podmínkám a lyžařským trendům. Cílem této studie bylo stanovit progresivitu tří základních prvků slovinské lyžařské školy, pokud jde o dobu trvání jednotlivých zatočení a jejich fází. U osmi účastníků bylo zaznamenáno, jak provádějí tři základní prvky ze slovinské národní lyžařské školy: E1 – oblouk z pluhu; E2 – oblouk z přívratu vyšší lyží E3 – paralelní oblouk. Podle lyžařské

  18. Evaluation of ICD-10 algorithms to identify hypopituitary patients in the Danish National Patient Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Olsen, Morten; Andersen, Marianne


    Objective: Routinely collected health data may be valuable sources for conducting research. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of algorithms detecting hypopituitary patients in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) using medical records as reference standard. Study design and setting......: Patients with International Classification of Diseases (10th edition [ICD-10]) diagnoses of hypopituitarism, or other diagnoses of pituitary disorders assumed to be associated with an increased risk of hypopituitarism, recorded in the DNPR during 2000–2012 were identified. Medical records were reviewed...... to confirm or disprove hypopituitarism. Results: Hypopituitarism was confirmed in 911 patients. In a candidate population of 1,661, this yielded an overall positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.4–57.3). Using algorithms searching for patients recorded at least one, three...

  19. Identifying River Catchments of National Importance for Indigenous Biodiversity in New Zealand (United States)

    Chadderton, W. L.; Brown, D. J.; Stephens, T. S.


    We describe a process to identify the minimum set of catchments that best represents the full range of indigenous biodiversity in New Zealand rivers. Our assessment addressed the contrasting objectives of the maintenance of viable populations of all indigenous freshwater species and protection of the full range of riverine habitats and ecosystems. In the absence of nationally comprehensive biodiversity data, we used surrogate information derived from spatially explicit environmental, biogeographic and human disturbance data. We divided the country into 29 biogeographic units and used river classes defined by the (NZ) River Environment Classification to characterise environmental variance among river catchments. Catchments over 100 ha were ranked according to the degree of human induced disturbance pressure, on the assumption that least degraded systems retain most indigenous biodiversity. A natural heritage score for each catchment was created by combining measures of environmental representation and human disturbance pressure with information on threatened species and connectivity to wetlands, lakes and estuaries.

  20. Identifying content for simulation-based curricula in urology: a national needs assessment. (United States)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Bølling Hansen, Rikke; Gilboe Lindorff-Larsen, Karen; Paltved, Charlotte; Nielsen, Bjørn Ulrik; Konge, Lars


    Simulation-based training is well recognized in the transforming field of urological surgery; however, integration into the curriculum is often unstructured. Development of simulation-based curricula should follow a stepwise approach starting with a needs assessment. This study aimed to identify technical procedures in urology that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum for residency training. A national needs assessment was performed using the Delphi method involving 56 experts with significant roles in the education of urologists. Round 1 identified technical procedures that newly qualified urologists should perform. Round 2 included a survey using an established needs assessment formula to explore: the frequency of procedures; the number of physicians who should be able to perform the procedure; the risk and/or discomfort to patients when a procedure is performed by an inexperienced physician; and the feasibility of simulation training. Round 3 involved elimination and reranking of procedures according to priority. The response rates for the three Delphi rounds were 70%, 55% and 67%, respectively. The 34 procedures identified in Round 1 were reduced to a final prioritized list of 18 technical procedures for simulation-based training. The five procedures that reached the highest prioritization were cystoscopy, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate, placement of ureteral stent, insertion of urethral and suprapubic catheter, and transurethral resection of the bladder. The prioritized list of technical procedures in urology that were identified as highly suitable for simulation can be used as an aid in the planning and development of simulation-based training programs.

  1. Identifying acute myocardial infarction: effects on treatment and mortality, and implications for National Service Framework audit. (United States)

    Sapsford, R J; Lawrance, R A; Dorsch, M F; Das, R; Jackson, B M; Morrell, C; Robinson, M B; Hall, A S


    The National Service Framework (NSF) for Coronary Heart Disease requires annual clinical audit of the care of patients with myocardial infarction, with little guidance on how to achieve these standards and monitor practice. To assess which method of identification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases is most suitable for NSF audit, and to determine the effect of the definition of AMI on the assessment of quality of care. Observational study. Over a 3-month period, 2153 consecutive patients from 20 hospitals across the Yorkshire region, with confirmed AMI, were identified from coronary care registers, biochemistry records and hospital coding systems. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of AMI patient identification using clinical coding, biochemistry and coronary care registers were compared to a 'gold standard' (the combination of all three methods). Of 3685 possible cases of AMI singled out by one or more methods, 2153 patients were identified as having a final diagnosis of AMI. Hospital coding revealed 1668 (77.5%) cases, with a demographic profile similar to that of the total cohort. Secondary preventative measures required for inclusion in NSF were also of broadly similar distribution. The sensitivities and positive predictive values for patient identification were substantially less in the cohorts identified through biochemistry and coronary care unit register. Patients fulfilling WHO criteria (n=1391) had a 30-day mortality of 15.9%, vs. 24.2% for the total cohort. Hospital coding misses a substantial proportion (22.5%) of AMI cases, but without any apparent systematic bias, and thus provides a suitably representative and robust basis for NSF-related audit. Better still would be the routine use of multiple methods of case identification.

  2. De-identifying a public use microdata file from the Canadian national discharge abstract database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paton David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI collects hospital discharge abstract data (DAD from Canadian provinces and territories. There are many demands for the disclosure of this data for research and analysis to inform policy making. To expedite the disclosure of data for some of these purposes, the construction of a DAD public use microdata file (PUMF was considered. Such purposes include: confirming some published results, providing broader feedback to CIHI to improve data quality, training students and fellows, providing an easily accessible data set for researchers to prepare for analyses on the full DAD data set, and serve as a large health data set for computer scientists and statisticians to evaluate analysis and data mining techniques. The objective of this study was to measure the probability of re-identification for records in a PUMF, and to de-identify a national DAD PUMF consisting of 10% of records. Methods Plausible attacks on a PUMF were evaluated. Based on these attacks, the 2008-2009 national DAD was de-identified. A new algorithm was developed to minimize the amount of suppression while maximizing the precision of the data. The acceptable threshold for the probability of correct re-identification of a record was set at between 0.04 and 0.05. Information loss was measured in terms of the extent of suppression and entropy. Results Two different PUMF files were produced, one with geographic information, and one with no geographic information but more clinical information. At a threshold of 0.05, the maximum proportion of records with the diagnosis code suppressed was 20%, but these suppressions represented only 8-9% of all values in the DAD. Our suppression algorithm has less information loss than a more traditional approach to suppression. Smaller regions, patients with longer stays, and age groups that are infrequently admitted to hospitals tend to be the ones with the highest rates of suppression

  3. De-identifying a public use microdata file from the Canadian national discharge abstract database. (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Paton, David; Dankar, Fida; Koru, Gunes


    The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) collects hospital discharge abstract data (DAD) from Canadian provinces and territories. There are many demands for the disclosure of this data for research and analysis to inform policy making. To expedite the disclosure of data for some of these purposes, the construction of a DAD public use microdata file (PUMF) was considered. Such purposes include: confirming some published results, providing broader feedback to CIHI to improve data quality, training students and fellows, providing an easily accessible data set for researchers to prepare for analyses on the full DAD data set, and serve as a large health data set for computer scientists and statisticians to evaluate analysis and data mining techniques. The objective of this study was to measure the probability of re-identification for records in a PUMF, and to de-identify a national DAD PUMF consisting of 10% of records. Plausible attacks on a PUMF were evaluated. Based on these attacks, the 2008-2009 national DAD was de-identified. A new algorithm was developed to minimize the amount of suppression while maximizing the precision of the data. The acceptable threshold for the probability of correct re-identification of a record was set at between 0.04 and 0.05. Information loss was measured in terms of the extent of suppression and entropy. Two different PUMF files were produced, one with geographic information, and one with no geographic information but more clinical information. At a threshold of 0.05, the maximum proportion of records with the diagnosis code suppressed was 20%, but these suppressions represented only 8-9% of all values in the DAD. Our suppression algorithm has less information loss than a more traditional approach to suppression. Smaller regions, patients with longer stays, and age groups that are infrequently admitted to hospitals tend to be the ones with the highest rates of suppression. The strategies we used to maximize data utility and

  4. Background element content of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: A supra-national state of art implemented by novel field data from Italy. (United States)

    Cecconi, Elva; Incerti, Guido; Capozzi, Fiore; Adamo, Paola; Bargagli, Roberto; Benesperi, Renato; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Giordano, Simonetta; Puntillo, Domenico; Ravera, Sonia; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Tretiach, Mauro


    In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed. Element content in samples collected in remote areas was compared to that of potentially enriched samples, testing differences between medians for 25 elements. This analysis confirmed that the former samples were substantially unaffected by anthropogenic contributions, and their metrics were therefore proposed as a first overview at supra-national background level. We also showed that bioaccumulation studies suffer a huge methodological variability. Limited to original field data, we investigated the background variability of 43 elements in 62 remote Italian sites, characterized in GIS environment for anthropization, land use, climate and lithology at different scale resolution. The relationships between selected environmental descriptors and BEC were tested using Principal Component Regression (PCR) modelling. Elemental composition resulted significantly dependent on land use, climate and lithology. In the case of lithogenic elements, regression models correctly reproduced the lichen content throughout the country at randomly selected sites. Further descriptors should be identified only for As, Co, and V. Through a multivariate approach we also identified three geographically homogeneous macro-regions for which specific BECs were provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Can the prehospital National Early Warning Score identify patients most at risk from subsequent deterioration? (United States)

    Shaw, Joanna; Fothergill, Rachael T; Clark, Sophie; Moore, Fionna


    The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) aids the early recognition of those at risk of becoming critically ill. NEWS has been recommended for use by ambulance services, but very little work has been undertaken to date to determine its suitability. This paper examines whether a prehospital NEWS derived from ambulance service clinical observations is associated with the hospital ED disposition. Prehospital NEWS was retrospectively calculated from the ambulance service clinical records of 287 patients who were treated by the ambulance service and transported to hospital. In this cohort study, derived NEWS scores were compared with ED disposition data and patients were categorised into the following groups depending on their outcome: discharged from ED, admitted to a ward, admitted to intensive therapy unit (ITU) or died. Prehospital NEWS-based ambulance service clinical observations were significantly associated with discharge disposition groups (pscores escalating in line with increasing severity of outcome. Patients who died or were admitted to ITU had higher scores than those admitted to a ward or discharged from ED (mean NEWS 7.2 and 7.5 vs 2.6 and 1.7, respectively), and in turn those who were admitted to a ward had higher pre-hospital NEWS than those who were discharged (2.6 vs 1.7). Our findings suggest that the NEWS could successfully be used by ambulance services to identify patients most at risk from subsequent deterioration. The implementation of this early warning system has the potential to support ambulance clinician decision making, providing an additional tool to identify and appropriately escalate care for acutely unwell patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The competitive advantage of European nations : The impact of national culture - a missing element in Porter's analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); A.A. van Prooijen


    textabstractThis article uses as its starting point Michael Porter's model of the national ‘diamond’ to explain the role of the national environment in the competitive position of industries and firms. The authors believe, however, that the influence of national culture on the competitive advantage

  7. Common data elements for clinical research in mitochondrial disease: a National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaa, A.; Rahman, S.; Lombes, A.; Yu-Wai-Man, P.; Sheikh, M.K.; Alai-Hansen, S.; Cohen, B.H.; Dimmock, D.; Emrick, L.; Falk, M.J.; McCormack, S.; Mirsky, D.; Moore, T.; Parikh, S.; Shoffner, J.; Taivassalo, T.; Tarnopolsky, M.; Tein, I.; Odenkirchen, J.C.; Goldstein, A.; Koene, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; et al.,


    OBJECTIVES: The common data elements (CDE) project was developed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to provide clinical researchers with tools to improve data quality and allow for harmonization of data collected in different research studies. CDEs have been

  8. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu


    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  9. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: a strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach (United States)

    Thomas D. Bullen; Scott W. Bailey


    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources. but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration...

  10. Dynamic Cluster Analysis: An Unbiased Method for Identifying A+2 Element Containing Compounds in Liquid Chromatographic High-Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometric Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Hansen, Per Juel; Jørgensen, Kevin


    Dynamic Cluster Analysis (DCA) is an automated, unbiased technique which can identify Cl, Br, S, and other A+2 element containing metabolites in liquid chromatographic high resolution mass spectrometric data. DCA is based on three features, primarily the previously unutilised A+1 to A+2 isotope c...

  11. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler Peltier, Gretchen [University of Georgia, Institute of Ecology, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)], E-mail:; Meyer, Judith L. [University of Georgia, Institute of Ecology, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Jagoe, Charles H.; Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)


    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 {+-} 0.2 and 13.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 {+-} 0.2 and 3.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg. - C. fluminea collected downstream of CFPPs had elevated tissue concentrations of trace elements.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003 (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.


    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When

  13. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries Identified at the National Football League Scouting Combine. (United States)

    McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; McDonald, Lucas S; DiGiovanni, Christopher W; Theodore, George H; Provencher, Matthew T


    Lisfranc injuries are challenging to treat and may have a detrimental effect on athletic performance. (1) Determine the epidemiological characteristics of Lisfranc injuries at the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, (2) define player positions at risk for these injuries, and (3) evaluate the impact that these injuries and radiographic findings have on NFL draft position and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All players who sustained a Lisfranc injury prior to Combine evaluation between 2009 and 2015 were evaluated. The epidemiological characteristics, player positions affected, treatment methods, and number of missed collegiate games were recorded. Radiographic outcomes were analyzed via Combine radiograph findings, while NFL performance outcomes were assessed for all Lisfranc injuries (2009-2013) compared with matched controls in the first 2 years of play. A total of 41 of 2162 (1.8%) Combine participants were identified with Lisfranc injuries, of whom 26 of 41 (63.4%) were managed operatively. Players who underwent surgery were more likely to go undrafted compared with players managed nonoperatively (38.5% vs 13.3%, operative vs nonoperative management, respectively; P = .04) and featured a worse NFL draft pick position (155.6 vs 109; P = .03). Lisfranc-injured players when compared with controls were noted to have worse outcomes in terms of NFL draft position (142 vs 111.3, Lisfranc-injured players vs controls, respectively; P = .04), NFL career length 2 years or longer (62.5% vs 69.6%; P = .23), and number of games played (16.9 vs 23.3; P = .001) and started (6.8 vs 10.5; P = .08) within the first 2 years of their NFL career. Radiographs demonstrated that 17 of 41 (41.5%) athletes had residual Lisfranc joint displacement greater than 2 mm compared with the contralateral foot. Lisfranc-injured athletes with greater than 2 mm residual displacement, when compared with matched controls, had worse draft position (156.9 vs 111.2 for

  14. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): National Identifier Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  15. Identifying & Inventorying Legacy Materials for Digitization at the National Transportation Library (United States)


    As an all-digital repository of transportation knowledge, the National Transportation Library (NTL) has undertaken several digitization projects over the years to preserve legacy print materials and make them accessible to stakeholders, researchers, ...

  16. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, G.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Jagoe, C.H.; Hopkins, W.A. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)


    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 {+-} 0.2 and 13.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g{sup -1} dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 {+-} 0.2 and 3.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g{sup -1} DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg.

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Positive Structural Elements (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Positive Structural Elements coverage maps, in the form of polygons, are known structural highs within the province that commonly define a basin proper or...

  18. Radial patterns of 13 elements in the tree rings of beech trees from Mavrovo National park, FYROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristovski S.


    Full Text Available The radial patterns of 13 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Co were analyzed in the tree rings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. The study site was located in an 'unpolluted' beech ecosystem in Mavrovo National Park. Thus, the obtained radial patterns in the beech trees were considered to be physiologically driven without significant pollution influence. The influence of the main climatic factors (temperature and rainfall was tested. The radial patterns of individual trees were compared in order to find individual responses to environmental impacts. For most of the elements, higher concentrations were recorded in the pith and outer-most rings and lower in the middle part of the wood. The concentration of heavy metals was low, and followed the physiological patterns of other biogenic elements.

  19. Common Data Elements for Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Research: A National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke Project (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Alai, Sherita; Anderson, Kim; Charlifue, Susan; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael; Flanders, Adam E.; Jones, Linda; Kleitman, Naomi; Lans, Aria; Noonan, Vanessa K.; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Steeves, John; Tansey, Keith; Widerström-Noga, Eva; Jakeman, Lyn B.


    Objective To develop a comprehensive set of common data elements (CDEs), data definitions, case report forms and guidelines for use in spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical research, as part of the CDE project at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the USA National Institutes of Health. Setting International Working Groups Methods Nine working groups composed of international experts reviewed existing CDEs and instruments, created new elements when needed, and provided recommendations for SCI clinical research. The project was carried out in collaboration with and cross-referenced to development of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) International SCI Data Sets. The recommendations were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment. The final version was reviewed by all working groups and the NINDS CDE team prior to release. Results The NINDS SCI CDEs and supporting documents are publically available on the NINDS CDE website and the ISCoS website. The CDEs span the continuum of SCI care and the full range of domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Conclusions Widespread use of common data elements can facilitate SCI clinical research and trial design, data sharing, and retrospective analyses. Continued international collaboration will enable consistent data collection and reporting, and will help ensure that the data elements are updated, reviewed and broadcast as additional evidence is obtained. PMID:25665542

  20. Identifying National Parts of the Internet Outside a Country’s Top Level Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    technical infrastructures and automatic detection, but also in the more theoretical definitions of what can be defined as a national webpage. The very basis for any harvesting approach is defining a collection scope by deciding what is seen as national webpage. Automation of such definitions is far more...... difficult than originally anticipated. The automation here is based on a wide range of factors, including language and character encoding as well as several others. An additional outcome of the project has been a generally applicable list of collection criteria. This list is a result of a cooperative effort...

  1. Building a National Security Program at a Small School: Identifying Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Schortgen, Francis


    This article offers insights into the overall program development process and--institutional obstacles and constraints notwithstanding--successful introduction of a new national security program at a small liberal arts university at a time of growing institutional prioritization of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs.…

  2. Identifying Pedagogy and Teaching Strategies for Achieving Nationally Prescribed Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Delany, Clare; Kosta, Lauren; Ewen, Shaun; Nicholson, Patricia; Remedios, Louisa; Harms, Louise


    With the globalisation of university education, national frameworks are commonly used to prescribe standardised learning outcomes and achieve accountability. However, these frameworks are generally not accompanied by guiding pedagogy to support academics in adjusting their teaching practices to achieve the set outcomes. This paper reports the…

  3. Identifying wood utilization options for ecosystem management : summary of a national research project (United States)

    K. E. Skog; R. J. Barbour; J. E. Baumgras; A. Clark


    Using an ecosystem approach to forest management will change silvicultural practices, thus requiring utilization options to provide revenue and to help offset the costs of the silviculture treatments. The Forest Service, university cooperators, and several industry mills in the southern, western, and northeastern United States have been involved in a national...

  4. Trace Elements, With Special Reference to Mercury, in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen


    Trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cr, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) were determined in muscle (fillet) of average sized fish (mostly carp, catfish, and sucker) collected from the confluences of major canyons that cross Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lands with the Rio Grande (RG). Also, trace elements were determined in fish from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu [AR]) and downstream (Cochiti [CR]) of LANL from 1991 through 1999. In general, all of the (mean) trace elements, including Hg, were either at the limits of detection (LOD) or in low concentrations at all study sites. Of the trace elements (e.g., Ba, Cu, and Hg) that were found to be above the LOD in fish muscle collected from LANL canyons/RG, none were in significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations than in muscle of fish collected from background locations. Mercury concentrations (mean of means) in fish from AR (all other trace elements were at LOD) were significantly higher (p < 0.10) than Hg concentrations in fish from CR, and Hg concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (AR = p <0.05 and CR = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time.

  5. Identifying shared and contested elements in climate plans as part of shaping transitions towards a Danish low carbon society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    . The analyses are conducted as part of a project about sustainable transitions towards a low carbon society. The plan from the renewable energy NGO is an energy plan, while the other plans are climate plans, which include non-energy related greenhouse gasses from land use changes and use of fertilizers......, while the other plans build upon scenarios for a more independent national energy system, where wind turbine energy mainly is used or stored in Denmark. Other differences in the plans show that creation of alignment about future transitions efforts also needs to address assumptions about the roles......The Danish government's vision about Denmark as a society independent of fossil energy has initiated several Danish energy and climate action plans during 2009-2010 with visions and measures for a 30-40 year time perspective. The paper analyses differences and similarities in action plans from...

  6. Trace elements in feathers and eggshells of brown booby Sula leucogaster in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands, Brazil. (United States)

    Dolci, Natiely Natalyane; Sá, Fabian; da Costa Machado, Eunice; Krul, Ricardo; Rodrigues Neto, Renato


    Levels of trace elements were investigated in feathers of 51 adults and 47 eggshells of brown boobies Sula leucogaster from one bird colony in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands, Brazil, between December 2013 and October 2014. Average concentrations (μg g-1, dry weight) in feathers and eggshells, respectively, were Al 50.62-9.58, As 0.35-2.37, Cd 0.05-0.03, Co 0.38-2.1, Cu 15.12-0.99, Fe 47.47-22.92, Mg 815.71-1116.92, Ni 0.29-11.85, and Zn 94.16-1.98. In both arrays, the average concentration of Mg was the highest among all the elements analyzed, while the lowest was recorded for Cd. As and Ni presented levels at which biological impacts might occur. Zn concentrations were higher than those considered normal in other organs. Levels of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were higher in feathers, whereas higher contents of Mg, Co, Ni, and As occurred in eggshells. The comparison between the elements in eggshells collected at different seasons showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) due, probably, to the lack of temporal variation on foraging behavior and/or on bioavailability of trace elements. Metals and arsenic in feathers and eggshells were mostly not correlated. Future studies on Paraná coast should focus on the speciation of the elements, especially As, Ni, and Zn, which proved to be a possible problem for the environment and biota. It is necessary to investigate both matrices, shell and internal contents of the eggs, in order to verify if the differences previously reported in other studies also occur in eggs of brown boobies in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands.

  7. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): National Robotics Initiative (NRI) & Robotics Technology Pipeline Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2012, NASA funded 9 grants to research institutions and universities, after reviews by NSF panels and NASA robotics experts.  The 9 research grantees...

  8. An investigation of trace element contamination at Bamforth National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bamforth National Wildlife Refuge (Bamforth) located in southeast Wyoming serves as an important resting area for several species of migratory waterbirds. Surveys...

  9. Trace element concentrations in biota and sediments at Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge, Sargent County, North Dakota (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge (Tewaukon) is located near one of only two designated Superfund sites in North Dakota. Extensive use of arsenic trioxide during the...

  10. Five heavy metallic elements and age-related macular degeneration: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Park, Kyu Hyung


    To investigate the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 5 heavy metallic elements (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc). A cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster survey. Participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Using a standardized protocol, AMD was determined by fundus photograph grading. Blood concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were measured. Associations between AMD and these 5 elements were estimated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The distributions of the 5 metallic elements in blood were analyzed, and the same set of LRAs estimating the association between AMD and logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations of the 5 elements were also conducted. Association between AMD and 5 heavy metals. Lead was positively associated with both early AMD and late AMD in all LRAs. Mercury and cadmium also had a positive association with late AMD in all LRAs, but not with early AMD. In contrast, manganese and zinc had an inverse association with late AMD in all LRAs. Manganese and zinc were not associated with early AMD. Using logarithmic-transformed blood concentrations for each metallic element, the LRAs showed similar results compared with those of the LRAs using nontransformed blood concentrations, despite the skewed distribution of these metallic elements in the blood. This study suggests that the toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium) may negatively influence late AMD, whereas essential heavy metals (manganese and zinc) may favorably influence late AMD. Lead may widely affect the pathogenesis of both early and late AMD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science? (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.


    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  13. A Cost Benefit Analysis Approach to Identify Improvements in Merchant Navy Deck Officers’ HELM (Human Element Leadership and Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Saeed


    Full Text Available A review of maritime accidents conducted over the last decade confirms that human error is the main contributing factor in these incidents. Well-developed Non-Technical Skills (NTS can reduce the effects of human error. NTS include both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. In a crisis situation good NTS allow a deck officer to recognise the problem quickly, take action to manage the situation, and utilise the available team members safely and effectively. This paper identifies the importance of NTS training for merchant navy deck officers. It also highlights room for improvement in the existing HELM training. Research has shown that at present the structure of HELM training is not very effective. The other safety critical domains’ efforts into NTS developments are investigated and examples of best practice are adapted into the maritime domain’s NTS training. Suggestions are given for improvements to the HELM course based on proven successful methods in other safety critical domains (aviation and anaesthesia. A subsequent Cost Benefit Analysis for improving deck officers’ NTS is also carried out through the use of Bayesian Networks and Decision Tree Modelling.

  14. Dynamic Cluster Analysis: An Unbiased Method for Identifying A+2 Element Containing Compounds in Liquid Chromatographic High-Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometric Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Hansen, Per Juel; Jørgensen, Kevin


    over 2800 u or metabolites which contained other A+2 elements, such as Cu, Ni, Mg, and Zn. It was determined that with an inter-isotopic mass accuracy of 1 ppm, in a fully automated process, using all three parameters, it is possible to specifically filter a chromatogram for S containing metabolites......Dynamic Cluster Analysis (DCA) is an automated, unbiased technique which can identify Cl, Br, S, and other A+2 element containing metabolites in liquid chromatographic high resolution mass spectrometric data. DCA is based on three features, primarily the previously unutilised A+1 to A+2 isotope...... cluster spacing which is a strong classifier in itself, but improved with the addition of the monoisotopic mass, and the well-known A:A+2 intensity ratio. Utilizing only the A+1 to A+2 isotope cluster spacing and the monoisotopic mass it was possible to filter a chromatogram for metabolites which contain...

  15. How to identify potentially preventable readmissions by classifying them using a national administrative database. (United States)

    Hekkert, Karin; van der Brug, Femke; Borghans, Ine; Cihangir, Sezgin; Zimmerman, Cees; Westert, Gert; Kool, Rudolf B


    Hospital readmissions are being used increasingly as an indicator of quality of care. However, it remains difficult to identify potentially preventable readmissions. To evaluate the identification of potentially preventable hospital readmissions by using a classification of readmissions based on administrative data. We classified a random sample of 455 readmissions to a Dutch university hospital in 2014 using administrative data. We compared these results to a classification based on reviewing the medical records of these readmissions to evaluate the accuracy of classification by administrative data. Frequencies of categories of readmissions based on reviewing records versus those based on administrative data. Cohen's kappa for the agreement between both methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the identification of potentially preventable readmissions with classification by administrative data. Reviewing the medical records of acute readmissions resulted in 28.5% of the records being classified as potentially preventable. With administrative data this was 44.1%. There was slight agreement between both methods: ƙ 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02-0.15, P administrative data was 63.1% and the specificity was 63.5%. This explorative study demonstrated differences between categorizing readmissions based on reviewing records compared to using administrative data. Therefore, this tool can only be used in practice with great caution. It is not suitable for penalizing hospitals based on their number of potentially preventable readmissions. However, hospitals might use this classification as a screening tool to identify potentially preventable readmissions more efficiently.

  16. Child injury: using national emergency department monitoring systems to identify temporal and demographic risk factors. (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; McHale, Philip; Wyke, Sacha; Lowey, Helen; Bellis, Mark A


    Injury is a leading cause of death in children. Emergency department (ED) data offer a potentially rich source of data on child injury. This study uses an emerging national ED data collection system to examine sociodemographics and temporal trends in child injury attendances in England. Cross sectional examination of ED attendances for key injury types made by children aged 0-14 years between April 2010 and March 2011 (road traffic injury (RTI) n=21 670; assault n=9529; deliberate self harm (DSH) n=3066; sports injury n=88 250; burns n=22 222; poisoning n=12 446). Multivariate analyses examined the impact of demographics (age, gender, residential deprivation) and temporal events (day, month, school and public holidays) on risk of attendance for different injury types. For most injury types, attendance increased with deprivation. The attendance ratio between children from the poorest and richest deprivation quintiles was greatest for assaults (4.21:1). Conversely, sports injury attendance decreased with deprivation. Males made more attendances than females for all but DSH. Age and temporal profiles varied by injury type. Assault attendances reduced at weekends while burns attendances increased. RTI and sports injury attendances were increased during school term times. ED data can provide a major epidemiological resource for examining both temporal and demographic risks of child injury. Emerging systems, such as the one analysed here, can already inform the targeting of prevention, and with improved data coding and use, their utility would be greatly strengthened.

  17. Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress (United States)


    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress ,101 Independence Ave, SE,Washington,DC,20540 8. PERFORMING...aviation-united-states-congress-house-committee-on- scien /the-national-critical-materials-act-of-1984-hearings-before-the-subcommittee-o-tin/page-2-the

  18. Identifying national health research priorities in Timor-Leste through a scoping review of existing health data (United States)


    Health research is crucial to understand a country’s needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 2001 to 2011 that reported objectives, methods and results were identified. Key findings were triangulated with data from national surveys and the Health Management Information System; 114 eligible articles were included in the analysis, the leading topics of which were communicable (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and dengue) and non-communicable (eye and mental health) diseases. There were 28 papers (25%) on safe motherhood, child health and nutrition, of which 20 (71%) were unpublished. The review of national indicators showed high infant, under-five and maternal mortality rates. Burden of disease is greatest in young children, with respiratory infections, febrile illnesses and diarrheal disease predominating. There is poor access to and utilization of health care. Childhood malnutrition is an important unresolved national health issue. There are several obstacles leading to under-utilization of health services. The following topics for future health research are suggested from the review: nutrition, safe motherhood, childhood illness (in particular identifying the causes and cause-specific burden of severe respiratory, febrile and diarrheal diseases) and access to and use of health services. PMID:23452321

  19. Mercury and other element exposure to tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, Thomas W. [US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail:; Custer, Christine M. [US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States); Johnson, Kevin M. [US Fish and Wildlife Service, North Dakota Field Office, 3425 Miriam Avenue, Bismarck, ND 58501-7926 (United States); Hoffman, David J. [US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12011 Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States)


    Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows nesting in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge were not elevated.

  20. Elemental composition of ectomycorrhizal mycelia identified by PCR-RFLP analysis and grown in contact with apatite or wood ash in forest soil. (United States)

    Wallander, Håkan; Mahmood, Shahid; Hagerberg, David; Johansson, Leif; Pallon, Jan


    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify ectomycorrhizal species with a potential to release elements from apatite and wood ash and accumulate them in the mycelia. Fungal rhizomorphs and mycelia were sampled from sand-filled mesh bags with or without amendment of apatite or wood ash. The mesh bags were buried in forest soil in the field for 13 or 24 months. Elemental composition of the samples was analyzed with particle-induced X-ray emission and the fungus was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS-region of ribosomal DNA. The majority of rhizomorphs and mycelia collected from the mesh bags were of mycorrhizal origin with Paxillus involutus being the most common species (31%). Other identified species were Thelephora terrestris, Suillus granulatus and Tylospora fibillosa. S. granulatus contained 3-15 times more K (3 mg g(-1)) than the other species and had large calcium-rich crystals deposited on the surface of rhizomorphs when grown in contact with apatite. P. involutus contained the largest amount of Ca (2-7 mg g(-1)). Wood ash addition increased the amount of Ti, Mn and Pb in the rhizomorphs while apatite addition increased the amount of Ca in the rhizomorphs. The high concentration of K in S. granulatus rhizomorphs suggests that this fungus is a good accumulator of K while P. involutus appeared to accumulate heavy metals originating from wood ash.

  1. Basic elements for a national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control in Peru. (United States)

    Flores Agreda, R


    The first part of the article describes the nature and extent of drug abuse in Peru, with particular reference to the illicit cultivation of the coca plant and the national responses to these problems. It is estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 hectares are under illicit coca plant cultivation, although less than 18,000 hectares are sufficient for meeting the legitimate needs for this plant in the country. It was estimated that 1.3 million children and youth were at risk of drug abuse in 1985. Both the problems and national responses are analysed in the context of historical and current developments that have influenced Peruvian drug abuse control policy, as well as in terms of the adequacy of programmes carried out within the social sectors involved in such control. The second part of the article summarizes the salient points extracted from the new national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control, which is intended to achieve a maximum reduction in drug abuse concurrently with the elimination of drug trafficking and the eradication of illicit coca plant cultivation in the country. The plan clearly defines the objectives, the strategies and the division of responsibilities in its implementation, involving the following four major sectors of activity: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation; control and monitoring of substances used for legitimate purposes; suppression of the illicit drug traffic; and the eradication of illicit coca plant growing together with the promotion of agricultural, agro-industrial and forestial development. It is pointed out that the whole nation needs to be mobilized in the implementation of the plan in order to achieve its objectives fully.

  2. Investigations on the combined toxicity of trace elements and salinity to aquatic organisms at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge : A research progress report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses water quality problems related to salinity and trace elements at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Agricultural drain water poses a threat...

  3. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner


    , supported by histone marks and ChIP-seq data, that specifically have features of an enhancer and a promoter, respectively. We also identified a putative long non-coding RNA from the characteristically long first intron of the Cd247 gene. The long non-coding RNA annotation is supported by manual annotations...... from the GENCODE project in human and our expression quantification analysis performed in NOD and B6 mice using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, 17 of the 23 SNPs already known to be implicated with T1D were observed within the long non-coding RNA region in mouse. The spatially conserved regulatory elements...

  4. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: critical element management concept. Volume II. Concept description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the CEM Concept is to describe techniques for systematically identifying, evaluating, and influencing those technical, social, economic, political and institutional factors (i.e., events, trends and conditions) that are perceived as being probable uncertainties to the attainment of planned program objectives.

  5. Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis Strain WP30 Respires on Elemental Sulfur and/or Arsenate in Circumneutral Sulfidic Geothermal Sediments of Yellowstone National Park. (United States)

    Jay, Z J; Beam, J P; Dohnalkova, A; Lohmayer, R; Bodle, B; Planer-Friedrich, B; Romine, M; Inskeep, W P


    Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota) populations are abundant in high-temperature (>70°C) environments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are important in mediating the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, arsenic, and carbon. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific physiological attributes of the isolate Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis strain WP30, which was obtained from an elemental sulfur sediment (Joseph's Coat Hot Spring [JCHS], 80°C, pH 6.1, 135 μM As) and relate this organism to geochemical processes occurring in situ. Strain WP30 is a chemoorganoheterotroph and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenate as an electron acceptor. Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the formation of thioarsenates and polysulfides. The complete genome of this organism was sequenced (1.99 Mb, 58% G+C content), revealing numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, were identified. Pathways for the de novo synthesis of nearly all required cofactors and metabolites were identified. The comparative genomics of P. yellowstonensis and the assembled metagenome sequence from JCHS showed that this organism is highly related (∼95% average nucleotide sequence identity) to in situ populations. The physiological attributes and metabolic capabilities of P. yellowstonensis provide an important foundation for developing an understanding of the distribution and function of these populations in YNP. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Assessment of the capacity of the national ecological network elements for road construction and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna


    Full Text Available Road construction and usage have a wide range of direct and indirect negative effects on protected areas. The impact of state roads on protected areas in Vojvodina was reviewed in this article, based on the orientation values of habitat loss and secondary negative effects originating from traffic functioning. Results of the assessment indicate that the use of existing roads constructed on habitats within the national ecological network exceeded the capacity of individual PA-protected areas (e.g., in case of Straža Natural Monument. Recorded capacity overflow on other PAs occurs solely as a consequence of overlapping between protected areas and areas of influence of roads routed along the borders of protected areas (which is the case with Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve and Selevenjske pustare Special Nature Reserve. The aim of this article is to show that even with the smallest values of the parameters related to the width of roads and critical distance from the habitat, the vulnerability of certain core areas of the national ecological network is evident.

  7. The impact of morbidity trajectories on identifying high-cost cases: using Taiwan's National Health Insurance as an example. (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen


    Incorporating longitudinal information into risk-adjustment models has been considered important. This study aimed to evaluate how morbidity trajectories impact risk-adjustment models in identifying high-cost cases. Claims-based risk adjusters, with or without morbidity trajectories derived from 3-year claims from Taiwan's National Insurance System, were used to predict being a prospective high-cost user. A random sample of Taiwanese National Health Insurance enrollees continuously enrolled from 2002 to 2005 (n = 147,892) was the study sample. A logistic regression model was employed. The performance measures, based on the split analysis, included statistical indicators (c-statistics, sensitivity and predictive positive value), proportions of true cases identified by models and medical utilization of predicted cases. As the comprehensiveness of risk adjustment models increased, the performance of the models generally increased. The effect of adding trajectories on the model performance decreased as the comprehensiveness of the model increased. Such impact was most apparent in statistical indicators and medical utilization of the predicted groups. In identifying high-cost cases, adding morbidity trajectories might be necessary only for less comprehensive risk adjustment models, and its contributions came from higher c-statistics and increasing medical utilization of predicted groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Analysis of key data elements for the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.; Stephens, S.; Barnard, W. [E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others


    As a requirement of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically reexamine the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. In an attempt to examine the impact of a new standard on various geographical areas in the United States, regional and urban photochemical modeling will be performed. This modeling will analyze various emission control strategies based on the 1990 CAAA, as well as additional controls specified in an attempt to bring ozone concentrations to the level of the proposed new standard. As a result of this modeling, numerous data sets will be developed including the emissions, model results, and ambient air quality data. EPA needs an efficient means of graphically visualizing/analyzing these data both spatially and temporally. This includes point specific emissions, ambient air quality, county-level emissions, coordinate information, land use, population, and gridded model results. The results of these efforts (modeling and analyses) will benefit EPA and State and local air pollution agencies in two ways: (1) Provide State agencies with an assessment of how effective various control measures are at reducing ozone levels, and (2) be used in the development and implementation of the new ambient standard. This paper describes the development of a Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis Application that can be used by EPA with data sets that will result from these analyses and that can be displayed visually via maps and charts.

  9. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Han, Fengxiang X.; Rogers, Christian; Thomas, Catherine; Arslan, Zikri; Ardeshir, Adeli; Tchounwou, Paul B.


    The objectives of this study are to investigate distribution of trace elements and heavy metals in the salt marsh and wetland soil and biogeochemical processes in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that Hg, Cd and to some extent, As and Pb have been significantly accumulated in soils. The strongest correlations were found between concentrations of Ni and total organic matter contents. The correlations decreased in the order: Ni > Cr > Sr > Co > Zn, Cd > Cu > Cs. Strong correlations were also observed between total P and concentrations of Ni, Co, Cr, Sr, Zn, Cu, and Cd. This may be related to the P spilling accident in 2005 in the Bangs Lake site. Lead isotopic ratios in soils matched well those of North American coals, indicating the contribution of Pb through atmospheric fallout from coal power plants. PMID:26238403

  10. The liquid rocket booster as an element of the U.S. national space transportation system (United States)

    Bialla, Paul H.; Simon, Michael C.

    through these trade studies that several options exist for designing a LRB that can be integrated into the STS with manageable impacts on STS facilities and operational procedures. While LRBs offer a potential 40% improvement in Shuttle performance, their most significant benefit is the potential improvements they offer in the area of Shuttle safety. This begins during ground handling operations, where LRBs eliminate the need for large quantities of hazardous solid propellants to be emplaced in the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building. In the pre-launch phase, all LRB engines can be ignited on the launch pad and verified prior to release of the STS. During flight, LRB engines can be shut down on command should the need arise. Further, missions could be aborted safely during the boost phase—an option not available with SRBs. A related benefit of LRBs is their ability to accomplish a mission even if one engine fails, assuming the LRB is designed with sufficient performance margin. An implementation plan has been developed which indicates that LRBs can be operational by 1997. The attractive features of the LRB have prompted NASA to include this booster as a principal element of the agency's long range plan for enhancing STS capabilities through an evolutionary program of block changes. The implementation of LRBs offers an attractive option for developing a safer, more reliable, and better performing STS.

  11. Common data elements for clinical research in mitochondrial disease: a National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke project. (United States)

    Karaa, Amel; Rahman, Shamima; Lombès, Anne; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Sheikh, Muniza K; Alai-Hansen, Sherita; Cohen, Bruce H; Dimmock, David; Emrick, Lisa; Falk, Marni J; McCormack, Shana; Mirsky, David; Moore, Tony; Parikh, Sumit; Shoffner, John; Taivassalo, Tanja; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tein, Ingrid; Odenkirchen, Joanne C; Goldstein, Amy


    The common data elements (CDE) project was developed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to provide clinical researchers with tools to improve data quality and allow for harmonization of data collected in different research studies. CDEs have been created for several neurological diseases; the aim of this project was to develop CDEs specifically curated for mitochondrial disease (Mito) to enhance clinical research. Nine working groups (WGs), composed of international mitochondrial disease experts, provided recommendations for Mito clinical research. They initially reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and instruments, and developed new data elements or instruments when needed. Recommendations were organized, internally reviewed by the Mito WGs, and posted online for external public comment for a period of eight weeks. The final version was again reviewed by all WGs and the NINDS CDE team prior to posting for public use. The NINDS Mito CDEs and supporting documents are publicly available on the NINDS CDE website ( ), organized into domain categories such as Participant/Subject Characteristics, Assessments, and Examinations. We developed a comprehensive set of CDE recommendations, data definitions, case report forms (CRFs), and guidelines for use in Mito clinical research. The widespread use of CDEs is intended to enhance Mito clinical research endeavors, including natural history studies, clinical trial design, and data sharing. Ongoing international collaboration will facilitate regular review, updates and online publication of Mito CDEs, and support improved consistency of data collection and reporting.

  12. Hierarchical fine mapping of the cystic fibrosis modifier locus on 19q13 identifies an association with two elements near the genes CEACAM3 and CEACAM6. (United States)

    Stanke, Frauke; Becker, Tim; Hedtfeld, Silke; Tamm, Stephanie; Wienker, Thomas F; Tümmler, Burkhard


    On 19q13, TGFB1 and the cystic fibrosis modifier 1 locus (CFM1) have been identified as modifiers of the course of the monogenic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, we have described a transmission disequilibrium at the microsatellite D19S197, localized between TGFB1 and CFM1. To map the corresponding molecular variants, we have selected informative SNP markers within a 600-kb area and compared two-marker-haplotype-distributions between phenotypically contrasting sib pair groups, intending to type only phylogenetically old markers by aiming for close-to-maximal polymorphism information content of the SNPs. Starting with a seed set of five SNPs that cover intermarker distances of up to 50 kb, we have iteratively added more SNPs to the map, until we could identify two genomic fragments of 3,289 and 2,052 bp for which pairs with contrasting phenotypes showed different haplotype distributions on the final 17-SNP-map (P(raw) = 0.0002, P(corr17SNPs) = 0.0106 and P(raw) = 0.0008, P(corr17SNPs) = 0.0469, respectively). Resequencing of these fragments of four unrelated individuals for each element showed that the mildly and severely affected pairs differ in seven SNPs and concordant pairs differ from discordant pairs in five SNPs. Annotation of these variants indicate that CEACAM6 and a regulatory element near the 3' end of CEACAM3 are associated with CF disease severity and intrapair discordance, respectively. While our approach was only guided by the markers' position, the involvement of genes from the CEACAM family in host defense and innate immunity designates these proteins as likely modifiers of the multi-organ disease cystic fibrosis which is known for its cytokine imbalance and pro-inflammatory phenotype.

  13. Persistent Identifiers: the ‘URN Granular’ Project of the German National Library and the University and State Library Halle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Sommer


    Full Text Available This paper describes a project carried out by the German National Library, the University and State Library Sachsen-Anhalt in Halle and Semantics GmbH Aachen to establish routines of persistent identification for individual pages of web publications in order to enable and facilitate reliable and long-term valid citation practices for the academic community. The project originated in a pilot project to digitise approximately 10,000 German imprints from the seventeenth century comprising altogether about 600,000 pages, which had to be completed within two years. The material of the ‘Ponickau Collection’ had been catalogued in the German national bibliography of seventeenth-century imprints (VD 17, which was enriched and turned into a virtual library by adding the digitised texts. This article investigates the means of presentation and indexing of digitised imprints in order to ensure their usability. It also sketches the workflow among the various partners involved in the process. The article highlights the application of Visual Library, which contains various tools for automated creation of metadata, the implementation of persistent identifiers (URN and the automated enrichment of catalogue entries by the regional cataloguing cooperative Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund (GBV. Special emphasis is given to questions of quality management; the quality is guaranteed by a combination of automated tools and intellectual control at various stages of the digitisation process.

  14. Trace element concentration in wheat grain: results from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments and national monitoring program. (United States)

    Kirchmann, Holger; Mattsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Jan


    Concentrations of trace elements in wheat grain sampled between 1967 and 2003 from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments were analyzed using ICP-MS. The long-term effect of inorganic and organic fertilization on trace metal concentrations was investigated including the impact of atmospheric deposition and myccorhiza, whereas other factors such as soil conditions, crop cultivar, etc. are not discussed in this paper. Mean values derived from 10 experimental sites were reported. Significantly declining Pb and Cd concentrations in wheat grain could be explained by lower atmospheric deposition. Mean Se contents in all samples were 0.031 mg kg(-1) grain dry weight. No samples had sufficiently high Se concentrations for human (0.05 mg Se kg(-1)) or animal demand (0.1 mg Se kg(-1)). Concentrations of Co in wheat grain were extremely low, 0.002-0.005 mg Co kg(-1) grain dry weight, and far below the minimum levels required by animals, which applied to all fertilizer treatments. A doubling of Mo concentrations in grain since 1975 resulted in Cu/Mo ratios often below one, which may cause molybdenosis in ruminants. The increase in Mo concentrations in crops correlated with the decline in sulfur deposition. Concentrations of Cu and Fe declined in NPK-fertilized wheat as compared to unfertilized or manure-treated wheat. Very low concentrations of Se and Co and low concentrations of Fe and Cu require attention to counteract risks for deficiencies. The main characteristic of the study is that there are few significant changes over time between different fertilizer treatments, but throughout there are low concentrations of most trace elements in all treatments. In general, good agreement between concentrations in wheat from the long-term fertility experiments and the national monitoring program indicate that values are representative.

  15. Costs, equity, efficiency and feasibility of identifying the poor in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: empirical analysis of various strategies. (United States)

    Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Spaan, Ernst; Agyepong, Irene; Baltussen, Rob


    To analyse the costs and evaluate the equity, efficiency and feasibility of four strategies to identify poor households for premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT), participatory wealth ranking (PWR) and geographic targeting (GT) in urban, rural and semi-urban settings in Ghana. We conducted the study in 145-147 households per setting with MT as our gold standard strategy. We estimated total costs that included costs of household surveys and cost of premiums paid to the poor, efficiency (cost per poor person identified), equity (number of true poor excluded) and the administrative feasibility of implementation. The cost of exempting one poor individual ranged from US$15.87 to US$95.44; exclusion of the poor ranged between 0% and 73%. MT was most efficient and equitable in rural and urban settings with low-poverty incidence; GT was efficient and equitable in the semi-urban setting with high-poverty incidence. PMT and PWR were less equitable and inefficient although feasible in some settings. We recommend MT as optimal strategy in low-poverty urban and rural settings and GT as optimal strategy in high-poverty semi-urban setting. The study is relevant to other social and developmental programmes that require identification and exemptions of the poor in low-income countries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Validity of Preoperative Clinical Findings to Identify Dental Pulp Status: A National Dental Practice-Based Research Network Study. (United States)

    Pigg, Maria; Nixdorf, Donald R; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Law, Alan S


    Endodontic diagnostic tests are often used clinically to assess pulp status as a basis for the diagnosis and determination of whether root canal treatment (RCT) is indicated. Response to cold and pain on percussion are 2 common tests, yet their validity in identifying nonvital pulp in regular dental practice has not been reported. We assessed the validity of cold and percussion tests to identify nonvital pulp in teeth requiring RCT in a dental practice setting performed by 46 general dentists and 16 endodontists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. The influence of patient-, tooth-, and dentist-related characteristics was investigated. Observed bleeding from the pulp chamber was the clinical reference. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), overall test accuracy (TA), positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, and likelihood and diagnostic odds ratios (LR+, LR-, dORs) were calculated for each single test and the combined cold and percussion tests. Seven hundred eight patient teeth were included. Cold test showed high validity to identify a nonvital pulp status (SN = 89%, SP = 80%, TA = 84%, PPV = 81%, NPV = 88%, LR+ = 4.35, LR- = 0.14, dOR = 31.4), whereas pain on percussion had lower validity (SN = 72%, SP = 41%, TA = 56%, PPV = 54%, NPV = 60%, LR+ = 1.22, LR- = 0.69, dOR = 1.78). Combining the 2 tests did not increase validity, whereas preoperative pain, medication intake, patient age and sex, and dentist training level affected test validity significantly. In regular dental practice, the cold test exhibits higher validity to discriminate between vital and nonvital pulp than the tooth percussion test. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups. (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T


    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J.Gonzales; P.R. Fresquez; C.D.Hathcock; D.C. Keller


    The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a whole. Since the MAP is a requirement that was established under the regulatory framework of

  19. An Analysis of the National Security Strategy of the United States of America: Is the Administration Effectively Harnessing International Power?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weston, David C


    The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, September 2002, clearly identifies the necessity for pooling international resources, across all elements of power, to achieve national...

  20. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  1. BSCW Unstructured Mixed Element Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Corase Grid: Quad Surface Faces= 9360 Tria Surface Faces= 128928 Nodes = 2869187 Total Elements = 9099201 Hex Elements = 0 Pent_5 Elements = 0 Pent_6 Elements =...

  2. Genome-wide profiling of p63 DNA-binding sites identifies an element that regulates gene expression during limb development in the 7q21 SHFM1 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn N Kouwenhoven


    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in p63 are associated with split hand/foot malformations (SHFM, orofacial clefting, and ectodermal abnormalities. Elucidation of the p63 gene network that includes target genes and regulatory elements may reveal new genes for other malformation disorders. We performed genome-wide DNA-binding profiling by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq in primary human keratinocytes, and identified potential target genes and regulatory elements controlled by p63. We show that p63 binds to an enhancer element in the SHFM1 locus on chromosome 7q and that this element controls expression of DLX6 and possibly DLX5, both of which are important for limb development. A unique micro-deletion including this enhancer element, but not the DLX5/DLX6 genes, was identified in a patient with SHFM. Our study strongly indicates disruption of a non-coding cis-regulatory element located more than 250 kb from the DLX5/DLX6 genes as a novel disease mechanism in SHFM1. These data provide a proof-of-concept that the catalogue of p63 binding sites identified in this study may be of relevance to the studies of SHFM and other congenital malformations that resemble the p63-associated phenotypes.

  3. Using watershed characteristics, sediment, and tissue of resident mollusks to identify potential sources of trace elements to streams in a complex agricultural landscape. (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Schreiber, Madeline E; Voshell, J Reese


    Trace elements used in animal feed additives can be introduced to aquatic environments through application of manures from animal feeding operations to agricultural land as fertilizer. The use of poultry feed additives containing arsenic (As) is of particular concern in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA), an agricultural landscape with a high density of poultry operations. This study investigated the relationship between watershed characteristics of Shenandoah River tributaries and trace element concentrations in streambed sediment and tissue of resident mollusks, including: Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), which are commonly used biomonitors, and pleurocerid snails (Leptoxis carinata), which are generally understudied. Results failed to support the primary hypothesis of a predictive relationship between watershed densities of poultry operations and As concentrations in sediment and mollusk tissue. However, there were statistical relationships between land use in tributary watersheds and other trace elements in sediment (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) and tissue (Cd, Hg, Pb). Principal components analysis of the sediment data suggested a possible geologic source of As at some sites. Tissue concentrations of As were significantly higher in snails than in clams, but clams accumulated higher concentrations of other trace elements (Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se). Snails may be useful biomonitors of environmental As, but appear to be less suitable than clams for studies of landscape sources of other trace elements.

  4. Tracing It Back: Identifying the Impact of a Trans-National Language Teacher Education Programme on Classroom Practice (United States)

    Macalister, John


    Language teacher education programmes can be viewed as "change" programmes, particularly in their endeavours to re-shape cognition. However, often such programmes are found to be relatively ineffective in this regard. As a means of facilitating the desired change, trans-national language teacher education programmes, in which students…

  5. Identifying A National Leadership Skills Training And Development Strategy For Leaders Within Sector Education Training Authorities (SETAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florus P. J. Prinsloo


    Full Text Available Through a literature survey and a qualitative survey of the views of a selected sample of key role-players in the implementation of the South African Skills Development Strategy a number of transformational leadership competencies were identified that influence the effectiveness of Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs. A subsequent quantitative survey of the views of a random sample of SETA managers and Board members ranked the identified leadership competencies in terms of relevance to and importance for effectiveness of SETA leadership teams. The research results were applied to propose a learning programme strategy to develop the identified transformational leadership competencies amongst SETA leaders.

  6. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy


    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  7. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by the Federal Government as significant in American history and culture. These properties include districts, buildings, sites and objects of significance to the nation, etc., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning. (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset current as of 2007. National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by...

  8. Harnessing a Nation's Linguistic Competence: Identifying and Addressing Needs for LOTE in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. (United States)

    O'Neill, Shirley; Hatoss, Aniko


    Reports research that aimed to identify the foreign language and cross-cultural skill needs of workers in the tourism and hospitality industry in Australia and to develop foreign language competencies for use in industry training packages. Provides evidence for the need for foreign language skills in the industry and gives an account of the…

  9. Certified reference material for quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and toxic elements in tunnel dust (NMIJ CRM 7308-a) from the National Metrology Institute of Japan. (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Narushima, Izumi; Koguchi, Masae; Numata, Masahiko


    The National Metrology Institute of Japan has issued a certified reference material of tunnel dust for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic element analyses. PAH certification was performed using isotope dilution mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled PAHs as internal standards. Three extraction techniques (microwave-assisted extraction with toluene/methanol, Soxhlet extraction with toluene, and pressurized liquid extraction with toluene) were used, and the extracts were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with two different columns. For values of PAHs, 11 PAHs are provided as certified values between 0.294 and 20.3 mg/kg, and five PAHs are provided as information values. Certified values of five toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, and Cd) obtained from microwave-assisted digestions and a combination of measurement techniques are also provided between 43.4 and 10.71 × 10(3) mg/kg.

  10. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination. (United States)

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Raina, Sujeet; Grover, Ashoo


    Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  11. Dying in the hospital setting: A meta-synthesis identifying the elements of end-of-life care that patients and their families describe as being important. (United States)

    Virdun, Claudia; Luckett, Tim; Lorenz, Karl; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane


    Despite most expected deaths occurring in hospital, optimal end-of-life care is not available for all in this setting. To gain a richer and deeper understanding of elements of end-of-life care that consumers consider most important within the hospital setting. A meta-synthesis. A systematic search of Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Google, Google Scholar and CareSearch for qualitative studies published between 1990 and April 2015 reporting statements by consumers regarding important elements of end-of-life hospital care. Study quality was appraised by two independent researchers using an established checklist. A three-stage synthesis approach focusing on consumer quotes, rather than primary author themes, was adopted for this review. Of 1922 articles, 16 met the inclusion criteria providing patient and family data for analysis. Synthesis yielded 7 patient and 10 family themes including 6 common themes: (1) expert care, (2) effective communication and shared decision-making, (3) respectful and compassionate care, (4) adequate environment for care, (5) family involvement and (6) financial affairs. Maintenance of sense of self was the additional patient theme, while the four additional family themes were as follows: (1) maintenance of patient safety, (2) preparation for death, (3) care extending to the family after patient death and (4) enabling patient choice at the end of life. Consumer narratives help to provide a clearer direction as to what is important for hospital end-of-life care. Systems are needed to enable optimal end-of-life care, in accordance with consumer priorities, and embedded into routine hospital care.

  12. Identifying the Role of National Digital Cadastral Database (ndcdb) in Malaysia and for Land-Based Analysis (United States)

    Halim, N. Z. A.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Talib, K.; Yusof, O. M.; Wazir, M. A. M.; Adimin, M. K.


    This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the significant role of NDCDB in Malaysia specifically in the land-based analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the role standpoint. Seven statements pertaining the significant role of NDCDB in Malaysia and land-based analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. The agreed statements provided a clear definition to describe the important role of NDCDB in Malaysia and for land-based analysis, which was limitedly studied that lead to unclear perception to the general public and even the geospatial community. The connection of the statements with disaster management is discussed concisely at the end of the research.

  13. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan


    Kayoko Suzuki; Eija Paavilainen; Mika Helminen; Aune Flinck; Natsuko Hiroyama; Taiko Hirose; Noriko Okubo; Motoko Okamitsu


    Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses' knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health...

  14. Elements of Sustainable Development. Contents and backgrounds of policy scenario III in the Dutch National Environmental Policy Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas RJM


    The report "Concern for Tomorrow - a National Environmental survey 1985-2010" (RIVM, 1989) lead to the conclusion that traditional environmental policy measures were insulfficient to combine further growth of production and consumption with the realisation of a 70-90% reduction goal, which

  15. Using a Large N Geophone Array to Identify Hydrothermal Seismic Sources in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.; Allam, A. A.; Smith, R. B.; Karplus, M. S.


    The recent availability of large N seismic arrays provides a unique capability for recording environmental seismic signals that can be monitored in detail. In November 2015, the University of Utah, in collaboration with Yellowstone National Park and the University of Texas El Paso, installed a seismic array in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park centered on Old Faithful geyser. The array consisted of 133 three-component 5 Hz geophones recording continuously at 1000Hz for two weeks, with an average station spacing of 50 m and an aperture of 1 km. The array recorded numerous hydrothermal seismic sources including distinct seismic signals that could be attributed to surficial hydrothermal features as well as those that do not appear to be related to any individual surface feature. Old Faithful geyser eruptions themselves are largely aseismic. However, hydrothermal tremor, likely due to collapsing bubbles within the subsurface plumbing system, starts building about 45 minutes prior to an Old Faithful eruption. Tremor amplitudes slowly increase with time until they reach a peak about 25 minutes prior to the eruption and then slowly decrease until the eruption begins. The seismic signal related to the buildup of the Old Faithful subsurface reservoir is recorded at stations north, south and to the east of Old Faithful but is missing on stations to the northwest. This suggests a shallow subsurface feature that strongly attenuates the seismic signal immediately NW of the cone of Old Faithful. Another of the more interesting signals is observed regularly about every 38 minutes and may come from Doublet Pool on Geyser Hill. This signal has large seismic wave amplitudes and is recorded across much of the seismic array. The Geyser Hill signal may also be affected by the aforementioned subsurface attenuating feature NW of the Old Faithful cone. Interestingly, there is a persistent 20-25 Hz signal at several stations that seems to be affected by variations air


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Z. A. Halim


    Full Text Available This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the significant role of NDCDB in Malaysia specifically in the land-based analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the role standpoint. Seven statements pertaining the significant role of NDCDB in Malaysia and land-based analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. The agreed statements provided a clear definition to describe the important role of NDCDB in Malaysia and for land-based analysis, which was limitedly studied that lead to unclear perception to the general public and even the geospatial community. The connection of the statements with disaster management is discussed concisely at the end of the research.

  17. Excess heart-disease-related mortality in a national study of patients with mental disorders: identifying modifiable risk factors. (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Morden, Nancy E; Austin, Karen; Ilgen, Mark; McCarthy, John F; Dalack, Gregory; Blow, Frederic C


    People with mental disorders are estimated to die 25 years younger than the general population, and heart disease (HD) is a major contributor to their mortality. We assessed whether Veterans Affairs (VA) health system patients with mental disorders were more likely to die from HD than patients without these disorders, and whether modifiable factors may explain differential mortality risks. Subjects included VA patients who completed the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (LHSV) and were either diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, other psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder or other depression diagnosis or diagnosed with none of these disorders. LHSV data on patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, smoking) were linked to mortality data from the National Death Index of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess 8-year HD-related mortality risk by diagnosis, adding patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors. Of 147,193 respondents, 11,809 (8%) died from HD. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, we found that those with schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15-1.36; Pmental disorders. Controlling for behavioral factors diminished, but did not eliminate, the impact of psychosis on mortality. Smoking (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.26-1.39; Psmoking cessation and physical activity among veterans with psychotic disorders are warranted.

  18. Initial basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention are smaller than those identified by the conventional medical referral system* (United States)

    Wakiyama, Thweicyka Pinheiro; França, Maria Laura Marconi; Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde


    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution. METHODS Cross-sectional study including tumors routed from 2011-2014 campaigns and 84 anatomopathological reports of outpatients. RESULTS The campaigns identified 223 individuals with suspicious lesions among 2,531 examinations (9%), with 116 basal cell carcinomas removed. Anatomopathological examinations revealed that the primary lesions identified in the national campaigns were smaller than those referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care (28 [13-50] x 38 [20-113] mm2, p <0.01). On the other hand, after a mean follow-up of 15.6 ± 10.3 months, 31% of cases identified in campaigns showed new basal cell carcinoma lesions. STUDY LIMITATIONS Retrospective study and inaccuracies in the measurements of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS The NCSCP promotes an earlier treatment of basal cell carcinomas compared to patients referred to surgery by the conventional routes of public health care, which can result in lower morbidity rates and better prognosis. PMID:28225952

  19. Identifying Structure-Property Relationships Through DREAM.3D Representative Volume Elements and DAMASK Crystal Plasticity Simulations: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Approach (United States)

    Diehl, Martin; Groeber, Michael; Haase, Christian; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk


    Predicting, understanding, and controlling the mechanical behavior is the most important task when designing structural materials. Modern alloy systems—in which multiple deformation mechanisms, phases, and defects are introduced to overcome the inverse strength-ductility relationship—give raise to multiple possibilities for modifying the deformation behavior, rendering traditional, exclusively experimentally-based alloy development workflows inappropriate. For fast and efficient alloy design, it is therefore desirable to predict the mechanical performance of candidate alloys by simulation studies to replace time- and resource-consuming mechanical tests. Simulation tools suitable for this task need to correctly predict the mechanical behavior in dependence of alloy composition, microstructure, texture, phase fractions, and processing history. Here, an integrated computational materials engineering approach based on the open source software packages DREAM.3D and DAMASK (Düsseldorf Advanced Materials Simulation Kit) that enables such virtual material development is presented. More specific, our approach consists of the following three steps: (1) acquire statistical quantities that describe a microstructure, (2) build a representative volume element based on these quantities employing DREAM.3D, and (3) evaluate the representative volume using a predictive crystal plasticity material model provided by DAMASK. Exemplarily, these steps are here conducted for a high-manganese steel.

  20. Rare earth element contents of the Lusi mud: An attempt to identify the environmental origin of the hot mudflow in East Java - Indonesia (United States)

    Agustawijaya, Didi Supriadi; Karyadi, Karyadi; Krisnayanti, Baiq Dewi; Sutanto, Sutanto


    The Sidoarjo mudflow in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting since May 29th, 2006. The eruption has been known as the Lusi (lumpur Sidoarjo), which was previously considered as a remote seismic event consequence, but current geyser-like activities show an association with a geothermal phenomenon. A method of characterizing rare earth elements (REE) is commonly an effective tool for recognizing a geothermal system, and here it is adapted to particularly indicate the environmental origin of the Lusi mud. Results show that the Lusi hot mud is made of a porous smectite structure of a shale rock type, which becomes an ideal tank for trapping the REE, especially the light REE. Volcanic activities seem to be an important influence in the eruption; however, since there is a lack of significant isotopic evidences in the mobilization of the REE during the eruption, the chloride neutral pH water of the Lusi may hardly contain the REE. The moderate Ce and Eu anomalies found in the REE patterns of the mud strongly indicate a sea-floor basin as the most probable environment for the REE fractionation during the sedimentary rock formation, in which the weathering processes of volcanic rock origin enriched the Lusi shale with the REE.

  1. Economics and National Security: The Case of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Edward


    The purpose of the conference was to explore the national security dimensions of the U.S. - China economic relationship and identify possible roles for the economic element of national power in formulating policy options...

  2. Narratives of Participants in National Career Development Programs for Women in Academic Medicine: Identifying the Opportunities for Strategic Investment (United States)

    Newbill, Sharon L.; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S.; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane


    Abstract Background: Academic medicine has initiated changes in policy, practice, and programs over the past several decades to address persistent gender disparity and other issues pertinent to its sociocultural context. Three career development programs were implemented to prepare women faculty to succeed in academic medicine: two sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, which began a professional development program for early career women faculty in 1988. By 1995, it had evolved into two programs one for early career women and another for mid-career women. By 2012, more than 4000 women faculty from medical schools across the U.S and Canada had participated in these intensive 3-day programs. The third national program, the Hedwig van Ameringen Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine® (ELAM) program for women, was developed in 1995 at the Drexel University College of Medicine. Methods: Narratives from telephone interviews representing reflections on 78 career development seminars between 1988 and 2010 describe the dynamic relationships between individual, institutional, and sociocultural influences on participants' career advancement. Results: The narratives illuminate the pathway from participating in a career development program to self-defined success in academic medicine in revealing a host of influences that promoted and/or hindered program attendance and participants' ability to benefit after the program in both individual and institutional systems. The context for understanding the importance of these career development programs to women's advancement is nestled in the sociocultural environment, which includes both the gender-related influences and the current status of institutional practices that support women faculty. Conclusions: The findings contribute to the growing evidence that career development programs, concurrent with strategic, intentional support of institutional leaders, are necessary to achieve gender equity and diversity

  3. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.


    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  4. Pyrobaculum Yellowstonensis Strain WP30 Respires On Elemental Sulfur And/or Arsenate in Circumneutral Sulfidic Sediments of Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, Z.; Beam, Jake; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lohmayer, R.; Bodle, B.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Inskeep, William


    Thermoproteales populations (phylum Crenarchaeota) are abundant in high-25 temperature (>70° C) environments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are important in mediating biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, arsenic and carbon. The objectives of this study were to determine specific physiological attributes of the isolate Pyrobaculum yellowstonensis strain WP30, which was obtained from an elemental sulfur sediment (Joseph’s Coat Hot Spring [JCHS]; 80 °C; pH 6.1), and relate this organism to geochemical processes occurring in situ. Strain WP30 is a chemoheterotroph that utilizes organic carbon as a source of carbon and electrons and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenic as electron acceptors. Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the production of thioarsenates and polysulfides relative to sterile controls. The complete genome of this organism was sequenced (1.99 Mb, 58 % G+C) and revealed numerous metabolic pathways for the degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, multiple dimethylsulfoxide molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the reduction of sulfur and arsenic, and pathways for the de novo synthesis of nearly all required cofactors and metabolites. Comparative genomics of P. yellowstonensis versus assembled metagenome sequence from JCHS showed that this organisms is highly-related (~95% average nucleotide identity) to in situ populations. The physiological attributes and metabolic capabilities of P. yellowstonensis provide importanat information towards understanding the distribution and function of these populations in YNP.

  5. Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Strauß


    Full Text Available The defense glands in the dorsal prothorax are an important autapomorphic trait of stick insects (Phasmatodea. Here, we study the functional anatomy and neuronal innervation of the defense glands in Anisomorpha paromalus (Westwood, 1859 (Pseudophasmatinae, a species which sprays its defense secretions when disturbed or attacked. We use a neuroanatomical approach to identify the nerves innervating the gland muscles and the motoneurons with axons in the different nerves. The defense gland is innervated by nerves originating from two segments, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG, and the prothoracic ganglion. Axonal tracing confirms the gland innervation via the anterior subesophageal nerve, and two intersegmental nerves, the posterior subesophageal nerve, and the anterior prothoracic nerve. Axonal tracing of individual nerves reveals eight identified neuron types in the subesophageal or prothoracic ganglion. The strongest innervating nerve of the gland is the anterior subesophageal nerve, which also supplies dorsal longitudinal thorax muscles (neck muscles by separate nerve branches. Tracing of individual nerve branches reveals different sets of motoneurons innervating the defense gland (one ipsilateral and one contralateral subesophageal neuron or the neck muscle (ventral median neurons. The ipsilateral and contralateral subesophageal neurons have no homologs in related taxa like locusts and crickets, and thus evolved within stick insects with the differentiation of the defense glands. The overall innervation pattern suggests that the longitudinal gland muscles derived from dorsal longitudinal neck muscles. In sum, the innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved motoneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel subesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervating the defense gland.

  6. Neurotoxic Doses of Chronic Methamphetamine  Trigger Retrotransposition of the Identifier Element  in Rat Dorsal Dentate Gyrus. (United States)

    Moszczynska, Anna; Burghardt, Kyle J; Yu, Dongyue


    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH) trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID) element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or high doses of binge or chronic METH and sacrificed at three different time points thereafter. DNA methylation analysis, immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on the dorsal dentate gyrus samples. Binge METH triggered hypomethylation, while chronic METH triggered hypermethylation of the CpG-2 site. Both METH regimens were associated with increased intensities in poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1, a SINE regulatory protein)-like immunohistochemical staining in the dentate gyrus. The amplification of several ID element sequences was significantly higher in the chronic METH group than in the control group a week after METH, and they mapped to genes coding for proteins regulating cell growth and proliferation, transcription, protein function as well as for a variety of transporters. The results suggest that chronic METH induces ID element retrotransposition in the dorsal dentate gyrus and may affect hippocampal neurogenesis.

  7. Neurotoxic Doses of Chronic Methamphetamine  Trigger Retrotransposition of the Identifier Element  in Rat Dorsal Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moszczynska


    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA. Adult male Sprague‐Dawley rats were treated with saline or high doses of binge or chronic METH and sacrificed at three different time points thereafter. DNA methylation analysis, immunohistochemistry and next‐generation sequencing (NGS were performed on the dorsal dentate gyrus samples. Binge METH triggered hypomethylation, while chronic METH triggered hypermethylation of the CpG‐2 site. Both METH regimens were associated with increased intensities in poly(A‐binding protein 1 (PABP1, a SINE regulatory protein‐like immunohistochemical staining in the dentate gyrus. The amplification of several ID element sequences was significantly higher in the chronic METH group than in the control group a week after METH, and they mapped to genes coding for proteins regulating cell growth and proliferation, transcription, protein function as well as for a variety of transporters. The results suggest that chronic METH induces ID element retrotransposition in the dorsal dentate gyrus and may affect hippocampal neurogenesis.

  8. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina


    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  9. Body burdens, sources and interrelations of selected toxic and essential elements among the nine Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada. (United States)

    Nieboer, Evert; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Dewailly, Eric; Robinson, Elizabeth; Tsuji, Leonard J S


    this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS. Concentrations of essential elements are compared to those considered normal (i.e., required for good health) and, when toxic, deemed acceptable at specified concentrations in public health guidelines. Their dependence on age, sex, the specific community lived-in and diet were explored employing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) involving new variables generated by principle component analysis (PCA) and correspondence analysis (CA). the 5 most prominent PCA axes explained 67.7% of the variation, compared to 93.0% by 6 main CA factors. Concentrations of the essential elements in whole blood (WB) and iodine(i) and arsenic (As) in urine were comparable to those reported in the recent Canadian Health Measures survey and are assigned to dietary sources. By contrast, WB cadmium (Cd) was elevated even when smoking was considered. Mercury (Hg) concentrations in WB and hair were also higher in adults, although comparable to those observed for other indigenous populations living at northern latitudes. Fish consumption was identified as the prominent source. Of the 5 coastal communities, all but one had lower Hg exposures than the four inland communities, presumably reflecting the type of fish consumed. Use of firearms and smoking were correlated with WB-lead (Pb). The concentrations of both Hg and Pb increased with age and were higher in men, while WB-Cd and smoking prevalence were higher in women when considering all communities. Hg and Pb were low in children and women of reproductive age

  10. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. (United States)

    Becker, P R; Mackey, E A; Demiralp, R; Schantz, M M; Koster, B J; Wise, S A


    The U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) provides for the long term storage of well documented and preserved specimens representing several types of environmental matrices. A major part of this inventory consists of marine mammal tissues (e.g., blubber, liver, kidney, and muscle). Within the NBSB selected specimens are periodically analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements. Although only 20% of the 560 marine mammal specimens in the NBSB have been analyzed, the database is of value in evaluating the stability of analytes and sample degradation during storage, for comparing with results from samples collected in the future for long-term monitoring, and for comparing with analytical results from other laboratories on samples collected at the same time for monitoring purposes. The NBSB analytical database contains results for 37 elements, many of which are not analyzed routinely by conventional analytical techniques used in monitoring programs, and the following organic compounds: selected PCB congeners. DDT compounds, alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and dieldrin in 9 marine mammal species: northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), spotted seal (P. largha), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Analyses of beluga whale blubber for toxaphene and additional chlorinated hydrocarbons are obtained through collaboration with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

  11. Application of a Healthcare Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to Identify and Mitigate Potential Risks in the Implementation of a National Prehospital Pediatric Rapid Sequence Intubation Program. (United States)

    Howard, Ian; Castle, Nicholas; Al Shaikh, Loua Asad


    Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) has become the de facto airway method of choice in the emergency airway management of adult and pediatric patients. There is significant controversy regarding pediatric RSI in the prehospital setting, given not only the complexities inherent in both the procedure and patient population, but in variations in emergency medical service models, prehospital qualifications, scope of practice, and patient exposure too. A Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis was conducted to identify and mitigate potential hazards in the national implementation of a prehospital pediatric RSI program. A process map and potential failure points were developed and identified. Probabilities, severity, and hazards scores were calculated for each failure point, and actions items developed to address these. One hundred four potential failure points were identified among 44 subprocesses, divided between nine major processes. In terms of severity, most were classified as either major (n = 39 [37.5%]) or catastrophic (n = 35 [33.7%]) with just more than half falling within the uncommon category (n = 56 [53.9%]) in terms of probability. Five strategic actions items were identified to mitigate against the failure points meeting criteria for action. To monitor the success of these, 11 quality and performance indicators were developed for concurrent implementation. The Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis represents a simple yet comprehensive first step toward risk analysis of complex procedures within the prehospital emergency care setting. Application of the methodology provided guidance for the consensus identification of hazards associated with prehospital pediatric RSI and appropriate actions to mitigate them.

  12. Identifying the Basic Elements of Critical Reading. (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas R.

    A review of the professional and research literature suggests that definitions of critical reading remain tenuous and somewhat conflicting, largely because of the weakness in validity of current tests of critical reading. Ability to read or think critically appears to be closely related to general mental ability and may be dependent on literal…

  13. Identifying game elements suitable for MOOCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonaci, Alessandra; Klemke, Roland; Stracke, Christian M.; Specht, Marcus


    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) have increasingly become objects of research interest and studies in recent years. While MOOCs could be a means to address massive audiences, they suffer from high drop-out rates and low user engagement. Gamification is known as the application of game

  14. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure (United States)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.


    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  15. Biological monitoring and selected trends in environmental quality. [Use of National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL to identify documented environmental trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffern, J.S.; West, D.C.; Kemp, H.T.; Burgess, R.L.


    Under a contract with the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL was used to identify documented environmental trends. Fish population trends were described for the Great Lakes and the Colorado River system. Trends in amphibian populations in the northeast were examined and correlated with acid precipitation. Increases in breeding success among large birds of prey were correlated with reductions in ambient levels of DDT and its residues. Geographic variation in PCB contamination was examined along with differences between aquatic and terrestrial contamination levels. Changes in air quality were documented, and their effects on plant viability were outlined. Trends in the biological effects of environmental deposition of lead were documented. Long-term changes in forest structure in the southeast were presented, and a general reduction in wildlife habitat, associated with land use practices, was documented for several areas in the US.

  16. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.


    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  17. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.


    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  18. Sexual Behaviors of U.S. Men by Self-Identified Sexual Orientation: Results From the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner BOZKUS


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured deliberation technique. Deliberation questions are prepared with this technique based on expert opinions and during the deliberation, the questions were asked to the people who attended the deliberation in a partially flexible way. Population and sampling of the research; population of the study is the people who study in School of Physical Education and Sports, and sampling is the 348 national athletes who study wrestling, bocce, dart, bowling, basketball, volleyball, football, taekwando, karate, archery, atheism, tennis, judo, badminton, table tennis, boxing, weight lifting, handball, gymnastics and swimming in School of Physical Education and Sports. %20.4 of these sportsmen are female, %79.6 of them are male and %78.7 of them are between 19-25 years old, %14.4 of them are between 26-30 years old, %4.3 of them are between 31-35 years old, and %2.6 of them are 36 years old and older. %26.4 of the sportsmen who attend the research, study Coaching, %49.7 of them study Profession of Teaching, %14.1 of them study Sport Management and %9.8 of them study Recreation. And %97.7 of these sportsmen receive undergraduate education, %2.3 of them receive graduate education. At the end of the study, the national athletes, who attended the research, emphasized that they were having problems in formal education, they failed the exams because they couldn’t follow the courses, when they had to attend the courses, they delayed their trainings, and this situation effected their education level. %87.9 of the national athletes who took part in the study pointed that they need distance learning and if such a programme is developed

  20. Data sources for identifying low-income, uninsured populations: application to public health—National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K. L.; Powers, David S.; O'Hara, Brett J.; Holmes, Walter; Joseph, Kristy; Royalty, Janet


    Objective To provide information on the sources of data for estimating low-income, uninsured populations. To recommend uses of these data sources. To demonstrate the application of these data sources in the public health field, using the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program as an example. Methods We describe U.S. Census Bureau data sources for identifying low-income, uninsured populations using two population surveys: the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC) and the American Community Survey (ACS), and using one model-based estimation program, the Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE). We provide recommendations for use of these data sources, and we use CPS ASEC and SAHIE to estimate the percent of U.S. women eligible for the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Results CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE are produced by the U.S. Census Bureau, and they are reliable sources for estimates of the low-income, uninsured populations in the USA. Key characteristics of these three data sources were presented to highlight the strengths of each to meet the needs of various programs at national and local levels. Recommendations are made on the use of the data sources. Based on these three data sources, estimates of NBCCEDP eligibility showed substantial variation over time at the national and state levels, and across states and counties. Conclusions Publicly funded programs that are directed toward low-income, uninsured individuals require information on their eligible populations to make decisions about program policy and resource allocation, and to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the programs. The U.S. Census Bureau produces three data sources (CPS ASEC, ACS, and SAHIE) for these estimates. The percent of U.S. women eligible for NBCCEDP varies over time and across states and counties. The data sources for these estimates are changing in order to measure key

  1. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail:; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)


    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  2. A Socio-Ecological Approach for Identifying and Contextualising Spatial Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Priorities at the Sub-National Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bourne

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity to existing sustainable development and biodiversity conservation challenges. The impacts of global climate change are felt locally, and thus local governance structures will increasingly be responsible for preparedness and local responses. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA options are gaining prominence as relevant climate change solutions. Local government officials seldom have an appropriate understanding of the role of ecosystem functioning in sustainable development goals, or access to relevant climate information. Thus the use of ecosystems in helping people adapt to climate change is limited partially by the lack of information on where ecosystems have the highest potential to do so. To begin overcoming this barrier, Conservation South Africa in partnership with local government developed a socio-ecological approach for identifying spatial EbA priorities at the sub-national level. Using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis and vegetation distribution models, the authors have spatially integrated relevant ecological and social information at a scale appropriate to inform local level political, administrative, and operational decision makers. This is the first systematic approach of which we are aware that highlights spatial priority areas for EbA implementation. Nodes of socio-ecological vulnerability are identified, and the inclusion of areas that provide ecosystem services and ecological resilience to future climate change is innovative. The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate a methodology for combining complex information into user-friendly spatial products for local level decision making on EbA. The authors focus on illustrating the kinds of products that can be generated from combining information in the suggested ways, and do not discuss the nuance of climate models nor present specific technical details of the model outputs here. Two representative case studies from

  3. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Request for Information from industrial entities that desire to commercialize Laboratory-developed Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier (ELROI) tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Michael Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) is the manager and operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LANS is a mission-centric Federally Funded Research and Development Center focused on solving the most critical national security challenges through science and engineering for both government and private customers.

  4. Establishment of the Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry: A National Research Collaborative for Identifying the Optimal Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obesity. (United States)

    Kirk, Shelley; Armstrong, Sarah; King, Eileen; Trapp, Christine; Grow, Mollie; Tucker, Jared; Joseph, Madeline; Liu, Lenna; Weedn, Ashley; Sweeney, Brooke; Fox, Claudia; Fathima, Samreen; Williams, Ronald; Kim, Roy; Stratbucker, William


    Prospective patient registries have been successfully utilized in several disease states with a goal of improving treatment approaches through multi-institutional collaboration. The prevalence of youth with severe obesity is at a historic high in the United States, yet evidence to guide effective weight management is limited. The Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry (POWER) was established in 2013 to identify and promote effective intervention strategies for pediatric obesity. Sites in POWER provide multicomponent pediatric weight management (PWM) care for youth with obesity and collect a defined set of demographic and clinical parameters, which they regularly submit to the POWER Data Coordinating Center. A program profile survey was completed by sites to describe characteristics of the respective PWM programs. From January 2014 through December 2015, 26 US sites were enrolled in POWER and had submitted data on 3643 youth with obesity. Ninety-five percent were 6-18 years of age, 54% female, 32% nonwhite, 32% Hispanic, and 59% publicly insured. Over two-thirds had severe obesity. All sites included a medical provider and used weight status in their referral criteria. Other program characteristics varied widely between sites. POWER is an established national registry representing a diverse sample of youth with obesity participating in multicomponent PWM programs across the United States. Using high-quality data collection and a collaborative research infrastructure, POWER aims to contribute to the development of evidence-based guidelines for multicomponent PWM programs.

  5. Validity of an algorithm to identify osteonecrosis of the jaw in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Danish National Registry of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammelager H


    Full Text Available Henrik Gammelager,1 Claus Sværke,1 Sven Erik Noerholt,2 Bjarne Neumann-Jensen,3 Fei Xue,4 Cathy Critchlow,4 Johan Bergdahl,5 Ylva Trolle Lagerros,5 Helle Kieler,5 Grethe S Tell,6 Vera Ehrenstein11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 4Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 5Center for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is an adverse effect of drugs that suppress bone turnover – for example, drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP is potentially valuable for monitoring ONJ and its prognosis; however, no specific code for ONJ exists in the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10, which is currently used in Denmark. Our aim was to estimate the positive predictive value (PPV of an algorithm to capture ONJ cases in the DNRP among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional validation study in the Central and North Denmark Regions, with approximately 1.8 million inhabitants. In total, 54,956 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were identified from June 1, 2005 through May 31, 2010. To identify women potentially suffering from ONJ, we applied an algorithm based on ICD-10 codes in the DNRP originating from hospital-based departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery (DOMS. ONJ was adjudicated by chart review and defined by the presence of exposed maxillofacial bone for 8 weeks or more, in the absence of recorded history of craniofacial radiation therapy. We estimated the PPV

  6. Identifying Risk Factors for Recent HIV Infection in Kenya Using a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Kim

    Full Text Available A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country.We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with recent and long-standing infection compared to HIV-uninfected persons. All estimates were weighted to adjust for sampling probability and nonresponse.Of 1,025 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, 64 (6.2% met the case definition for recent infection and 961 (93.8% met the case definition for long-standing infection. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of recent infection were living in Nairobi (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.37; confidence interval [CI] 2.64-48.87 and Nyanza (AOR 4.55; CI 1.39-14.89 provinces compared to Western province; being widowed (AOR 8.04; CI 1.42-45.50 or currently married (AOR 6.42; CI 1.55-26.58 compared to being never married; having had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the last year (AOR 2.86; CI 1.51-5.41; not using a condom at last sex in the past year (AOR 1.61; CI 1.34-1.93; reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosis or symptoms of STI in the past year (AOR 1.97; CI 1.05-8.37; and being aged <30 years with: 1 HSV-2 infection (AOR 8.84; CI 2.62-29.85, 2 male genital ulcer disease (AOR 8.70; CI 2.36-32.08, or 3 lack of male circumcision (AOR 17.83; CI 2.19-144.90. Compared to HIV-uninfected persons, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of long-standing infection included living in Coast (AOR 1.55; CI 1.04-2.32 and Nyanza (AOR 2.33; CI 1.67-3.25 provinces compared to

  7. A national case-control study identifies human socio-economic status and activities as risk factors for tick-borne encephalitis in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Stefanoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is endemic to Europe and medically highly significant. This study, focused on Poland, investigated individual risk factors for TBE symptomatic infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a nation-wide population-based case-control study, of the 351 TBE cases reported to local health departments in Poland in 2009, 178 were included in the analysis. For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis. Questionnaires yielded information on potential exposure to ticks during the six weeks (maximum incubation period preceding disease onset in each case. Independent associations between disease and socio-economic factors and occupational or recreational exposure were assessed by conditional logistic regression, stratified according to residence in known endemic and non-endemic areas. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAF were computed for significant variables. In endemic areas, highest TBE risk was associated with spending ≥10 hours/week in mixed forests and harvesting forest foods (adjusted odds ratio 19.19 [95% CI: 1.72-214.32]; PAF 0.127 [0.064-0.193], being unemployed (11.51 [2.84-46.59]; 0.109 [0.046-0.174], or employed as a forester (8.96 [1.58-50.77]; 0.053 [0.011-0.100] or non-specialized worker (5.39 [2.21-13.16]; 0.202 [0.090-0.282]. Other activities (swimming, camping and travel to non-endemic regions reduced risk. Outside TBE endemic areas, risk was greater for those who spent ≥10 hours/week on recreation in mixed forests (7.18 [1.90-27.08]; 0.191 [0.065-0.304] and visited known TBE endemic areas (4.65 [0.59-36.50]; 0.058 [-0.007-0.144], while travel to other non-endemic areas reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: These socio-economic factors and associated human activities identified as risk factors for symptomatic TBE in Poland

  8. ForWarn: A Cross-Cutting Forest Resource Management and Decision Support System Providing the Capacity to Identify and Track Forest Disturbances Nationally (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S.; Christie, W.; Hoffman, F. M.


    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. It has operated as a prototype since January 2010 and has provided useful information about the location and extent of disturbances detected during the 2011 growing season, including tornadoes, wildfires, and extreme drought. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in March 2012, initiated by a joint NASA and USDA press release. The ForWarn home page has had 2,632 unique visitors since rollout in March 2012, with 39% returning visits. ForWarn was used to map tornado scars from the historic April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, and detected timber damage within more than a dozen tornado tracks across northern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. ForWarn is the result of an ongoing, substantive cooperation among four different government agencies: USDA, NASA, USGS, and DOE. Disturbance maps are available on the

  9. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  10. Identifying Risk Factors for Recent HIV Infection in Kenya Using a Recent Infection Testing Algorithm: Results from a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey (United States)

    Kim, Andrea A.; Parekh, Bharat S.; Umuro, Mamo; Galgalo, Tura; Bunnell, Rebecca; Makokha, Ernest; Dobbs, Trudy; Murithi, Patrick; Muraguri, Nicholas; De Cock, Kevin M.; Mermin, Jonathan


    Introduction A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country. Materials and Methods We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg) on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with recent and long-standing infection compared to HIV-uninfected persons. All estimates were weighted to adjust for sampling probability and nonresponse. Results Of 1,025 HIV-antibody-positive specimens, 64 (6.2%) met the case definition for recent infection and 961 (93.8%) met the case definition for long-standing infection. Compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of recent infection were living in Nairobi (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.37; confidence interval [CI] 2.64–48.87) and Nyanza (AOR 4.55; CI 1.39–14.89) provinces compared to Western province; being widowed (AOR 8.04; CI 1.42–45.50) or currently married (AOR 6.42; CI 1.55–26.58) compared to being never married; having had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the last year (AOR 2.86; CI 1.51–5.41); not using a condom at last sex in the past year (AOR 1.61; CI 1.34–1.93); reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or symptoms of STI in the past year (AOR 1.97; CI 1.05–8.37); and being aged HIV-uninfected persons, factors associated with higher adjusted odds of long-standing infection included living in Coast (AOR 1.55; CI 1.04–2.32) and Nyanza (AOR 2.33; CI 1.67–3.25) provinces compared to Western province; being separated/divorced (AOR 1.87; CI 1.16–3.01) or widowed (AOR 2.83; CI 1.78–4.45) compared to being never

  11. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.


    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.


    , drying, milling and sieving to collect the fraction of particles less than 150 mu m in sizer In this fraction the trace elements were homogeneously distributed using a 400 mg sample intake for analysis, The total track element concentrations were determined by graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic...

  13. Trace element emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.


    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  14. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Constantinos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); LCW Supercritical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL’s Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980’s (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a

  15. A national case-control study identifies human socio-economic status and activities as risk factors for tick-borne encephalitis in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefanoff, Pawel; Rosinska, Magdalena; Samuels, Steven; White, Dennis J; Morse, Dale L; Randolph, Sarah E


    .... For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence) selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis...

  16. Evaluation of ADS-B Surveillance Data to Identify Flight Operations with Reduced Safety Margin in the National Airspace System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the FAA's plans for modernization of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) will be the basis of the...

  17. Baseline Study of Trace Elements and Organic Compounds at National Wildlife Refuges Along the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers, North Dakota (1987-1989) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analytical data for all 3 years is presented in Appendix A (selected trace elements), Appendix B (ICP scan), Appendix C (organochlorines and PCB's), Appendix D...

  18. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51 regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014 at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA. A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression.

  19. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of the chondrogenesis master regulator Sox9 in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified DNA element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Moovarkumudalvan, Balasubramanian; Lescar, Julien; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.


    Sox9 is a fundamental sex-determining gene and the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and is involved in the development of various vital organs such as testes, kidney, heart and brain, and in skeletal development. Similar to other known Sox transcription factors, Sox9 recognizes and binds DNA with the consensus sequence C(T/A)TTG(T/A)(T/A) through the highly conserved HMG domain. Nonetheless, the molecular basis of the functional specificity of Sox9 in key developmental processes is still unclear. As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. The mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20% PEG 3350 in 200 mMsodium/potassium phosphate with 100 mMbis-tris propane at pH 8.5. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and the complex crystallized in the tetragonal space groupP41212, with unit-cell parametersa=b= 99.49,c= 45.89 Å. Crystal-packing parameters revealed that asymmetric unit contained one mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex with an estimated solvent content of 64%.

  20. Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy


    Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.


    This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logi...

  1. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011. (United States)

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong


    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables.

  2. Identifying the Characteristics of Effective High Schools: Report from Year One of the National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools. Research Report (United States)

    Rutledge, Stacey; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara


    The National Center on Scaling up Effective Schools (NCSU) is a five-year project working to develop, implement, and test new processes to scale up effective practices in high schools that districts will be able to apply within the context of their own unique goals and circumstances. This report describes the activities and findings of the first…

  3. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  4. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham


    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  5. Understanding the social costs of psychosis: the experience of adults affected by psychosis identified within the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Galletly, Cherrie A; Clark, Scott; Wilson, Jacqueline; Killen, Emily A; Anthes, Lauren; Campbell, Linda E; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Harvey, Carol


    Social inclusion is a key priority of the Fourth National Mental Health Plan for Australia (2009-2014), with strong evidence for its protective impact on mental health. Social integration has been associated with enhanced well-being for people with mental illnesses such as psychosis. To explore the impact of psychosis on an individual's social and community participation. The second Australian national survey of psychosis was conducted across seven Australian sites. Semi-structured interviews with adults living with psychosis assessed mental health status, social and role functioning, life satisfaction and future goals. The cohort comprised 1825 adults with a psychotic illness (59.6% were male; 42.4% were aged 18-34 years; 31.5% had 12 years or more of education) of whom 32.7% had been employed in the past year. Most adults indicated experiencing loneliness (80.1%) and a need for more friends (48.1%). Men were more likely to have never had a long-term relationship (59.4% M, 33.2% F). Even though women were more likely to experience anxiety in social situations [(χ(2)(1) = 8.95, p social activity in the past year [χ(2)(2) = 11.84, p social activity and 43% described stigma as a barrier. Although 63.2% showed significant impairment in social functioning, only 29.5% had received help for this in the last year. Social isolation and loneliness were rated as major challenges by 37.2% of the cohort. Social isolation and dysfunction experienced by people with psychosis have not decreased since the last Australian national survey of people with psychosis. Alongside education and employment, social functioning and participation must be addressed to improve social inclusion for people with psychosis. Programs targeting social opportunities (befriending, peer support), social anxiety and social functioning for all stages of psychosis are warranted.

  6. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  7. Identifying talented track and field athletes: The impact of relative age effect on selection to the Spanish National Athletics Federation training camps. (United States)

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Müller, Lisa; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J


    This study examined the impact of relative age effect (RAE) on selection to the Spanish National Athletics Federation (RFEA) training camps (TC) between 2006 and 2013. Overall, 1,334 selected athletes at U15 years (cadet) and U17 years (juvenile) were compared against 27,711 licensed but unselected athletes for the same age groups. The results highlighted the influential role of the RAE on selection to national level track and field training camp opportunities. Interestingly, this effect was mediated by age and gender, where effects were stronger for both males and younger athletes (U15), with no evidence of RAE for older (U17) female athletes. These results support the "maturation-selection" hypothesis as a mechanism for RAE. Particularly given the long-term goals of RFEA (e.g., production of successful senior elite athletes), these results highlight the need to consider the impact of current selection processes on effective provision of opportunities to those athletes with most potential to succeed in the long term. A number of possible context-relevant solutions are discussed, including education and awareness raising, using holistic selection criteria and correction adjustments techniques.

  8. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts.......Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...

  9. Familial searching: a specialist forensic DNA profiling service utilising the National DNA Database to identify unknown offenders via their relatives--the UK experience. (United States)

    Maguire, C N; McCallum, L A; Storey, C; Whitaker, J P


    The National DNA Database (NDNAD) of England and Wales was established on April 10th 1995. The NDNAD is governed by a variety of legislative instruments that mean that DNA samples can be taken if an individual is arrested and detained in a police station. The biological samples and the DNA profiles derived from them can be used for purposes related to the prevention and detection of crime, the investigation of an offence and for the conduct of a prosecution. Following the South East Asian Tsunami of December 2004, the legislation was amended to allow the use of the NDNAD to assist in the identification of a deceased person or of a body part where death has occurred from natural causes or from a natural disaster. The UK NDNAD now contains the DNA profiles of approximately 6 million individuals representing 9.6% of the UK population. As the science of DNA profiling advanced, the National DNA Database provided a potential resource for increased intelligence beyond the direct matching for which it was originally created. The familial searching service offered to the police by several UK forensic science providers exploits the size and geographic coverage of the NDNAD and the fact that close relatives of an offender may share a significant proportion of that offender's DNA profile and will often reside in close geographic proximity to him or her. Between 2002 and 2011 Forensic Science Service Ltd. (FSS) provided familial search services to support 188 police investigations, 70 of which are still active cases. This technique, which may be used in serious crime cases or in 'cold case' reviews when there are few or no investigative leads, has led to the identification of 41 perpetrators or suspects. In this paper we discuss the processes, utility, and governance of the familial search service in which the NDNAD is searched for close genetic relatives of an offender who has left DNA evidence at a crime scene, but whose DNA profile is not represented within the NDNAD. We

  10. Identifying vulnerable populations using a social determinants of health framework: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Ward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. METHODS: Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. RESULTS: Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years and Hong Kong (retired, younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations.

  11. Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes. (United States)

    Ariaratnam, Christeine A; Sheriff, Mohamed H Rezvi; Arambepola, Carukshi; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A


    Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H. hypnale was the most widely distributed. Fifty-one (6%) were misidentified by hospital staff, causing inappropriate antivenom treatment of 13 patients. Distinctive clinical syndromes were identified to aid species diagnosis in most cases of snake bite in Sri Lanka where the biting species is unknown. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these syndromes for envenoming were 78% and 96% by Naja naja, 66% and 100% by Bungarus caeruleus, 14% and 100% by Daboia russelii, and 10% and 97% by Hypnale hypnale, respectively. Although only polyspecific antivenoms are used in Sri Lanka, species diagnosis remains important to anticipate life-threatening complications such as local necrosis, hemorrhage and renal and respiratory failure and to identify likely victims of envenoming by H. hypnale who will not benefit from existing antivenoms. The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna.

  12. Element 115


    Forsberg, Ulrika


    This thesis is devoted to detailed studies of element 115 decay chains using the highly efficient multi-coincidence alpha, electron, gamma and X-ray detector setup TASISpec at the gas-filled separator TASCA at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. In a three-week long experiment thirty new decay chains assumed to stem from element 115 isotopes were observed together with the very first detections of gamma rays and potential X-rays from these nuclei. Paper I describes preparations in terms of optimisations...

  13. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko


    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  14. Identifying current training provision and future training needs in allergy available for UK general practice trainees: national cross-sectional survey of General Practitioner Specialist Training programme directors. (United States)

    Ellis, Jayne; Rafi, Imran; Smith, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz


    There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provision for allergy in primary care. To identify current training provision in allergy to GP trainees and to understand how this could be enhanced. A cross-sectional survey of GP Speciality Training (GPST) programme directors was undertaken. Programme directors of the 174 GPST schemes were sent an online questionnaire which was informed by the content of the Royal College of General Practitioners curriculum. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed and a thematic analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 146 directors representing 106 training programmes. Responses indicated that two-thirds (62%, 95% CI 53.1 to 71.5) of programmes were providing at least some allergy training, with the remaining third stating that they either provided no training or were unsure. Overall, one-third (33%, 95% CI 22.7 to 42.2) of programme directors believed that all the relevant allergy-related curriculum requirements were being met. Where provided, this training was believed to be best for organ-specific allergic disorders but was thought to be poorer for systemic allergic disorders, particularly food allergy where 67% (95% CI 57.5 to 76.5) of respondents indicated that training was poor. There was considerable interest in increasing the allergy training provided, preferably through eLearning modules and problem-based learning materials supported by those with relevant specialist knowledge. This UK-wide survey has identified important gaps in the training of GP trainees in relation to allergy care. Addressing these gaps, particularly in the management of systemic allergic disorders, should help to improve delivery of primary care-based allergy care.

  15. RAI1 Alternate Probe Identifies Additional Breast Cancer Cases as Amplified Following Equivocal HER2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Testing: Experience From a National Reference Laboratory. (United States)

    Hui, Ling; Geiersbach, Katherine B; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Gulbahce, H Evin


    -In 2013 the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists updated the HER2 guidelines and changed the equivocal category for HER2 in situ hybridization testing to an average HER2 copy number of 4.0 to 5.9 with a HER2:CEP17 ratio of less than 2.0 and proposed retesting, with an option of using another control probe to avoid false-negative results. RAI1, located at band position 17p11.2, is a popular alternate probe locus for retesting equivocal changes. -To review experience with the RAI1 alternate probe in HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization equivocal breast cancers. -Primary and metastatic breast cancers with equivocal HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization, retested with an alternate (RAI1) probe, were identified. HER2, RAI1, and CEP17 copy numbers, HER2 to control probe ratios, and genetic heterogeneity were recorded. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed for type and grade of cancer. -Of 876 cases tested with CEP17 as the reference probe, 97 (11.1%) had equivocal HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization results. Additional testing with the RAI1 probe classified 39.2% cases (38 of 97) as amplified with a HER2:RAI1 ratio ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 (mean, 2.37); 3.1% (3 of 97) were still unclassifiable because of a deletion of RAI1. -RAI1 identified close to 40% of original HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization equivocal cases as amplified, making these patients eligible for targeted therapies. It is not known whether guidelines for US Food and Drug Administration-approved probes can be extrapolated to alternate probes when an alternate control probe shows losses or gains. Because of the lack of guidelines for reporting HER2 status with alternate probes, laboratories face challenges in interpreting results.

  16. Identifying the ‘red flags’ for unhealthy weight control among adolescents: Findings from an item response theory analysis of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utter Jennifer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight control behaviors are common among young people and are associated with poor health outcomes. Yet clinicians rarely ask young people about their weight control; this may be due to uncertainty about which questions to ask, specifically around whether certain weight loss strategies are healthier or unhealthy or about what weight loss behaviors are more likely to lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, the aims of the current study are: to confirm, using item response theory analysis, that the underlying latent constructs of healthy and unhealthy weight control exist; to determine the ‘red flag’ weight loss behaviors that may discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight loss; to determine the relationships between healthy and unhealthy weight loss and mental health; and to examine how weight control may vary among demographic groups. Methods Data were collected as part of a national health and wellbeing survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9,107 in 2007. Item response theory analyses were conducted to determine the underlying constructs of weight control behaviors and the behaviors that discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight control. Results The current study confirms that there are two underlying constructs of weight loss behaviors which can be described as healthy and unhealthy weight control. Unhealthy weight control was positively correlated with depressive mood. Fasting and skipping meals for weight loss had the lowest item thresholds on the unhealthy weight control continuum, indicating that they act as ‘red flags’ and warrant further discussion in routine clinical assessments. Conclusions Routine assessments of weight control strategies by clinicians are warranted, particularly for screening for meal skipping and fasting for weight loss as these behaviors appear to ‘flag’ behaviors that are associated with poor mental wellbeing.

  17. Standing orders for influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination: Correlates identified in a national survey of U.S. Primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Steven M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing orders programs (SOPs allow non-physician medical staff to assess eligibility and administer vaccines without a specific physician's order. SOPs increase vaccination rates but are underutilized. Method In 2009, correlates of SOPs use for influenza vaccine and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPV were assessed in a nationally representative, stratified random sample of U.S. physicians (n = 880 in family and internal medicine who provided office immunization. The response rate was 67%. Physicians reporting no SOPs, only influenza SOPs, and joint influenza and PPV SOPs were compared using multinomial and logistic regression models to examine individual and practice-level correlates. Results 23% reported using SOPs consistently for both influenza vaccine and PPV, and 20% for influenza vaccination only, with the remainder not using SOPs. Practice-level factors that distinguished practices with joint influenza-PPV SOPs included perceived practice openness to change, strong practice teamwork, access to an electronic medical record, presence of an immunization champion in the practice, and access to nurse/physician assistant staff as opposed to medical assistants alone. Discussion Physicians in practices with SOPs for both vaccines reported greater awareness of ACIP recommendations and/or Medicare regulations and were more likely to agree that SOPs are an effective way to boost vaccination coverage. However, implementation of both influenza and PPV SOPs was also associated with a variety of practice-level factors, including teamwork, the presence of an immunization champion, and greater availability of clinical assistants with advanced training. Conclusions Practice-level factors are critical for the adoption of more complex SOPs, such as joint SOPs for influenza and PPV.

  18. Use of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, coding in identifying chronic hepatitis B virus infection in health system data: implications for national surveillance. (United States)

    Mahajan, Reena; Moorman, Anne C; Liu, Stephen J; Rupp, Loralee; Klevens, R Monina


    With increasing use electronic health records (EHR) in the USA, we looked at the predictive values of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) coding system for surveillance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The chronic HBV cohort from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study was created based on electronic health records (EHR) of adult patients who accessed services from 2006 to 2008 from four healthcare systems in the USA. Using the gold standard of abstractor review to confirm HBV cases, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using one qualifying ICD-9 code versus using two qualifying ICD-9 codes separated by 6 months or greater. Of 1 652 055 adult patients, 2202 (0.1%) were confirmed as having chronic HBV. Use of one ICD-9 code had a sensitivity of 83.9%, positive predictive value of 61.0%, and specificity and negative predictive values greater than 99%. Use of two hepatitis B-specific ICD-9 codes resulted in a sensitivity of 58.4% and a positive predictive value of 89.9%. Use of one or two hepatitis B ICD-9 codes can identify cases with chronic HBV infection with varying sensitivity and positive predictive values. As the USA increases the use of EHR, surveillance using ICD-9 codes may be reliable to determine the burden of chronic HBV infection and would be useful to improve reporting by state and local health departments.

  19. Identifying and addressing sexual health in serious mental illness: Views of mental health staff working in two National Health Service organizations in England. (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth; Edmondson, Amanda J; Onyekwe, Ijeoma; Quinn, Chris; Nolan, Fiona


    People with serious mental illness (service users) have needs related to sexual health and sexuality, yet these have been poorly addressed in mental health services. In the present study, we report the current practice of mental health professionals in relation to sexual health. Focus groups conducted in two mental health trusts explored routine practice in relation to discussing, assessing, and planning care in relation to sexual health. A thematic analysis identified seven themes: (i) sexual health provision is a complex issue; (ii) mental health staff are aware of sexual health needs; (iii) current provision regarding sexual health is 'neglected'; (iv) barriers to sexual health provision; (v) enabling a discussion around sexual health; (vi) sexual health provision is a role for mental health professionals; and (vii) training needs. Mental health staff are aware of complex issues related to sexual health for service users, but this is mainly seen through the lens of risk management and safeguarding. We need to develop the mental health workforce to be able to incorporate sexual health into routine health care. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. (United States)

    Boney, Oliver; Bell, Madeline; Bell, Natalie; Conquest, Ann; Cumbers, Marion; Drake, Sharon; Galsworthy, Mike; Gath, Jacqui; Grocott, Michael P W; Harris, Emma; Howell, Simon; Ingold, Anthony; Nathanson, Michael H; Pinkney, Thomas; Metcalf, Leanne


    To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. UK. 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. First 'ideas-gathering' survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second 'prioritisation' survey: Shortlist of 'summary' research questions (derived from the first survey) ranked by respondents in order of priority. Final 'top ten': Agreed by consensus at a final prioritisation workshop. First survey: 1420 suggestions received from 623 respondents (49% patients/public) were refined into a shortlist of 92 'summary' questions. Second survey: 1718 respondents each nominated up to 10 questions as research priorities. Top ten: The 25 highest-ranked questions advanced to the final workshop, where 23 stakeholders (13 professional, 10 patient/carer) agreed the 10 most important questions: ▸ What can we do to stop patients developing chronic pain after surgery? ▸ How can patient care around the time of emergency surgery be improved? ▸ What long-term harm may result from anaesthesia, particularly following repeated anaesthetics?▸ What outcomes should we use to measure the 'success' of anaesthesia and perioperative care? ▸ How can we improve recovery from surgery for elderly patients? ▸ For which patients does regional anaesthesia give better outcomes than general anaesthesia? ▸ What are the effects of anaesthesia on the developing brain? ▸ Do enhanced recovery programmes improve short and long-term outcomes? ▸ How can preoperative exercise or fitness training, including physiotherapy, improve outcomes after surgery? ▸ How can we improve communication between the teams looking after patients throughout their surgical journey? Almost 2000 stakeholders contributed their views regarding anaesthetic and perioperative research priorities. This is the largest example of patient and public

  1. Use of a national database as a tool to identify primary medication non-adherence: The Estonian ePrescription system. (United States)

    Laius, Ott; Pisarev, Heti; Volmer, Daisy; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare; Maasalu, Katre


    Medication adherence can be divided into primary and secondary adherence. Primary medication non-adherence (PMN) occurs when a patient does not obtain medicine with their initial prescription. Secondary non-adherence measures prescription refills among patients who previously filled their first prescription. While secondary non-adherence has been studied thoroughly, PMN has been assessed less extensively, due to lack of available data. Estonian ePrescription system might prove a valuable tool for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMN and the interval between prescribing and dispensing of medicines using the Estonian ePrescriptions database to establish its potential use for this purpose and for other qualitative drug utilization research measures. Osteoporosis medicines were used as an example. The Estonian Prescription Centre was used to evaluate if patients purchase medicines after initial prescription of osteoporosis medicine. Prescriptions from 2012 to 2015 of all patients over 18 were included. PMN was defined as the first prescription not being dispensed before it expired (60 days). The rate of PMN was calculated. Estonian ePrescription System enabled fast evaluation of PMN of osteoporosis patients based on data about prescribing, dispensing and time intervals in-between. Of patients who started osteoporosis treatment 13.1% were primary non-adherent. Of primary non-adherent patients 42% still started treatment at some point during the study. Of patients who did purchase their first prescription 80.4% did so within a week and 95% within 25 days. The Estonian ePrescription system is a useful tool for monitoring PMN. The PMN of osteoporosis medicines was identified as lower than previously reported. More similar type of studies about other groups of medicines would be needed to understand the pattern of PMN and give valuable information to healthcare specialists about how to increase initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol. (United States)

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S


    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease--a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32, 201 ± $23,059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals' costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. New Elements in Corporate Governance of the Credit Institutions from the Perspective of National Bank of Romania Regulation no. 5/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Ioana MOISE


    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has stretched its harmful effects including banking activity, this being one of the severely affected economic domains where the greatest efforts of resuscitation were done, sometimes with serious consequences over public money. In this context, restoring the credit institutions’ activity on actual basis, through a more efficient organizational system and re-editing the attributions of the management organs, so that to be able to guarantee for an effective and fast risk management framework, represented a globally assumed goal. Romanian law cannot remain outside this framework especially considering the obligation to join the model imposed by the European legislator by taking over the domestic law of the European directive CRD IV. This paper proposes a comparative study between the current and the previous legislation in order to highlight the main elements of novelty brought by Basel III, CRD IV and GL Guide 44/2011 on the internal governance of credit institutions elaborated by the European Banking Authority.

  4. It's Elemental! (United States)

    Diener, Lynn; Moore, John W.


    An understanding of the periodic table is central to the study of chemistry. So it is no surprise that it is included in the National Science Education Standards. But how can teachers get students excited about the periodic table? And how can teachers help them learn it in a way that challenges their critical-thinking skills? The authors'…

  5. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Single Element Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in a single element of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept. The concept will have the...

  6. Identifying national freshwater ecosystem priority areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL


    Full Text Available longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity into planning The persistence of all but the most isolated priority areas depends fundamentally on management of connected systems. Figure 2: The conservation planning framework (blue boxes) that guided...

  7. Emission factors of fine particulate matter, organic and elemental carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide for four solid fuels commonly used in residential heating by the U.S. Navajo Nation. (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Connors, Lea; Montoya, Lupita D


    Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EFs) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (ponderosa pine and Utah juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASTM/EPA) protocol. Filter sampling quantified PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the emissions. Real-time monitoring quantified carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and total suspended particles (TSP). EFs for these air pollutants were developed and normalized to both fuel mass and energy consumed. In general, coal had significantly higher mass EFs than wood for all pollutants studied. In particular, coal emitted, on average, 10 times more PM2.5 than wood on a mass basis, and 2.4 times more on an energy basis. The EFs developed here were based on fuel types, stove design, and operating protocols relevant to the Navajo Nation, but they could be useful to other Native Nations with similar practices, such as the nearby Hopi Nation. Indoor wood and coal combustion is an important contributor to public health burdens in the Navajo Nation. Currently, there exist no emission factors representative of Navajo homestoves, fuels, and practices. This study developed emission factors for PM2.5, OC, EC, CO, and CO2 using a representative Navajo homestove. These emission factors may be utilized in regional-, national-, and global-scale health and environmental models. Additionally, the protocols developed and results presented here may inform on-going stove design of the

  8. Focusing America's National Powers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabana, Dana P


    .... The National Security Counsel (NSC) should modify its efforts to take full advantage of all sources of power to ensure national security by first establishing the NSC/Deputies Committee as the element mandated to manage the interagency process...

  9. Antibody reactivity to the HRES-1 endogenous retroviral element identifies a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and overlap syndromes. Correlation with antinuclear antibodies and HLA class II alleles. (United States)

    Perl, A; Colombo, E; Dai, H; Agarwal, R; Mark, K A; Banki, K; Poiesz, B J; Phillips, P E; Hoch, S O; Reveille, J D


    To evaluate the correlation between the presence of antibodies to an endogenous retroviral element-encoded nuclear protein autoantigen, HRES-1, and the presence of other antinuclear antibodies and HLA class II alleles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and overlap syndromes. Antibody reactivities to native and recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides were assessed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. HLA class II alleles were determined by oligonucleotide typing. Forty-eight percent of the 153 patients with autoimmune disease, and 52% of the subgroup with SLE, had HRES-1 antibodies. In contrast, 3.6% of 111 normal donors, and none of 42 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or 50 asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected patients, had HRES-1 antibodies. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant association between anti-HRES-1 and anti-RNP and an inverse correlation between HRES-1 and Ro/La autoantibodies in patients with SLE or overlap syndromes. Antigenic epitopes of HRES-1 and the retroviral gag-related region of the 70-kd protein component of U1 small nuclear RNP, which share 3 consecutive highly charged amino acids (Arg-Arg-Glu), an additional Arg, and functionally similar Arg/Lys residues, represent cross-reactive epitopes between the two proteins. Selective removal of HRES-1 antibodies from sera of HRES-1-seropositive/RNP-seropositive patients by absorption on recombinant HRES-1/glutathione-S-transferase-conjugated agarose beads had no effect on anti-RNP reactivities. A comparative multivariate analysis of HLA class II genes revealed a differential segregation of DQB1 alleles in HRES-1-seropositive versus HRES-1-seronegative patients (P = 0.04). While a relative increase of DQB1*0402 among HRES-1-seropositive patients was noted across ethnic groups (P = 0.02), a decrease of DQB1*0201 and DQB1*0301 was found in white HRES-1-seropositive patients (P = 0

  10. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    with the recommended values and depending on food preferences and habits, and 2) further optimizing the diet composition with regard to carbon footprint (CF). Methods: We used a simple modelling of the ‘Traditional’, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fast food’ patterns identified from national dietary data (1)Knudsen et al....... 2014) into isocaloric healthy diets that fulfil and the Danish FBDGs and NNR2012 with respect to both micro- and macronutrients. Furthermore we updated the list of estimated carbon footprint (CF) of food items included in the diets and further optimized the diet composition with regard to CF. Extension...... of modelling was used to optimise the diets with regard to their estimated carbon footprint (CF). Results: Around 365 food items are included in the three food patterns. Based on literature CF of these foods is updated, including the contribution from waste, transportation and cooking at home. Despite...

  11. Personal Leadership: An Element of National Power (United States)


    chemistry, geology , and botany, winning a second class honors degree in Natural Science Tripos in 1910. The following two years he studied law at...current conflict in Southeast Asia, the 1962 Sino-Indian conflict, and the Yemen civil war could have been avoided. As early as the summer of 1949

  12. All the Elements of National Power (United States)


    consistently drawn from less than half of our available talent.” Noteworthy, and noted by authors in this issue of PRISM, our adversaries, including Boko ... Haram and ISIS, do not make the same mistake. Terrorism, transnational crime, drug trafficking, cyber threats, hybrid warfare, climate change, mass

  13. Framed primal elements


    Debongnie, Jean-François


    Framed primal finite elements may be viewed as a generalized class of elements including conforming elements, primal hybrids, and non concorming elements passing the patch test. This systematization is illustrated on a lot of examples.

  14. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E


    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  15. Epidemiology and trace elements. (United States)

    Elwood, P C


    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  16. Identifying and Representing Elements of Local Contexts in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Løvborg Jensen, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias


    In an attempt to represent local context in a 3D visualisa- tionfor rural elders in Namibia we have foundmajor dierences in thecon- ceptualizationof this context between external and local partners in the co-creation process. Through the evaluation of a mobile context capture tool we found a clea...

  17. Can patients with osteoporosis, who should benefit from implementation of the national service framework for older people, be identified from general practice computer records? A pilot study that illustrates the variability of computerized medical records and problems with searching them. (United States)

    de Lusignan, S; Chan, T; Wells, S; Cooper, A; Harvey, M; Brew, S; Wright, M


    Although UK general practice is highly computerized, comprehensive use of these computers is often limited to registration data and the issue of repeat prescriptions. The recording of diagnostic data is patchy. This study examines whether patients with, or at risk of, osteoporosis can be readily identified from general practice computer records. It reports the findings of a pilot study designed to show the variability of recording the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia, as well as how useful surrogate markers might be to identify these patients. The study also illustrates the difficulties that even skilled practitioners in a primary care research network experience in extracting clinical data from practice information systems. Computer searches were carried out across six practices in a general practice research network in the south-east of England. Two of these practices had previously undertaken research projects in osteoporosis and were consequently expected to have excellent data quality in osteoporosis. These two practices had a combined list size of 27,500 and the remaining practices had a combined practice population of 43,000 patients. The data were found to be variable with over 10-fold differences between practices in the recorded prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosis as well as its surrogate markers-such as fragility fractures, long-term steroid prescription, etc. There was no difference in data quality between the two practices that had conducted osteoporosis research and the rest of the group, other than in the areas of diagnostic recording and prescribing for osteoporosis and recording of fractures. Issues were raised by the practices that struggled to identify patients at risk of osteoporosis about the limitations of Read classification in this disease area. Practices need further assistance if the patients at risk are to be identified. Without urgent action, it will be difficult for practices to identify the patients who are likely to benefit

  18. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald


    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  19. Identifying emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice. (United States)

    Kooker, Barbara Molina; Shoultz, Jan; Codier, Estelle E


    The National Center for Health Workforce Analysis projects that the shortage of registered nurses in the United States will double by 2010 and will nearly quadruple to 20% by 2015 (Bureau of Health Professionals Health Resources and Services Administration. [2002]. Projected supply, demand, and shortages of registered nurses, 2000-2020 [On-line]. Available: The purpose of this study was to use the conceptual framework of emotional intelligence to analyze nurses' stories about their practice to identify factors that could be related to improved nurse retention and patient/client outcomes. The stories reflected evidence of the competencies and domains of emotional intelligence and were related to nurse retention and improved outcomes. Nurses recognized their own strengths and limitations, displayed empathy and recognized client needs, nurtured relationships, used personal influence, and acted as change agents. Nurses were frustrated when organizational barriers conflicted with their knowledge/intuition about nursing practice, their communications were disregarded, or their attempts to create a shared vision and teamwork were ignored. Elements of professional nursing practice, such as autonomy, nurse satisfaction, respect, and the professional practice environment, were identified in the excerpts of the stories. The shortage of practicing nurses continues to be a national issue. The use of emotional intelligence concepts may provide fresh insights into ways to keep nurses engaged in practice and to improve nurse retention and patient/client outcomes.

  20. Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Joost B.; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P


    OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements, or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision and operational feasibility. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we

  1. The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype versus the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation clinical criteria to identify high-risk men with an altered cardiometabolic risk profile. (United States)

    Blackburn, Patricia; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Côté, Mélanie; Tremblay, Angelo; Lamarche, Benoît; Després, Jean-Pierre


    The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria have been proposed as screening tools to identify subjects with features of the metabolic syndrome and therefore at increased cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of these 3 clinical approaches to identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk as suggested by the presence of deteriorated markers such as hyperinsulinemia, elevated apolipoprotein B levels, small low-density lipoprotein particles, high C-reactive protein concentrations, and low adiponectin levels. For that purpose, physical and cardiometabolic characteristics of a sample of 272 white men recruited for various metabolic investigations were studied. The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as having both a high waist circumference (>or=90 cm) and increased fasting triglyceride levels (>or=2.0 mmol/L). Having at least 3 of the 5 NCEP-ATP III criteria or waist circumference of at least 94 cm plus any 2 of the 4 additional IDF criteria was also used to identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. A large proportion of men with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype also met the NCEP-ATP III (82.7%) or IDF (89.2%) criteria. Men with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype were characterized by alterations in their lipoprotein-lipid profile that included small low-density lipoprotein particles, increased apolipoprotein B and insulin levels, as well as reduced adiponectin concentrations, which were similar to individuals meeting the NCEP-ATP III or the IDF criteria. Moreover, the Framingham risk score of men meeting any of the 3 screening tools criteria was higher and was similar across the 3 approaches (4.2, 3.8, and 3.7, respectively). These results suggest that hypertriglyceridemic waist may be as discriminant as the NCEP-ATP III or the IDF

  2. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  3. Environmental contaminants, species identifiers and characteristics, and other variables from the east and west US coasts for the National Status and Trends Program (NSTP) from 19840101 to 19880405 (NODC Accession 8900125) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains 1986-1989 Mussel Watch Data collected under National Status and Trends Program. The samples were collected along the east, west, gulf coast...

  4. Principal Experiences with Crisis Management Professional Development, Collaboration, and Implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management (United States)

    Naradko, Anthony M.


    The purpose of this qualitative single-subject case study was to identify the elements critical to crisis management professional development for school principals; the factors influencing the implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management (2010) for principals; and the necessary elements for fostering…

  5. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Mixed Element Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Medium Mixed Element Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel Wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 18432 Tria Surface...

  6. Human Exploration Telerobotics (HET2): Astrobee Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HET2 Astrobee Element will focus on developing a new free-flying robot suitable for performing IVA work on the International Space Station (ISS). The new robot...

  7. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Mixed Element Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Fine Mixed Element Grid with viscous root wind tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 38016 Tria Surface Faces=...

  8. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  9. Substance use and mental health disorders among heterosexual identified men and women who have same-sex partners or same-sex attraction: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions. (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M


    This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences.

  10. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar


    Full Text Available Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS. The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview; and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.

  11. The fantastic four.. elements (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora


    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  12. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Edelman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both

  13. National interest to TLCAN


    Witker Velásquez, Jorge


    In this article the author reflects on the concept of national interest, considering its basic referents: State, nation and power. His analysis describes and examines aspects related to the vulnerability of the Mexican national interest on informal policies of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.). This article explores, through a series of antithetical elements, such Mexico’s national interest, in the context of NAFTA, producing chiaroscuro effects for the country. The author prov...

  14. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Extreme Terrain Mobility Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Extreme Terrain Mobility project element is developing five technologies:Exoskeleton Development for ISS EvaluationExtreme Terrain Mobility...

  15. National Geochemical Database: Soil (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  16. National Geochemical Database: Concentrate (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemistry of concentrates from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and...

  17. National Geochemical Database: Sediment (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in...

  18. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys, (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia



    Işıktaş, Bilen


    To borrow from Eric Hobsbawm, “Age of Empires” is now replaced by the age of nation states, while tones between the past and the present are combined with a motive for rediscovery and re-adoption. As people emotionally identify themselves with their nations, the merge of moments reinforce their readiness for political action leads to the emergence of symbolic elements associated with constructions of nationalism. Myths, rituals and mementoes become a social reality through historicity. Langua...

  20. Heavy element radionuclides (Pu, Np, U) and {sup 137}Cs in soils collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and other sites in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Rivera, W. Jr. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurements Lab.; Kelley, J.M.; Bond, L.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Liszewski, M.J. [Bureau of Reclamation (United States); Orlandini, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The isotopic composition of Pu in soils on and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been determined in order to apportion the sources of the Pu into those derived from stratospheric fallout, regional fallout from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and facilities on the INEEL site. Soils collected offsite in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming were collected to further characterize NTS fallout in the region. In addition, measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 137}Cs were used to further identify the source of the Pu from airborne emissions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) or fugitive releases from the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). There is convincing evidence from this study that {sup 241}Am, in excess of that expected from weapons-grade Pu, constituted a part of the buried waste at the SDA that has subsequently been released to the environment. Measurements of {sup 236}U in waters from the Snake River Plain aquifer and a soil core near the ICPP suggest that this radionuclide may be a unique interrogator of airborne releases from the ICPP. Neptunium-237 and {sup 238}Pu activities in INEEL soils suggest that airborne releases of Pu from the ICPP, over its operating history, may have recently been overestimated.

  1. Vivacidade dos elementos visuais da flona de São Francisco de Paula (RS / Vivacity of the visual elements of the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Fillipi Teixeira


    Full Text Available ResumoO estudo dos elementos estéticos de uma paisagem ainda é insipiente dentro do âmbito da ecologia de Paisagens. Tendo como área de pesquisa a FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, localizada no município de São Francisco de Paula (RS foi desenvolvido um estudo da vivacidade dos elementos visuais de cada hexágono, com objetivos de determinar as classes de vivacidade e a influência de cada variável estética sobre as paisagens desta unidade de conservação. Através da carta de uso da terra da FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, foi desenvolvida uma rede de hexágonos, a partir do programa CAMPEIRO 1.0. Utilizaram-se 22 variáveis para avaliar cada hexágono, com valoração de 1 a 5 nas categorias: muito baixa, baixa, média, alta e muito alta, respectivamente, sendo feito em laboratório e em campo. Como resultado obtiveram-se 158 hexágonos que geraram uma matriz de dados a qual foi submetida ao agrupamento através da análise de Cluster e Discriminante. O agrupamento dos hexágonos foi distribuído em cinco paisagens denominadas de Nativa, Araucária, de Encosta, de Transição e Exótica. Os valores finais dos hexágonos foram distribuídos em cinco classes de vivacidade: muito alta, alta, média, baixa e muito baixa. A Paisagem Nativa foi a que se destacou por apresentar 56,52% dos seus hexágonos na classe muito alta, sendo a única, e a Exótica por apresentar hexágonos na classe baixa e muito baixa, quatorze e sete, respectivamente. Também destaca-se a Paisagem Nativa e de Encosta pelo ranqueamento em primeiro e segundo lugar, sucessivamente, quanto a ocorrência de variáveis clássicas da estética. AbstratcThe study of the aesthetic elements of a landscape is still incipient in the ambit of the ecology of Landscapes. Considering as a research area the São Francisco de Paula National Forest (FLONA, which is located in the municipal district of San Francisco of Paula, RS, a study about the vivacity of the visual elements of

  2. Liberia: National Security Interests in Transformational Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Carolyn I


    ... that can threaten the national security. This paper explores why Liberia is of national security interest to the United States, describes elements of adolescent personal development that were neglected while the nation was in conflict...

  3. Elements of spatial data quality

    CERN Document Server

    Guptill, SC


    Elements of Spatial Data Quality outlines the need and suggests potential categories for the content of a comprehensive statement of data quality that must be imbedded in the metadata that accompanies the transfer of a digital spatial data file or is available in a separate metadata catalog. Members of the International Cartographic Association's Commission on Spatial Data Quality have identified seven elements of data quality: positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, lineage, semantic accuracy and temporal information. In the book the authors describe: compo

  4. The Biodiversity Informatics Landscape: Elements, Connections and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bingham


    Full Text Available There are a multitude of biodiversity informatics projects, datasets, databases and initiatives at the global level, and many more at regional, national, and sometimes local levels. In such a complex landscape, it can be unclear how different elements relate to each other. Based on a high-level review of global and European-level elements, we present a map of the biodiversity informatics landscape. This is a first attempt at identifying key datasets/databases and data services, and mapping them in a way that can be used to identify the links, gaps and redundancies in the landscape. While the map is predominantly focused on elements with a global scope, the sub-global focus at the European-level was incorporated in the map in order to demonstrate how a regional network such as the European Biodiversity Observation Network (EU BON can usefully contribute to connecting some of the nodes within the landscape. We identify 74 elements, and find that the informatics landscape is complex in terms of the characteristics and diversity of these elements, and that there is high variability in their level of connectedness. Overall, the landscape is highly connected, with one element boasting 28 connections. The average "degrees of separation" between elements is low, and the landscape is deemed relatively robust to failures since there is no single point that information flows through. Examples of possible effort duplication are presented, and the inclusion of five policy-level elements in the map helps illustrate how informatics products can contribute to global processes that define and direct political targets. Beyond simply describing the existing landscape, this map will support a better understanding of the landscape’s current structure and functioning, enabling responsible institutions to establish or strengthen collaborations, work towards avoiding effort duplication, and facilitate access to the biodiversity data, information and knowledge

  5. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads


    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  6. Superfamilia Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera como elemento bioindicador de perturbación antropogénica en un parque nacional amazónico Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Eduardo Otavo


    order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high in 12 transects (four in each intervention level, and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n=232, 27 spp. and Dynastidae (n=161, 26 spp. were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2% from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9% from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8% from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7% from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8% from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most abundant species Chaetodus asuai (Hybosoridae presented a significant decrease in the number of individuals as disturbance increased, while an inverse relationship occurred for C. verticalis(Dynastidae. For Astaena sp. (Melolonthidae and Ligyrus gyas (Dynastidae a high number of individuals was recorded and were exclusive for one forest site (low and high disturbed forest, respectively. The complete superfamily cannot be used like a single bioindicator element because it displays, in a specific level, very different behaviors in each

  7. Trace Elements and Health (United States)

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.


    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  8. Data Element Registry Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  9. Just-in-time elements and benefits

    CERN Document Server

    García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis


    This book reports the elements required for implementing Just in Time (JIT) technique in companies. The main reasons for low implementation processes and the main benefits from the successful implementation of them are highlighted in this book. Structural equation models are presented to help identify the essential elements in JIT.


    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.


    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  11. New elements - approaching Z=114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S.


    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small {alpha}-, {beta}- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross-sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical super heavy elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. (orig.)

  12. Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide: Anchor Elements (United States)

    Certain elements must be displayed on the covers of all documents distributed to the public. These include an acceptable Agency identifier, such as the logo, the assigned publication number, and the EPA portal address.

  13. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  14. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  15. Rethinking "energy nationalism": a study of the relationship between nation states and companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe term "energy nationalism" is frequently used by academic literature and media, but usually without adequate conceptual accuracy. Despite this, a set of papers deepens the discussion on the relationship between nation states and the energy industry, especially the oil sector. These papers allow identifying fundamental elements to understand the energy nationalism, either complementary or divergent between each other. Thus, this study aims at presenting an interpretation of the concept that fills the gaps left by the above mentioned literature based on a global analysis of the oil industry structure and its historical evolution since the mid-19thcentury.

  16. Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E


    A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.

  17. A set of pathological tests to validate new finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    , of fixed type i.e., an element selected for a specific application and with a given dof configuration. Sze (1996). Admissible matrix formulation for efficient construction of multifield finite element models which employ patch test to identify the con-.

  18. [Construction and thinking of data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy information]. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan


    The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues.

  19. Nation/non-nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram


    Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...... identities can be conceptualized, how contemporary European states have attempted to deal with them when they arise and to what extent non-national modes of organizing political community can point towards a challenge to the national principle itself. In its capacity as an introduction to the special issue......, this article seeks to frame the subsequent articles within the overarching theme of the tension between national and non-national communities in contemporary Europe....

  20. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  1. Metadata, Identifiers, and Physical Samples (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hills, D. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Stroker, K. J.; Todd, N. S.; Dassie, E. P.; Bowring, J. F.


    Physical samples are integral to much of the research conducted by geoscientists. The samples used in this research are often obtained at significant cost and represent an important investment for future research. However, making information about samples - whether considered data or metadata - available for researchers to enable discovery is difficult: a number of key elements related to samples are difficult to characterize in common ways, such as classification, location, sample type, sampling method, repository information, subsample distribution, and instrumentation, because these differ from one domain to the next. Unifying these elements or developing metadata crosswalks is needed. The iSamples (Internet of Samples) NSF-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is investigating ways to develop these types of interoperability and crosswalks. Within the iSamples RCN, one of its working groups, WG1, has focused on the metadata related to physical samples. This includes identifying existing metadata standards and systems, and how they might interoperate with the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) schema ( in order to help inform leading practices for metadata. For example, we are examining lifecycle metadata beyond the IGSN `birth certificate.' As a first step, this working group is developing a list of relevant standards and comparing their various attributes. In addition, the working group is looking toward technical solutions to facilitate developing a linked set of registries to build the web of samples. Finally, the group is also developing a comparison of sample identifiers and locators. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the standards identified thus far, as well as an update on the technical solutions examined for integration. We will discuss how various sample identifiers might work in complementary fashion with the IGSN to more completely describe samples, facilitate retrieval of contextual information, and

  2. A survey of national and multi-national registries and cohort studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukelman, Timothy; Anink, Janneke; Berntson, Lillemor


    BACKGROUND: To characterize the existing national and multi-national registries and cohort studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and identify differences as well as areas of potential future collaboration. METHODS: We surveyed investigators from North America, Europe, and Australia about...... existing JIA cohort studies and registries. We excluded cross-sectional studies. We captured information about study design, duration, location, inclusion criteria, data elements and collection methods. RESULTS: We received survey results from 18 studies, including 11 national and 7 multi-national studies....... CONCLUSION: There is a wide-range of large, ongoing JIA registries and cohort studies around the world. Our survey results indicate significant potential for future collaborative work using data from different studies and both combined and comparative analyses....

  3. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen


    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  4. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaedel, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center; GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  5. Stochastic finite element method with simple random elements


    Starkloff, Hans-Jörg


    We propose a variant of the stochastic finite element method, where the random elements occuring in the problem formulation are approximated by simple random elements, i.e. random elements with only a finite number of possible values.

  6. The ends of elements (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F.; Burdette, Shawn C.


    When elements 117 and 118 are finally named, should these new members of the halogen and noble gas families receive names ending in -ium as IUPAC has suggested? Brett F. Thornton and Shawn C. Burdette look at the history of element suffixes and make the case for not following this recommendation.

  7. Movies and Literary Elements. (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  8. Variation in modelled healthy diets based on three different food patterns identified from the Danish national diet – and the impact on carbon footprint Nordic Nutrition Conference, Gothenburg 2016 (poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    Background and aims: A healthy diet complies with the national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR2012). In this study we aim at 1) developing new healthy diet compositions by a simple diet modelling technique that ensures a nutrient content in accordance....... 2014) into isocaloric healthy diets that fulfil and the Danish FBDGs and NNR2012 with respect to both micro- and macronutrients. Furthermore we updated the list of estimated carbon footprint (CF) of food items included in the diets and further optimized the diet composition with regard to CF. Extension...... variation in the amounts of contribution of foods in each food group and in the composition of foods within each food group, the estimated CFs of the modelled healthy dietary patterns are similar to original Danish patterns. CFs of the CF-optimized dietary patterns similar to each other, and CF of CF...

  9. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  10. Trace elements as fingerprint of lake of Provenance and of species of some native and exotic fish of northern Patagonian lakes. (United States)

    Arribére, M A; Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D F; Vigliano, P H


    A survey of trace element contents in fish muscle and liver was performed in different lakes of two northern Patagonian national parks: Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces national parks. The aim of the work was to obtain the first set of reference data on elements that are not liable to be disturbed by human activities and to identify compositional patterns related to the species and site of collection. The species studied are native creole perch and velvet catfish and exotic brown trout, rainbow trout, and brook trout. The elements analyzed are Br, Cs, Fe, Rb, Se, Na, and Zn. Trace elements in muscle of brown trout, rainbow trout, and creole perch showed statistical patterns that allow one to identify the national park of origin, as well as which of the lakes (Traful, Espejo Chico, or the Nahuel Huapi-Moreno system) of the Nahuel Huapi National Park from which they come. Contents in the liver provide similar but less clear patterns than contents in muscle; however, in some particular cases, they provide additional information. Trace element contents in muscle are also good indicators of the species collected within a lake.

  11. Nationalism in Stateless Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Robert Chr.

    democracies need not, as argued by theories of 'classic' nationalist movements, strive for full independence. In fact, nationalist movements are adapting to circumstances by becoming autonomist rather than separatist, pragmatic rather than dogmatic, and the book illustrates how Scotland and Newfoundland, both...... previously independent countries, are excellent examples of this. Building on theories of national identity-formation and nationalism, it traces the development of cultural and political nationalism, and changing images of the national self. With a focus on important fomenting factors and actors...

  12. Archaeal Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements (United States)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz A.


    SUMMARY Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spindles, rods, filaments, spheres, head-tails, bottles, and droplets, and some of these new viruses have been classified into one order, 10 families, and 16 genera. Investigation of model archaeal viruses has yielded important insights into mechanisms underlining various steps in the viral life cycle, including infection, DNA replication and transcription, and virion egression. Many of these mechanisms are unprecedented for any known bacterial or eukaryal viruses. Studies of plasmids isolated from different archaeal hosts have also revealed a striking diversity in gene content and innovation in replication strategies. Highly divergent replication proteins are identified in both viral and plasmid genomes. Genomic studies of archaeal ECEs have revealed a modular sequence structure in which modules of DNA sequence are exchangeable within, as well as among, plasmid families and probably also between viruses and plasmids. In particular, it has been suggested that ECE-host interactions have shaped the coevolution of ECEs and their archaeal hosts. Furthermore, archaeal hosts have developed defense systems, including the innate restriction-modification (R-M) system and the adaptive CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, to restrict invasive plasmids and viruses. Together, these interactions permit a delicate balance between ECEs and their hosts, which is vitally important for maintaining an innovative gene reservoir carried by ECEs. In conclusion, while research on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade. PMID

  13. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations


    Santos Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique


    One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrat...

  14. Neutronic fuel element fabrication (United States)

    Korton, George


    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  15. Damage Detection and Identification of Finite Element Models Using State-Space Based Signal Processing a Summation of Work Completed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory February 1999 to April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, G.C.


    Until recently, attempts to update Finite Element Models (FEM) of large structures based upon recording structural motions were mostly ad hoc, requiring a large amount of engineering experience and skill. Studies have been undertaken at LLNL to use state-space based signal processing techniques to locate the existence and type of model mismatches common in FEM. Two different methods (Gauss-Newton gradient search and extended Kalman filter) have been explored, and the progress made in each type of algorithm as well as the results from several simulated and one actual building model will be discussed. The algorithms will be examined in detail, and the computer programs written to implement the algorithms will be documented.

  16. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  17. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge


    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...

  18. Elements in biological AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.


    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  19. Study on defective elements from indium bump preparation in focal plane array fabrication (United States)

    Hou, Zhijin; Fu, Li; Si, Junjie; Wang, Wei; Lv, Yanqiu; Lu, Zhengxiong; Wang, Jinchun


    The defective elements from indium bump preparation in FPA fabrication are tested by optical microscopy and FPA testing bench. Results show that the defective elements from indium bump fabrication include connecting defective elements and missing defective elements. It is easy to identify missing defective elements by FPA testing bench because the response voltage of defective elements is zero and response voltage of other elements around defective element is higher than that of normal elements. And it is difficult to identify connecting defective elements by FPA testing bench because the response voltage of connecting defective elements is basically the same as that of normal elements. The defective elements from indium bump fabrication are due to the indium bump with connecting or missing caused by the process of photolithography, eroding and lift-off. Fabrication process such as photolithography, eroding and lift-off is optimized to reduce defective elements from indium bump fabrication.

  20. [Tuberculosis and milk: elements of a polemic]. (United States)

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; de Moraes, Mirtes; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Corrêa, Marcelo Oswaldo Alvares


    Can human beings get tuberculosis from the milk taken from cows infected with tuberculosis? Are the diagnosis and control of cattle tuberculosis effective for the protection of human populations? Questions such as these were the main concern of doctors from São Paulo at the beginning of the twentieth century. The present study tried to recover elements from the polemic that took place in São Paulo, in order to encourage the coming up of complementary facts about such matter. The article presents some indicators of confronting positions: on one hand, the goal of intensying the control of tuberculosis among the cattle; on the other hand, the attempt not to bring up any loss to national cattle raisers through the demand of additional precaution measures, which would affect the production and distribution of their products. Medical publications kept records of the interventions, which have allowed the author to identify the first position as the stronger one, which has brought up relevant consequences for the sanitary food control.

  1. 76 FR 43355 - Public Comment and Public Meeting on Draft Revisions to the Transportation Element and Federal... (United States)


    ... comments and/or attend the public meeting. The draft revised Transportation and Federal Workplace Elements... COMMISSION Public Comment and Public Meeting on Draft Revisions to the Transportation Element and Federal Workplace Element of the Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital: Federal Elements AGENCY: National...

  2. Multi-Element Airfoil System (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)


    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  3. Hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening using pillowing technique (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L [Pittsburgh, PA; Woodbury, Adam C [Provo, UT; Benzley, Steven E [Provo, UT; Shepherd, Jason F [Edgewood, NM


    A techniques for coarsening a hexahedral mesh is described. The technique includes identifying a coarsening region within a hexahedral mesh to be coarsened. A boundary sheet of hexahedral elements is inserted into the hexahedral mesh around the coarsening region. A column of hexahedral elements is identified within the boundary sheet. The column of hexahedral elements is collapsed to create an extraction sheet of hexahedral elements contained within the coarsening region. Then, the extraction sheet of hexahedral elements is extracted to coarsen the hexahedral mesh.

  4. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy. (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi


    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  5. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor


    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  6. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian


    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  7. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  8. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  9. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server


    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  10. [Identifying victims of a disaster]. (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R


    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  11. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS (United States)

    Ashida, A.


    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  12. Discrimination of SM-identified individuals. (United States)

    Wright, Susan


    The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF).

  13. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Controlling Robots over Time Delay Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This element involves the development of software that enables easier commanding of a wide range of NASA relevant robots through the Robot Application Programming...

  14. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic ISRU Acquisition Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic ISRU Resource Acquisition project element will develop two technologies:Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS)Sample Acquisition on...

  15. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robonaut 2 Technologies Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Robonaut 2 (R2) Technology Project Element within Human Robotic Systems (HRS) is to developed advanced technologies for infusion into the Robonaut 2...

  16. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Module Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept with the following innovative features: 1. Independent, mini burning zones...

  17. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR) Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Variable Oxygen Regulator Element is to develop an oxygen-rated, contaminant-tolerant oxygen regulator to control suit pressure with a...

  18. Vehicle Interior Noise Prediction Using Energy Finite Element Analysis Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and implement a computational technique based on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) for interior noise prediction of advanced aerospace...

  19. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II proposal offers to develop a comprehensive computer simulation methodology based on the finite element method for...

  20. Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research proposal offers to develop the most accurate, comprehensive and efficient finite element models to date for simulation of the...

  1. RSW Mixed Element Cell-Centered Medium Mesh (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This RSW gridset is designed as the medium size mixed element grid for use with cell-centered unstructured meshes. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_med_mixedcc.b8.ugrid...

  2. Networked Instrumentation Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  3. Identifiability of nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, E.T.


    The parameter identifiability problem of deterministic, nonlinear dynamical control systems is studied in the framework of differential geometric systems theory. The relations between nonlinear observability, nonlinear functional expansions and identifiability are investigated and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. In a different approach, by using the uniqueness theorem of nonlinear system realization theory, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for another class of nonlinear systems. These results provide an insight to the identifiability problem of nonlinear systems. The results are illustrated by examples that also show the effectiveness of the conditions obtained. Finally, some possible research topics in this area are suggested.

  4. Scarcity of rare earth elements. (United States)

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK


    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  6. Nuclear fuel element (United States)

    Zocher, Roy W.


    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  7. Transposable elements in Drosophila (United States)

    McCullers, Tabitha J.; Steiniger, Mindy


    ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms. There are 2 main classes of TEs: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. These classes are further divided into subgroups of TEs with unique structural and functional characteristics, demonstrating the significant variability among these elements. Despite this variability, D. melanogaster and other eukaryotic organisms utilize conserved mechanisms to regulate TEs. This review focuses on the transposition mechanisms and regulatory pathways of TEs, and their functional roles in D. melanogaster. PMID:28580197

  8. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter


    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  9. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.


    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  10. Intelligent Elements for ISHM (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca


    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  11. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C


    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  12. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P


    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  13. Finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server


    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  14. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N


    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  15. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.


    To satisfy the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) testing milestone, a graphite composite fuel element using a uranium simulant was received from the Oakridge National Lab and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) at various operating conditions. The nominal operating conditions required to satisfy the milestone consisted of running the fuel element for a few minutes at a temperature of at least 2000 K with flowing hydrogen. This milestone test was successfully accomplished without incident.

  16. National direct-drive program on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Campbell, E. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu; Harding, D. R.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Michel, D. T.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Gatu-Johnson, M.


    A major advantage of the laser direct-drive (DD) approach to ignition is the increased fraction of laser drive energy coupled to the hot spot and relaxed hot-spot requirements for the peak pressure and convergence ratios relative to the indirect-drive approach at equivalent laser energy. With the goal of a successful ignition demonstration using DD, the recently established national strategy has several elements and involves multiple national and international institutions. These elements include the experimental demonstration on OMEGA cryogenic implosions of hot-spot conditions relevant for ignition at MJ-scale energies available at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and developing an understanding of laser-plasma interactions and laser coupling using DD experiments on the NIF. DD designs require reaching central stagnation pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The current experiments on OMEGA have achieved inferred peak pressures of 56 Gbar (Regan et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 025001). Extensive analysis of the cryogenic target experiments and two- and three-dimensional simulations suggest that power balance, target offset, and target quality are the main limiting factors in target performance. In addition, cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been identified as the main mechanism reducing laser coupling. Reaching the goal of demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence on OMEGA includes improving laser power balance, target position, and target quality at shot time. CBET must also be significantly reduced and several strategies have been identified to address this issue.

  17. Elements to evaluate the intention in the non-compliance s or violations to the regulatory framework in the national nuclear facilities; Elementos para evaluar la intencionalidad en los incumplimientos o violaciones al marco regulador en las instalaciones nucleares nacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J. M.; Gonzalez V, J. A., E-mail: [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    Inside the impact evaluation process to the safety of non-compliance s or violations, developed and implanted by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), the Guide for the Impact Evaluation to the Safety in the National Nuclear Facilities by Non-compliance s or Violations to the Regulatory Framework was developed, which indicates that in the determination of the severity (graveness level) of a non-compliance or violation, four factors are evaluated: real and potential consequences to the safety, the impact to the regulator process and the intention. The non-compliance s or intentional violations are of particular interest, since the development of the regulatory activities of the CNSNS considers that the personnel of the licensees, as well as their contractors, will act and will communicate with integrity and honesty. The CNSNS cannot tolerate intentional non-compliance s, for what this violations type can be considered of a level of more graveness that the subjacent non-compliance. To determine the severity of a violation that involves intention, the CNSNS also took in consideration factors as the position and the personnel's responsibilities involved in the violation, the graveness level of the non-compliance in itself, the offender's intention and the possible gain that would produce the non-compliance, if exists, either economic or of another nature. The CNSNS hopes the licensees take significant corrective actions in response to non-compliance s or intentional violations, these corrective actions should correspond to the violation graveness with the purpose of generating a dissuasive effect in the organizations of the licensees. The present article involves the legal framework that confers the CNSNS the attributions to impose administrative sanctions to its licensees, establishes the definition of the CNSNS about what constitutes a non-compliance or intentional violation and finally indicates the intention types (deliberate

  18. The evolution of ultraconserved elements with different phylogenetic origins

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo


    Background: Ultraconserved elements of DNA have been identified in vertebrate and invertebrate genomes. These elements have been found to have diverse functions, including enhancer activities in developmental processes. The evolutionary origins and functional roles of these elements in cellular systems, however, have not yet been determined. Results: Here, we identified a wide range of ultraconserved elements common to distant species, from primitive aquatic organisms to terrestrial species with complicated body systems, including some novel elements conserved in fruit fly and human. In addition to a well-known association with developmental genes, these DNA elements have a strong association with genes implicated in essential cell functions, such as epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, detoxification, innate immunity, and sensory reception. Interestingly, we observed that ultraconserved elements clustered by sequence similarity. Furthermore, species composition and flanking genes of clusters showed lineage-specific patterns. Ultraconserved elements are highly enriched with binding sites to developmental transcription factors regardless of how they cluster. Conclusion: We identified large numbers of ultraconserved elements across distant species. Specific classes of these conserved elements seem to have been generated before the divergence of taxa and fixed during the process of evolution. Our findings indicate that these ultraconserved elements are not the exclusive property of higher modern eukaryotes, but rather transmitted from their metazoan ancestors. 2012 Ryu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima


    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  20. Photovoltaic radiation detector element (United States)

    Agouridis, D.C.


    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  1. Elements of Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 1. Elements of Chemistry. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Classics Volume 17 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 92-100. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  2. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.


    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the


    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.


    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  4. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  5. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  6. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  7. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin


    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  8. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2015


    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  9. Senescence responsive transcriptional element (United States)

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro


    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  10. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  11. Elements of a collaborative systems model within the aerospace industry (United States)

    Westphalen, Bailee R.


    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine the components of current aerospace collaborative efforts. There were 44 participants from two selected groups surveyed for this study. Nineteen were from the Oklahoma Air National Guard based in Oklahoma City representing the aviation group. Twenty-five participants were from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston representing the aerospace group. The surveys for the aviation group were completed in reference to planning missions necessary to their operations. The surveys for the aerospace group were completed in reference to a well-defined and focused goal from a current mission. A questionnaire was developed to survey active participants of collaborative systems in order to consider various components found within the literature. Results were analyzed and aggregated through a database along with content analysis of open-ended question comments from respondents. Findings and conclusions. This study found and determined elements of a collaborative systems model in the aerospace industry. The elements were (1) purpose or mission for the group or team; (2) commitment or dedication to the challenge; (3) group or team meetings and discussions; (4) constraints of deadlines and budgets; (5) tools and resources for project and simulations; (6) significant contributors to the collaboration; (7) decision-making formats; (8) reviews of project; (9) participants education and employment longevity; (10) cross functionality of team or group members; (11) training on the job plus teambuilding; (12) other key elements identified relevant by the respondents but not included in the model such as communication and teamwork; (13) individual and group accountability; (14) conflict, learning, and performance; along with (15) intraorganizational coordination. These elements supported and allowed multiple individuals working together to solve a common problem or to develop innovation that could not have been

  12. Synthesis Study of a 6-Element Non-Uniform Array with Tilted Elements for CLARREO Project (United States)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Hoorfar, Ahmad


    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the gain/pattern properties of a 6-element Radio Occultation (RO) array for the proposed CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) Project. CLARREO is one of the 4 highest priority missions recommended in the National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey.

  13. Survey of National and Multi-National Registries and Cohort Studies in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Mia


    BACKGROUND: To characterize the existing national and multi-national registries and cohort studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and identify differences as well as areas of potential future collaboration. METHODS: We surveyed investigators from North America, Europe, and Australia about...... existing JIA cohort studies and registries. We excluded cross-sectional studies. We captured information about study design, duration, location, inclusion criteria, data elements and collection methods. RESULTS: We received survey results from 18 studies, including 11 national and 7 multi-national studies....... CONCLUSION: There is a wide-range of large, ongoing JIA registries and cohort studies around the world. Our survey results indicate significant potential for future collaborative work using data from different studies and both combined and comparative analyses....

  14. Identifying learning styles. (United States)

    Hughes, Grace


    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  15. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott


    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  16. Identifying and Managing Risk. (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.


    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  17. Identifying national security fundamentals in the big data of digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article narrates generation warfare intelligence in complex information system of digital asymmetrical environment in current generation warfare to digest the social implications and of technology to society and provides appropriate recommendations. Keywords: communication; generation warfare; hegemony; ...

  18. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06 (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.


    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  19. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aerosols are mixture of solid and liquid particles and have considerable variation in terms of their chemical composition and size. In this ... The elemental analysis was done by environmental scanning electron microscope .... the various conditions in order to identify similarities and characteristic differences in their shapes.

  20. Critical Elements in New School Planning. (United States)

    Stevenson, Kenneth R.


    It is critical that school facility planning and design include auxiliary spaces that uphold the primary instructional program. This article identifies major support elements (storage, hallways, cafeteria, library/media center, administrative and guidance offices, and outdoor facilities) to be incorporated and discusses how to make these…

  1. The Elements of a Narrative Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Hansen, Arne; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    on findings from user studies and game theory, an open game world was constructed, in order to serve as a test environment. A survey was then developed in order to identify reactions and patterns in user responses to frequently used game elements. This study thus attempts to provide an insight into general...

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  3. Identifi cation of Sectarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinovich Vladimir


    Full Text Available «New religious movements and society» is traditionally one of the most sophisticated topics in the area of new religions studies. Its problem field is so huge that up to now by far not all important research themes where even touched by scientists from all over the world. The problem of the process of the identification of sectarianism by diff erent societal institutions is one of such untouched themes that is taken as the main subject of this article. This process by itself is an inseparable part of the every societal deliberate reaction to the very existence of unconventional religiosity, its unstructured and mainly structured types. The focal point of the article is step-by-step analysis of the general structure elements of the process of the identification of sectarianism without any reference to the specific time and place of its flow. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the subjects of the identification of sectarianism, to the criteria for religious groups to be qualified as new religious movements, and to the specific features of the process of documents filtration. The causes of selective perception of sectarianism are disclosed. Some main consequences and unpredictable outcomes of the process of the identification of sectarianism are described.

  4. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the stream segments or reaches that comprise the...

  5. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre


    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  6. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali


    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  7. Quantum theory elements

    CERN Document Server


    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  8. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M


    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  9. Chemical Elements Bingo (United States)

    Tejeda, Silvia; Palacios, Joaquin


    An important part of the high school chemistry program is the topic of periodic classification and periodicity. We have observed that one of the obstacles for the study of the matter is the new vocabulary necessary to initiate this work. Our students have to understand that the periodic classification is an orderly way of presenting the elements and its properties, they compare the table with other classification systems that they already know, nevertheless for the average student it is difficult to deduce or predict properties with periodic classification. As an example of this concept, we can point out the electronic configuration, atomic radii, oxidation state, and valence number. In order to facilitate the learning-teaching process of this topic in high school level, we stimulate the class to play with the periodic table, to get familiar with the general concepts of periodicity. We started our work dealing with the most common elements in each group. Chemical Elements Bingo (CEB) is a game we designed to teach periodic classification.

  10. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hosono, Katsuro Hayashi, Toshio Kamiya, Toshiyuki Atou and Tomofumi Susaki


    Full Text Available While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust, many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  11. Transposable elements in the Anopheles funestus transcriptome. (United States)

    Fernández-Medina, Rita D; Carareto, Claudia M A; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Ribeiro, José M C


    Transposable elements (TEs) are present in most of the eukaryotic genomes and their impact on genome evolution is increasingly recognized. Although there is extensive information on the TEs present in several eukaryotic genomes, less is known about the expression of these elements at the transcriptome level. Here we present a detailed analysis regarding the expression of TEs in Anopheles funestus, the second most important vector of human malaria in Africa. Several transcriptionally active TE families belonging both to Class I and II were identified and characterized. Interestingly, we have identified a full-length putative active element (including the presence of full length TIRs in the genomic sequence) belonging to the hAT superfamily, which presents active members in other insect genomes. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of transposable elements in A. funestus transcriptome. Our results reveal that TEs are abundant and diverse in the mosquito and that most of the TE families found in the genome are represented in the mosquito transcriptome, a fact that could indicate activity of these elements.The vast diversity of TEs expressed in A. funestus suggests that there is ongoing amplification of several families in this organism.

  12. Writing analytic element programs in Python. (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A


    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Szitenberg

    Full Text Available Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  14. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda. (United States)

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H


    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  15. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  16. Elemental composition of Malawian rice. (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J


    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg-1, dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and elements (mg kg-1, dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  17. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.


    How crews get into or out of their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hatches and Airlocks have the benefit of relatively low mass and high Technology Readiness Level (TRL), but waste consumables with a volume depressurization for every ingress/egress. Perhaps the biggest drawback to EVA hatches or Airlocks is that they make it difficult to keep Martian dust from being tracked back into the ascent vehicle, in violation of planetary protection protocols. Suit ports offer the promise of dust mitigation by keeping dusty suits outside the cabin, but require significant cabin real estate, are relatively high mass, and current operational concepts still require an EVA hatch to get the suits outside for the first EVA, and back inside after the final EVA. This is primarily because current designs don't provide enough structural support to protect the suits from ascent/descent loads or potential thruster plume impingement. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive option. By pushing spacesuit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface, ascended vehicle mass and dust can be minimized. What's more, retractable tunnels provide operational flexibility by allowing surface assets to be re-configured or built up over time. Retractable tunnel functional requirements and design concepts being developed as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) work will add a new ingress/egress option to the surface architecture trade space.

  18. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak


    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  19. Elemental matrices for the finite element method in electromagnetics with quadratic triangular elements


    Cojocaru, E.


    The finite element method has become a preeminent simulation technique in electromagnetics. For problems involving anisotropic media and metamaterials, proper algorithms should be developed. It has been proved that discretizing in quadratic triangular elements may lead to an improved accuracy. Here we present a collection of elemental matrices evaluated analytically for quadratic triangular elements. They could be useful for the finite element method in advanced electromagnetics.

  20. Element determination of fine particles in environmental aerosols using PIXE; Determinacion elemental de paticulas finas en aerosoles ambientales usando PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, B. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The Mexico city is classified as one of the more populated cities of the world which presents a decrease in the air quality and that gives place to a severe problematic in atmospheric pollution. To cooperate in the solution of this problem it is necessary to carry out studies that allow a better knowledge of the atmosphere of the city. This study presents the results of a monitoring campaign of fine particle carried out from September 21 to December 12, 2001 in three sites of the Mexico City center area. The samples were collected every third day with a collector type unit of heaped filters (Gent). The analysis of these samples was carried out in the 2 MV accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) applying the PIXE technique and with this analysis its were identified in the samples approximately 15 elements in each one of the 3 sites and was calculated the concentration in that its were present. With these results a database was created and by means of it mathematical treatment the Enrichment factor (FE), the time series of each element and the multiple correlation matrix were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the Civil Registration site (Salto del Agua) it was the more polluted coinciding that to a bigger concentration of activities a bigger increase in the pollution is generated. (Author)

  1. Platinum-group elements (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  2. Use of structured decision making to identify monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marsh ecosystems (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Lyons, James E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. Gregory; Adamowicz, Susan C.


    Most salt marshes in the USA have been degraded by human activities, and coastal managers are faced with complex choices among possible actions to restore or enhance ecosystem integrity. We applied structured decision making (SDM) to guide selection of monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System in the northeastern USA. In general, SDM is a systematic process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. We first engaged stakeholders in clarifying regional salt marsh decision problems, defining objectives and attributes to evaluate whether objectives are achieved, and developing a pool of alternative management actions for achieving objectives. Through this process, we identified salt marsh attributes that were applicable to monitoring National Wildlife Refuges on a regional scale and that targeted management needs. We then analyzed management decisions within three salt marsh units at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, coastal Delaware, as a case example of prioritizing management alternatives. Values for salt marsh attributes were estimated from 2 years of baseline monitoring data and expert opinion. We used linear value modeling to aggregate multiple attributes into a single performance score for each alternative, constrained optimization to identify alternatives that maximized total management benefits subject to refuge-wide cost constraints, and used graphical analysis to identify the optimal set of alternatives for the refuge. SDM offers an efficient, transparent approach for integrating monitoring into management practice and improving the quality of management decisions.

  3. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  4. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M


    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  5. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R


    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  6. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole


    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  7. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...... and affective impacts, of these material remains. The contributions in this volume investigate the way time, performance and movement, both physically and emotionally, are central aspects of understanding architectural assemblages. It is a book about the constellations of people, places and things that emerge...

  8. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R


    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  9. [Healthcare marketing elements]. (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio


    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  10. Multi-element analysis of unidentified fallen objects from Tatale in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-element analysis has been carried out on two fallen objects, # 01 and # 02, using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. A total of 17 elements were identified in object # 01 while 21 elements were found in object # 02. The two major elements in object # 01 were Fe and Mg, which together constitute ...

  11. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.


    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  12. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s) (United States)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)


    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  13. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller


    Human and animal populations are increasingly confronted with emerging and re-emerging infections and often such infections are exchanged between these populations, e.g. through food. A more effective and uniform approach to the prevention of these microbial threats is essential. The technological......-source systems. There is therefore an obvious need to develop a global system of whole microbial genome databases to aggregate, share, mine and use microbiological genomic data, to address global public health and clinical challenges, and most importantly to identify and diagnose infectious diseases. The global...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...

  14. Actionable Persistent Identifier Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Weigel


    Full Text Available Persistent Identifiers (PIDs have lately received a lot of attention from scientific infrastructure projects and communities that aim to employ them for management of massive amounts of research data and metadata objects. Such usage scenarios, however, require additional facilities to enable automated data management with PIDs. In this article, we present a conceptual framework that is based on the idea of using common abstract data types (ADTs in combination with PIDs. This provides a well-defined interface layer that abstracts from both underlying PID systems and higher-level applications. Our practical implementation is based on the Handle System, yet the fundamental concept of PID-based ADTs is transferable to other infrastructures, and it is well suited to achieve interoperability between them.

  15. Identifying potential academic leaders (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.


    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  16. National Parks (United States)

    Jill S. Baron; Craig D. Allen; Erica Fleishman; Lance Gunderson; Don McKenzie; Laura Meyerson; Jill Oropeza; Nate Stephenson


    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km2 of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation's biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and...

  17. Heavy element nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, D N


    A review is made of current nuclear astrophysical theory regarding the origin of the elements heavier than iron. The pre-supernova evolution of stars is very briefly described, and speculation is given regarding the supernova mechanism. In particular, the possible role of weak neutral currents is presented. The synthesis of the trans-iron nuclei via the s and r-processes is examined. Special emphasis is given to the r-process because it depends completely on the properties of nuclei off the valley of stability. Recent explosive r-process calculations are discussed, as well as plausible astrophysical sites. The alternative n-process is also described. The possible production by the r and/or n-processes of the almost mythical superheavy elements is reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to certain crudely estimated parameters is explicitly shown. Throughout the discussion, the importance of certain nuclear physics experiments and formalism is demonstrated. Areas where advances in nuclear physics will have a d...

  18. The CEBAF Element Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce


    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  19. NIH Common Data Elements Repository (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  20. The National Guard State Partnership Program: Element of Smart Power (United States)


    Climate change, overpopulation , poverty , unemployment, youth population bulge, and competition for scarce resources will add to the pressures and...development capabilities must help prevent conflict, spur economic growth, strengthen weak and failing states, lift people out of poverty , combat climate

  1. Updating the National Strategy in Iraq: The Ideological Element (United States)


    identity. In a recent Washington Quarterly article, Daniel Brumberg states there are times and situations within modern Iraq where tribal and ethnic...all the major religious, tribal, and ethnic divisions within Iraq. Daniel Brumberg correctly assesses the situation in Iraq when he states, “As the...their religions at the door.”32 Brumberg obviously feels that overcoming religious differences is critical to the future success of Iraq. 16 United

  2. Utilizing the Elements of National Power to Predict Ungoverned Space (United States)


    Military Review (November-December 2006): 51-57. Chomsky , Noam . Failed States The Abuse of Power and Assault on Democracy. New York, NY: Henry Holt...Office March 2006), 20, Available from http://www.whitehouse. gov/nsc/nss/2006/nss2006. pdf ; Internet; accessed on 10 September 2006. 2Joseph D. Celeski...U.S (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Services, 2001), 12-13, Available from http://www.fas. org/irp/crs/RL30252. pdf ; Internet; accessed on 16

  3. Heavy-element chemistry - Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Bern univ. (Switzerland)


    In the past ten years, nuclear chemists have made considerable progress in developing fast on-line separation techniques, which allowed to chemically characterize the first four transactinide elements Rf (rutherfordium, Z=104), Db (dubnium, Z=105), Sg (seaborgium, Z=106), and recently also Bh (bohrium, Z=107). In all cases the isolated nuclides were unambiguously identified by observing genetically linked decay chains. Nuclides with production cross-sections of less than 100 pb and half-lives as short as a few seconds have been chemically isolated. Thus, chemists have discovered or significantly contributed to the characterization of the nuclear-decay properties of a number of transactinide nuclei. New techniques with greatly improved overall efficiencies should allow chemists to extend their studies to even heavier elements such as Hs (hassium, Z=108) and to the recently discovered superheavy elements with Z=112 and 114, which can be produced only with picobarn cross-sections. (orig.)

  4. Key elements for designing a strategy to generate social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research explores the key elements in designing a strategy when generating social and environmental hospitality value at events is a priority. The study is grounded in empirical data, using music festivals across Europe as case studies. Six key elements have been identified, among which are: visionary leadership, ...

  5. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.


    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  6. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.


    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.


    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  8. The nonconforming virtual element method


    de Dios, B. Ayuso; Lipnikov, K.; Manzini, G


    We introduce the nonconforming Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the approximation of second order elliptic problems. We present the construction of the new element in two and three dimensions, highlighting the main differences with the conforming VEM and the classical nonconforming finite element methods. We provide the error analysis and establish the equivalence with a family of mimetic finite difference methods.

  9. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.


    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  10. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny


    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, padolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, pAdolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  11. It is elemental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reich, Peter B.; Khachane, Amit N.


    diversity and composition were primarily driven by variation in soil resource stoichiometry (total C:N:P ratios), itself linked to different land uses, and secondarily driven by other important biodiversity drivers such as climate, soil spatial heterogeneity, soil pH, root influence (plant-soil microbe......It is well established that resource quantity and elemental stoichiometry play major roles in shaping below and aboveground plant biodiversity, but their importance for shaping microbial diversity in soil remains unclear. Here, we used statistical modeling on a regional database covering 179...... interactions) and microbial biomass (soil microbe-microbe interactions). In aggregate, these findings provide evidence that nutrient stoichiometry is a strong predictor of bacterial diversity and composition at a regional scale. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.


    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  13. Solar cell element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Matsukuma, Kunihiro; Kokuuchi, Shigeru; Morita, Keiichi; Yagi, Hideyuki.


    This invention aims to provide a soalr cell element with an easily formable electrode having an independent BSF and BSR. For this purpose, in this invention, a layer with high concentration of impurities (which functions as BSF on the opposite surface of the light-receiving surface) is partly and adjacently placed; a back electrode is made to have an ohmic resistance to the high-impurity layer; a metal oxide film is forther placed in other parts. By this, the functions of BSF and BSR are sufficiently utilized as a boundary surface between the high-impurity layer (BSF) and the semi-conductor substrate and the metal oxide film (BSR) are separated, thus enhancing the conversion efficiency. As for the patterns on the separated layers of BSF and BSR, various patterns are possible to be relized by using resist printing patterns. 3 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje


    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  15. Establishing geochemical background variation and threshold values for 59 elements in Australian surface soil. (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice


    During the National Geochemical Survey of Australia over 1300 top (0-10cm depth) and bottom (~60-80cm depth) sediment samples (including ~10% field duplicates) were collected from the outlet of 1186 catchments covering 81% of the continent at an average sample density of 1 site/5200km 2 . The PTEs), in Australian surface soil. Different methods of obtaining geochemical threshold values, which differentiate between background and those samples with unusually high element concentrations and requiring attention, are presented and compared to Western Australia's 'ecological investigation levels' (EILs) established for 14 PTEs. For Mn and V these EILs are so low that an unrealistically large proportion (~24%) of the sampled sites would need investigation in Australia. For the 12 remaining elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) few sample sites require investigation and as most of these are located far from human activity centres, they potentially suggest either minor local contamination or mineral exploration potential rather than pollution. No major diffuse source of contamination by PTEs affects Australian soil at the continental scale. Of the statistical methods used to establish geochemical threshold values, the most pertinent results come from identifying breaks in cumulative probability distributions, the Tukey inner fence and the 98th percentile. Geochemical threshold values for 59 elements, including emerging 'high-tech' critical elements such as lanthanides, Be, Ga or Ge, for which no EILs currently exist, are presented. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phylogenetic footprinting to find functional DNA elements. (United States)

    Ganley, Austen R D; Kobayashi, Takehiko


    Phylogenetic footprinting is powerful technique for finding functional elements from sequence data. Functional elements are thought to have greater sequence constraint than nonfunctional elements, and, thus, undergo a slower rate of sequence change through time. Phylogenetic footprinting uses comparisons of homologous sequences from closely related organisms to identify "phylogenetic footprints," regions with slower rates of sequence change than background. This does not require prior characterization of the sequence in question, therefore, it can be used in a wide range of applications. In particular, it is useful for the identification of functional elements in noncoding DNA, which are traditionally difficult to detect. Here, we describe in detail how to perform a simple yet powerful phylogenetic footprinting analysis. As an example, we use ribosomal DNA repeat sequences from various Saccharomyces yeasts to find functional noncoding DNA elements in the intergenic spacer, and explain critical considerations in performing phylogenetic footprinting analyses, including the number of species and species range, and some of the available software. Our methods are broadly applicable and should appeal to molecular biologists with little experience in bioinformatics.

  17. Temporal and spatial trends studied by lichen analysis: atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspiazu, J.; Cervantes, L.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez, J.; Villasenor, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, R.; Munoz, R. [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Gestion Ambiental del Aire, Mexico City (Mexico)


    Ball moss on Tillandsia recurvata (Bromeliaceae), collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, was transplanted to thirteen bio-monitoring sites in the downtown and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (which cover a surface of 9,560 km{sup 2}) during the periods August 2002 - January 2003 and July 2003 - October 2003. A total of 52 lichens (weighing 300 g) were transplanted to each place. Two were analysed as zero or reference, El Chico National Park, a location 100 Km upwind from the city and the remaining 26 were hung in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplanted tree month, out of every season over a one-year period. The concentrations were measured by the quantitative PIXE method based on an extemal beam facility. The atmospheric deposition for trace elements was inferred by its concentration in lichen samples collected in 2002 from 13 sites in Mexico and compared with data from a similar survey in 2003. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and other elements was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after a geostatistical estimate of the metal concentration in the sample was made. Maps were drawn for all elements with the estimated values. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals, reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. The deposition patterns of V, As, Se, Cd and Pb are substantially influenced by long-range transport from other parts of Mexico City. For Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, the deposition patterns are largely determined by contribution from point sources within Mexico and in the metropolitan area. The lichen data for Br and, in part, Se reflect an airborne supply from the environment. Contributions to trace element concentrations in lichen sources other than atmospheric deposition are identified and discussed. The Spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (Author)

  18. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Findings on Designing and Implementing Effective Prevention Programs for Youth at High Risk. Monograph Series. (United States)

    Hermann, Jack; Sambrano, Soledad; Springer, J. Fred; Nister, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Brounstein, Paul J.; Cordray, David; Shadish, Will; Kasim, Rafa; Pan, Wei

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. It provides concrete guidance regarding what elements of design and implementation are…

  19. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M


    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  20. Chemical characterization of element 112. (United States)

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V


    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  1. EJSCREEN National Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USA table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the national...

  2. Alignment between DQC's 10 Essential Elements & America COMPETES Act's 12 Elements (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011


    In 2005, the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) identified the "10 Essential Elements of a Statewide Longitudinal Data System" to provide a roadmap for state policymakers as they built statewide longitudinal data systems designed to collect, store, & use longitudinal data to improve student achievement & outcomes. In 2007, the federal America COMPETES…

  3. Payment - National (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  4. HCAHPS - National (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  5. Back to the future? A critical commentary on the 2003 U.S. National standard certificate of live birth. (United States)

    Kirby, Russell S; Salihu, Hamisu M


    Vital statistics documents for the United States have been revised approximately decennially throughout the past century. In this commentary we review the contents of the 2003 revision of the national standard certificate of live birth, focusing on changes from the certificates in use nationally since 1989, and identifying strengths and weaknesses of key data elements. Additional federal-state partnership funding is imperative to support the transition to the new standard certificates, and to ensure a focus on data quality at the state and national levels.

  6. Elements and elasmobranchs: hypotheses, assumptions and limitations of elemental analysis. (United States)

    McMillan, M N; Izzo, C; Wade, B; Gillanders, B M


    Quantifying the elemental composition of elasmobranch calcified cartilage (hard parts) has the potential to answer a range of ecological and biological questions, at both the individual and population level. Few studies, however, have employed elemental analyses of elasmobranch hard parts. This paper provides an overview of the range of applications of elemental analysis in elasmobranchs, discussing the assumptions and potential limitations in cartilaginous fishes. It also reviews the available information on biotic and abiotic factors influencing patterns of elemental incorporation into hard parts of elasmobranchs and provides some comparative elemental assays and mapping in an attempt to fill knowledge gaps. Directions for future experimental research are highlighted to better understand fundamental elemental dynamics in elasmobranch hard parts. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program: foundational elements for program evaluation planning, implementation, and use of findings. (United States)

    MacDonald, Goldie; Garcia, Danyael; Zaza, Stephanie; Schooley, Michael; Compton, Don; Bryant, Terry; Bagnol, Lulu; Edgerly, Cathy; Haverkate, Rick


    The Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program (Steps Program) enables funded communities to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes, obesity, asthma, and related risk factors. At both the national and community levels, investment in surveillance and program evaluation is substantial. Public health practitioners engaged in program evaluation planning often identify desired outcomes, related indicators, and data collection methods but may pay only limited attention to an overarching vision for program evaluation among participating sites. We developed a set of foundational elements to provide a vision of program evaluation that informs the technical decisions made throughout the evaluation process. Given the diversity of activities across the Steps Program and the need for coordination between national- and community-level evaluation efforts, our recommendations to guide program evaluation practice are explicit yet leave room for site-specific context and needs. Staff across the Steps Program must consider these foundational elements to prepare a formal plan for program evaluation. Attention to each element moves the Steps Program closer to well-designed and complementary plans for program evaluation at the national, state, and community levels.

  8. Norwegian national day oratory: constructing and reconstructing a national we


    Buxrud, Bjørnar; Fangen, Katrine


    National day speeches play an explicit part in defining national identities. In this article, we examine how mayors in Norwegian municipalities reflect on Norway's increased diversity in their 17 May speeches. National day speeches in Norway are supposed to focus on unity, not conflict. Yet, what have they become in the context of diversity? In applying theoretical perspectives on nations, rituals and language to data consisting of a selection of speeches, our analysis identifies themes that ...

  9. Prioritising Project Scope Definition Elements in Public Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K Fageha


    Full Text Available A complete definition of the scope of a project upfront during early stages ensures smooth and successful implementation during the project execution. This research identifies and prioritises project scope definition elements for public buildings in Saudi Arabia. Elements that could significantly contribute to complete project scope definition package at pre-project planning stage are identified and their interrelationship determined and prioritised. Using the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI as a basis, the study uses analytical network process (ANP technique based on data obtained from project managers who have been involved in public sector projects in Saudi Arabia. Data collection and analysis was conducted in three steps. The first step involved identification of scope definition elements while the second involved an investigation into interrelationships among the elements. In the third step, ANP was used to determine the weight of the elements’ importance in terms of contribution to project scope definition completeness. Finally, Pareto analysis was used to prioritise and assess the distribution pattern of the elements. The outcome from this research is the prioritisation of project scope definition elements for public building projects in Saudi Arabia. The prioritised list developed indicates the importance of project scope definition elements. It should help project management teams identify elements to consider when evaluating project scope definition for completeness at the pre-project planning stage. Keywords: Project scope definition, pre-project planning, prioritising, public building projects, Saudi Arabia, Analytical Network Process (ANP

  10. Vesta's Elemental Composition (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; hide


    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  11. Lubrication of Machine Elements (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.


    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  12. Chemistry of the superheavy elements. (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias


    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa, COTÎRLEA


    Full Text Available The present work-paper was written in order to provide an overview of the intangible values that actively contribute to brand capital formation within the nation branding process; through this article, the author tried to emphasize the differences existent between brand capital and brand equity within the context of the nation branding process, which has became a widely approached subject both in the national and international literature. Also, the evolution of brand capital and brand equity was approached, in order to identify and explain their components and their role, by highlighting the entire process of their evolution under a sequence of steps scheme. The results of this paper are focused on the identification of a structured flowchart through which the process of nation branding -and the brand capital itself- are to be perceived as holistic concepts, integrator and inter-correlated ones, easily understood.The methodology used in order to write the present article resumes to all appropriate methods and techniques used for collecting and processing empirical data and information, respectively to observing, sorting, correlating, categorizing, comparing and analyzing data, so that the addressed theoretical elements could have been founded; in the center of the qualitative thematic research addressed in the present article lie general elements belonging to Romania's image and identity promotion.

  14. Identifying complete RNA structural ensembles including pseudoknots. (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Rahman, Reazur; Li, Kejie; Gribskov, Michael


    The close relationship between RNA structure and function underlines the significance of accurately predicting RNA structures from sequence information. Structural topologies such as pseudoknots are of particular interest due to their ubiquity and direct involvement in RNA function, but identifying pseudoknots is a computationally challenging problem and existing heuristic approaches usually perform poorly for RNA sequences of even a few hundred bases. We survey the performance of pseudoknot prediction methods on a data set of full-length RNA sequences representing varied sequence lengths, and biological RNA classes such as RNase P RNA, Group I Intron, tmRNA and tRNA. Pseudoknot prediction methods are compared with minimum free energy and suboptimal secondary structure prediction methods in terms of correct base-pairs, stems and pseudoknots and we find that the ensemble of suboptimal structure predictions succeeds in identifying correct structural elements in RNA that are usually missed in MFE and pseudoknot predictions. We propose a strategy to identify a comprehensive set of non-redundant stems in the suboptimal structure space of a RNA molecule by applying heuristics that reduce the structural redundancy of the predicted suboptimal structures by merging slightly varying stems that are predicted to form in local sequence regions. This reduced-redundancy set of structural elements consistently outperforms more specialized data sets. Thus, the suboptimal folding space can be used to represent the structural diversity of an RNA molecule more comprehensively than optimal structure prediction approaches alone.

  15. Elements that define recovery: the experiential perspective. (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason


    Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here--e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use.

  16. Nations: Formation and Interest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kafirin


    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of historic conditions leading to the formation of nations, and on the basis of attributive features of a nation the set of national interests is identified. Considering national interests as a variable, the author stresses that they depend both on the wishes of ordinary people and on the ability of the state to streamline them in a constructive manner. National interests are classified according to their dynamic characteristics, and the special role of the state as the mouthpiece of national interests is pointed out.

  17. Culinary nationalism. (United States)

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst


    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  18. Contaminant and other elements in soil (CCQM-K127) (United States)

    Rocio Arvizu Torres, M.; Manzano, J. Velina Lara; Valle Moya, Edith; Horvat, Milena; Jaćimović, Radojko; Zuliani, Tea; Vreča, Polona; Acosta, Osvaldo; Bennet, John; Snell, James; Almeida, Marcelo D.; de Sena, Rodrigo C.; Dutra, Emily S.; Yang, Lu; Li, Haifeng


    Non-contaminated soils contain trace and major elements at levels representing geochemical background of the region. The main sources of elements as contaminants/pollutants in soils are mining and smelting activities, fossil fuel combustion, agricultural practices, industrial activities and waste disposal. Contaminated/polluted sites are of great concern and represent serious environmental, health and economic problems. Characterization and identification of contaminated land is the first step in risk assessment and remediation activities. It is well known that soil is a complex matrix with huge variation locally and worldwide. According to the IAWG's five year plan, it is recommended to have a key comparison under the measurement service category of soils and sediments for the year 2015. Currently 13 NMI has claimed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) in category 13 (sediments, soils, ores, and particulates): 29 CMCs in soil and 96 CMCs in sediments. In this regard this is a follow-up comparison in the category 13; wherein three key comparisons have been carried out during the years 2000 (CCQM-K13), 2003 (CCQM-K28) and 2004 (CCQM-K44). Since it is important to update the capabilities of NMIs in this category. CENAM and JSI proposed a key comparison in this category and a pilot study in parallel. The proposed study was agreed by IAWG members, where two soils samples were used in both CCQM-K127 representing a non-contaminated soil with low contents of elements (arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and manganese), and a contaminated soil with much higher content of selected elements (arsenic, cadmium, iron and lead). This broadens the scope and a degree of complexity of earlier measurements in this field. National metrology institutes (NMIs)/designate institutes (DIs) should, therefore, demonstrate their measurement capabilities of trace and major elements in a wide concentration ranges, representing background/reference sites as well as highly contaminated soils

  19. Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements. (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Joost B; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P


    To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we selected randomized drug trials with a pragmatic design feature. We searched all publications on these trials for information on how pragmatic trial design features affect validity, generalizability, precision, or feasibility. We present examples from the Salford lung study, International Suicide Prevention Trial, Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression, and Cluster Randomized Usual care vs. Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk trial. These examples show that incorporating pragmatic trial design elements in trials may affect generalizability, precision and validity and may lead to operational challenges different from traditional explanatory trials. Inserting explanatory trial elements into pragmatic trials may also affect validity, generalizability, and operational feasibility, especially when these trial elements are incorporated in one arm of the trial only. Design choices that positively affect one of these domains (e.g., generalizability) may negatively affect others (e.g., feasibility). Consequences of incorporating pragmatic or explanatory trial design elements in pragmatic trials should be explicitly considered and balanced for all relevant domains, including validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. Tools are needed to make these consequences more transparent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez


    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  1. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos


    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  2. The Common Data Elements for Cancer Research: Remarks on Functions and Structure (United States)

    Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Brandt, Cynthia A.


    Objectives The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has developed the Common Data Elements (CDE) to serve as a controlled vocabulary of data descriptors for cancer research, to facilitate data interchange and inter-operability between cancer research centers. We evaluated CDE’s structure to see whether it could represent the elements necessary to support its intended purpose, and whether it could prevent errors and inconsistencies from being accidentally introduced. We also performed automated checks for certain types of content errors that provided a rough measure of curation quality. Methods Evaluation was performed on CDE content downloaded via the NCI’s CDE Browser, and transformed into relational database form. Evaluation was performed under three categories: 1) compatibility with the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata model, on which CDE structure is based, 2) features necessary for controlled vocabulary support, and 3) support for a stated NCI goal, set up of data collection forms for cancer research. Results Various limitations were identified both with respect to content (inconsistency, insufficient definition of elements, redundancy) as well as structure – particularly the need for term and relationship support, as well as the need for metadata supporting the explicit representation of electronic forms that utilize sets of common data elements. Conclusions While there are numerous positive aspects to the CDE effort, there is considerable opportunity for improvement. Our recommendations include review of existing content by diverse experts in the cancer community; integration with the NCI thesaurus to take advantage of the latter’s links to nationally used controlled vocabularies, and various schema enhancements required for electronic form support. PMID:17149500

  3. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Barbara


    Perfect your photos and images with this "focused" guide to the latest version of Photoshop Elements For most of us, the professional-level Photoshop is overkill for our needs. Amateur photographers and photo enthusiasts turn to Photoshop Elements for a powerful but simpler way to edit and retouch their snapshots. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies, fully updated and revised for the latest release of this software product, helps you navigate Elements to create, edit, fix, share, and organize the high-quality images you desire. Full color pages bring the techniques to life and make taking great

  4. Older people home care through electronic health records: functions, data elements and security needs. (United States)

    Rangraz Jeddi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Hossein; Rasoli, Somayeh


    The issue of home care for older people is concerned with availability of information. To compare delivery of electronic health record (EHR) in home care for older people. An applied-comparative library study was conducted in 2015. The study population included Canada, Australia, England, Denmark and Taiwan. Data were extracted from literature related to EHR on home care and older people. The main functions included collection, documentation of lab and imaging results. Common data elements were demographic information, prescriptions and nursing observations. Security needs were identified according to the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Document Act, enacted in Canada and the Privacy Act 1988 in Australia. The basic functions of EHR are determined as collection, documentation and retrieval of information. It is recommended that legislation protects access to information on personal health and implementation of a national unique identifier applicable to shared data.

  5. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin


    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  6. Transition Element Abundances in MORB Basalts (United States)

    Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.


    The mineralogy of the mantle sources of basalts is an important, but hard to constrain parameter, especially with the basalts as chemical probes of major element mantle composition. Geophysical models imply that the deep mantle may have significant variations in Fe and Si relative to the ambient mantle sampled by MORB. Some petrological models of sub-ridge melting involve both pyroxenite and peridotite, implying that basalts preferentially sample a pyroxenite endmember. The First-Row Transition Elements (FRTE), Ga and Ge are compatible to moderately incompatible during partial melting, and are sensitive to mineralogical variability in the mantle and thus can provide constraints on mantle source mineralogy for MORB. We have analyzed major elements, FRTE, Ga and Ge on 231 basaltic glasses from the Middle Atlantic Ridge (MAR between -23°S to 36.44°N), 30 Mid-Cayman Rise basaltic glasses, 12 glasses from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone (EPR), 9 glasses from the Blanco Trough, Juan de Fuca ridge, and Galapagos Spreading Centers (EPR), and 4 Indian Ocean MORB. Large spots (150 μm) were precisely (±1%) analyzed by a New Wave UP193FX excimer (193 nm) laser ablation system coupled to a high-resolution ICP-MS at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory using a high ablation rate (50 Hz) to yield blank contributions <1% for all elements, particularly Ge. The data demonstrate that the Ge/Si (6.96 x 10E-6 ± 3%, 1σ) and Fe/Mn (55 ± 2%) ratios for MORB are insensitive to fractional crystallization within the MgO range 6%-10%. MORB have Zn/Fe (9.9 x 10E-4 ± 7%), Ga/Sc (0.37-0.50), Ga/Al (2.2 x 10E-4 ± 11%) ratios, with the variations mostly due to the effects of fractional crystallization. Recent experimental determination of FRTE, Ga and Ge partition coefficients provide a framework within which to interpret these data [1]. Using these new partition coefficients, we have modeled the sensitivity of each element to mineralogical variations in the mantle source. Olivine

  7. Summary compilation of shell element performance versus formulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Hales, Jason Dean (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Breivik, Nicole L.; Key, Samuel W. (FMA Development, LLC, Great Falls, MT)


    This document compares the finite element shell formulations in the Sierra Solid Mechanics code. These are finite elements either currently in the Sierra simulation codes Presto and Adagio, or expected to be added to them in time. The list of elements are divided into traditional two-dimensional, plane stress shell finite elements, and three-dimensional solid finite elements that contain either modifications or additional terms designed to represent the bending stiffness expected to be found in shell formulations. These particular finite elements are formulated for finite deformation and inelastic material response, and, as such, are not based on some of the elegant formulations that can be found in an elastic, infinitesimal finite element setting. Each shell element is subjected to a series of 12 verification and validation test problems. The underlying purpose of the tests here is to identify the quality of both the spatially discrete finite element gradient operator and the spatially discrete finite element divergence operator. If the derivation of the finite element is proper, the discrete divergence operator is the transpose of the discrete gradient operator. An overall summary is provided from which one can rank, at least in an average sense, how well the individual formulations can be expected to perform in applications encountered year in and year out. A letter grade has been assigned albeit sometimes subjectively for each shell element and each test problem result. The number of A's, B's, C's, et cetera assigned have been totaled, and a grade point average (GPA) has been computed, based on a 4.0-system. These grades, combined with a comparison between the test problems and the application problem, can be used to guide an analyst to select the element with the best shell formulation.

  8. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level. (United States)

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V


    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rare-earth elements (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  10. Trace Elements in River Waters (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.


    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  11. National Parks (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  12. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis


    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  13. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  14. Lysets rytme som belysningsarkitektonisk element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja


    I den rytmiske tilgang til arkitektonisk belysning betragtes lyskilder som agerende elementer i et landskab, hvor en iagttager interagerer med lyset fra lyskilden.......I den rytmiske tilgang til arkitektonisk belysning betragtes lyskilder som agerende elementer i et landskab, hvor en iagttager interagerer med lyset fra lyskilden....

  15. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements. (United States)

    Türler, Andreas


    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  16. Solution of Finite Element Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...

  17. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine


    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article

  18. What Is a Chemical Element? (United States)

    ten Hoor, Marten J.


    Contrary to current IUPAC recommendations, the chemical element X should be defined as the nucleus of the X atom. Consequently, different isotopes with their different nuclei belong to different elements, each one with its own physical and chemical properties. This view leads to the conclusion that we no longer have a periodic table of the…

  19. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo


    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Regulatory elements in molecular networks. (United States)

    Doane, Ashley S; Elemento, Olivier


    Regulatory elements determine the connectivity of molecular networks and mediate a variety of regulatory processes ranging from DNA looping to transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational regulation. This review highlights our current understanding of the different types of regulatory elements found in molecular networks with a focus on DNA regulatory elements. We highlight technical advances and current challenges for the mapping of regulatory elements at the genome-wide scale, and describe new computational methods to uncover these elements via reconstructing regulatory networks from large genomic datasets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1374. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1374 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluating Trends in Historical PM2.5 Element Concentrations by Reanalyzing a 15-Year Sample Archive (United States)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.


    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record ( offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM), Mount Rainier (MORA), and Point Reyes National Parks (PORE) were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era. The graph below compares the trend estimates for all the elements measured by IMPROVE based on the original and repeat analyses; the elements identified in color are measured above the detection limit more than 90% of the time. The trend estimates are sensitive to the treatment of non-detect data. The original and reanalysis trends are indistinguishable (have overlapping confidence intervals) for most of the well-detected elements.

  2. Mapping autonomously replicating sequence elements in a 73-kb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements are the genetic determinants of replication origin function in yeasts. They can be easily identified as the plasmids containing them transform yeast cells at a high frequency. As the first step towards identifying all potential replication origins in a 73-kb region of the long arm ...

  3. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  4. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G.S.; Balhorn, R.; Friz, A.M.; Freeman, S.P.H.T.


    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility.

  5. RSW Mixed Element Cell-Centered Fine Mesh (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a RSW mixed-element unstructured fine mesh for cell-centered solvers. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_mixedcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces= 28968 UG3 :...

  6. Finite element modelling of elastic intraplate stresses due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite element modelling of elastic intraplate stresses due to heterogeneities in crustal density and mechanical properties for the Jabalpur earthquake region, central India. A Manglik1,∗. , S Thiagarajan. 1. , A V Mikhailova. 2 and Yu Rebetsky. 2. 1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, ...

  7. Identifying management preferences, institutional organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential to improve the management of fisheries in Pemba, Mozambique, were explored by evaluating stakeholder's preferences for management and the key institutional design elements of the fisheries organisations or community councils of fisheries (CCPs). We interviewed fishers, community leaders and ...

  8. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The introduction of Curriculum 2005 and the National Curriculum Statement emphasised the Outcomes-Based Education approach to school education. In an analysis of Curriculum 2005 and the National Curriculum Statement, value and belief systems are identified and integrated in most of the eight learning areas.

  9. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of Curriculum 2005 and the National Curriculum Statement emphasised the Outcomes-Based Education approach to school education. In an analysis of Curriculum 2005 and the National Curriculum Statement, value and belief systems are identified and integrated in most of the eight learning areas.

  10. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework. (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje


    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them.

  11. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje


    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  12. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique. (United States)

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M


    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities.

  13. Packing element of a packer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safin, V.A.


    The packing element of a packer is proposed which consists of an elastic core and outer layer made of plastic sealing material. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to facilitate removal of the packing element from the site of installation, the outer layer has a sublayer made of polymer material which is chemically inactive in relationship to the material of the core, for example polytetrafluoroethylene. The element is also distinguished by the fact that the outer layer together with the sublayer is attached to the core through a nonhardening and nondrying glue composition, for example, based on rubber, rosin, lanolin, vaseline oil and zinc oxide.

  14. Finite element computational fluid mechanics (United States)

    Baker, A. J.


    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  15. quadratic spline finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bahadir


    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.

  16. Hadronic matrix elements for Kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijnens, Johan [Department of Theoretical Physics 2, Lund University, Soelvegatan 14A, S-22362 Lund (Sweden); Gamiz, Elvira [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain)


    We review some work done by us calculating matrix elements for Kaons. Emphasis is put on the matrix elements which are relevant to predict non-leptonic Kaon CP violating observables. In particular, we recall our results for the B{sub K} parameter which governs the K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} mixing and update our results for {epsilon}'inK including estimated all-higher-order CHPT corrections and the new results from recent analytical calculations of the {delta}itI = 3/2 component. Some comments on future prospects on calculating matrix elements for Kaons are also added.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    insidious Boko Haram terrorist organization was created by the northern political opposition with strong support from the Islamic Middle East terrorist elements to destabilize the government, national security and peace of the nation, Nigeria. The truth remains that this deadly group has unleashed a reign of terror that resulted ...

  18. Multi-element geochemical mapping in Southern China. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhizhong; Xie, Xuejing; Yao, Wensheng; Feng, Jizhou; Zhang, Qin; Fang, Jindong


    The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China.

  19. Identifying and Assessing Life-Cycle-Related Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandelbaum, Jay


    .... Because these technologies are not emphasized in the current Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) process this document is intended to improve the focus on life-cycle-related technologies in TRAs...

  20. Identifying and defining the terms and elements related to a digital health innovation ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Iyawa, G


    Full Text Available there are partnerships, capacity building, good leadership and governance. Reaching, engagement and empowerment of low-income populations in urban and rural areas to deliver novel digital health services require highly targeted measures, which will require careful..., Approaches and Experiences: Towards building a South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem 2 Strategies, Approaches and Experiences: Towards building a South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem First published in December 2016...

  1. Development of a framework identifying domains and elements of importance for arthritis rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokkerud, Mari; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Kjeken, Ingvild


    Rehabilitation is effective and beneficial for patients with arthritis. The lack of a common structure for describing the content of rehabilitation makes it difficult to compare, transfer and implement research evidence into clinical practice....

  2. Identifying Cytochrome P450 Functional Networks and Their Allosteric Regulatory Elements (United States)


    analysis for the four most important drug metabolizing CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP2D, and CYP3A subfamilies. Using the CYP450 Engineering Database [15], we downloaded...17983264. 13. Ota N, Agard DA (2005) Intramolecular signaling pathways revealed by modeling anisotropic thermal diffusion. J Mol Biol 351: 345-354...cytochrome P450 engineering database : Integration of biochemical properties. BMC Biochem 10: 27. doi:10.1186/1471-2091-10-27. PubMed: 19909539. 16. Cojocaru

  3. Use of longitudinal strain in identifying driving and resisting elements of landslides (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Fleming, R.W.


    Observations of deformation at the surfaces of landslides in Utah and Hawaii indicate that the upslope parts of the landslides have stretched and the downslope parts have shortened parallel with the direction of movement. The maximum displacement of each landslide occurs in a relatively undeformed zone between the zones of shortening and stretching. The pattern of deformation at the surface of these landslides may be useful in analyzing their mechanics by helping to constrain the longitudinal forces in limit-equilibrium stability analysis. We used earth-pressure calculations to determine the range of possible longitudinal forces (per unit width) for active failure in the zone of stretching and for passive failure in the zone of shortening of one of the Hawaiian landslides. -from Authors

  4. Elements of Resource Representation in Institutional Repositories: a Bibliographic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jose Daniel Texier; Marisa De Giusti


    ...: ingest, storage, cataloging,indexing, search engine and browsing. The results of this review show that identifying the problems found in these elements and functional processes is not a subject of study for the researchers, which leads to a vacant area in this field, and in this way to solve some of the problems present in the RI, from the point of view of functional elements and processes.

  5. Utilization and utility of clinical laboratory reports with graphical elements


    Shirts, Brian H.; Nichole Larsen; Jackson, Brian R.


    Background: Graphical reports that contain charts, images, and tables have potential to convey information more effectively than text-based reports; however, studies have not measured how much clinicians value such features. We sought to identify factors that might influence the utilization of reports with graphical elements postulating that this is a surrogate for relative clinical utility of these graphical elements. Materials and Methods: We implemented a pilot project at ARUP laboratories...

  6. How Certain Trace Elements Behave. (United States)

    Zingaro, Ralph A.


    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  7. More frequent elements in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krejci-Graf, K.


    On frequent elements in coals: in the case of bioelements (H, C, N, O) even bare quantities may offer evidence of origin and transformation of coals. With those as with other frequent elements it is not so much quantity (as is still with S), as variability, and ratios of pairs of elements, which may give evidence of transformation. Enrichments in different plants and tissues - excepting H, C, N, O - are extremely different in different samples. In coalification original contents are lowered, mixed, or veiled by import. Influences of surroundings change during the stages of coalification, while the surroundings themselves are in continual transformation. Only with frequent elements one may hope to recognize traces of original conditions. More exact knowledge of seams may help in prospection and parallelization.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOCARIU Liliana


    .... Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view...

  9. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Lab. of Applied Physics; Yoshida, Koji


    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  10. Green's Functions and Finite Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Friedel


    This book elucidates how Finite Element methods look like from the perspective of Green’s functions, and shows new insights into the mathematical theory of Finite Elements. Practically, this new view on Finite Elements enables the reader to better assess solutions of standard programs and to find better model of a given problem. The book systematically introduces the basic concepts how Finite Elements fulfill the strategy of Green’s functions  and how approximating of Green’s functions. It discusses in detail the discretization error and shows that are coherent with the strategy of “goal oriented refinement”. The book also gives much attention to the dependencies of FE solutions from the parameter set of the model.

  11. Finite element methods for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Roger T


    This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...

  12. A probability of synthesis of the superheavy element Z = 124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First Grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)


    We have studied the fusion cross section, evaporation residue cross section, compound nucleus formation probability (P{sub CN}) and survival probability (P{sub sur}) of different projectile target combinations to synthesize the superheavy element Z=124. Hence, we have identified the most probable projectile-target combination to synthesize the superheavy element Z = 124. To synthesize the superheavy element Z=124, the most probable projectile target combinations are Kr+Ra, Ni+Cm, Se+Th, Ge+U and Zn+Pu. We hope that our predictions may be a guide for the future experiments in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei Z = 124. (orig.)

  13. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow (United States)

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.


    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  14. Methane Propulsion Elements for Mars (United States)

    Percy, Tom; Polsgrove, Tara; Thomas, Dan


    Human exploration beyond LEO relies on a suite of propulsive elements to: (1) Launch elements into space, (2) Transport crew and cargo to and from various destinations, (3) Provide access to the surface of Mars, (4) Launch crew from the surface of Mars. Oxygen/Methane propulsion systems meet the unique requirements of Mars surface access. A common Oxygen/Methane propulsion system is being considered to reduce development costs and support a wide range of primary & alternative applications.

  15. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L


    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  16. Plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations and body iron stores identify similar risk factors for iron deficiency but result in different estimates of the national prevalence of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia among women and children in Cameroon. (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Erhardt, Juergen G; Brown, Kenneth H


    Available iron status indicators reflect different aspects of metabolism. We compared the prevalence and distribution of iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among Cameroonian women and children, as measured by plasma ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations, body iron stores (BIS), and hemoglobin, and evaluated the impact of adjustments for inflammation on these measures. In a nationally representative survey, we randomly selected 30 clusters in each of 3 zones (north, south, and large cities) and 10 households/ cluster, each with a child aged 12-59 mo and a woman 15-49 y. Ferritin and BIS were mathematically adjusted for inflammation, using plasma C-reactive protein and α(1)-acid glycoprotein both as continuous and categorical variables. Inflammation was present in 48.0% of children and 20.8% of women and anemia was diagnosed in 57.6% of children and 38.8% of women. Depending on the iron status indicator applied, the prevalence of ID ranged from 14.2 to 68.4% among children and 11.5 to 31.8% among women, and the prevalence of IDA ranged from 12.0 to 47.4% among children and 9.0 to 19.4% among women; the proportion of anemia associated with ID ranged from 20.8 to 82.3% among children and 23.2 to 50.0% among women. The different iron indicators generally identified similar groups at greatest risk of deficiency, using both conventional and derived cutoffs: younger children, pregnant women, and women and children in the north and rural areas. Research is needed to clarify the relationships between iron status indicators, particularly in the presence of inflammation, to harmonize global data on prevalence of ID.

  17. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik


    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  18. Japanese nationalism


    Going, Dawn Renee


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis addresses the phenomenon of Japanese nationalism, its changing place in Japanese life, and its influence on Japan's international relations. This study uses a theoretical-psychological approach to nationalism. After tracing the historical development of nationalist thought beginning in Tokugawa Japan, current social trends in the areas of politics, economics, women and family, and youth and education are examined to determ...

  19. Identifying a deprivation of liberty: a guide for community nurses. (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam


    The ability to identify situations that amount to a deprivation of liberty is crucial to a district nurse's role in protecting the vulnerable adults in their care. The courts acknowledge that the elements that have to be applied when assessing if there is a deprivation of liberty are complex and technical, so it is essential that district nurses apply the elements is a methodical manner and inform their decision-making by reference to the case law and the Mental Capacity Act 2005, Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards Code of Practice. This article reviews the European Court of Human Rights and UK domestic case law on deprivation of liberty and highlights the elements district nurses must take notice of when identifying situations that amount to a deprivation of liberty.

  20. Trace elements can influence the physical properties of tooth enamel. (United States)

    Ghadimi, Elnaz; Eimar, Hazem; Marelli, Benedetto; Nazhat, Showan N; Asgharian, Masoud; Vali, Hojatollah; Tamimi, Faleh


    In previous studies, we showed that the size of apatite nanocrystals in tooth enamel can influence its physical properties. This important discovery raised a new question; which factors are regulating the size of these nanocrystals? Trace elements can affect crystallographic properties of synthetic apatite, therefore this study was designed to investigate how trace elements influence enamel's crystallographic properties and ultimately its physical properties. The concentration of trace elements in tooth enamel was determined for 38 extracted human teeth using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The following trace elements were detected: Al, K, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Si, B, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Ti. Simple and stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the correlations between trace elements concentration in enamel and its crystallographic structure, hardness, resistance to crack propagation, shade lightness and carbonate content. The presence of some trace elements in enamel was correlated with the size (Pb, Ti, Mn) and lattice parameters (Se, Cr, Ni) of apatite nanocrystals. Some trace elements such as Ti was significantly correlated with tooth crystallographic structure and consequently with hardness and shade lightness. We conclude that the presence of trace elements in enamel could influence its physical properties.