Storage element performance optimization for CMS analysis jobs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrmann, G; Dahlblom, J; Guldmyr, J; Happonen, K; Lindén, T
2012-01-01
Tier-2 computing sites in the Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid (WLCG) host CPU-resources (Compute Element, CE) and storage resources (Storage Element, SE). The vast amount of data that needs to processed from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments requires good and efficient use of the available resources. Having a good CPU efficiency for the end users analysis jobs requires that the performance of the storage system is able to scale with I/O requests from hundreds or even thousands of simultaneous jobs. In this presentation we report on the work on improving the SE performance at the Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP) Tier-2 used for the Compact Muon Experiment (CMS) at the LHC. Statistics from CMS grid jobs are collected and stored in the CMS Dashboard for further analysis, which allows for easy performance monitoring by the sites and by the CMS collaboration. As part of the monitoring framework CMS uses the JobRobot which sends every four hours 100 analysis jobs to each site. CMS also uses the HammerCloud tool for site monitoring and stress testing and it has replaced the JobRobot. The performance of the analysis workflow submitted with JobRobot or HammerCloud can be used to track the performance due to site configuration changes, since the analysis workflow is kept the same for all sites and for months in time. The CPU efficiency of the JobRobot jobs at HIP was increased approximately by 50 % to more than 90 %, by tuning the SE and by improvements in the CMSSW and dCache software. The performance of the CMS analysis jobs improved significantly too. Similar work has been done on other CMS Tier-sites, since on average the CPU efficiency for CMSSW jobs has increased during 2011. Better monitoring of the SE allows faster detection of problems, so that the performance level can be kept high. The next storage upgrade at HIP consists of SAS disk enclosures which can be stress tested on demand with HammerCloud workflows, to make sure that the I/O-performance
Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru
The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.
Finite element analysis and performance study of switched reluctance generator
Zhang, Qianhan; Guo, Yingjun; Xu, Qi; Yu, Xiaoying; Guo, Yajie
2017-03-01
Analyses a three-phase 12/8 switched reluctance generator (SRG) which is based on its structure and performance principle. The initial size data were calculated by MathCAD, and the simulation model was set up in the ANSOFT software environment with the maximum efficiency and the maximum output power as the main reference parameters. The outer diameter of the stator and the inner diameter of the rotor were parameterized. The static magnetic field distribution, magnetic flux, magnetic energy, torque, inductance characteristics, back electromotive force and phase current waveform of SRG is obtained by analyzing the static magnetic field and the steady state motion of two-dimensional transient magnetic field in ANSOFT environment. Finally, the experimental data of the prototype are compared with the simulation results, which provide a reliable basis for the design and research of SRG wind turbine system.
A simple method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur on oxidized sulfide minerals is described. Extraction of elemental sulfur in perchloroethylene and subsequent analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography were used to ascertain the total elemental ...
Performance prediction of a permanent magnet servomotor using finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Dwyer, J.; Brady, G.; Byrne, J.V.
1998-01-01
Finite element analysis package ''MAGSOLVE'' is employed to predict the performance of a brushless permanent magnet servomotor. Equations are developed for a scaling method to predict motor rated stall torque. The torque v. current characteristic is determined using the Maxwell stress method and compared to experimental results. Less than 2% difference is observed over the current range. The solution is substantially independent of the location of the stress contour in the airgap. Valuable insight is also obtained regarding demagnetisation and torque ripple attributes of the motor. (orig.)
Investigation of Shear Stud Performance in Flat Plate Using Finite Element Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.S. Viswanathan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Three types of shear stud arrangement, respectively featuring an orthogonal, a radial and a critical perimeter pattern, were evaluated numerically. A numerical investigation was conducted using the finite element software ABAQUS to evaluate their ability to resist punching shear in a flat plate. The finite element analysis here is an application of the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using three-dimensional solid finite elements. The nonlinear characteristics of concrete were achieved by employing the concrete damaged plasticity model in the finite element program. Transverse shear stress was evaluated using finite element analysis in terms of shear stress distribution for flat plate with and without shear stud reinforcement. The model predicted that shear studs placed along the critical perimeter are more effective compared to orthogonal and radial patterns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatchurrohman, N; Marini, C D; Suraya, S; Iqbal, AKM Asif
2016-01-01
The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Young Jung; Lee, Sang Jin; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon
2003-05-01
The objective of this research is to assess the performance of lower order solid finite elements which will be ultimately applied into the safety analysis of nuclear containment building. For the safety analysis of large structures such as nuclear containment building, efficient lower order finite element is necessarily required to calculate the structural response of containment building with low computational cost. In this study, the state of the art formulations of lower order solid finite element are throughly reviewed and the best possible solid finite element is adopted into the development of nuclear containment analysis system. Three 8-node solid finite elements based on standard strain-displacement relationship, B-bar method and EAS method are implemented as computer modules and completely tested with various plate and shell structures. The present results can be directly applied into the analysis code development for general reinforced concrete structures
FEMAXI-III. An axisymmetric finite element computer code for the analysis of fuel rod performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, M.; Nakajima, T.; Okubo, T.; Iwano, Y.; Ito, K.; Kashima, K.; Saito, H.
1980-01-01
For the analysis of local deformation of fuel rods, which is closely related to PCI failure in LWR, FEMAXI-III has been developed as an improved version based on the essential models of FEMAXI-II, MIPAC, and FEAST codes. The major features of FEMAXI-III are as follows: Elasto-plasticity, creep, pellet cracking, relocation, densification, hot pressing, swelling, fission gas release, and their interrelated effects are considered. Contact conditions between pellet and cladding are exactly treated, where sliding or sticking is defined by iterations. Special emphasis is placed on creep and pellet cracking. In the former, an implicit algorithm is applied to improve numerical stability. In the latter, the pellet is assumed to be non-tension material. The recovery of pellet stiffness under compression is related to initial relocation. Quadratic isoparametric elements are used. The skyline method is applied to solve linear stiffness equation to reduce required core memories. The basic performance of the code has been proven to be satisfactory. (author)
Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2018-06-01
System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.
Analysis approach of turnout crossing performance by field measurements and finite element modeling
Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.
2015-01-01
The procedure for analyzing turnout crossing performance is developed in this paper. The experimental and numerical analysis are both conducted to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the crossing and to further improve the crossing performance. Geometry and acceleration measurements are performed on
Use of personal computers in performing a linear modal analysis of a large finite-element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagenblast, G.R.
1991-01-01
This paper presents the use of personal computers in performing a dynamic frequency analysis of a large (2,801 degrees of freedom) finite-element model. Large model linear time history dynamic evaluations of safety related structures were previously restricted to mainframe computers using direct integration analysis methods. This restriction was a result of the limited memory and speed of personal computers. With the advances in memory capacity and speed of the personal computers, large finite-element problems now can be solved in the office in a timely and cost effective manner. Presented in three sections, this paper describes the procedure used to perform the dynamic frequency analysis of the large (2,801 degrees of freedom) finite-element model on a personal computer. Section 2.0 describes the structure and the finite-element model that was developed to represent the structure for use in the dynamic evaluation. Section 3.0 addresses the hardware and software used to perform the evaluation and the optimization of the hardware and software operating configuration to minimize the time required to perform the analysis. Section 4.0 explains the analysis techniques used to reduce the problem to a size compatible with the hardware and software memory capacity and configuration
Analysis of Resonance Response Performance of C-Band Antenna Using Parasitic Element
Islam, M. T.; Misran, N.; Mandeep, J. S.
2014-01-01
Analysis of the resonance response improvement of a planar C-band (4–8 GHz) antenna is proposed using parasitic element method. This parasitic element based method is validated for change in the active and parasitic antenna elements. A novel dual-band antenna for C-band application covering 5.7 GHz and 7.6 GHz is designed and fabricated. The antenna is composed of circular parasitic element with unequal microstrip lines at both sides and a rectangular partial ground plane. A fractional bandwidth of 13.5% has been achieved from 5.5 GHz to 6.3 GHz (WLAN band) for the lower band. The upper band covers from 7.1 GHz to 8 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 12%. A gain of 6.4 dBi is achieved at the lower frequency and 4 dBi is achieved at the upper frequency. The VSWR of the antenna is less than 2 at the resonance frequency. PMID:24895643
Finite-element analysis and comparison of the AC loss performance of BSCCO and YBCO conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stavrev, Svetlomir; Grilli, Francesco; Dutoit, Bertrand; Ashworth, Stephen
2006-01-01
The AC loss performance of two BSCCO and two YBCO conductors of different geometry, characterized by the same self-field critical current of 150 A, is analysed and compared quantitatively. The comparison is made using the finite-element method with a nonlinear B-dependent E-J relation. A new shell-region model is utilised for the simulations of thin YBCO strips. Different AC working conditions are simulated: self-field, applied external field, and combined transport current and external perpendicular field application. Magnetic field and current density profiles are investigated in order to illustrate the reasons for the loss difference in the conductors. Depending on the application, the advantages of using BSCCO or YBCO conductors with specific geometry are outlined
Zaidel, Mark; Luo, XiaoHui
2010-01-01
This study investigates the efficiency of multimedia instruction at the college level by comparing the effectiveness of multimedia elements used in the computer supported learning with the cost of their preparation. Among the various technologies that advance learning, instructors and students generally identify interactive multimedia elements as…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujioka, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
2001-07-01
In structural design of a nuclear power component, stress classification from elastic stress analysis resultants is often used. Alternatively, to improve accuracy, finite element limit analysis may be performed. This paper examines some issues relating to the use of limit analysis; specifically, the treatment of multiple applied loads and the definition of the limit load from analysis using hardening plasticity laws. These are addressed both by detailed analysis for a simple geometry and by using the reference stress approach to estimate the inelastic displacement. The proposals are also applicable to a defect assessment of a cracked component, and treatment of distributed loads. It is shown that multiple or distributed loads should be treated as if they were applied proportionally irrespective of the actual nature of loads, and that the limit load from analysis with general plasticity laws may be estimated using a newly suggested reduced elastic slope method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujioka, T.
2001-01-01
In structural design of a nuclear power component, stress classification from elastic stress analysis resultants is often used. Alternatively, to improve accuracy, finite element limit analysis may be performed. This paper examines some issues relating to the use of limit analysis; specifically, the treatment of multiple applied loads and the definition of the limit load from analysis using hardening plasticity laws. These are addressed both by detailed analysis for a simple geometry and by using the reference stress approach to estimate the inelastic displacement. The proposals are also applicable to a defect assessment of a cracked component, and treatment of distributed loads. It is shown that multiple or distributed loads should be treated as if they were applied proportionally irrespective of the actual nature of loads, and that the limit load from analysis with general plasticity laws may be estimated using a newly suggested reduced elastic slope method. (author)
Performance evaluation of the ORNL multi-elemental XRF analysis algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-11-01
Hybrid K-Edge Densitometer (HKED) systems integrate both K-Edge Densitometry (KED) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses to provide accurate rapid, assay results of the uranium and plutonium content of dissolver solution samples from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Introduced for international safeguards applications in the late 1980s, the XRF component of the hybrid analyses is limited to quantification of U and Pu over a narrow range of U:Pu concentration ratios in the vicinity of ≈100. The analysis was further limited regarding the presence of minor actinide components where only a single minor actinide (typically Am) is included in the analysis and then only treated as an interference. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle has created the need to assay more complex dissolver solutions where uranium may no longer be the dominant actinide in the solution and the concentrations of the so called minor actinides (e.g., Th, Np, Am, and Cm) are sufficiently high that they can no longer be treated as impurities and ignored. Extension of the traditional HKED Region of Interest (ROI) based analysis to include these additional actinides is not possible due to the increased complexity of the XRF spectra. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a spectral fitting approach to the HKED XRF measurement with an enhanced algorithm set to accommodate these complex XRF spectra. This report provides a summary of the spectral fitting methodology and examines the performance of these algorithms using data obtained from the ORNL HKED system, as well as data provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on actual dissolver solutions.
3D Finite Elements Modelling for Design and Performance Analysis of UO Pellets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo L. Demarco
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The geometry of a fuel pellet is a compromise among the intention to maximize UO2 content and minimize the temperature gradient taking into account the thermomechanical behaviour, the economy, and the safety of the fuel management during and after irradiation. “Dishings”, “shoulders”, “chamfers”, and/or “a central hole” on a cylinder with an improved l/d relation (length of the pellet/diameter are introduced in order to optimize the shape of the pellet. The MeCom tools coupled with the BaCo code constitutes a complete system for the 3D analysis of the stress strain state of the pellet under irradiation. CANDU and PHWR MOX fuel will be used to illustrate the excellent qualitative agreement between experimental data and calculations by using these computational tools.
3D Finite Elements Modelling for Design and Performance Analysis of UO2 Pellets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demarco, G.L.; Marino, A.C.; Demarco, G.L.; Marino, A.C.
2011-01-01
The geometry of a fuel pellet is a compromise among the intention to maximize UO 2 content and minimize the temperature gradient taking into account the thermomechanical behaviour, the economy, and the safety of the fuel management during and after irradiation. Dishing, shoulders, chamfers, and/or a central hole on a cylinder with an improved l/d relation (length of the pellet/diameter) are introduced in order to optimize the shape of the pellet. The Me Com tools coupled with the BaCo code constitutes a complete system for the 3D analysis of the stress strain state of the pellet under irradiation. CANDU and PHWR MOX fuel will be used to illustrate the excellent qualitative agreement between experimental
Sprecher, David A
2010-01-01
This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Fl.
as general specification of loads and boundary conditions. For all the structural problems addressed, the analyses are carried out following the same principal approach, which is based on an explicit formulation of the governing set of differential equations. The governing differential equations...... in ESAComp. The solution procedures for the adhesive bonded joints have been used to conduct a parametric study, where the influence of using laminated adherends has been investigated. Based on this, a set of general design guidelines has been given in order to improve the structural performance and strength...... for joints with laminated adherends. The guidelines are also valid for the ply drop problems, since their mechanical behaviour are very similar. The results obtained for adhesive bonded joints, ply drops and insert problems have been compared with finite element analysis results. The results obtained...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianmei Wang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-05-01
This book introduces energy and resource technology development business with performance analysis, which has business division and definition, analysis of current situation of support, substance of basic plan of national energy, resource technique development, selection of analysis index, result of performance analysis by index, performance result of investigation, analysis and appraisal of energy and resource technology development business in 2007.
Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance
Frost, Brian R T
1982-01-01
Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie
Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?
Thacker, Ben H
2008-01-01
The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alipour, R.; Nejadx, Farokhi A.; Izman, S. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
The application of dual phase steels (DPS) such as DP600 in the form of thin-walled structure in automotive components is being continuously increased as vehicle designers utilize modern steel grades and low weight structures to improve structural performance, make automotive light and reinforce crash performance. Preventing cost enhancement of broad investigations in this area can be gained by using computers in structural analysis in order to substitute lots of experiments with finite element analysis (FEA). Nevertheless, it necessitates to be certified that selected method including element type and solution methodology is capable of predicting real condition. In this paper, numerical and experimental studies are done to specify the effect of element type selection and solution methodology on the results of finite element analysis in order to investigate the energy absorption behavior of a DP600 thin-walled structure with three different geometries under a low impact loading. The outcomes indicated the combination of implicit method and solid elements is in better agreement with the experiments. In addition, using a combination of shell element types with implicit method reduces the time of simulation remarkably, although the error of results compared to the experiments increased to some extent.
Jiang, Xiaoheng
2016-01-01
The frequent failure of cutting tool in the cutting process may cause a huge loss of money and time especially for hard to machine materials such as titanium alloys. Thus this study is mainly focused on the impact of wear characteristics and process variables on the cutting tool which is ignored by most of researchers. A thermo-mechanical finite element model of orthogonal metal cutting with segment chip formation is presented. This model can be used to predict the process performance in the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freitas, M.C.; Dionisio, I.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.
2008-01-01
In 2003-2004, several food items were purchased from large commercial outlets in Coimbra, Portugal. Such items included meats (chicken, pork, beef), eggs, rice, beans and vegetables (tomato, carrot, potato, cabbage, broccoli, lettuce). Elemental analysis was carried out through INAA at the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN, Portugal), the Nuclear Energy Centre for Agriculture (CENA, Brazil), and the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab of the University of Texas at Austin (NETL, USA). At the latter two, INAA was also associated to Compton suppression. It can be concluded that by applying Compton suppression (1) the detection limits for arsenic, copper and potassium improved; (2) the counting-statistics error for molybdenum diminished; and (3) the long-lived zinc had its 1115-keV photopeak better defined. In general, the improvement sought by introducing Compton suppression in foodstuff analysis was not significant. Lettuce, cabbage and chicken (liver, stomach, heart) are the richest diets in terms of human nutrients. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurdin, Martias [Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia); Matos, J E; Freese, K E [RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)
1983-09-01
The performance and fuel cycle costs for a 25 MW, JANUS 30 reactor conceptual design by INTERATOM, Federal Republic of Germany, for BATAN, Republic of Indonesia have been studied using 19.75% enriched uranium in four fuel element design options. All of these fuel element designs have either been proposed by INTERATOM for various reactors or are currently in use with 93% enriched uranium in reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Aluminide, oxide, and silicide fuels were studied for selected designs using the range of uranium densities that are either currently qualified or are being developed and demonstrated internationally. These uranium densities include 1.7-2.3 g/cm{sup 3} in aluminide fuel, 1.7-3.2 g/cm{sup 3} in oxide fuel, and 2.9-6.8 g/cm{sup 3} in silicide fuel. As of November 1982) both the aluminide and the oxide fuels with about 1.7 g U/cm{sup 3} are considered to be fully-proven for licensing purposes. Irradiation screening and proof testing of fuels with uranium densities greater than 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} are currently in progress, and these tests need to be completed in order to obtain licensing authorization for routine reactor use. To assess the long-term fuel adaptation strategy as well as the present fuel acceptance, reactor performance and annual fuel cycle costs were computed for seventeen cases based on a representative end-of-cycle excess reactivity and duty factor. In addition, a study was made to provide data for evaluating the trade-off between the increased safety associated with thicker cladding and the economic penalty due to increased fuel consumption. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Han Min; Ding, Qing Jun; Hui, Yao; Li, Hua Feng; Zhao, Chun Sheng
2010-01-01
Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are a class of electroactive polymers (EAP), and they currently attract numerous researchers to study their performance characteristics and applications. However, research on its start-up characteristics still requires more attention. In the IPMC start-up state (the moment of applying an actuation voltage at the very beginning), its mechanical performance is different in the stable working state (working for at least 10 min). Therefore, this paper focuses on three performance relationships of an IPMC strip between its maximal tip deformation and voltage, its maximal stress and voltage, as well as its maximal strain and voltage, both in the two states. Different from other reports, we found that they present nonlinear tendencies in the start-up state rather than linear ones. Therefore, based on the equivalent bimorph beam model, a finite element electromechanical coupling calculation module in the ANSYS software was utilized to simulate these characteristics. Furthermore, a test system is introduced to validate the phenomena. As a whole, these three relationships and the FEA method may be beneficial for providing control strategies effectively to IPMC actuators, especially in their start-up states
Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS
Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug
2011-01-01
In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a
Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor
2008-06-01
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.
A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magoia, J.E.
1990-01-01
A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es
Kumar, K. Ravi; Nikhil Varma, P.; Jagadeesh, N.; Sandeep, J. V.; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Venkateswarlu, D.; Srinivas, B.
2018-03-01
Among the different renewable energy resources, solar energy is widely used due to its quantitative intensity factor. Solar air heater is cheap, simple in design and has got wide range of applications. A modest solar air heater has a lower in heat transfer and thermal performance as it has heat transfer coefficient lower in between coated absorber plate and the carrier fluid. This low thermal performance can be reduced to a greater extent by introducing the artificially created roughness over the absorber plate of the solar heater. In the present study, the combination of various geometries and roughness’s on the absorber plate are reported. Methods have been developed and implemented in order to improve the rate of the heat transfer. A comparison is drawn among different geometries to select the most effective absorber plate roughness. For flow analysis k-ω SST model was used and the constant heat flux was taken as 1100 W/m2. The Reynolds number is varied in a range from 3000 to 20000. The variation of different parameters temperature, Nusselt number, turbulence kinetic energy and heat transfer coefficient with Reynolds number were examined and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Shihomatsu, Helena M.
1997-01-01
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were applied to the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in the geological reference materials AGV-1, G-2 and GSP-1 (USGS). Results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement with certified values, giving relative errors less than 10%. The La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu REE elements were determined. All the REE except Dy and Y were determined by HPLC. The reference material G94, employed in the International Proficiency Test for Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories (GeoTP1) was analysed. The results obtained are a contribution to REE contents in this sample. The INAA and HPLC application to the determination of REE in this kind of matrix is also discussed. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs
Adobe Photoshop Elements 10 unleash the hidden performance of Elements
Galer, Mark
2011-01-01
Master the most powerful photo editing tools and techniques that Elements has to offer! Using step-by-step projects, Mark Galer will have you creating stunning images in no time at all. Whether you want to create impressive, seamless montages, optimize your photos for perfect print quality, or simply enhance your images for maximum impact, Maximum Performance will give you the skills and know-how you need to create professional quality results. Featured projects teach you how to work with multilayered 16 bit/channel files, as well as convert to black and white using Adobe Camera Raw, create
Analysis of light elements by PIGE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, D. K.; Woo, H. J.; Kim, N. B.; Park, K. S.
2000-01-01
The PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission) method was applied for the measurement of light elements Li - K. A test measurement has been performed for geological, biological, environmental and material samples by using a standard sample for each element. The measurement was performed for the two proton energies of 2.4 and 3.4 MeV, and 3.4MeV was found to yield better result for multielemental analysis. The result shows a fair agreement within 15% for all elements with standard values. The detection limits of Li, B, F and Na are less than 100 ppm, while those of the other elements are from a few hundred ppm to a few percents. (author)
METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetyana KOVALCHUK
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.
Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE
Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.
1992-05-01
A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.
Sato, Yuichi; Kajihara, Shinichi; Kaneko, Yoshio
2011-06-01
This paper presents three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of an all-frame model of a three-story reinforced concrete (RC) building damaged in the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake. Non-structural brick walls of the building acted as a seismic resistant element although their contributions were neglected in the design. Hence, the entire structure of a typical frame was modeled and static and dynamic nonlinear analyses were conducted to evaluate the contributions of the brick walls. However, the results of the analyses were considerably overestimated due to coarse mesh discretizations, which were unavoidable due to limited computer resources. This study corrects the overestimations by modifying (1) the tensile strengths and (2) shear stiffness reduction factors of concrete and brick. The results indicate that brick walls improve frame strength although shear failures are caused in columns shortened by spandrel walls. Then, the effectiveness of three types of seismic retrofits is evaluated. The maximum drift of the first floor is reduced by 89.3%, 94.8%, and 27.5% by Steel-confined, Full-RC, and Full-brick models, respectively. Finally, feasibility analyses of models with soils were conducted. The analyses indicated that the soils elongate the natural period of building models although no significant differences were observed.
Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T
2011-01-01
The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.
Elements of abstract harmonic analysis
Bachman, George
2013-01-01
Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give
Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd
2018-04-01
Cogging is an attraction of magnetism between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator. The presence of cog in the generator is seen somehow restricted the application of the generator in an application where low rotational torque is required. Cog torque requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator. This research deals with removal of ironcore lamination in electric generator to eliminate cog torque. A confinement technique is proposed to confine and focus magnetic flux by introducing opposing permanent magnets arrangement. There were several parameters analysed using the JMAG Designer. Transient response analysis was used in the JMAG Designer. The parameters analysed were the number of coil turns per phase, gap distance between the magnet pairs as well as the magnet grade used. These few parameters were analysed under the open circuit condition. Results showed with the increasing of gap distance, output voltage produced decreased. The increment of number of turns in the coils and higher magnet grades used, these increased the output voltage of the generator. With the help of these results, a reference point is established to get optimum design parameter for fabrication of working prototype.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alimonti, A.; Coni, E.; Caroli, S.; Sabbioni, E.; Nicolaou, G.E.; Pietra, R.
1989-01-01
A study was carried out to assess the performance of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques for determining reference values for Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in human lungs of urban non-smoking subjects. Experimental data were subjected to the usual basic statistical tests to evaluate the respective merits of the two basically different analytical techniques. Both approaches, if used under carefully optimised experimental conditions, can yield reliable results affected only minimally by systematic and random errors. On the other hand, on a more routine basis, particular attention should be paid to elements such as Al, Cd and V which may pose some problems with both techniques. (author)
Trace Element Analysis of Selenium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soliman, M.S.A.
2010-01-01
The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).
Finite element analysis of nonlinear creeping flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.
1988-12-01
Steady-state creep problems with monotone constitutive laws are studied. Finite element approximations are constructed based on mixed Petrov-Galerkin formulations for constrained problems. Stability, convergence and a priori error estimates are proved for equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations. Numerical results are presented confirming the rates of convergence predicted in the analysis and the good performance of this formulation. (author) [pt
Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.
1988-01-01
The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt
Computer simulation of fuel element performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sukhanov, G I
1979-01-01
The review presents reports made at the Conference on the Bahaviour and Production of Fuel for Water Reactors on March 13-17, 1979. Discussed at the Conference are the most developed and tested calculation models specially evolved to predict the behaviour of fuel elements of water reactors. The following five main aspects of the problem are discussed: general conceptions and programs; mechanical mock-ups and their applications; gas release, gap conductivity and fuel thermal conductivity; analysis of nonstationary processes; models of specific phenomena. The review briefly describes the physical principles of the following models and programs: the RESTR, providing calculation of the radii of zones of columnar and equiaxial grains as well as the radius of the internal cavity of the fuel core; programs for calculation of fuel-can interaction, based on the finite elements method; a model predicting the behaviour of the CANDU-PHW fuel elements in transient conditions. General results are presented of investigations of heat transfer through a can-fuel gap and thermal conductivity of UO/sub 2/ with regard for cracking and gas release of the fuel. Many programs already suit the accepted standards and are intensively tested at present.
Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weeks, R.W.
1977-01-01
An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.
Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...
Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.
1986-10-01
If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)
Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.
1989-01-01
The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.
Design Elements and Electrical Performance of a Bifacial BIPV Module
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun-Gu Kang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Bifacial BIPV systems have great potential when applied to buildings given their use of a glass-to-glass structure. However, the performance of bifacial solar cells depends on a variety of design factors. Therefore, in order to apply bifacial solar cells to buildings, a bifacial PV module performance analysis should be carried out, including consideration of the various design elements and reflecting a wide range of installation conditions. This study focuses on the performance of a bifacial BIPV module applied to a building envelope. The results here show that the design elements of reflectivity and the transparent space ratio have the greatest impact on performance levels. The distance between the module and the wall had less of an impact on performance. The bifacial BIPV module produced output up to 30% greater than the output of monofacial PV modules, depending on the design elements. Bifacial BIPV modules themselves should have transparent space ratios of at least 30%. When a dark color is used on the external wall with reflectivity of 50% or less, bifacial BIPV modules with transparent space ratios of 40% and above should be used. In order to achieve higher performance through the installation of bifacial BIPV modules, design conditions which facilitate reflectivity exceeding 50% and a transparent space ratio which exceeds 30% must be met.
Elements of stock market analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suciu, T.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The paper represents a starting point in the presentation of the two types of stock/market analysis: the fundamental analysis and the technical analysis. The fundamental analysis consist in the assessment of the financial and economic status of the company together with the context and macroeconomic environment where it activates. The technical analysis deals with the demand and supply of securities and the evolution of their trend on the market, using a range of graphics and charts to illustrate the market tendencies for the quick identification of the best moments to buy or sell.
Finite element stress analysis of brick-mortar masonry under ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Stress analysis of a brick-mortar couplet as a substitute for brick wall structure has been performed by finite element method, and algorithm for determining the element stiffness matrix for a plane stress problem using the displacement approach was developed. The nodal displacements were derived for the stress in each ...
Finite element application to global reactor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.A.R.
1981-01-01
The Finite Element Method is described as a Coarse Mesh Method with general basis and trial functions. Various consequences concerning programming and application of Finite Element Methods in reactor physics are drawn. One of the conclusions is that the Finite Element Method is a valuable tool in solving global reactor analysis problems. However, problems which can be described by rectangular boxes still can be solved with special coarse mesh programs more efficiently. (orig.) [de
Finite element analysis of tibial fractures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner
2010-01-01
Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...
Performance Modelling of Timber Facade Elements
Surmeli-Anac, A.N.
2013-01-01
Windows and doors are essential elements of buildings. These seemingly simple components have become increasingly complex over the last decades. They have to fulfil an increased number of functions which ask for contradictory solutions and need to comply with more and more severe requirements.
Analysis and design of lumped element Marchand baluns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor
2008-01-01
In this paper a novel design procedure for lumped element Marchand baluns is proposed. An analysis is performed on the balun structure in order to determine the conditions for ideal balun performance in terms of the lumped element values. The analysis is verified by two broadband designs centered...... around 22.75 GHz and differing only in terms of their impedance transformation ratio. EM simulation results on our proposed lumped element Marchand balun structure predicts an insertion loss of 4 dB and return loss of 40 dB at the design frequency of 22.75 GHz. The amplitude and phase imbalance...
Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.
1999-01-01
This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)
ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis
Thompson, Mary Kathryn
2017-01-01
ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...
Finite elements for analysis and design
Akin, J E; Davenport, J H
1994-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee
Electrical machine analysis using finite elements
Bianchi, Nicola
2005-01-01
OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I
Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro
2005-01-01
Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)
Trace element analysis of nail polishes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.
1999-01-01
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)
Chemical analysis of rare earth elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao
1994-01-01
Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)
Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottosen, N.S.
1980-05-01
This report deals with nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures loaded in the short-term up until failure. A profound discussion of constitutive modelling on concrete is performed; a model, applicable for general stress states, is described and its predictions are compared with experimental data. This model is implemented in the AXIPLANE-program applicable for axisymmetrick and plane structures. The theoretical basis for this program is given. Using the AXIPLANE-program various concrete structures are analysed up until failure and compared with experimental evidence. These analyses include panels pressure vessel, beams failing in shear and finally a specific pull-out test, the Lok-Test, is considered. In these analyses, the influence of different failure criteria, aggregate interlock, dowel action, secondary cracking, magnitude of compressive strenght, magnitude of tensile strenght and of different post-failure behaviours of the concrete are evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable analysis of the theoretical data results in a clear insight into the physical behaviour of the considered structures. Finally, it is demonstrated that the AXISPLANE-program for widely different structures exhibiting very delicate structural aspects gives predictions that are in close agreement with experimental evidence. (author)
PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansson, S.A.E.
1983-01-01
With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)
Finite Element Analysis of Circular Plate using SolidWorks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yeo Jin; Jhung, Myung Jo
2011-01-01
Circular plates are used extensively in mechanical engineering for nuclear reactor internal components. The examples in the reactor vessel internals are upper guide structure support plate, fuel alignment plate, lower support plate etc. To verify the structural integrity of these plates, the finite element analyses are performed, which require the development of the finite element model. Sometimes it is very costly and time consuming to make the model especially for the beginners who start their engineering job for the structural analysis, necessitating a simple method to develop the finite element model for the pursuing structural analysis. Therefore in this study, the input decks are generated for the finite element analysis of a circular plate as shown in Fig. 1, which can be used for the structural analysis such as modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, stress analysis, etc using the commercial program Solid Works. The example problems are solved and the results are included for analysts to perform easily the finite element analysis of the mechanical plate components due to various loadings. The various results presented in this study would be helpful not only for the benchmark calculations and results comparisons but also as a part of the knowledge management for the future generation of young designers, scientists and computer analysts
Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, M.Q.; Thong, P.S.P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.
1999-01-01
The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS)
Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Ninaus
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level.
Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task
Manuel Ninaus; Gonçalo Pereira; René Stefitz; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva; Christa Neuper; Guilherme Wood
2015-01-01
The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participan...
PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji
1997-01-01
PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon
2000-08-01
The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon
2000-08-01
The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel
Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis
Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van
1998-01-01
The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process
Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.
1979-01-01
The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)
Isogeometric finite element analysis of poroelasticity
Irzal, F.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Borst, de R.
2013-01-01
We present an alternative numerical approach for predicting the behaviour of a deformable fluid-saturated porous medium. The conventional finite element technology is replaced by isogeometric analysis that uses non-uniform rational B-splines. The ability of these functions to provide higher-order
Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis
Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin
2017-04-01
The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.
Upstand Finite Element Analysis of Slab Bridges
O'Brien, Eugene J.; Keogh, D.L.
1998-01-01
For slab bridge decks with wide transverse edge cantilevers, the plane grillage analogy is shown to be an inaccurate method of linear elastic analysis due to variations in the vertical position of the neutral axis. The upstand grillage analogy is also shown to give inaccurate results, this time due to inappropriate modelling of in-plane distortions. An alternative method, known as upstand finite element analysis, is proposed which is sufficiently simple to be used on an everyday basis in the ...
Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method
Sheikholeslami, Mohsen
2015-01-01
Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),
Implementation of a high performance parallel finite element micromagnetics package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholz, W.; Suess, D.; Dittrich, R.; Schrefl, T.; Tsiantos, V.; Forster, H.; Fidler, J.
2004-01-01
A new high performance scalable parallel finite element micromagnetics package has been implemented. It includes solvers for static energy minimization, time integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and the nudged elastic band method
Kaise, Toshikazu
Arsenic originating from the lithosphere is widely distributed in the environment. Many arsenicals in the environment are in organic and methylated species. These arsenic compounds in drinking water or food products of marine origin are absorbed in human digestive tracts, metabolized in the human body, and excreted viatheurine. Because arsenic shows varying biological a spects depending on its chemical species, the biological characteristics of arsenic must be determined. It is thought that some metabolic pathways for arsenic and some arsenic circulation exist in aqueous ecosystems. In this paper, the current status of the speciation analysis of arsenic by HPLC/ICP-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry) in environmental and biological samples is summarized using recent data.
Summary compilation of shell element performance versus formulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Hales, Jason Dean (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Breivik, Nicole L.; Key, Samuel W. (FMA Development, LLC, Great Falls, MT)
2011-07-01
This document compares the finite element shell formulations in the Sierra Solid Mechanics code. These are finite elements either currently in the Sierra simulation codes Presto and Adagio, or expected to be added to them in time. The list of elements are divided into traditional two-dimensional, plane stress shell finite elements, and three-dimensional solid finite elements that contain either modifications or additional terms designed to represent the bending stiffness expected to be found in shell formulations. These particular finite elements are formulated for finite deformation and inelastic material response, and, as such, are not based on some of the elegant formulations that can be found in an elastic, infinitesimal finite element setting. Each shell element is subjected to a series of 12 verification and validation test problems. The underlying purpose of the tests here is to identify the quality of both the spatially discrete finite element gradient operator and the spatially discrete finite element divergence operator. If the derivation of the finite element is proper, the discrete divergence operator is the transpose of the discrete gradient operator. An overall summary is provided from which one can rank, at least in an average sense, how well the individual formulations can be expected to perform in applications encountered year in and year out. A letter grade has been assigned albeit sometimes subjectively for each shell element and each test problem result. The number of A's, B's, C's, et cetera assigned have been totaled, and a grade point average (GPA) has been computed, based on a 4.0-system. These grades, combined with a comparison between the test problems and the application problem, can be used to guide an analyst to select the element with the best shell formulation.
Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar
2013-01-01
Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer
Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis
Kim, Nam-Ho
2015-01-01
This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: · Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems · Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory · ...
TACO: fuel pin performance analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoudt, R.H.; Buchanan, D.T.; Buescher, B.J.; Losh, L.L.; Wilson, H.W.; Henningson, P.J.
1977-08-01
The thermal performance of fuel in an LWR during its operational lifetime must be described for LOCA analysis as well as for other safety analyses. The determination of stored energy in the LOCA analysis, for example, requires a conservative fuel pin thermal performance model that is capable of calculating fuel and cladding behavior, including the gap conductance between the fuel and cladding, as a function of burnup. The determination of parameters that affect the fuel and cladding performance, such as fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding dimensional changes, fuel relocation, and thermal expansion, should be accounted for in the model. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has submitted a topical report, BAW-10087P, December 1975, which describes their thermal performance model TACO. A summary of the elements that comprise the TACO model and an evaluation are presented
Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry
2015-01-01
The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions
Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.
1977-01-01
The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model
Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.
1983-01-01
The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm
Network application of PIXE trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.
2003-01-01
Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)
Ring-element analysis of layered orthotropic bodies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, O.
1993-01-01
For the analysis of arbitrarily laminated circular bodies, a displacement-based ring-element is presented. The analysis is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system. The method of analysis requires the boundary conditions as well as the external forces to be pi-periodic. The element formulation...... accounts for a desired degree of approximation of the displacement field in the direction of the circumference. This is done by a truncated Fourier expansion of the angular dependence of the displacements in terms of trigonometric functions. Thus the Fourier expansion coefficients are the unknowns...... to that of solutions obtained by traditional 3D elements. A scheme for analytical integration of the angular dependence of the stiffness matrix is given....
SMART performance analysis methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.
2001-04-01
To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis
Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.
This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection
Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.
Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra
2017-01-01
Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.
Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert
2008-01-01
Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.
Finite element analysis of ARPS structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.
1998-01-01
Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent
Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements
Ding, Shurong; Jiang, Xin; Huo, Yongzhong; Li, Lin an
2008-03-01
Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.
Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding Shurong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: dsr1971@163.com; Jiang Xin [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Li Linan [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2008-03-15
Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.
2012-09-01
Services FSD Federated Services Daemon I&A Identification and Authentication IKE Internet Key Exchange KPI Key Performance Indicator LAN Local Area...spection takes place in different processes in the server architecture. Key Performance Indica- tor ( KPI )s associated with the system need to be...application and risk analysis of security controls. Thus, measurement of the KPIs is needed before an informed tradeoff between the performance penalties
Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some phytopharmaceutic drugs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preoteasa, E.A.; Harangus, Livia; Gugiu, M; Iordan, Andreea; Ciortea, C.
2002-01-01
A large number of phytopharmaceutic drugs are being developed, due to positive effects in various diseases and to high tolerance by the organism. While their medicinally active compounds have been identified, little attention has been paid to their mineral micro- and trace elements. The mineral elements in the drug may have therapeutic or toxic effects which should be properly assessed. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection and we previously performed nuclear activation analysis of some Romanian drugs made by plants. Despite this method's high sensitivity, its use is limited by the availability of a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) provides an alternative, and here we examined its potential for the analysis of mineral elements in three commercial phytopharmaceutical preparations, namely, Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normally oriented and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer; the drug pills were fixed at 45 angle with respect to the beam. In all drugs PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 16 down to trace levels. Major elements included K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn, and minor/trace amounts of S, Cl, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Hg, and As/Pb were detected. Some differences were seen between the three drugs. Although at trace levels Ga, As, Hg and Pb are not toxic, one should consider that their accumulation might be harmful and caution seems recommendable on long-term cure. Most of the other elements are known to exert a positive biological role, and both in major and trace levels they may contribute to the therapeutic action. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in phytopharmaceutic drugs, even qualitative, is useful for evaluating the benefits and risks in the therapy. (authors)
Probabilistic finite elements for fracture and fatigue analysis
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lawrence, M.; Besterfield, G. H.
1989-01-01
The fusion of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) and reliability analysis for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is presented. A comprehensive method for determining the probability of fatigue failure for curved crack growth was developed. The criterion for failure or performance function is stated as: the fatigue life of a component must exceed the service life of the component; otherwise failure will occur. An enriched element that has the near-crack-tip singular strain field embedded in the element is used to formulate the equilibrium equation and solve for the stress intensity factors at the crack-tip. Performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a classical mode 1 fatigue problem.
Piezoelectric Analysis of Saw Sensor Using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimír KUTIŠ
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this contribution modeling and simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW sensor using finite element method will be presented. SAW sensor is made from piezoelectric GaN layer and SiC substrate. Two different analysis types are investigated - modal and transient. Both analyses are only 2D. The goal of modal analysis, is to determine the eigenfrequency of SAW, which is used in following transient analysis. In transient analysis, wave propagation in SAW sensor is investigated. Both analyses were performed using FEM code ANSYS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Basack
Full Text Available The environment prevalent in oceans necessitates the piles supporting offshore structures to be designed against lateral cyclic loading initiated by wave action. Such quasi-static load reversal induces deterioration in the strength and stiffness of the soil-pile system, introducing progressive reduction in the bearing capacity associated with increased settlement of the pile foundation. To understand the effect of lateral cyclic load on axial response of single piles in soft clay, a numerical model was previously developed and validated by the author. Using the methodology, further analysis has been carried out to investigate how the variation in relative pilesoil stiffness and eccentricity effects the degradation of axial pile capacity due to the effect of lateral cyclic load. This paper presents a brief description of the methodology, analysis and interpretations of the theoretical results obtained from the further analysis and the relevant conclusions drawn there from.
Analytical and statistical analysis of elemental composition of lichens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvelo, S.; Baccala, N.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.A.; Riberio Guevara, S.
1997-01-01
The elemental composition of lichens from remote southern South America regions has been studied with analytical and statistical techniques to determine if the values obtained reflect species, growth forms or habitat characteristics. The enrichment factors are calculated discriminated by species and collection site and compared with data available in the literature. The elemental concentrations are standardized and compared for different species. The information was statistically processed, a cluster analysis was performed using the three first principal axes of the PCA; the three groups formed are presented. Their relationship with the species, collection sites and the lichen growth forms are interpreted. (author)
Advanced chemical analysis service for elements, radionuclides and phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sansoni, B.
1986-01-01
A review is given on the structure, organisation and performance of the chemical analysis service of the Central Department for Chemical Analysis at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH. The research and development programs together with the infrastructure of the Centre afford to analyse almost all stable elements of the periodical table in almost any material. The corresponding chemical analysis service has been organized according to a new modular system of analytical steps. According to this, the most complicated and, therefore, most general case of an analytical scheme for element and radionuclide analysis in any type of material can be differentiated into about 14 different steps, the modules. They are more or less independent of the special problem. The laboratory is designed and organized according to these steps. (orig./PW) [de
Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.
1976-09-01
The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests
Fuel performance analysis code 'FAIR'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.
1994-01-01
For modelling nuclear reactor fuel rod behaviour of water cooled reactors under severe power maneuvering and high burnups, a mechanistic fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed. The code incorporates finite element based thermomechanical module, physically based fission gas release module and relevant models for modelling fuel related phenomena, such as, pellet cracking, densification and swelling, radial flux redistribution across the pellet due to the build up of plutonium near the pellet surface, pellet clad mechanical interaction/stress corrosion cracking (PCMI/SSC) failure of sheath etc. The code follows the established principles of fuel rod analysis programmes, such as coupling of thermal and mechanical solutions along with the fission gas release calculations, analysing different axial segments of fuel rod simultaneously, providing means for performing local analysis such as clad ridging analysis etc. The modular nature of the code offers flexibility in affecting modifications easily to the code for modelling MOX fuels and thorium based fuels. For performing analysis of fuel rods subjected to very long power histories within a reasonable amount of time, the code has been parallelised and is commissioned on the ANUPAM parallel processing system developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). (author). 37 refs
Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demortier, G.
1992-01-01
We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)
Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann
2011-09-01
Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.
OXYGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT MODELING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asterios KOSMARAS
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.
Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usman, K.
1993-01-01
Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured
Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Chugunov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and
Design of JMTR high-performance fuel element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakurai, Fumio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Komori, Yoshihiro; Tsuchihashi, Keiichiro; Kaminaga, Fumito
1999-01-01
For test and research reactors, the core conversion to low-enriched uranium fuel is required from the viewpoint of non-proliferation of nuclear weapon material. Improvements of core performance are also required in order to respond to recent advanced utilization needs. In order to meet both requirements, a high-performance fuel element of high uranium density with Cd wires as burnable absorbers was adopted for JMTR core conversion to low-enriched uranium fuel. From the result of examination of an adaptability of a few group constants generated by a conventional transport-theory calculation with an isotropic scattering approximation to a few group diffusion-theory core calculation for design of the JMTR high-performance fuel element, it was clear that the depletion of Cd wires was not able to be predicted accurately using group constants generated by the conventional method. Therefore, a new generation method of a few group constants in consideration of an incident neutron spectrum at Cd wire was developed. As the result, the most suitable high-performance fuel element for JMTR was designed successfully, and that allowed extension of operation duration without refueling to almost twice as long and offer of irradiation field with constant neutron flux. (author)
Bonald, Thomas
2013-01-01
The book presents some key mathematical tools for the performance analysis of communication networks and computer systems.Communication networks and computer systems have become extremely complex. The statistical resource sharing induced by the random behavior of users and the underlying protocols and algorithms may affect Quality of Service.This book introduces the main results of queuing theory that are useful for analyzing the performance of these systems. These mathematical tools are key to the development of robust dimensioning rules and engineering methods. A number of examples i
On diversity performance of two-element coupling element based antenna structure for mobile terminal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Toivanen, Juha; Laitinen, Tommi
2010-01-01
.1 and the diversity gain is equal to 10.2 dB at 99% reliability level using selection combining technique across simulation and both measurement methods. The measurement techniques are compared to show how accurately the diversity performance of a mobile terminal antenna can be estimated.......In wireless communication systems, multipath interference has a significant impact on system design and performance. Fast fading is caused by the coherent summation of one or more echoes from many reflection points reaching the receive antenna. Antenna diversity can be used to mitigate multipath...... fading. The main challenge of antenna diversity in practical application is the integration of multiple antennas on a small ground plane. Two-element antenna structure based on coupling element antenna concept for diversity application has been studied in previous work and it has shown to be feasible...
W(egrzynek, Dariusz; Hołyńska, Barbara; Ostachowicz, Beata
1998-01-01
The performance has been compared of two different quantification methods — namely, the commonly used empirical quantification procedure and a fundamental parameter approach — for determination of the mass fractions of elements in particulate-like sample residues on a quartz reflector measured in the total reflection geometry. In the empirical quantification procedure, the spectrometer system needs to be calibrated with the use of samples containing known concentrations of the elements. On the basis of intensities of the X-ray peaks and the known concentration or mass fraction of an internal standard element, by using relative sensitivities of the spectrometer system the concentrations or mass fractions of the elements are calculated. The fundamental parameter approach does not require any calibration of the spectrometer system to be carried out. However, in order to account for an unknown mass per unit area of a sample and sample nonuniformity, an internal standard element is added. The concentrations/mass fractions of the elements to be determined are calculated during fitting a modelled X-ray spectrum to the measured one. The two quantification methods were applied to determine the mass fractions of elements in the cross-sections of a peat core, biological standard reference materials and to determine the concentrations of elements in samples prepared from an aqueous multi-element standard solution.
Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).
Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R
2000-09-01
The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.
Fast XRF analysis of mineral elements in dental composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preoteasa, E. A.; Constantinescu, B.; Preoteasa, E.
2001-01-01
Dental composites, made of particles of glass, ceramics or quartz embedded in an organic polymer matrix, extensively replaced silver amalgam in tooth fillings and enabled new applications for restorative dentistry. Long-term alteration of dental fillings together with market pressure motivates the development of composites at a high rate, largely by progress of materials forming their mineral phase. Therefore, dental composites constantly bring at the interface with enamel and dentine new elements foreign to the organism, whose biological action has not been studied. Atomic and nuclear methods for surface multielemental analysis have been used in dental research but not for composites. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is suited for the fast microanalytical screening of the elements and of their changes at the biomaterial's surface. The potential of radioisotope-excited XRF for the analysis of dental composites has been examined. Flat disk-shaped samples of composites have been prepared and polymerized chemically or by irradiation with intense 420-500 nm light. The measurements were performed with a spectrometric chain containing a 30 mCi source of 241 Am, a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer. The spectra were built up for 2000-6000 sec. The characteristic X lines were integrated and normalized to source lines. The following Z ≥ 20 elements were detected in the studied composites: Ba only in Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer); Zr, Ba, Yb in Tetric Ceram, and Ca, Ba, Yb together with traces of possibly Ti and Fe in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Zr, Hf in Valux Plus (3M Dental); and Sr, Ba together with some trace element, seemingly Cu, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental) and with other trace elements like Ca, Fe in Surefil (Dentsply). Among older materials, Concise (3M Dental) contained only light (Z 3 that releases F for protection of enamel and dentine. Yb, Zr, Ba, Hf improve the radiological opacity of the materials. Some elements may accompany others as
Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.
Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene
2017-07-01
Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Finite element analysis of plastic recycling machine designed for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... design was evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA) tool in Solid Works Computer ... Also, a minimum factor of safety value of 5.3 was obtained for shredder shaft ... Machine; Design; Recycling; Sustainability; Finite Element; Simulation ...
Stability analysis of artificial synthetic overweight elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jian
1990-01-01
Stability of artificial synthetic overweight elements has been analysed theoretically using a diagram of nuclear stability. It is indicated that overweight nucleus can be synthesized only when a certain amount of neutrons participate simultaneously in the synthesis. The maximum number of protons in overweight elements is 1002. The proton number of 'extreme overweight' elements of which the neutron star is possibly composed is in the range from 326 to 1002. It is expected that the mass number of the stable overweight elements with proton number 114 is in the range from 299 to 315
Electromagnetic analysis of control element drive mechanism for KSNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H. M.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, I. Y.
2002-01-01
The magnetic jack type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) is an electromechanical device which provides controlled linear motion to the Control Element Assembly (CEA) through the Extension Shaft Assembly (ESA) in response to operational signals received from the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). The CEDM is operated by applying localized magnetic flux fields to movable latch and lift magnets, which are in the coolant pressure boundary. The CEDM design had been developed through electromechanical testing of the system including the magnetic force lifting the ESA. But it will be inefficient if parametric studies should be performed to improve the CEDM by test due to the consumption of high cost and long duration. So it becomes necessary to develop a computational model to simulate the electromagnetic characteristics of the CEDM to improve the CEDM design efficiently. In this paper, the electromagnetic analysis using a 2D finite element model has been carried out to simulate magnetic force of the lift magnet of the CEDM, to provide effective evaluation between leakage flux and lift force and to compare with test results. Analysis results show the lift force satisfied the test results and design requirement and the lift force depend on the shape of the components, leakage flux and B-H curve
Shakedown analysis by finite element incremental procedures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borkowski, A.; Kleiber, M.
1979-01-01
It is a common occurence in many practical problems that external loads are variable and the exact time-dependent history of loading is unknown. Instead of it load is characterized by a given loading domain: a convex polyhedron in the n-dimensional space of load parameters. The problem is then to check whether a structure shakes down, i.e. responds elastically after a few elasto-plastic cycles, or not to a variable loading as defined above. Such check can be performed by an incremental procedure. One should reproduce incrementally a simple cyclic process which consists of proportional load paths that connect the origin of the load space with the corners of the loading domain. It was proved that if a structure shakes down to such loading history then it is able to adopt itself to an arbitrary load path contained in the loading domain. The main advantage of such approach is the possibility to use existing incremental finite-element computer codes. (orig.)
Performance and management of IPR-R1 fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stasiulevicius, R.; Maretti Junior, F.
1983-01-01
The performance of fuel elements during the 23 years of the reactor operation, is presented aiming to introduce improvements in the fuel load distribution and consequent increase of the reactivity. A computer code CORE was developed aiming to calculate the individual burnup of the fuel elements and the value of the reactivity for several core configurations, establishing a routine to control the nuclear material in the IPR-R1. The values calculated were compared with the experimental results. Some alternatives to augment the reactivity of the present core are presented foreseeing the fuel load availability for operation with 100Km and, for angmenting the power reaction in a next stage. (E.G.) [pt
Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique
Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.
2017-06-01
Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.
Trace element analysis of soy sauce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu
1994-01-01
Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)
PHARMACOPOEIA METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetiana M. Derkach
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of quality assurance of medicinal products, namely the determination of elemental impurity concentration compared to permitted daily exposures for and the correct choice analytical methods that are adequate to the formulated tasks. The paper goal is to compare characteristics of four analytical methods recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of various countries to control the content of elemental impurities in medicines, including medicinal plant raw materials and herbal medicines. Both advantages and disadvantages were described for atomic absorption spectroscopy with various atomising techniques, as well as atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The choice of the most rational analysis method depends on a research task and is reasoned from the viewpoint of analytical objectives, possible complications, performance attributes, and economic considerations. The methods of ICP-MS and GFAAS were shown to provide the greatest potential for determining the low and ultra-low concentrations of chemical elements in medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products. The other two methods, FAAS and ICP-AES, are limited to the analysis of the main essential elements and the largest impurities. The ICP-MS is the most efficient method for determining ultra-low concentrations. However, the interference of mass peaks is typical for ICP-MS. It is formed not only by impurities but also by polyatomic ions with the participation of argon, as well as atoms of gases from the air (C, N and O or matrices (O, N, H, P, S and Cl. Therefore, a correct sample preparation, which guarantees minimisation of impurity contamination and loss of analytes becomes the most crucial stage of analytical applications of ICP-MS. The detections limits for some chemical elements, which content is regulated in modern Pharmacopoeia, were estimated for each method and analysis conditions of medicinal plant raw
Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some dental composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preoteasa, E.A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Gugiu, M.; Moldovan, Maria
2002-01-01
Dental composites, made by particles of glass, ceramics and quartz embedded in an organic polymer, develop at a high rate. However, commercial composites are expensive and recently the 'Restacril' biomaterials company became prepared to offer a low-cost alternative. The durability of dental fillings depends not only on biomaterial's gross chemical composition, but also on impurities. These may influence the chemical, mechanical and surface properties of the inorganic particles and modify the composites' clinical behavior. Thus elemental analysis is necessary to improve the biomaterials' quality. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection, and we previously analyzed some commercial composites by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Here we applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of six new Romanian biomaterials, aiming to compare their nominal and detected composition and paying attention to the impurities. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normal to the beam and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer. Solid samples of composites with a flat surface were fixed at 45 angle, absorber foil of Al 30 mm thick was used, and integration of beam current was done. In all composites PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 19 down to trace levels. All major nominal elements with Z > 20 - Ca, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Yb - were detected by PIXE. In addition, many minor and trace elements absent from the nominal formulations were seen, including K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Hf, and As/Pb. Such impurities may come from rough materials and preparative technologies. The impurities in Romanian composites are comparable to those in some commercial biomaterials but higher than in other ones. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in Romanian composites, even qualitative, appears useful for quality control and improvement. (authors)
Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis
Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. Amin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jensen, Anna B. O.
2018-04-01
An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.
Critical Performance of Turbopump Mechanical Elements for Rocket Engine
Takada, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masataka; Sudou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Fumiya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Makoto
It is generally acknowledged that bearings and axial seals have a tendency to go wrong compared with other rocket engine elements. And when those components have malfunction, missions scarcely succeed. However, fundamental performance (maximum rotational speed, minimum flow rate, power loss, durability, etc.) of those components has not been grasped yet. Purpose of this study is to grasp a critical performance of mechanical seal and hybrid ball bearing of turbopump. In this result, it was found that bearing outer race temperature and bearing coolant outlet temperature changed along saturation line of liquid hydrogen when flow rate was decreased under critical pressure. And normal operation of bearing was possible under conditions of more than 70,000 rpm of rotational speed and more than 0.2 liter/s of coolant flow rate. Though friction coefficient of seal surface increased several times of original value after testing, the seal showed a good performance same as before.
An Instrumented Glove for Control Audiovisual Elements in Performing Arts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Tavares
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The use of cutting-edge technologies such as wearable devices to control reactive audiovisual systems are rarely applied in more conventional stage performances, such as opera performances. This work reports a cross-disciplinary approach for the research and development of the WMTSensorGlove, a data-glove used in an opera performance to control audiovisual elements on stage through gestural movements. A system architecture of the interaction between the wireless wearable device and the different audiovisual systems is presented, taking advantage of the Open Sound Control (OSC protocol. The developed wearable system was used as audiovisual controller in “As sete mulheres de Jeremias Epicentro”, a portuguese opera by Quarteto Contratempus, which was premiered in September 2017.
Performance analysis in saber.
Aquili, Andrea; Tancredi, Virginia; Triossi, Tamara; De Sanctis, Desiree; Padua, Elvira; DʼArcangelo, Giovanna; Melchiorri, Giovanni
2013-03-01
Fencing is a sport practiced by both men and women, which uses 3 weapons: foil, épée, and saber. In general, there are few scientific studies available in international literature; they are limited to the performance analysis of fencing bouts, yet there is nothing about saber. There are 2 kinds of competitions in the World Cup for both men and women: the "FIE GP" and "A." The aim of this study was to carry out a saber performance analysis to gain useful indicators for the definition of a performance model. In addition, it is expected to verify if it could be influenced by the type of competition and if there are differences between men and women. Sixty bouts: 33 FIE GP and 27 "A" competitions (35 men's and 25 women's saber bouts) were analyzed. The results indicated that most actions are offensive (55% for men and 49% for women); the central area of the piste is mostly used (72% for men and 67% for women); the effective fighting time is 13.6% for men and 17.1% for women, and the ratio between the action and break times is 1:6.5 for men and 1:5.1 for women. A lunge is carried out every 23.9 seconds by men and every 20 seconds by women, and a direction change is carried out every 65.3 seconds by men and every 59.7 seconds by women. The data confirm the differences between the saber and the other 2 weapons. There is no significant difference between the data of the 2 different kinds of competitions.
Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haber, S.B.; Allentuck, J.
1996-01-01
The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of open-quotes safety cultureclose quotes and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities
Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)
2002-01-01
Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.
Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian
2014-01-01
Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel. (paper)
Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel
Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian
2014-04-01
Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.
Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong-beom; Park, No-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil; Choi, Youngin
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.
Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.
Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.
1994-01-01
Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)
Elemental Analysis and Biological Activities of Chrysophyllum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sapotaceae) Leaves. ... The plant material could be used as a source of important elements required for the body. In suitable form, the plant could be used in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, oxidative damage, obesity and cancer.
Structural optimisation of cage induction motors using finite element analysis
Palko, S.
The current trend in motor design is to have highly efficient, low noise, low cost, and modular motors with a high power factor. High torque motors are useful in applications like servo motors, lifts, cranes, and rolling mills. This report contains a detailed review of different optimization methods applicable in various design problems. Special attention is given to the performance of different methods, when they are used with finite element analysis (FEA) as an objective function, and accuracy problems arising from the numerical simulations. Also an effective method for designing high starting torque and high efficiency motors is presented. The method described in this work utilizes FEA combined with algorithms for the optimization of the slot geometry. The optimization algorithm modifies the position of the nodal points in the element mesh. The number of independent variables ranges from 14 to 140 in this work.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis using Petrov-Galerkin natural element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hong Woo; Cho, Jin Rae
2004-01-01
According to our previous study, it is confirmed that the Petrov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (PG-NEM) completely resolves the numerical integration inaccuracy in the conventional Bubnov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (BG-NEM). This paper is an extension of PG-NEM to two-dimensional nonlinear dynamic problem. For the analysis, a constant average acceleration method and a linearized total Lagrangian formulation is introduced with the PG-NEM. At every time step, the grid points are updated and the shape functions are reproduced from the relocated nodal distribution. This process enables the PG-NEM to provide more accurate and robust approximations. The representative numerical experiments performed by the test Fortran program, and the numerical results confirmed that the PG-NEM effectively and accurately approximates the nonlinear dynamic problem
Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.
1975-01-01
Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)
Elements of Performance Management and Audit in Public Organizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gheorghe MINCULETE
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of performance is a new one, having in mind the fact that, in order to achieve functional progress, public organizations are themselves determined to measure the results of their activity over a definite period of time. Nevertheless, a new characteristic regarding the implementation of this concept refers to the approach used by managers for putting it into practice that is the identification of the answers to the question: „What should be measured/monitored in order to have a better control over activities and which will determine their improvement?” The current article presents notions and elements specific to performance management at the level of public organizations, with a brief emphasis on the indicators and standards related to this domain.
Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS
Moaveni, Saeed
2015-01-01
For courses in Finite Element Analysis, offered in departments of Mechanical or Civil and Environmental Engineering. While many good textbooks cover the theory of finite element modeling, Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Application with ANSYS is the only text available that incorporates ANSYS as an integral part of its content. Moaveni presents the theory of finite element analysis, explores its application as a design/modeling tool, and explains in detail how to use ANSYS intelligently and effectively. Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: *Present the Theory of Finite Element Analysis: The presentation of theoretical aspects of finite element analysis is carefully designed not to overwhelm students. *Explain How to Use ANSYS Effectively: ANSYS is incorporated as an integral part of the content throughout the book. *Explore How to Use FEA as a Design/Modeling Tool: Open-ended design problems help stude...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseini, Seyed Abolfaz [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-15
The purpose of the present study is the presentation of the appropriate element and shape function in the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. To this end, the multigroup neutron diffusion equation is solved using the Galerkin finite element method in both rectangular and hexagonal reactor cores. The spatial discretization of the equation is performed using unstructured triangular and quadrilateral finite elements. Calculations are performed using both linear and quadratic approximations of shape function in the Galerkin finite element method, based on which results are compared. Using the power iteration method, the neutron flux distributions with the corresponding eigenvalue are obtained. The results are then validated against the valid results for IAEA-2D and BIBLIS-2D benchmark problems. To investigate the dependency of the results to the type and number of the elements, and shape function order, a sensitivity analysis of the calculations to the mentioned parameters is performed. It is shown that the triangular elements and second order of the shape function in each element give the best results in comparison to the other states.
Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S
2002-04-01
Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.
Distributed Finite Element Analysis Using a Transputer Network
Watson, James; Favenesi, James; Danial, Albert; Tombrello, Joseph; Yang, Dabby; Reynolds, Brian; Turrentine, Ronald; Shephard, Mark; Baehmann, Peggy
1989-01-01
The principal objective of this research effort was to demonstrate the extraordinarily cost effective acceleration of finite element structural analysis problems using a transputer-based parallel processing network. This objective was accomplished in the form of a commercially viable parallel processing workstation. The workstation is a desktop size, low-maintenance computing unit capable of supercomputer performance yet costs two orders of magnitude less. To achieve the principal research objective, a transputer based structural analysis workstation termed XPFEM was implemented with linear static structural analysis capabilities resembling commercially available NASTRAN. Finite element model files, generated using the on-line preprocessing module or external preprocessing packages, are downloaded to a network of 32 transputers for accelerated solution. The system currently executes at about one third Cray X-MP24 speed but additional acceleration appears likely. For the NASA selected demonstration problem of a Space Shuttle main engine turbine blade model with about 1500 nodes and 4500 independent degrees of freedom, the Cray X-MP24 required 23.9 seconds to obtain a solution while the transputer network, operated from an IBM PC-AT compatible host computer, required 71.7 seconds. Consequently, the $80,000 transputer network demonstrated a cost-performance ratio about 60 times better than the $15,000,000 Cray X-MP24 system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.
2001-01-01
Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented
Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)
2009-12-19
High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)
Finite element analysis on badminton racket design parameters
Nasruddin, Fakhrizal Azmy; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Omar, Abdul Hafidz; Öchsner, Andreas
2016-01-01
This work identifies the characteristics of racket design parameters that influence racket performance. It presents the finite element analysis of several designs of badminton rackets and compares them to experimental results for validation. Designing a racket requires a comprehensive understanding of racket performance characteristics. Essentially, racket performance is related to the sweet spot, which is the spot on the racket head that produces the most power and control when it strikes a shuttlecock. Determining a coefficient of restitution can help to identify the sweet spot on a racket. By analyzing several head shape designs, it becomes apparent that isometric head shape rackets produce better coefficients of restitution compared to oval and round ones. It is recommended that the racket design consist of low string tension, stiffer racket shafts and bigger head size in order to produce higher shuttlecock speed.
Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.
2008-01-01
The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)
Trace element analysis in soy sauce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio
1993-01-01
Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.
2005-01-01
The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures
Finite-element analysis of dynamic fracture
Aberson, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; King, W. W.
1976-01-01
Applications of the finite element method to the two dimensional elastodynamics of cracked structures are presented. Stress intensity factors are computed for two problems involving stationary cracks. The first serves as a vehicle for discussing lumped-mass and consistent-mass characterizations of inertia. In the second problem, the behavior of a photoelastic dynamic tear test specimen is determined for the time prior to crack propagation. Some results of a finite element simulation of rapid crack propagation in an infinite body are discussed.
Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.
2006-01-01
Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis
Elemental analysis of samples of rare earths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, R.A.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P.; Lugo L, M.F.
2003-01-01
Applying the PIXE technique (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) it was analyzed the purity of the samples that will be used to measure the production section of X rays with Li and B beams. It is not necessary to determine the concentrations of the pollutant elements. (Author)
Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ELO
amount more than 90% were copper, lead, nickel and gold. Key words: Atmospheric particles, elements, ... Selebi-Phikwe area, gold and nickel in Francis town and soda ash in Sowa. Gaborone is the capital of ... a stub three times a week with an exposure time of four hours. The exposed stubs were collected and kept ...
Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李霞
2014-01-01
In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper. Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.
Analysis on 9 Elements in English Pragmatics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李霞
2014-01-01
College Students may have no troubles to compose grammatically correct sentences to express themselves,but sometimes the sentences just seem not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending the 9 Elements in English Pragmatics to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant for English learners,special to one who intends to use English as a communicating medium.
Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李霞
2014-01-01
In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.
contact stress analysis of involute spur gear by finite element method
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
section using C- programming. Bending stress analysis has been performed using finite element analysis with ANSYS software. Comparison of bending stress analysis has been performed for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear tooth at critical section. Mushin J. Jweeg, et.al. [7] used 2D contact stress FEA model to ...
Finite Element Analysis of Pipe T-Joint
P.M.Gedkar; Dr. D.V. Bhope
2012-01-01
This paper reports stress analysis of two pressurized cylindrical intersection using finite element method. The different combinations of dimensions of run pipe and the branch pipe are used to investigate thestresses in pipe at the intersection. In this study the stress analysis is accomplished by finite element package ANSYS.
Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Živković Dragoljub S.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.
VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu
2005-01-01
The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.
Finite element reliability analysis of fatigue life
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harkness, H.H.; Belytschko, T.; Liu, W.K.
1992-01-01
Fatigue reliability is addressed by the first-order reliability method combined with a finite element method. Two-dimensional finite element models of components with cracks in mode I are considered with crack growth treated by the Paris law. Probability density functions of the variables affecting fatigue are proposed to reflect a setting where nondestructive evaluation is used, and the Rosenblatt transformation is employed to treat non-Gaussian random variables. Comparisons of the first-order reliability results and Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the accuracy of the first-order reliability method is quite good in this setting. Results show that the upper portion of the initial crack length probability density function is crucial to reliability, which suggests that if nondestructive evaluation is used, the probability of detection curve plays a key role in reliability. (orig.)
Finite element analysis of human joints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.
Finite element analysis of human joints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described
Elemental analysis: Reduction to SI units; Rueckfuehrung in der Elementanalytik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rienitz, O.; Jaehrling, R.; Schiel, D. [PTB-Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Anorganische Analytik' ' , Braunschweig (Germany); Matschat, R.; Kipphardt, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Gernand, W.; Oeter, D. [MercK KGaA (Germany)
2005-12-15
In a joint project, PTB, BAM and Merck KGaA worked on a metrological reduction system for all elements relevant to analysis. The BAM certified primary pure substances with a relative error of U{sub rel} {<=} 0.01% for the mass of the main element. This was achieved by measuring the mass components of all potential impurities, i.e. practically all elements of the periodic system except the main element. These pure substances are the national reference standards of elemental analysis. From them, PTB produces primary elementa solutions and transfer solutions which are passed on as reference standards. The industrial partner constructed the DKD calibration laboratory, which certifies commercial secondary calibration solutions on the basis of the reference standard solutions produced by PTB. With this final product, measurements in elemental analysis can be reduced to the SI units system as a routine procedure. (orig.)
A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.
2015-05-01
This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Hong Pyo; Seo, Jeong Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2002-03-01
The maim goal of this research is to develop a nonlinear finite element analysis program NUCAS to accurately predict global and local failure modes of containment building subjected to internal pressure. In this report, we describe the techniques we developed throught this research. An adequate model to the analysis of containment building such as microscopic material model is adopted and it applied into the development Reissner-Mindlin degenerated shell element. To avoid finite element deficiencies, the substitute strains based on the assumed strain method is used in the shell formulation. Arc-length control method is also adopted to fully trace the peak load-displacement path due to crack formation. In addition, a benchmark test suite is developed to investigate the performance of NUCAS and proposed as the future benchmark tests for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete. Finally, the input format of NUCAS and the examples of input/output file are described. 39 refs., 65 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)
Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.
2017-01-01
Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, M.S.; Tobishima, Taeko; Kamitake, Seigo; Yasuda, Kazuo.
1985-01-01
The emission lines for qualitative analysis of rare earth elements by a simulation technique of ICP spectra were proposed. The spectra were simulated by employing a Gaussian (or a Lorentzian at high concentrations) profile. The simulated spectra corresponded quite well with the observed ones. The emission lines were selected so that the interference was as small as possible. The present qualitative analysis is based on a pattern recognition method where observed intensity ratios of the emission lines in each element are compared with those of a single analyte element. The qualitative analysis was performed for twelve standard solutions containing a single rare earth element and for eight standard solutions containing an element other than rare earth elements. The selection of the emission lines and the algorithm of the present qualitative analysis were justified. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yui, Mikazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Rai, Dhanpat; Ochs, Michael
2003-01-01
In 1999 Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) published a second progress report (also known as H12 report) on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in Japan (JNC 1999). This report helped to develop confidence in the selected HLW disposal system and to establish the implementation body in 2000 for the disposal of HLW. JNC developed an in-house thermodynamic database for radioactive elements for performance analysis of the engineered barrier system (EBS) and the geosphere for H12 report. This paper briefly presents the status of the JNC's thermodynamic database and its applicability to perform realistic analyses of the solubilities of radioactive elements, evolution of solubility-limiting solid phases, predictions of the redox state of Pu in the neutral pH range under reducing conditions, and to estimate solubilities of radioactive elements in cementitious conditions. (author)
A General Finite Element Scheme for Limit State Analysis and Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars
1999-01-01
Limit State analysis which is based on a perfect material behaviour is used in many different applications primarily within Structural Engineering and Geotechnics. The calculation methods have not reached the same level of automation such as Finite Element Analysis for elastic structures....... The computer based systems are more ad hoc based and are typically not well-integrated with pre- and postprocessors well-known from commercial Finite Element codes.A finite element based formulation of limit state analysis is presented which allows an easy integration with standard Finite Element codes...... for elastic analysis. In this way the user is able to perform a limit state analysis on the same model used for elastic analysis only adding data for the yield surface.The method is based on the lower-bound theorem and uses stress-based elements with a linearized yield surface. The mathematical problem...
Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.
1999-01-01
Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)
On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.
1979-01-01
This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)
SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.
1990-01-01
Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use
Soil-Framed Structure Interaction Analysis - A New Interface Element
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dalili Shoaei
Full Text Available AbstractInterfacial behavior between soil and shallow foundation has been found so influential to combined soil-footing performance and redistribution of forces in the superstructure. This study introduces a new thin-layer interface element formulated within the context of finite element method to idealize interfacial behavior of soil-framed structure interaction with new combination of degrees of freedom at top and bottom sides of the interface element, compatible with both isoparametric beam and quadrilateral element. This research also tends to conduct a parametric study on respective parameters of the new joint element. Presence of interface element showed considerable changes in the performance of the framed structure under quasi-static loading.
FUDA MOD-2: a computer program for simulation the performance of fuel element validation exercise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chouhan, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Prasad, P.N.; Chauhan, Ashok
2014-01-01
The PHWR fuel element performance is evaluated using the fuel analysis computer code FUDA MOD2. It is specifically written for performance simulation of UO 2 fuel pellet, located in zirconium alloy sheath operating under coolant pressure. For specific element power histories, the code investigates the variables and their interactions that govern fuel element performance. The input data requires pellet dimensions, element dimensions, sheath properties, heat transfer data, thermal hydraulic parameters of coolant, the inner filler gas composition, flux gradient and linear heat ratings (LHR) at different burn up. The output data generated by the code are radial temperature profile of fuel and sheath, fuel sheath-gap heat transfer coefficient, fission gas generated and released, fission gas pressure, sheath stress and strain for different burn-up zones. The code has been verified against literature data and post irradiation examinations carried out. It is also bench marked against various international fuel element simulation programmes available with water cooled reactors operating countries. The present paper describes the FUDA MOD2 code verification studies carried out using the literature data and post irradiation examination data. (author)
Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.
1976-05-01
A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de
Alphavirus replicon approach to promoterless analysis of IRES elements.
Kamrud, K I; Custer, M; Dudek, J M; Owens, G; Alterson, K D; Lee, J S; Groebner, J L; Smith, J F
2007-04-10
Here we describe a system for promoterless analysis of putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements using an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) replicon vector. The system uses the alphavirus subgenomic promoter to produce transcripts that, when modified to contain a spacer region upstream of an IRES element, allow analysis of cap-independent translation of genes of interest (GOI). If the IRES element is removed, translation of the subgenomic transcript can be reduced >95% compared to the same transcript containing a functional IRES element. Alphavirus replicons, used in this manner, offer an alternative to standard dicistronic DNA vectors or in vitro translation systems currently used to analyze putative IRES elements. In addition, protein expression levels varied depending on the spacer element located upstream of each IRES. The ability to modulate the level of expression from alphavirus vectors should extend the utility of these vectors in vaccine development.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.
1984-02-01
This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)
Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.
1979-01-01
Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)
PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xinpei
1992-01-01
The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)
A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.
1988-01-01
It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt
Study on thermal performance and margins of BWR fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stosic, Zoran
1999-01-01
This paper contributes to developing a methodology of predicting and analyzing thermal performance and margins of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies under conditions of reaching high quality Boiling Crisis and subsequent post-dryout thermal hydraulics causing temperature excursion of fuel cladding. Operational margins against dryout and potential for increasing fuel performance with appropriate benefits are discussed. The philosophy of modeling with its special topics are demonstrated on the HECHAN (HEated CHannel ANalyzer) model as the state-of-art for thermal-hydraulics analysis of BWR fuel assemblies in pre- and post-dryout two-phase flow regimes. The scope of further work either being or has to be performed concerning implementation of new physical aspects, including domain extension of HECHAN model applications to the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), is discussed. Finally, a comprehensive overview of the literature dealing with development of the model is given. (author)
2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musilek, L.
1992-01-01
The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs
Multi-element analysis of small biological samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.
1983-01-01
A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed
High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, E.M.
1996-01-01
A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed
X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.
1991-01-01
X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs
High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, Eric M.
1997-01-01
A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed
Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei
1987-01-01
A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group
Convergence analysis of spectral element method for electromechanical devices
Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.
2017-01-01
This paper concerns the comparison of the performance of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) for a magnetostatic problem. The convergence of the vector magnetic potential, the magnetic flux density, and the total stored energy in the system is compared with the
Convergence analysis of spectral element method for magnetic devices
Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.
2018-01-01
This paper concerns the comparison of the performance of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) for modeling a magnetostatic problem. The convergence of the vector magnetic potential, the magnetic flux density, and the total stored energy in the system is compared with
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio
Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.
1984-01-01
A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.
Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.
1978-09-01
Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.
1976-01-01
Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E
1976-01-01
Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.
Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brammer, H.A.; Jacobson, J.
1964-01-01
A control blade design, incorporating boron-carbide (B 4 C) in stainless-steel tubes, was introduced into service in boiling water reactors in April 1961. Since that time this blade has become the standard reference control element in General Electric boiling-water reactors, replacing the 2% boron-stainless-steel blades previously used. The blades consist of a sheathed, cruciform array of small vertical stainless-steel tubes filled with compácted boron-carbide powder. The boron-carbide powder is confined longitudinally into several independent compartments by swaging over ball bearings located inside the tubes. The development and use of boron-carbide control rods is discussed in five phases: 1. Summary of experience with boron-steel blades and reasons for transition to boron-carbide control; 2. Design of the boron-carbide blade, beginning with developmental experiments, including early measurements performed in the AEC ''Control Rod Material and Development Program'' at the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, through a description of the final control blade configuration; 3. Fabrication of the blades and quality control procedures; 4. Results of confirmatory pre-operational mechanical and reactivity testing; and 5. Post-operational experience with the blades, including information on the results of mechanical inspection and reactivity testing after two years of reactor service. (author) [fr
Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.
1994-01-01
Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs
Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis
Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios
Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel; Andersen, Thomas Timm
While working with the UR-10 robot arm, it has become apparent that some commands have undesired behaviour when operating the robot arm through a socket connection, sending one command at a time. This report is a collection of the results optained when testing the performance of the different...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Joao Jose dos Santos
1996-12-31
The covered conductors and the aerial bundled cables (abc) for overhead distribution systems 15 kV systems, has been a good solution for the main brazilian electrical utilities when applied in areas with to limited space on poles and to satisfy the performance claimed in tree areas or narrow streets, focusing people safety and electrical service continuity. Otherwise, in this work it is presented that these cables show failures that can be related to the solid isolants used. It is showed the laboratory tests results to characterize its thermal and electric behaviour and an application of the Finite Element Method through the software Flux 2 d was done. The results obtained showed the requirements to be demanded through the specification and proposals elements to change the standard. (author) 57 refs., 20 figs., 73 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Joao Jose dos Santos
1997-12-31
The covered conductors and the aerial bundled cables (abc) for overhead distribution systems 15 kV systems, has been a good solution for the main brazilian electrical utilities when applied in areas with to limited space on poles and to satisfy the performance claimed in tree areas or narrow streets, focusing people safety and electrical service continuity. Otherwise, in this work it is presented that these cables show failures that can be related to the solid isolants used. It is showed the laboratory tests results to characterize its thermal and electric behaviour and an application of the Finite Element Method through the software Flux 2 d was done. The results obtained showed the requirements to be demanded through the specification and proposals elements to change the standard. (author) 57 refs., 20 figs., 73 tabs.
Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dam by Using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rozaina Ismail
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on linear seismic analysis of Sg. Kinta Concrete Dam. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the performance and behaviour of the dam under seismic excitation. The dam was modelled as two-dimensional and developed based on the design drawing that is obtained from Angkasa Consulting Services Sdn. Bhd. The seismic analysis of the dam is conducted using finite element analysis software package LUSAS 14.3 and the dam has been analyse as a plain stress problem with a linear consideration. A set of historic data, with E1 Centro earthquake acceleration of about 0.50g is used as an earthquake excitation. The natural frequency and mode shape up to fifth mode of the dam has been obtained from the analysis to show the differences of the stress and deformation between each mode. The maximum horizontal and vertical stress of Sg. Kinta dam was found and the distribution of them was discussed in form of contours. The deformation of the dam were also been discussed by comparing the maximum displacement for each mode shaped.
Introduction to finite element analysis using MATLAB and Abaqus
Khennane, Amar
2013-01-01
There are some books that target the theory of the finite element, while others focus on the programming side of things. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB(R) and Abaqus accomplishes both. This book teaches the first principles of the finite element method. It presents the theory of the finite element method while maintaining a balance between its mathematical formulation, programming implementation, and application using commercial software. The computer implementation is carried out using MATLAB, while the practical applications are carried out in both MATLAB and Abaqus. MA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masood ul Hassan
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This study empirically reveals the influence of the TQM elements comprising leadership, people management, process management, customer focus, information & analysis and strategic planning on the organizational performance in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey from the 160 managers and employees of the manufacturing firms. Results using SPSS support the hypotheses that there is a positive relationship between the TQM elements and performance of Pakistani manufacturing firms. Furthermore, it is also found that customer focus is perceived as a dominant TQM practice for enhancing quality performance. Moreover, this study also provides a valuable knowledge to the top managers. Practical implementations along with the limitations have also been discussed in this study.
Software Performs Complex Design Analysis
2008-01-01
Designers use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in components being designed. They also use finite element analysis (FEA) as a tool to help gain greater understanding of the structural response of components to loads, stresses and strains, and the prediction of failure modes. Automated CFD and FEA engineering design has centered on shape optimization, which has been hindered by two major problems: 1) inadequate shape parameterization algorithms, and 2) inadequate algorithms for CFD and FEA grid modification. Working with software engineers at Stennis Space Center, a NASA commercial partner, Optimal Solutions Software LLC, was able to utilize its revolutionary, one-of-a-kind arbitrary shape deformation (ASD) capability-a major advancement in solving these two aforementioned problems-to optimize the shapes of complex pipe components that transport highly sensitive fluids. The ASD technology solves the problem of inadequate shape parameterization algorithms by allowing the CFD designers to freely create their own shape parameters, therefore eliminating the restriction of only being able to use the computer-aided design (CAD) parameters. The problem of inadequate algorithms for CFD grid modification is solved by the fact that the new software performs a smooth volumetric deformation. This eliminates the extremely costly process of having to remesh the grid for every shape change desired. The program can perform a design change in a markedly reduced amount of time, a process that would traditionally involve the designer returning to the CAD model to reshape and then remesh the shapes, something that has been known to take hours, days-even weeks or months-depending upon the size of the model.
Optical strain measurements and its finite element analysis of cold ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Online video images of square grid were recorded during the deformation ... Finite element software ANSYS has been applied for the analysis of the upset forming process.
Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.
1980-01-01
This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification
Finite element analysis of thermal stress distribution in different ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 1. Abstract ... Key words: Amalgam, finite element method, glass ionomer cement, resin composite, thermal stress ... applications for force analysis and assessment of different.
Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg
of a constitutive model for soil is based on a profound knowledge of the soil behaviour upon loading. In the present study it is attempted to get a better understanding of the soil behaviour bv performing a number of triaxial compression tests on sand. The stress-strain behaviour of sand depends strongly......This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...... and subsequently dilates during shear. The change in the volumetric behaviour of the soil skeleton is commonly referred to as the characteristic state. The stress ratio corresponding to the characteristic state is independent of the mean normal effective stress and the relative density, but depends on the stress...
Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunachalam, J.
2012-01-01
Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)
Waste package performance analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.
1982-01-01
A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables
Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik
2015-01-01
In this work optimum stiffness design of laminated composite structures is performed using the commercially available programs ANSYS and MATLAB. Within these programs a Free Material Optimization algorithm is implemented based on an optimality condition and a heuristic update scheme. The heuristic...... update scheme is needed because commercially available finite element analysis software is used. When using a commercial finite element analysis code it is not straight forward to implement a computationally efficient gradient based optimization algorithm. Examples considered in this work are a clamped......, where full access to the finite element analysis core is granted. This comparison displays the possibility of using commercially available programs for stiffness design of laminated composite structures....
Finite element analysis of 2-Station hip himulator
Fazli, M. I. M.; Yahya, A.; Shahrom, A.; Nawawi, S. W.; Zainudin, M. R.; Nazarudin, M. S.
2017-10-01
This paper presented the analysis of materials and design architecture of 2-station hip simulator. Hip simulator is a machine used to conduct the joint and wear test of hip prosthetic. In earlier work, the hip simulator was modified and some improvement were made by using SolidWorks software. The simulator consists of 3DOF which controlled by separate stepper motor and a static load that set up by manual method in each station. In this work, finite element analysis (FEA) of hip simulator was implemented to analyse the structure of the design and selected materials used for simulator component. The analysis is completed based on two categories which are safety factor and stress tests. Both design drawing and FEA was done using SolidWorks software. The study of the two categories is performed by applying the peak load up to 4000N on the main frame that is embedded with metal-on-metal hip prosthesis. From FEA, the value of safety factor and degree of stress formation are successfully obtained. All the components exceed the value of 2 for safety factor analysis while the degree of stress formation shows higher value compare to the yield strength of the material. With this results, it provides information regarding part of simulator which are susceptible to destruct. Besides, the results could be used for design improvement and certify the stability of the hip simulator in real application.
ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Birsen Çileroğlu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits
Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
superalloys for gas turbines and strategies for manufacture. O P SINHA*, M ... Superalloys; tramp elements; creep and stress rupture properties; vacuum induction melting. 1. Introduction ... The physical metallurgy of superalloys demands the.
Static Analysis of Steel Fiber Concrete Beam With Heterosis Finite Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James H. Haido
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Steel fiber is considered as the most commonly used constructional fibers in concrete structures. The formulation of new nonlinearities to predict the static performance of steel fiber concrete composite structures is considered essential. Present study is devoted to investigate the efficiency of utilizing heterosis finite elements analysis in static analysis of steel fibrous beams. New and simple material nonlinearities are proposed and used in the formulation of these elements. A computer program coded in FORTRAN was developed to perform current finite element static analysis with considering four cases of elements stiffness matrix determination. The results are compared with the experimental data available in literature in terms of central deflections, strains, and failure form, good agreement was found. Suitable outcomes have been observed in present static analysis with using of tangential stiffness matrix and stiffness matrix in second iteration of the load increment.
Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures
Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.
2012-01-01
A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.
Trace element analysis of silicate rocks by XRF. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orihashi, Yuji; Yuhara, Masaki; Kagami, Hiroo; Honma, Hiroji
1993-01-01
Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of six trace elements (Ce, Ba, Ga, Co, Cr, V) in silicate rocks has been investigated, using pressed powder pellets. Ga analysis was performed using a Cr tube, whereas a Au tube was used for the remaining five elements. Corrections were made for the interference of BaKα on CeKα, FeKβ on CoKα, CrKα on VKβ and VKα on TiKβ. Mass absorption functions were estimated from background intensities at 2θ=35.5deg and that of FeKα at wavelengths longer than the iron absorption edge for a Au tube, and from the value of net intensity/background one for a Cr tube. Calibration lines were constructed using twenty-four U.S. Geological Survey and Geological Survey of Japan igneous rock reference samples. For each line, the correction coefficient is greater than 0.993 except for Ga and Ce (>0.985), indicating that the correction and calibration procedures are appropriate for accurate analysis over a wide compositional range. Analytical results for igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic reference samples (U. S. Geological Survey, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, South-African Bureau of Standards) accord well with recommended or proposed values, respectively. The results of this study and those of Orihashi et al. (1993) show Ce, Ba, Nb, Zr, Y, Sr, Rb, Th, Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr and V in silicate rocks can be quantitatively determined by XRF at ISEI. (author)
Quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.
2004-01-01
PIGE analysis of thick and intermediate samples is usually performed with the help of standards, but this method gives only good results when the standard is very similar to the sample to be analysed. In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of light elements in thick samples. This method is based on a code that integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For the integration procedure the sample is divided in sublayers, defined by the energy steps that were used to measure accurately the excitation function. This function is used as input. Within each sublayer the stopping power cross-sections may be assumed as constant. With these two conditions the calculus of the contribution of each sublayer for the total yield becomes an easy task. This work presents results for the analysis of lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p ' γ) 7 Li, 19 F(p,p ' γ) 19 F, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be and 23 Na(p,p ' γ) 23 Na were employed. Calculated γ-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds of the referred elements. The agreement is better than 7.5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values used, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role
Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.
Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Szcześniak
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method
Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2015-11-15
Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.
Correct use of Membrane Elements in Structural Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rothman Timothy
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Structural analysis of consumer electronic devices such as phones and tablets involves Finite Element Analysis (FEA. Dynamic loading conditions such as device dropping and bending dictate accurate FEA models to reduce design risk in many areas. The solid elements typically used in structural analysis do not have integration points on the surface. The outer surface is of most interest because that is where the cracks start. Analysts employ a post processing trick through using membranes to bring accurate stress/strain results to the surface. This paper explains numerical issues with implementation of membranes and recommends a methodology for accurate structural analysis.
Simulation Analysis of Tilted Polyhedron-Shaped Thermoelectric Elements
Meng, Xiangning; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2015-06-01
The generation of thermoelectricity is considered a promising approach to harness the waste heat generated in industries, automobiles, gas fields, and other man-made processes. The waste heat can be converted to electricity via a thermoelectric (TE) generator. In this light, the generator performance depends on the geometric configuration of its constituent elements as well as their material properties. Our previous work reported TE behaviors for modules consisting of parallelogram-shaped elements, because elements with tilted laminate structures provide increased mechanical stability and efficient heat-transferring ability from the hot surface to the cold surface. Here, we study TE elements in the shape of a polyhedron that is obtained by mechanically truncating the edges of a parallelogram element in order to further enhance the generator performance and reduce TE material usage. The TE performance of the modules consisting of these polyhedron elements is numerically simulated by using the finite-volume method. The output power, voltage, and current of the polyhedral TE module are greater than those of the parallelogram-element module. The polyhedron shape positively affects heat transfer and the flow of electric charges in the light of increasing the efficiency of conversion from heat to electricity. By varying the shape of the truncated portions, we determine the optimal shape that enables homogeneous heat flux distribution and slow diffusion of thermal energy to obtain the better efficiency of conversion of heat into electricity. We believe that the findings of our study can significantly contribute to the design policy in TE generation.
Performance analysis of switching systems
Berg, van den R.A.
2008-01-01
Performance analysis is an important aspect in the design of dynamic (control) systems. Without a proper analysis of the behavior of a system, it is impossible to guarantee that a certain design satisfies the system’s requirements. For linear time-invariant systems, accurate performance analyses are
Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schilling, J.H.
1978-01-01
Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given
Rahman, Muhammad Ziaur
2017-01-01
A micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element (RVE) of a unidirectional flax/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composite is performed using finite element analysis (FEA). To do so, first effective mechanical properties of flax fiber and jute fiber are evaluated numerically and then used in evaluating the effective properties of ax/jute/epoxy hybrid composite. Mechanics of Structure Genome (MSG), a new homogenization tool developed in Purdue University, is used to calculate the hom...
Finite element analysis of a model scale footing on clean and oil contaminated sand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evgin, E.; Boulon, M.; Das, B.M.
1995-01-01
The effects of oil contamination on the behavior of a model scale footing is determined. Tests are carried out with both clean and oil contaminated sand. The data show that the bearing capacity of the footing is reduced significantly as a result of oil contamination. A finite element analysis is performed to calculate the bearing capacity of the footing and the results are compared with the experimental data. The significance of using an interface element in the analysis is discussed
Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, Hyung; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1998-09-01
A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analysing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heo, H.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Park, J. S.
1998-01-01
A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method
Elements of stochastic calculus and analysis
Stroock, Daniel W
2018-01-01
This book gives a somewhat unconventional introduction to stochastic analysis. Although most of the material covered here has appeared in other places, this book attempts to explain the core ideas on which that material is based. As a consequence, the presentation is more an extended mathematical essay than a ``definition, lemma, theorem'' text. In addition, it includes several topics that are not usually treated elsewhere. For example, Wiener's theory of homogeneous chaos is discussed, Stratovich integration is given a novel development and applied to derive Wong and Zakai's approximation theorem, and examples are given of the application of Malliavin's calculus to partial differential equations. Each chapter concludes with several exercises, some of which are quite challenging. The book is intended for use by advanced graduate students and research mathematicians who may be familiar with many of the topics but want to broaden their understanding of them.
Sensitivity analysis of bridge health index to element failure and element conditions.
2009-11-01
Bridge Health Index (BHI) is a bridge performance measure based on the condition of the bridge elements. It : is computed as the ratio of remaining value of the bridge structure to the initial value of the structure. Since it : is expressed as a perc...
High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miwa, Shiro; Nomachi, Ichiro; Kitajima, Hideo
2006-01-01
We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10 17 atoms/cm 3 for H, of 3 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for C and of 2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it
High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com; Nomachi, Ichiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan); Kitajima, Hideo [Nanotechnos Corp., 5-4-30 Nishihashimoto, Sagamihara 229-1131 (Japan)
2006-07-30
We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 3} for H, of 3 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for C and of 2 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it.
Thermomechanical analysis of nuclear fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez L, H.
1997-01-01
This work presents development of a code to obtain the thermomechanical analysis of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies inserted in the core of BWR reactors. The code uses experimental correlations developed in several laboratories. The development of the code is divided in two parts: a) the thermal part and b) the mechanical part, extending both the fuel and the cladding materials. The thermal part consists of finding the radial distribution of temperatures in the pellet, from the fuel centerline up to the coolant, along the total active length, considering one and two phase flow in the coolant, as a result of the pressure drop in the system. The mechanical part analyzes the effects of temperature gradients, pressure and irradiation, to which the fuel rod is subjected. The strains produced by swelling, creep and thermal stress in the fuel material are analyzed. In the same way the strains in the cladding are analyzed, considering the effects produced by the pressure exerted on the cladding by pellet swelling, by the pressure caused by fission gas release toward the cavities, and by the strain produced on the cladding by the pressure changes of the system. (Author)
Perspectives on clinical possibility: elements of analysis.
Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo
2016-08-01
Possibility is one of the most common modalities in reasoning and argumentation. Various kinds of modal concepts have been identified in philosophical and logical discussion of the metaphysics of modality. We focus here on the concept of clinical possibility. A critical analysis of what is intended as clinical possibility has not yet received sufficient examination, although the concept is extensively used in clinical reasoning. We present arguments to emphasize some desirable features associated with the concept of clinical possibility. We argue that almost all clinical possibilities are potentialities, that is, possibilities that may be actualized by effective, appropriate and feasible interventions. However, in some limited cases, even mere possibilities - which may or may not be actualized, since we do not have the required knowledge - may be involved in clinical reasoning, and we present some examples in this paper. We then introduce some basic views on the nature of possibility showing their validity and limitations when applied to the concept of clinical possibility. Lastly, we conjecture that clinical possibility is a normative modality that can be formalized in a multimodal system with epistemic and deontic logical operators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.
2001-01-01
The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city
ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi
1986-01-01
A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%
Cell-element simulations to optimize the performance of osmotic processes in porous membranes
Calo, Victor M.; Iliev, Oleg; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Printsypar, Galina; Shi, Meixia
2018-01-01
concerns the design of a cell element for the forward osmosis experiments. Using the developed software tool we qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the performance of a cell element that we designed for laboratory experiments of forward osmosis
Finite element analysis of a crankshaft of diesel engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bannikiv, M.G.
2005-01-01
This research was a part of the project aimed at the increase in power of the direct injection turbocharged twelve- cylinder V-type diesel engine. Crankshaft of a high power high speed diesel engine is subjected to complex loading conditions and undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 107 to 108 cycles. Therefore, durability of this component is of critical importance. Strength analysis was based on the assessment of factor of safety (FOS) of the engine augmented by brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and/or engine speed. In the first part of the study, mechanical loads due to gas pressure and inertia forces were obtained from engine cycle simulation. Relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of an articulated connecting rod piston as a function of engine geometry and crank angle were derived. In the second part, the range of bmep and engine speed was determined over which engine performance is satisfactory on the basis of fatigue. It was shown that with limitations imposed (unchanged design and material of the crankshaft) the crankshaft of the given engine can withstand increase in power up to 15%. It was recommended, that required increase in engine power should be realized by the increase in bmep, since the increase in engine speed would deteriorate combustion efficiency. Finite Element Analysis was used to verify stresses calculations. New features of procedure used and relationships obtained in this research apply to strength analysis of other types of internal combustion engines. (author)
Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element
Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.
2014-01-01
Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woo-Young Jung
2015-04-01
Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.
Elemental analysis of bottom ash from municipal incinerator by neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.
2003-01-01
Elemental analysis of bottom ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator was performed by neutron activation analysis. For this study, ash samples monthly collected from incinerator in D city were sieved with 5 mm mesh size, dried, pulverized by agate mortar and finally re-sieved with 200μ mesh size. Prepared samples were irradiated by neutrons using NAA No.1 irradiation hole in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Activated samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer according to the relevant nuclear properties of target nuclides and the concentration of 33 elements were determined from the collected ash samples. Quality control was conducted by comparative analysis with two NIST standard reference materials simultaneously. Mean values and standard deviations of hazardous elements such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn among the determined elements were 3.8±6.9mg/kg, 620±0.12 %, 4.76±0.37 %, 0.26±0.10 %, 115±29 mg/kg and 0.71±0.19 %, respectively
Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.
Kokot, S; Phuong, T D
1999-04-01
Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.
A finite-element for the analysis of shell intersections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koves, W.J.; Nair, S.
1994-01-01
The analysis of discontinuity stresses at shell intersections is a problem of great importance in several major industries. Some of the major areas of interest are pressure-containing equipment, such as reactors and piping, in the nuclear and fossil power industry; pressure vessels and heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry; bracing in offshore oil platforms; and aerospace structures. A specialized shell-intersection finite element, which is compatible with adjoining shell elements, has been developed that has the capability of physically representing the complex three-dimensional geometry and stress state at shell intersections. The element geometry is a contoured shape that matches a wide variety of practical nozzle configurations used in ASME Code pressure vessel construction, and allows computational rigor. A closed-form theory of elasticity solution was used to compute the stress state and strain energy in the element. The concept of an energy-equivalent nodal displacement and force vector set was then developed to allow complete compatibility with adjoining shell elements and retain the analytical rigor within the element. This methodology provides a powerful and robust computation scheme that maintains the computational efficiency of shell element solutions. The shell-intersection element was then applied to the cylinder-sphere and cylinder-cylinder intersection problems
Element analysis of Japanese traditional papers by PIXE method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yasuda, Keisuke; Tani, Teruhiro
2000-01-01
The Japanese papers, 'washi', are made from the bast fibers of the plants. Since washi have the informations of the raw material plants, there is potentiality of the identification of the production place by the element analysis of the washi. Three kinds of washi made of kozo, which have different habitats, were prepared. The elements in their washi were measured by the PIXE. It was confirmed that the amount of elements included in the washi depend on the habitats of their raw material plants. (author)
High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, E.M.
1997-01-01
A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaz, L.E.
1981-01-01
In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de
a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.
Operational requirements of spherical HTR fuel elements and their performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roellig, K.; Theymann, W.
1985-01-01
The German development of spherical fuel elements with coated fuel particles led to a product design which fulfils the operational requirements for all HTR applications with mean gas exit temperatures from 700 deg C (electricity and steam generation) up to 950 deg C (supply of nuclear process heat). In spite of this relatively wide span for a parameter with strong impact on fuel element behaviour, almost identical fuel specifications can be used for the different reactor purposes. For pebble bed reactors with relatively low gas exit temperatures of 700 deg C, the ample design margins of the fuel elements offer the possibility to enlarge the scope of their in-service duties and, simultaneously, to improve fuel cycle economics. This is demonstrated for the HTR-500, an electricity and steam generating 500 MWel eq plant presently proposed as follow-up project to the THTR-300. Due to the low operating temperatures of the HTR-500 core, the fuel can be concentrated in about 70% of the pebbles of the core thus saving fuel cycle costs. Under all design accident conditions fuel temperatures are maintained below 1250 deg C. This allows a significant reduction in the engineered activity barriers outside the primary circuit, in particular for the loss of coolant accident. Furthermore, access to major primary circuit components and the reuse of the fuel elements after any design accident are possible. (author)
Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.
1995-01-01
Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs
Integral finite element analysis of turntable bearing with flexible rings
Deng, Biao; Liu, Yunfei; Guo, Yuan; Tang, Shengjin; Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng; Wang, Pengcheng
2018-03-01
This paper suggests a method to calculate the internal load distribution and contact stress of the thrust angular contact ball turntable bearing by FEA. The influence of the stiffness of the bearing structure and the plastic deformation of contact area on the internal load distribution and contact stress of the bearing is considered. In this method, the load-deformation relationship of the rolling elements is determined by the finite element contact analysis of a single rolling element and the raceway. Based on this, the nonlinear contact between the rolling elements and the inner and outer ring raceways is same as a nonlinear compression spring and bearing integral finite element analysis model including support structure was established. The effects of structural deformation and plastic deformation on the built-in stress distribution of slewing bearing are investigated on basis of comparing the consequences of load distribution, inner and outer ring stress, contact stress and other finite element analysis results with the traditional bearing theory, which has guiding function for improving the design of slewing bearing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marimuthu, R.; Nageswara Rao, B.
2013-01-01
Solid propellant rocket motors (SRM) are regularly used in the satellite launch vehicles which consist of mainly three different structural materials viz., solid propellant, liner, and casing materials. It is essential to assess the structural integrity of solid propellant grains under the specified gravity, thermal and pressure loading conditions. For this purpose finite elements developed following the Herrmann formulation are: twenty node brick element (BH20), eight node quadrilateral plane strain element (PH8) and, eight node axi-symmetric solid of revolution element (AH8). The time-dependent nature of the solid propellant grains is taken into account utilizing the direct inverse method of Schepary to specify the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The developed elements are tested considering various problems prior to implementation in the in-house software package (viz., Finite Element Analysis of STructures, FEAST). Several SRM configurations are analyzed to assess the structural integrity under different loading conditions. Finite element analysis results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained earlier from MARC software. -- Highlights: • Developed efficient Herrmann elements. • Accuracy of finite elements demonstrated solving several known solution problems. • Time dependent structural response obtained using the direct inverse method of Schepary. • Performed structural analysis of grains under gravity, thermal and pressure loads
Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand
2009-07-01
Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively
Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.
1985-01-01
The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.
Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.
Notes on human performance analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollnagel, E.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, J.
1981-06-01
This paper contains a framework for the integration of observation and analysis of human performance in nuclear environments - real or simulated. It identifies four main sources of data, and describes the characteristic data types and methods of analysis for each source in relation to a common conceptual background. The general conclusion is that it is highly useful to combine the knowledge and experience from different contexts into coherent picture of how nuclear operators perform under varying circumstances. (author)
Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Fotyga
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.
Principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project performance assessment studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baca, R.G.; Wilde, R.T.
1983-12-01
In this paper, three of the principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) performance assessment studies are focused on: (1) development of a methodology for probabilistic risk assessment, (2) performance analyses of repository subsystems, and (3) selection and ranking of disruptive event scenarios. Other elements of the BWIP performance assessment studies are briefly outlined. 12 references, 5 figures
Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments in Engineering Design
Eriksson, Martin
1999-01-01
Projects with the objective of introducing Finite Element Analysis (FEA) into the early phases of the design process have previously been carried out at the Department of Machine Design, see e.g. the Doctoral thesis by Burman [13]. These works clearly highlight the usefulness of introducing design analysis early in the design process. According to Bjärnemo and Burman [10] the most significant advantage of applying design analysis early in the design process was the shift from verification to ...
Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueiredo, A.M.G.
1979-01-01
The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt
Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.
1983-01-01
The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi
1997-01-01
Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)
Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.
1980-10-01
The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt
How Are You Doing? The Elements of Effective Performance Management
Kelley, Jessica
2012-01-01
Whether an employee is a top performer or at risk of dismissal, clear and consistent feedback plays a key role in his or her professional development. Informal and formal feedback are crucial throughout an employee's tenure. Through the use of formal performance evaluation forms and regular performance discussion meetings, employees and managers…
PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.
1987-01-01
The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter
Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation
Ganguli, Ranjan
2017-01-01
This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.
TAPIR, Thermal Analysis of HTGR with Graphite Sleeve Fuel Elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weicht, U.; Mueller, W.
1983-01-01
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Thermal analysis of a reactor core containing internally and/or externally gas cooled prismatic fuel elements of various geometries, rating, power distribution, and material properties. 2 - Method of solution: A fuel element in this programme is regarded as a sector of a fuelled annulus with graphite sleeves of any shape on either side and optional annular gaps between fuel and graphite and/or within the graphite. It may have any centre angle and the fuelled annulus may become a solid cylindrical rod. Heat generation in the fuel is assumed to be uniform over the cross section and peripheral heat flux into adjacent sectors is ignored. Fuel elements and coolant channels are treated separately, then linked together to fit a specified pattern. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 50 fuel elements; 50 cooled channels; 25 fuel geometries; 25 coolant channel geometries; 10 axial power distributions; 10 graphite conductivities
Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.
2011-01-01
Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosini, W.; D'Auria, F.; Di Marco, P.; Fantappie, G.; Giot, G.; Emmerechts, D.; Seynhaeve, J.M.; Zhang, J.
1989-11-01
The experimental data of flooding and CCFL in the fuel element top nozzle area collected at the University of Hannover have been analyzed with RELAP5/MOD2 and CATHARE V.1.3 codes. Preliminary sensitivity calculations have been performed to evaluate the influence of various parameters and code options on the results. However, an a priori rational assessment procedure has been performed for those parameters non specific in experimental data (e.g. energy loss coefficients in flow restrictions). This procedure is based on single phase flow pressure drops and no further tuning has been performed to fit experimental data. The reported experimental data and some others demonstrate the complex relation-ship among the involved physical quantities (film thickness, pressure drop etc.) even in a simple geometrical condition with well defined boundary conditions. In the application of the two advanced codes to the selected CCFL experiments it appears that sophisticated models do not simulate satisfactorily the measured phenomena mainly when situations similar to nuclear reactors are dealt with (rod bundles). This result should be evaluated considering that: - dimensional phenomena occurring in flooding experiments are not well reproducible with one dimensional models implemented in the two codes; - a rational and reproducible procedure has been used to fix some boundary conditions (K-tuning); there is the evidence that more tuning can be used to get results closer to the experimental ones in each specific situation; - the uncertainty bands in measured experimental results are not (entirely) specified. The work performed demonstrated that further applications to CCFL experiments of present codes appear to be unuseful. New models should be tested and implemented before any attempt to reproduce CCFL in experimental facilities by system codes
Chen, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhiguang; Chen, Xianshuai; Zhang, Xiao
2017-05-01
Due to the increasing adoption of immediate implantation strategies and the rapid development of the computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing technology, a therapeutic concept based on patient-specific implant dentistry has recently been reintroduced by many researchers. However, little information is available on the designs of custom-made dental implant systems, especially their biomechanical behavior. The influence of the custom-made implant designs on the biomechanical performance for both an immediate and a delayed loading protocol in the maxillary esthetic zone was evaluated by means of the finite element (FE) method. FE models of three dental implants were considered: a state of the art cylindrical implant and two custom-made implants designed by reverse engineering technology, namely a root-analogue implant and a root-analogue threaded implant. The von Mises stress distributions and micro-motions around the bone-implant interfaces were calculated using ANSYS software. In a comparison of the three implant designs for both loading protocols, a favorable biomechanical performance was observed for the use of root-analogue threaded implant which approximated the geometry of natural anterior tooth and maintained the original long-axis. The results indicated that bone-implant interfacial micro-motion was reduced and a favorable stress distribution after osseointegration was achieved.
Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.
Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.
1999-01-01
Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)
Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.
1999-04-01
Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)
Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beasley, D.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Spyrou, N.
2008-01-01
3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)
Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.
2010-05-01
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.
Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teeraphot Supaviriyakit
2004-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.
Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.
1979-01-01
A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)
Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis
2012-01-01
The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan. Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: · selection of critical equipment and components, · defini...
Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of electromagnet for SMART control element drive mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.
1999-01-01
A numerical electromagnetic and thermal analysis was performed for the electromagnet which is installed in the control element drive mechanism(CEDM) of the integral reactor SMART. A model for the electromagnetic analysis of the electromagnet was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to thrust force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the magnetic saturation with finite element method. Also It is important that the temperature of the electomagnet windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the electromagnet of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. So the thermal analysis of the winding insulation which is composed of polyimide and air were performed by finite element method. The electromagnetic and thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the electromagnet
Bréas, Olivier; Thomas, Freddy; Zeleny, Reinhard; Calderone, Giovanni; Jamin, Eric; Guillou, Claude
2007-01-01
Tetramethylurea (TMU) with a certified D/H ratio is the internal standard for Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR) analysis of wine ethanol for detection of possible adulterations (Commission Regulation 2676/90). A new batch of a TMU certified reference material (CRM) is currently being prepared. Whereas SNIF-NMR has been employed up to now, Elemental Analysis/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry ((2)H-EA-IRMS) was envisaged as the method of choice for value assignment of the new CRM, as more precise (better repeatable) data might be obtained, resulting in lower uncertainty of the certified value. In order to evaluate the accuracy and intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of (2)H-EA-IRMS methods, a laboratory inter-comparison was carried out by analysing TMU and other organic compounds, as well as some waters. The results revealed that experienced laboratories are capable of generating robust and well comparable data, which highlights the emerging potential of IRMS in food authenticity testing. However, a systematic bias between IRMS and SNIF-NMR reference data was observed for TMU; this lack of data consistency rules out the (2)H-IRMS technique for the characterisation measurement of the new TMU CRM.
Finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures - Workshop proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-09-01
This workshop is related to the finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures. It is composed of three sessions. The first session (which title is: the use of finite element analysis in safety assessments) comprises six papers which titles are: Historical Development of Concrete Finite Element Modeling for Safety Evaluation of Accident-Challenged and Aging Concrete Structures; Experience with Finite Element Methods for Safety Assessments in Switzerland; Stress State Analysis of the Ignalina NPP Confinement System; Prestressed Containment: Behaviour when Concrete Cracking is Modelled; Application of FEA for Design and Support of NPP Containment in Russia; Verification Problems of Nuclear Installations Safety Software of Strength Analysis (NISS SA). The second session (title: concrete containment structures under accident loads) comprises seven papers which titles are: Two Application Examples of Concrete Containment Structures under Accident Load Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis; What Kind of Prediction for Leak rates for Nuclear Power Plant Containments in Accidental Conditions; Influence of Different Hypotheses Used in Numerical Models for Concrete At Elevated Temperatures on the Predicted Behaviour of NPP Core Catchers Under Severe Accident Conditions; Observations on the Constitutive Modeling of Concrete Under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperatures; Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage; Program of Containment Concrete Control During Operation for the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant; Static Limit Load of a Deteriorated Hyperbolic Cooling Tower. The third session (concrete structures under extreme environmental load) comprised five papers which titles are: Shear Transfer Mechanism of RC Plates After Cracking; Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland; Seismic Behaviour of Slightly Reinforced Shear Wall Structures; FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.
2012-01-01
The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)
Comparative analysis of C A R A fuel element in argentinean PHWR Argentinas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brasnarof D; Marino, A. C; Florido, P. C; Daverio, H
2006-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of the thermal mechanical behaviour, fuel consumption and economical estimations of the CARA fuel element in the Atucha and Embalse nuclear power plants, compared with the present fuel performance.The present results show that the expect profit by the use of the CARA fuel element in our reactor guaranties the recovery of fund for its development. Likewise it reduces the number of spent fuel to be storage and treated [es
Thermal design and analysis of the HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llewellyn, G.H.
1977-06-01
Computer analyses of the thermal design for the proposed HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace were performed to verify its capability and to determine the required power input and distribution. Although the furnace is designed for continuous operation, steady-state temperature distributions were obtained by assuming internal heat generation in the fuel elements to simulate their mass movement. The furnace thermal design, the analysis methods, and the results are discussed herein
Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.
1975-01-01
Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given
Adaptive finite-element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hamouz, Z.M.
1995-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive finite-element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current (HVDC) transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch's assumption. A new iterative finite-element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity. Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built. It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis
Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P.; Krosniak, M.; Knap, W.
1993-10-01
For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs
Contribution to the analysis of light elements using x fluorescence excited by radio-elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robert, A.
1964-01-01
In order to study the possibilities of using radioactive sources for the X-fluorescence analysis of light elements, the principle is given, after a brief description of X-fluorescence, of the excitation of this phenomenon by X, β and α emission from radio-elements. The operation and use of the proportional gas counter for X-ray detection is described. A device has been studied for analysing the elements of the 2. and 3. periods of the Mendeleev table. It makes it possible to excite the fluorescence with a radioactive source emitting X-rays or a particles; the X-ray fluorescence penetrates into a window-less proportional counter, this being made possible by the use of an auxiliary electric field in the neighbourhood of the sample. The gas detection pressure leading to the maximum detection yield is given. The spectra are given for the K α lines of 3. period elements excited by 55 Fe, 3 H/Zr and 210 Po sources; for the 2. period the K α spectra of carbon and of fluorine excited by the α particles of 210 Po. (author) [fr
Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
1996-12-31
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.
Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.
1996-01-01
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs
Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
1997-12-31
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saabye Ottesen, N
1981-01-01
A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...
Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, E.
1985-01-01
A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age
Neutron activation analysis as an element of sculpture provenance establishing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.; Nalepa, B.
1998-01-01
Investigation was carried out on the subject named ''Madonna Jackowa'' (XV cent.). The investigation object was to answer whether ''Madonna Jackowa'' was made of a native alabaster. Alabaster derived from five carious mines situated at the Cracow - Lvov line and ''Madonna Jackowa'' were analysed and the trace elements contents were compared. Instrumental neutron activation method was used for analysis of the trace. (author)
Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...
Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1993-01-01
The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...
Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyata, K.
1987-01-01
A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity
Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...
GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.
1994-01-01
GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations
Finite element modelling and updating of friction stir welding (FSW joint for vibration analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahari Siti Norazila
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys widely used in automotive and aerospace application due to its advanced and lightweight properties. The behaviour of FSW joints plays a significant role in the dynamic characteristic of the structure due to its complexities and uncertainties therefore the representation of an accurate finite element model of these joints become a research issue. In this paper, various finite elements (FE modelling technique for prediction of dynamic properties of sheet metal jointed by friction stir welding will be presented. Firstly, nine set of flat plate with different series of aluminium alloy; AA7075 and AA6061 joined by FSW are used. Nine set of specimen was fabricated using various types of welding parameters. In order to find the most optimum set of FSW plate, the finite element model using equivalence technique was developed and the model validated using experimental modal analysis (EMA on nine set of specimen and finite element analysis (FEA. Three types of modelling were engaged in this study; rigid body element Type 2 (RBE2, bar element (CBAR and spot weld element connector (CWELD. CBAR element was chosen to represent weld model for FSW joints due to its accurate prediction of mode shapes and contains an updating parameter for weld modelling compare to other weld modelling. Model updating was performed to improve correlation between EMA and FEA and before proceeds to updating, sensitivity analysis was done to select the most sensitive updating parameter. After perform model updating, total error of the natural frequencies for CBAR model is improved significantly. Therefore, CBAR element was selected as the most reliable element in FE to represent FSW weld joint.
Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, C.G.
2001-01-01
Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.
Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.
1996-01-01
Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab
Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Hassan, A M [Reactor and Neutron physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, A; Walley El-Dine, N [Physics Department, Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams Universty, Cairo (Egypt)
1997-12-31
Two brazing alloy samples (C P{sup 2} and C P{sup 3}) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10{sup 1}1 n/cm{sup 2}/s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10{sup 1}2 n/cm{sup 2}/s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab.
Biological reference materials and analysis of toxic elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subramanian, R; Sukumar, A
1988-12-01
Biological monitoring of toxic metal pollution in the environment requires quality control analysis with use of standard reference materials. A variety of biological tissues are increasingly used for analysis of element bioaccumulation, but the available Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are insufficient. An attempt is made to review the studies made using biological reference materials for animal and human tissues. The need to have inter-laboratory studies and CRM in the field of biological monitoring of toxic metals is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deb, M.K.; Kennon, S.R.
1998-04-01
A cooperative R&D effort between industry and the US government, this project, under the HPPP (High Performance Parallel Processing) initiative of the Dept. of Energy, started the investigations into parallel object-oriented (OO) numerics. The basic goal was to research and utilize the emerging technologies to create a physics-independent computational kernel for applications using adaptive finite element method. The industrial team included Computational Mechanics Co., Inc. (COMCO) of Austin, TX (as the primary contractor), Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. (SCA) of New Haven, CT, Texaco and CONVEX. Sandia National Laboratory (Albq., NM) was the technology partner from the government side. COMCO had the responsibility of the main kernel design and development, SCA had the lead in parallel solver technology and guidance on OO technologies was Sandia`s main expertise in this venture. CONVEX and Texaco supported the partnership by hardware resource and application knowledge, respectively. As such, a minimum of fifty-percent cost-sharing was provided by the industry partnership during this project. This report describes the R&D activities and provides some details about the prototype kernel and example applications.
Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders
2012-01-01
models may be created by assembling models of floor and wall structures into large models of complete buildings. When assembling the floor and wall models, the number of degrees of freedom quickly increases to exceed the limits of computer capacity, at least in a reasonable amount of computational time...... Hz. Three different methods of model reduction were investigated; Guyan reduction, component mode synthesis and a third approach where a new finite element model was created with structural elements. Eigenvalue and steady-state analyses were performed in order to compare the errors...
Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes
2015-01-01
Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)
Finite elements for non-linear analysis of pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benjamim, A.C.; Ebecken, N.F.F.
1982-01-01
The application of a three-dimensional lagrangian formulation for the great dislocations analysis and great rotation of pipelines systems is studied. This formulation is derived from the soil mechanics and take into account the shear stress effects. Two finite element models are implemented. The first, of right axis, uses as interpolation functions the conventional gantry functions, defined in relation to mobile coordinates. The second, of curve axis and variable cross sections, is obtained from the degeneration of the three-dimensional isoparametric element, and uses as interpolation functions third degree polynomials. (E.G.) [pt
Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.
1981-01-01
Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)
Analysis of Piezoelectric Solids using Finite Element Method
Aslam, Mohammed; Nagarajan, Praveen; Remanan, Mini
2018-03-01
Piezoelectric materials are extensively used in smart structures as sensors and actuators. In this paper, static analysis of three piezoelectric solids is done using general-purpose finite element software, Abaqus. The simulation results from Abaqus are compared with the results obtained using numerical methods like Boundary Element Method (BEM) and meshless point collocation method (PCM). The BEM and PCM are cumbersome for complex shape and complicated boundary conditions. This paper shows that the software Abaqus can be used to solve the governing equations of piezoelectric solids in a much simpler and faster way than the BEM and PCM.
Stress analysis of heated concrete using finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, P.; Gupta, A.; Marchertas, A.
1994-01-01
Described is a finite element analysis of concrete, which is subjected to rapid heating. Using thermal mass transport calculation, the moisture content, temperature and pore pressure distribution over space and time is obtained first. From these effects, stress at various points of the concrete are computed using the finite element method. Contribution to the stress formulation comes from three components, namely the thermal expansion, pore pressure, and the shrinkage of concrete due to moisture loss (from dehydration). The material properties of concrete are assumed to be homogeneous, elastic, and cracking is not taken into consideration. (orig.)
Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes
Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.
1990-01-01
The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.
Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation
Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico
2014-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...
Whole-core damage analysis of EBR-II driver fuel elements following SHRT program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, L.K.; Koenig, J.F.; Porter, D.L.
1987-01-01
In the Shutdown Heat Removal Testing (SHRT) program in EBR-II, fuel element cladding temperatures of some driver subassemblies were predicted to exceed temperatures at which cladding breach may occur. A whole-core thermal analysis of driver subassemblies was performed to determine the cladding temperatures of fuel elemnts, and these temperatures were used for fuel element damage calculation. The accumulated cladding damage of fuel element was found to be very small and fuel element failure resulting from SHRT transients is unlikely. No element breach was noted during the SHRT transients. The reactor was immediately restarted after the most severe SHRT transient had been completed and no driver fuel breach has been noted to date. (orig.)
High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rokas Drevinskas
2017-06-01
Full Text Available High-precision three-dimensional ultrafast laser direct nanostructuring of silica glass resulting in multi-layered space-variant dielectric metasurfaces embedded in volume is demonstrated. Continuous phase profiles of nearly any optical component are achieved solely by the means of geometric phase. Complex designs of half-wave retarders with 90% transmission at 532 nm and >95% transmission at >1 μm, including polarization gratings with efficiency nearing 90% and computer generated holograms with a phase gradient of ∼0.8π rad/μm, were fabricated. A vortex half-wave retarder generating a single beam optical vortex with a tunable orbital angular momentum of up to ±100ℏ is shown. The high damage threshold of silica elements enables the simultaneous optical manipulation of a large number of micro-objects using high-power laser beams. Thus, the continuous control of torque without altering the intensity distribution was implemented in optical trapping demonstration with a total of 5 W average power, which is otherwise impossible with alternate beam shaping devices. In principle, the direct-write technique can be extended to any transparent material that supports laser assisted nanostructuring and can be effectively exploited for the integration of printed optics into multi-functional optoelectronic systems.
Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.
1997-01-01
Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)
Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungang Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.
Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, M.Z.
2002-01-01
Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)
Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.
Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg
2011-07-01
In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa K. Ahmed
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This investigation is to develop a numerical model suitable for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shells. A nine-node Lagrangian element Figure (1 with enhanced shear interpolation will be used in this study. Table (1 describes shape functions and their derivatives of this element.An assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation of this element to overcome shear locking. Degenerated quadratic thick plate elements employing a layered discrelization through the thickness will be adopted. Different numbers of layers for different thickness can be used per element. A number of layers between (6 and 10 have proved to be appropriate to represent the nonlinear material behavior in structures. In this research 8 layers will be adequate. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, plastic flow or crushing of concrete in compression and yield condition of reinforcing steel are considered. The maximum tensile strength is used as a criterion for crack initiation. Attention is given to the tension stiffening phenomenon and the degrading effect of cracking on the compressive and shear strength of concrete. Perfect bond between concrete and steel is assumed. Attention is given also to geometric nonlinearities. An example have been chosen in order to demonstrate the suitability of the models by comparing the predicted behaviour with the experimental results for shell exhibiting various modes of failure.
Finite element elastic-plastic analysis of LMFBR components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, A.; Pifko, A.; Armen, H. Jr.
1978-01-01
The present effort involves the development of computationally efficient finite element methods for accurately predicting the isothermal elastic-plastic three-dimensional response of thick and thin shell structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. This work will be used as the basis for further development of analytical tools to be used to verify the structural integrity of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) components. The methods presented here have been implemented into the three-dimensional solid element module (HEX) of the Grumman PLANS finite element program. These methods include the use of optimal stress points as well as a variable number of stress points within an element. This allows monitoring the stress history at many points within an element and hence provides an accurate representation of the elastic-plastic boundary using a minimum number of degrees of freedom. Also included is an improved thermal stress analysis capability in which the temperature variation and corresponding thermal strain variation are represented by the same functional form as the displacement variation. Various problems are used to demonstrate these improved capabilities. (Auth.)
Application of ADINA fluid element for transient response analysis of fluid-structure system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakurai, Y.; Kodama, T.; Shiraishi, T.
1985-01-01
Pressure propagation and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in 3D space were simulated by general purpose finite element program ADINA using the displacement-based fluid element which presumes inviscid and compressible fluid with no net flow. Numerical transient solution was compared with the measured data of an FSI experiment and was found to fairly agree with the measured. In the next step, post analysis was conducted for a blowdown experiment performed with a 1/7 scaled reactor pressure vessel and a flexible core barrel and the code performance was found to be satisfactory. It is concluded that the transient response of the core internal structure of a PWR during the initial stage of LOCA can be analyzed by the displacement-based finite fluid element and the structural element. (orig.)
Solid Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of an Overhead Crane Bridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Alkin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The design of an overhead crane bridge with a double box girder has been investigated and a case study of a crane with 35 ton capacity and 13 m span length has been conducted. In the initial phase of the case study, conventional design calculations proposed by F. E. M. Rules and DIN standards were performed to verify the stress and deflection levels. The crane design was modeled using both solids and surfaces. Finite element meshes with 4-node tetrahedral and 4-node quadrilateral shell elements were generated from the solid and shell models, respectively. After a comparison of the finite element analyses, the conventional calculations and performance of the existing crane, the analysis with quadratic shell elements was found to give the most realistic results. As a result of this study, a design optimization method for an overhead crane is proposed.
Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.
Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun
2016-02-01
Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.
NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)
Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren
2010-01-01
The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.
Radiochemical neutron activation analysis based multi-elemental analysis of high purity gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.
2006-01-01
Full text: Gallium is one of the widely used materials in semiconductor and optoelectronics industry. Gallium is used to produce infrared detectors, piezoelectric sensors, high- and low-temperature transistors for space and defense technology. One of the most important requirements for semiconductor materials of gallium compounds is an excessive high purity for layers and films. Information on impurities (type of an impurity, concentration, character of distribution) is important as for better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place in formed semiconductor structures and for the 'know-how' of devices on their basis. The object of this work is to develop radiochemical neutron activation technique for analysis of high purity gallium. Irradiation of 0.1 g of gallium sample in neutron flux of 5·10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 5 hours will result in induced activity of more than 10 8 Bq, due to 72 Ga radionuclide, half-life of which is 14.1 hours. Therefore to perform instrumental NAA of gallium long period (10 day) cooling is required, and high sensitive determination of elements producing short- and long-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 72 Ga. We have studied the behavior of gallium in extraction-chromatographic system 'TBP-HCl'. The experiments have shown that higher factor of distribution (D) and capacity on gallium can be achieved when 'TBP-4M HCl' system is used. However more than 10 trace elements have high D and thus they cannot be separated from 72 Ga. To resolve the problem and increase the number of separated trace elements we have used preliminary satisfaction of chromatographic column with tellurium, which has D higher than the most of elements in 'TBP-4M HCl' system and thus suppresses extraction of elements. Distribution profile of gallium along the column and elution curve of 25 trace elements have been measured. Chemical yields of separated elements measured by using radiotracers are more than 93%. On the basis of the carried out researches
Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greaves, E.D.
2000-01-01
The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further
XRF analysis of portland cement for major and trace elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdunnabi, A. R.
2012-12-01
Libyan portland cement produced in several factories around the country, in Lip tis, Zoltan, Souq-Elkamis, Dernah and El-Fatach, were analyzed for quantitative major and trace elements and mineral content, which were compered with those imported from Spain, Romania, Cyprus, and Egypt. X-ray fluorescence spectro X lab 2000 spectrometer equipped with Rh-and X-ray tube was used for the analysis of various samples. The detector Si(Li) with a resolution of 148 eV at Mn K-a=5.9 keV facilitates the determination of a wide range of elements from sodium to uranium, with a detection limit at sub levels. Cement samples in the powder form were analyzed using the pellet-technique. The pellets were prepared by mixing 4g of the cement powder with 0.9 g of binder (HWC) and pressed at high pressure. A ful analysis including, background counting, matrix correction and all relevant corrections were achieved automatically by XLAB 2000 software package. For major and trace elements X RF results were higher for most of the elements than those analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral content showed that Libyan cement is comparable to the imported ones, also the Libyan cement meets the requirements of the international specifications of the portland cement. (Author)
Characteristic and analysis of structural elements of corporate social responsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Bilonog
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this article attention is focused on social responsibility of business and on necessity to estimate its condition in Ukraine. Materials regarding elements and the principles of corporate social responsibility are structured. On this basis unification of quantitative elements of business social responsibility is offered according to which it is possible to carry out the analysis of the nonfinancial reporting. It is proposed to use not only quantitative techniques of data analysis but also refer to the qualitative ones. As a result of this, the analysis of social reports will be more productive and would minimize subjectivity of the researcher or representatives of the company which are responsible for presenting the information to the general public. The basic principles by which the companies can realize the strategy of corporate social responsibility are considered. Due to the empirical analysis of corporate reports expediency to use specified elements is proved. Reports of the companies in producing and nonproductive sector are analyzed in more detail; features of displaying information on corporate social responsibility are defined. The attention to need of carrying out monitoring researches in the sphere of the corporate social reporting is updated.
An implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, T. L.
2013-01-01
This paper provides an implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method (LD-FEM) that spans the space of (l, x, y, z). A practical implementation of LD includes 1) selecting a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the 4 x 4 matrix system Ax = b that describes the angular flux in a mesh element, and 2) choosing how to store the data used to construct the matrix A and the vector b to either reduce memory consumption or increase computational speed. To analyze the first of these, three algorithms were selected to solve the 4 x 4 matrix equation: Cramer's rule, a streamlined implementation of Gaussian elimination, and LAPACK's Gaussian elimination subroutine dgesv. The results indicate that Cramer's rule and the streamlined Gaussian elimination algorithm perform nearly equivalently and outperform LAPACK's implementation of Gaussian elimination by a factor of 2. To analyze the second implementation detail, three formulations of the discretized LD-FEM equations were provided for implementation in a transport solver: 1) a low-memory formulation, which relies heavily on 'on-the-fly' calculations and less on the storage of pre-computed data, 2) a high-memory formulation, which pre-computes much of the data used to construct A and b, and 3) a reduced-memory formulation, which lies between the low - and high-memory formulations. These three formulations were assessed in the Jaguar transport solver based on relative memory footprint and computational speed for increasing mesh size and quadrature order. The results indicated that the memory savings of the low-memory formulation were not sufficient to warrant its implementation. The high-memory formulation resulted in a significant speed advantage over the reduced-memory option (10-50%), but also resulted in a proportional increase in memory consumption (5-45%) for increasing quadrature order and mesh count; therefore, the practitioner should weigh the system memory constraints against any
An implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, T. L. [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States)
2013-07-01
This paper provides an implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method (LD-FEM) that spans the space of (l, x, y, z). A practical implementation of LD includes 1) selecting a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the 4 x 4 matrix system Ax = b that describes the angular flux in a mesh element, and 2) choosing how to store the data used to construct the matrix A and the vector b to either reduce memory consumption or increase computational speed. To analyze the first of these, three algorithms were selected to solve the 4 x 4 matrix equation: Cramer's rule, a streamlined implementation of Gaussian elimination, and LAPACK's Gaussian elimination subroutine dgesv. The results indicate that Cramer's rule and the streamlined Gaussian elimination algorithm perform nearly equivalently and outperform LAPACK's implementation of Gaussian elimination by a factor of 2. To analyze the second implementation detail, three formulations of the discretized LD-FEM equations were provided for implementation in a transport solver: 1) a low-memory formulation, which relies heavily on 'on-the-fly' calculations and less on the storage of pre-computed data, 2) a high-memory formulation, which pre-computes much of the data used to construct A and b, and 3) a reduced-memory formulation, which lies between the low - and high-memory formulations. These three formulations were assessed in the Jaguar transport solver based on relative memory footprint and computational speed for increasing mesh size and quadrature order. The results indicated that the memory savings of the low-memory formulation were not sufficient to warrant its implementation. The high-memory formulation resulted in a significant speed advantage over the reduced-memory option (10-50%), but also resulted in a proportional increase in memory consumption (5-45%) for increasing quadrature order and mesh count; therefore, the practitioner should weigh the system memory
PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
1981-01-01
PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)
PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)
1981-03-01
PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.
Optimal acid digestion for multi-element analysis of different waste matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
of the distinct waste materials and recyclables. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different standardized microwave assisted acid digestion methods on waste samples and subsequent multi-element analysis. Six acid digestion methods were applied on a Paper & Cardboard and Composite waste...
Improving torque per kilogram magnet of permanent magnet couplings using finite element analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Högberg, Stig; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Bendixen, Flemming Buus
2013-01-01
This paper presents the methodology and subsequent findings of a performance-improvement routine that employs automated finite element (FE) analysis to increase the torque-per-kilogram-magnet (TPKM) of a permanent magnet coupling (PMC). The routine is applied to a commercially available cylindrical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)
Research on Elemental Technology of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Performance Verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Dong Uk; Jean, Sang Hwan; Koo, Min
2003-04-01
Most of current properties models and fuel performance models used in the performance evaluation codes are based on the in-pile data up to 33,000 MWd/MtU. Therefore, international experts are investigating the properties changes and developing advanced prediction models for high burn-up application. Current research is to develop high burn-up fission gas release model for the code and to support the code development activities by collecting data and models, reviewing/assessing the data and models together, and benchmarking the selected models against the appropriate in-pile data. For high burn-up applications, two stage two step fission gas release model is developed based on the real two diffusion process in the grain lattice and grain boundaries of the fission gases and the observation of accelerated release rate in the high burn-up. It is found that the prediction of this model is in excellent agreement with the in-pile measurement results, not only in the low burn-up but also in the high burn-up. This research is found that the importance of thermal conductivity of oxide fuel, especially in the high burn-up, is focused again. It is found that even the temperature dependent models differ from one to another and most of them overestimate the conductivity in the high burn-up. An in-pile data benchmarking of high LHGR fuel rod shows that the difference can reach 30%∼40%, which predicts 400 .deg. C lower than the real fuel centerline temperature. Recent models on the thermal expansion and heat capacity of oxide fuel are found to be well-defined. Irradiation swelling of the oxide fuel are now well-understood that in most cases in LWRs solid fission product swelling is dominant. Thus, the accumulation of in-pile data can enhance the accuracy of the model prediction, rather than theoretical modeling works. Thermo-physical properties of Zircaloy cladding are also well-defined and well-understood except the thermal expansion. However, it turns out that even the
Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.
1989-01-01
To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)
Sensitivity analysis overlaps of friction elements in cartridge seals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Žmindák Milan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Cartridge seals are self-contained units consisting of a shaft sleeve, seals, and gland plate. The applications of mechanical seals are numerous. The most common example of application is in bearing production for automobile industry. This paper deals with the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements in cartridge seal and their influence on the friction torque sealing and compressive force. Furthermore, it describes materials for the manufacture of sealings, approaches usually used to solution of hyperelastic materials by FEM and short introduction into the topic wheel bearings. The practical part contains one of the approach for measurement friction torque, which results were used to specifying the methodology and precision of FEM calculation realized by software ANSYS WORKBENCH. This part also contains the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geir Skeie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Fatigue analysis of structural components such as helix tensile armors and steel tubes is a critical design issue for dynamic umbilicals and flexible pipes. The basis for assessment of fatigue damage of such elements is the long-term stress cycle distribution at critical locations on the helix elements caused by long-term environmental loading on the system. The long-term stress cycle distribution will hence require global dynamic time domain analysis followed by a detailed cross-sectional analysis in a large number of irregular sea states. An overall computational consistent and efficient fatigue analysis scheme is outlined with due regard of the cross-sectional analysis technique required for fatigue stress calculation with particular attention to the helix elements. The global cross-section is exposed to pure bending, tensile, torsion, and pressure loading. The state of the different cross-section elements is based on the global response. Special emphasis is placed on assessment of friction stresses caused by the stick-slip behavior of helix elements in bending that are of special importance for fatigue life assessments. The described cross-sectional analysis techniques are based on an extensive literature survey and are hence considered to represent industry consensus. The performance of the described calculation scheme is illustrated by case studies.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmon, L.
1975-06-01
The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)
Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Puškar Tatjana
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.
Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.
1978-01-01
The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings
Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-09-02
The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.
Analysis of neutron flux depression across the pellet radius in CANDU fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, K.S.; Suk, H.C.
1998-08-01
The TUBRNP model, originally developed to perform the analysis of the flux depression across the pellet radius in LWR fuel elements, was improved for the application to CANDU fuel elements. The improved model was verified through comparison with existing CANDU model named FLUXDEP in prediction for various fuel conditions. A sensitivity study was also performed to investigate the effects on the flux depression of fuel initial enrichment and burnup, the contents of isotopes U-234 and U-236 and pellet diameter. (author). 9 refs., 8 figs
Elemental analysis of sub-hourly ambient aerosol collections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kidwell, C.B.; Ondov, J.M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Chemical & Biochemistry
2004-03-01
Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn in ambient air sampled at 170 L.min{sup -1} for 30 min and collected as a slurry after dynamic preconcentration. Analyses of slurries of NIST SRM 1648, Urban Particulate Matter, were typically within 10% of expected values for all elements except Al, Cr, and Fe, elements for which deviations were mostly due to difficulties in transferring large particles. This problem will be reduced for urban fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5). Trends in the concentrations of elemental source markers were readily correlated with wind direction and other meteorological factors to identify the influences of local industrial emissions, including motor vehicle traffic, coal- and oil-fired power plants, and municipal incinerators. Factor analysis was applied to the 88-sample data set to extract 7 factors: urban dust, meteorological factors, incinerators, coal- fired power plants, Tour Bus emission, unknown As source, and oil-fired power plants. Factor analysis was also applied to an 18-sample data set representing 2.5 h averages of the 30 min data to simulate the effect of longer sample collection times. Only 6 factors were extracted from this data set, which shows that increased temporal resolution enhances the power of factor analysis to resolve sources. These results indicate that a wealth of detailed information is revealed at this level of temporal resolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaganov, P.A.; Kol'tsov, A.A.; Kulikov, V.D.; Mejer, V.A.
1983-01-01
The multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis of samples of mountain rocks (sandstones, aleurolites and shales of one of gold deposits) is performed. The spectra of irradiated samples are measured by Ge(Li) detector of the volume of 35 mm 3 . The content of 22 chemical elements is determined in each sample. The results of analysis serve as reliable basis for multi-dimensional statistic information processing, they constitute the basis for the generalized characteristics of rocks which brings about the solution of classification problem for rocks of different deposits
Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, G.I.; Komkov, M.M.; Kuz'michev, V.A.
1986-01-01
Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis at the IR-8 reactor is designed, fabricated and taken into operation. The complex is provided with a multichannel system of vacuum pneumatic transport with radiation positions in the reactor horizontal tangential channel for neutron-activation analysis by short-lived isotopes; specialized dry vertical channels in a beryllium reflector of the reactor and remote system of radioactive sample replacement for neutron-activation analysis by long-lived isotopes; a specialized horizontal tangential channel for neutron beam extraction by means of a beryllium converter and remote device for studied sample replacement under radiation and measurement of prompt γ-radiation for neutron-radiation analysis; a measuring center using minicomputers for experimental data accumulation and processing and analysis control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki
2010-01-01
This study proposes an element size selection method named the 'Impact-Meshing (IM) method' for a finite element waves propagation analysis model, which is characterized by (1) determination of element division of the model with strain energy in the whole model, (2) static analysis (dynamic analysis in a single time step) with boundary conditions which gives a maximum change of displacement in the time increment and inertial (impact) force caused by the displacement change. In this paper, an example of application of the IM method to 3D ultrasonic wave propagation problem in an elastic solid is described. These examples showed an analysis result with a model determined by the IM method was convergence and calculation time for determination of element subdivision was reduced to about 1/6 by the IM Method which did not need determination of element subdivision by a dynamic transient analysis with 100 time steps. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartsough, N.E.; Barrett, H.H.; Barber, H.B.; Woolfenden, J.M.
1995-01-01
Accurate tumor staging depends on finding all tumor sites, and curative surgery requires the removal of all cancerous tissue from those sites. One technique for locating tumors is to inject patients before surgery with a radiotracer that is preferentially taken up by cancerous tissue. Then, an intraoperative gamma-sensitive probe is used to locate the tumors. Small (< 1-cm diameter) tumors, often undetectable by external imaging and by the standard surgical inspection with sight and touch, can be found with probes. Simple calculations and measurements with radioactive tumor models show that small tumors should be detected by single-element probes, but often such probes fail to detect these small tumors in practice. This discrepancy is often caused by the use of a uniform background to predict probe performance. Real backgrounds are nonuniform and can decrease probe performance dramatically. Dual-element, coincidence, or imaging probes may solve the background problem. The authors devised a method to predict probe performance in a realistic background which includes variations in normal organ uptakes. They predict the relative performance of both existing probes and those in the design stage so that optimal detector and collimator configurations can be determined. The procedure includes a Monte-Carlo-calculated point-response function, a numerical torso phantom, and measured biodistribution of a monoclonal antibody. The Hotelling Trace Value, a measure of tumor-detection performance, is computed from the probe responses in simulated studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-xiang Qian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.
Computer analysis with the CEASEMT finite element system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bung, H.; Clement, G.; Hoffmann, A.; Jakubowicz, H.
1979-01-01
This section presents results for the analyses of all three international Piping Benchmark Problems. An inelastic analysis of each problem was performed using a full three-dimensional shell analysis (TRICO code) and a simplified piping analysis based on beam theory (TEDEL code)
Computer analysis with the CEASEMT finite element system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bung, H; Clement, G; Hoffmann, A; Jakubowicz, H
1979-06-01
This section presents results for the analyses of all three international Piping Benchmark Problems. An inelastic analysis of each problem was performed using a full three-dimensional shell analysis (TRICO code) and a simplified piping analysis based on beam theory (TEDEL code)
Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.
1980-01-01
Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study
Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Water Heating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomas Matuska
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Performance of solar photovoltaic water heating systems with direct coupling of PV array to DC resistive heating elements has been studied and compared with solar photothermal systems. An analysis of optimum fixed load resistance for different climate conditions has been performed for simple PV heating systems. The optimum value of the fixed load resistance depends on the climate, especially on annual solar irradiation level. Use of maximum power point tracking compared to fixed optimized load resistance increases the annual yield by 20 to 35%. While total annual efficiency of the PV water heating systems in Europe ranges from 10% for PV systems without MPP tracking up to 15% for system with advanced MPP trackers, the efficiency of solar photothermal system for identical hot water load and climate conditions is more than 3 times higher.
Multidimensional elemental analysis with the Sandia nuclear microprobe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doyle, B.L.
1988-01-01
It is well known that many of the ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction analysis can be used to nondestructively obtain concentration depth profiles of elements in solids. When these techniques are combined with the small beam spot capabilities of a scanned nuclear microprobe, sample composition can be determined in up to three dimensions. This paper will review the various procedures used to collect and analyze multidimensional data using the Sandia nuclear microprobe. In addition, examples of how these data are being used in the study of materials will be shown. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou-Ziyan, H.; Mahmoud, M.; Al-Ajmi, R.; Shedid, M.
2015-01-01
This paper reports effects of additive elements on thermal performance of engine oils during cooling of different engine parts at bulk temperatures from 40 to 150 °C and average wall superheat of 100 °C. The analysis is performed using a back propagation neural network that was trained on experimentally obtained sub-cooled boiling data of engine oils. The results demonstrate that sodium, boron, molybdenum, magnesium and barium additive elements are thermally synergetic while phosphorous, zinc, calcium and silicon elements are thermally antagonistic. Experimental thermal performance of oils could potentially be improved by increasing the concentration of synergetic additive elements or decreasing antagonistic additive elements concentration. - Highlights: • Oil additives enhance lubrication properties but may hinder oil thermal performance. • Sodium, boron, molybdenum, magnesium and barium additives enhance heat transfer. • Additives containing phosphorous, zinc, calcium and silicon hinder the heat transfer. • Oil thermal performance is improved by changing some oil additives concentrations. • Some additives are highly sensitive to interaction with other additives in the oil.
Performance of mixed formulations for the particle finite element method in soil mechanics problems
Monforte, Lluís; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Marcos; Gens, Antonio
2017-07-01
This paper presents a computational framework for the numerical analysis of fluid-saturated porous media at large strains. The proposal relies, on one hand, on the particle finite element method (PFEM), known for its capability to tackle large deformations and rapid changing boundaries, and, on the other hand, on constitutive descriptions well established in current geotechnical analyses (Darcy's law; Modified Cam Clay; Houlsby hyperelasticity). An important feature of this kind of problem is that incompressibility may arise either from undrained conditions or as a consequence of material behaviour; incompressibility may lead to volumetric locking of the low-order elements that are typically used in PFEM. In this work, two different three-field mixed formulations for the coupled hydromechanical problem are presented, in which either the effective pressure or the Jacobian are considered as nodal variables, in addition to the solid skeleton displacement and water pressure. Additionally, several mixed formulations are described for the simplified single-phase problem due to its formal similitude to the poromechanical case and its relevance in geotechnics, since it may approximate the saturated soil behaviour under undrained conditions. In order to use equal-order interpolants in displacements and scalar fields, stabilization techniques are used in the mass conservation equation of the biphasic medium and in the rest of scalar equations. Finally, all mixed formulations are assessed in some benchmark problems and their performances are compared. It is found that mixed formulations that have the Jacobian as a nodal variable perform better.
Intercomparison and determination of trace elements in urban dust by neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun
2000-01-01
Trace elements in air samples artificially loaded on filters with urban dust and the bulk material of urban dust as an environmental sample were determined non-destructively using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Standard reference material (Urban Dust, SRM 1648) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for the analytical quality control. The relative error for 37 elements was less than 15% and the standard deviation was less than 10%. 29 elements in the urban dust and 21 elements in the loaded filter sample were determined respectively. To evaluate the proficiency and reliability of the measurement, data intercomparison was performed and 39 analytical laboratories participated in the analysis using different analytical methods; neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Z-scores were calculated using the standard deviation of the laboratory's mean as target standard deviation, and a good result was obtained that the values fall between-1 and +1 except some elements. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.
Finite-element pre-analysis for pressurized thermoshock tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Lehtonen, M.; Rintamaa, R.; Bljumin, A.; Timofeev, B.
1992-05-01
The behaviour of a model pressure vessel is studied in a pressurized thermal shock loading. The tests were performed at the Prometey Institute in St. Petersburg. The calculations were performed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The report describes the preliminary finite-element analyses for the fourth, fifth and sixth thermoshock tests with the first model pressure vessel. Seven pressurized thermoshock tests were made with the same model using five different flaw geometries. In the first three tests the flaw was actually a blunt notch. In the two following tests (tests 4 and 5) a sharp pre-crack was produced before the test. In the last two test (tests 6 and 7) the old crack was used. According to the measurements and post-test ultrasonic examination of the crack front, the sixth test led to significant crack extension. Both temperatures and stresses were calculated using the finite-element method. The calculations were made using the idealized initial flaw geometry and preliminary material data. Both two-and three-dimensional models were used in the calculations. J-integral values were calculated from the elastic-plastic finite-element results. The stress intensity factor values were evaluated on the basis of the calculated J-integrals and compared with the preliminary material fracture toughness data obtained from the Prometey Institute
Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karameldin, A.; Saadawy, M.S.
2006-01-01
This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient K w is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient K s from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18 deg.. C to 45 deg.. C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate. (author)
In-vivo elemental analysis at Birmingham 1968-1981
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chettle, D.R.; Scott, M.C.
1986-01-01
Techniques have been developed to measure a number of elements in-vivo. Some have been measured by producing a radioactive isotope in the body by neutron bombardment and subsequently counting γ-rays given off during its decay. Measurements of calcium and sodium have been those most frequently used; copper, iron and phosphorus have also been measured in this way. Gamma-rays emitted 10 -18 s-10 -12 s following neutron capture have also been used for elemental analysis. This method, which involved detectors being in position by the subject during the neutron irradiation, has been widely applied to measurements of both nitrogen and cadmium. Preliminary studies of nuclear resonance scattering have suggested that this could be used for in-vivo elemental analysis, provided technical difficulties in source preparation could be overcome. Recently the use of X-ray fluorescence has been investigated for in-vivo analyses of lead in bone; the extension of this technique to measure mercury in the kidney is under consideration. (author)
Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.
2006-01-01
Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)
PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in phytopharmaceutical drugs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preoteasa, E. A.; Harangus, Livia; Iordan, Andreea; Gugiu, M.
2002-01-01
Despite of ongoing progress in the biochemistry of phytopharmaceutical drugs, their mineral micro- and trace elements have not been studied in detail. These elements may have therapeutic or toxic activity which should be assessed by sensitive investigations. The latter can be done by multielemental analysis with nuclear and atomic methods. We previously found 28 elements in some Romanian plant drugs by nuclear activation analysis. The availability of this method is, however, limited by the access to a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an alternative method with high performances in biomedicine and requiring no sample preparation for drugs' studies. We applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of three plant drugs - Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte - used as invigorators, protectors and prophylactics in oxidative stress diseases. Measurements with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector and no additional absorber foil, evidenced unusually complex elemental compositions of drugs. Up to 31 elements with Z > 15 were found: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Hg, and As and/or Pb, from major to trace levels. The three drugs' qualitative composition were found to be rather similar. Relative concentrations were well evaluated with X-ray yields calculated for another kind of light element thick target. Drug's toxic elements - As and/or Pb, Hg, and possibly Ga - were all at trace levels, but their accumulation might be harmful. Some essential elements like K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr can be biologically useful. X-ray yields improvement and other ways for PIXE quantitative analysis of the phytotherapeutic drugs are outlined. (authors)
Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo
2013-01-01
Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future
Grouping and analysis of chair quality and their basic elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skakić Dušan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Both the scientific experience and the engineering practice indicate that the decision making processes in the course of solving complex designing problems require an analysis of a great number of different construction variants. These types of decision-making processes are time consuming and do not always result in the selection of an optimal solution. That is why the methods of numerical optimization are applied in a wide range of technical sciences to assist in the selection of the best solution. The first step in solving the problem by using the Finite element method is to determine the type of chair earmarked for modeling, and to determine the dimensions of the chair elements.
Elemental analysis of Kuwaiti petroleum and combustion products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reid, J.S.; Cahill, T.A.; Gearhart, E.A.; Flocchini, R.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.); Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States))
1993-03-01
Crude oil from eight Kuwaiti fields and aerosols generated by their combustion in the laboratory have been analyzed by composition and particulate size. Liquid petroleum and petroleum combustion products were subjected to elemental analysis by proton induced x-ray techniques and by x-ray fluorescence techniques. The mean sulfur content of the burning wells was weighted by their production rates to obtain the mean sulfur content of the burning oil, 2.66%. The liquid samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analyses. Results show that Kuwaiti oil and smoke aerosols from laboratory combustion generally contain very low amounts of chlorine, contrary to what is found in airborne samples above Kuwait. Trace element signatures were developed to aid in tracing smoke from the oil fires. (Author).
Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai
2005-01-01
This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.
Probabilistic finite elements for fatigue and fracture analysis
Belytschko, Ted; Liu, Wing Kam
1993-04-01
An overview of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) developed by the authors and their colleagues in recent years is presented. The primary focus is placed on the development of PFEM for both structural mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. The perturbation techniques are used as major tools for the analytical derivation. The following topics are covered: (1) representation and discretization of random fields; (2) development of PFEM for the general linear transient problem and nonlinear elasticity using Hu-Washizu variational principle; (3) computational aspects; (4) discussions of the application of PFEM to the reliability analysis of both brittle fracture and fatigue; and (5) a stochastic computational tool based on stochastic boundary element (SBEM). Results are obtained for the reliability index and corresponding probability of failure for: (1) fatigue crack growth; (2) defect geometry; (3) fatigue parameters; and (4) applied loads. These results show that initial defect is a critical parameter.
Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande
1997-01-01
Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source
Simultaneous multi-element analysis of some edible pulses using neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sweify, F.H.; Metwally, E.; Abdel-Khalik, H.
2007-01-01
This paper comprises the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for multi-element determination in some edible pulse samples. These edible pulses are usually daily used in the Egyptian kitchen. These were: anise, cumin, coriander, caraway, black cumin, white kidney bean, lupine, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, almond, and fenugreek. The pulses have been analyzed as dehulled pulses, in the case of legume and oil pulses with simultaneous analysis of their respective skins. The determined elements were: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and Zn. The element content in the dehulled pulses and their respective skins has been compared. Some elements were major or minor elements where others were trace elements. Standard reference materials were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique. (author)
Performance of an anisotropic Allman/DKT 3-node thin triangular flat shell element
Ertas, A.; Krafcik, J. T.; Ekwaro-Osire, S.
1992-05-01
A simple, explicit formulation of the stiffness matrix for an anisotropic, 3-node, thin triangular flat shell element in global coordinates is presented. An Allman triangle (AT) is used for membrane stiffness. The membrane stiffness matrix is explicitly derived by applying an Allman transformation to a Felippa 6-node linear strain triangle (LST). Bending stiffness is incorporated by the use of a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) bending element. Stiffness terms resulting from anisotropic membrane-bending coupling are included by integrating, in area coordinates, the membrane and bending strain-displacement matrices. Using the aforementioned approach, the objective of this study is to develop and test the performance of a practical 3-node flat shell element that could be used in plate problems with unsymmetrically stacked composite laminates. The performance of the latter element is tested on plates of varying aspect ratios. The developed 3-node shell element should simplify the programming task and have the potential of reducing the computational time.
Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toshimitsu, Fujisawa [Tokyo Univ., Collaborative Research Center of Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, Institute of Industrial Science (Japan); Genki, Yagawa [Tokyo Univ., Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science (Japan)
2003-07-01
In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)
Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshimitsu, Fujisawa; Genki, Yagawa
2003-01-01
In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)
Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
2009-01-01
Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.
Thermal performance of capillary micro tubes integrated into the sandwich element made of concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikeska, Tomas; Svendsen, Svend
2013-01-01
integrated into the thin plate of sandwich element made of HPC can supply the energy needed for heating and cooling. The investigations were conceived as a low temperature concept, where the difference between the temperature of circulating fluid and air in the room was kept in range of 1 to 4°C. © (2013......The thermal performance of radiant heating and cooling systems (RHCS) composed of capillary micro tubes (CMT) integrated into the inner plate of sandwich elements made of High Performance Concrete (HPC) was investigated in the article. Temperature distribution in HPC elements around integrated CMT...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, Eui-Seung; You, Sung-Chang
2014-01-01
As pressure tube diameter creep increase, the coolant flows through some of the interior subchannels of the fuel bundle are reduced and consequently reduces the Critical Heat Flux (CHF). For this reason, Canadian Utilities have performed the project that developing the new fuel design (modified 37-element bundle) to increase critical heat flux. The modified 37-element (37M) bundle has the same overall geometry as the reference 37-element (37R) bundle that is using in the Wolsong units now but the center element diameter has been reduced from 13.06mm to 11.5mm. The reduction in center element diameter of the 37M bundle design increase the flow of center areas to improve the cooling and thus to enhance CHF. The CHF experiments with 37M bundle string simulator in un-crept and crept (3.3%, 5.1% peak creep) flow channels were completed at Stern Laboratories in 2008. A substantially large increase in dryout-power was observed for the 37M bundle compared to the 37R bundle, particularly in the 5.1% crept channel. As a result of the experiments, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Bruce Power (BP) have increased the operational margin with this CHF correlation and has fully refueled the 37M fuel on some units or almost done on the other units. KHNP also has performed the project to refuel the 37M bundle which is the same design with OPG and BP recently. This paper summarizes the comparison assessment of Thermalhydraulic (T/H) behavior for 37M bundle and 37R bundle with their own correlations and geometry parameters. This analysis performed with the thermal hydraulic code (NUCIRC) and the site measured data at the Wolsong Unit2. Tests to evaluate the CHF performance with the 37M fuel bundle have been conducted in 2008 using the un-crept, 3.3% crept and 5.1% crept flow channels in the CHF Test facility at Stern Laboratories. In addition pressure drop tests have been performed at the same time. The changes of geometry from 37R bundle to 37M bundle reduced the center element
Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.
1985-01-01
The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed
Advances in dynamic relaxation techniques for nonlinear finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauve, R.G.; Metzger, D.R.
1995-01-01
Traditionally, the finite element technique has been applied to static and steady-state problems using implicit methods. When nonlinearities exist, equilibrium iterations must be performed using Newton-Raphson or quasi-Newton techniques at each load level. In the presence of complex geometry, nonlinear material behavior, and large relative sliding of material interfaces, solutions using implicit methods often become intractable. A dynamic relaxation algorithm is developed for inclusion in finite element codes. The explicit nature of the method avoids large computer memory requirements and makes possible the solution of large-scale problems. The method described approaches the steady-state solution with no overshoot, a problem which has plagued researchers in the past. The method is included in a general nonlinear finite element code. A description of the method along with a number of new applications involving geometric and material nonlinearities are presented. They include: (1) nonlinear geometric cantilever plate; (2) moment-loaded nonlinear beam; and (3) creep of nuclear fuel channel assemblies
Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luttrell, C.R.
1995-08-01
The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles
Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method
Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.
2018-01-01
In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.
Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis and Finite Element Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velasco, Raphael; Boudeau, Nathalie
2007-01-01
This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters deviations on flow stress curve is observed using analytical model: deviations of the tube outer diameter, its initial thickness and the bulge height measurement are taken into account to obtain a resulting error on plastic strain and von Mises stress
Finite element analysis of a finite-strain plasticity problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crose, J.G.; Fong, H.H.
1984-01-01
A finite-strain plasticity analysis was performed of an engraving process in a plastic rotating band during the firing of a gun projectile. The aim was to verify a nonlinear feature of the NIFDI/RB code: plastic large deformation analysis of nearly incompressible materials using a deformation theory of plasticity approach and a total Lagrangian scheme. (orig.)
Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.
Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian
2016-01-15
Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto
2002-01-01
Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day
Head of detector for multi-element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frynta, Z.
1983-01-01
The detector head mounted on the scintillation counter consists of a hollow hexagonal rotary support axially arranged with the photomultiplier of the scintillation counter. In the walls of the hexagonal rotary support there are openings in which are inserted absorption filters. The mounting of the absorption filters on the rotary support allows the analysis of a greater number of elements without the dismantling of the head and the replacement of filters. The suitable geometry of the head is retained so that it is possible to insert the head into the hollows similarly as the scintillation counter. (J.P.)
Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luten, J.B.
1977-01-01
In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the
Applications of finite-element scaling analysis in primatology.
Richtsmeier, J T
1989-01-01
The study of biological shape in three dimensions using landmark data can now be accomplished using several alternative methods. This report focuses on the use of finite-element scaling analysis in primate craniofacial morphology. The method is particularly useful in its ability to localize the differences between forms, thereby indicating those loci that differ most between specimens. Several examples of this feature are provided from primatological research. Particulars of the methods are also discussed in an attempt to provide the reader with cautionary knowledge for prudent application of the method in future research.
Finite element analysis of reticulated ceramics under compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D’Angelo, Claudio; Ortona, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Abstract: This paper shows how finite element analysis can be used to study the effect of the morphological features of reticulated ceramics on their mechanical properties under compression. Quantitative morphological data, obtained by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) for a commercially available Si–SiC foam produced by the replica method, have been linked to a set of computer generated cells in which one morphological parameter was varied at a time. The findings indicate how the modification of some morphological features, which depend on the careful selection of appropriate and specific processing parameters, would enable the production of ceramic foams possessing higher strength for a given total porosity value.
Eddy current analysis by the finite element circuit method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kameari, A.; Suzuki, Y.
1977-01-01
The analysis of the transient eddy current in the conductors by ''Finite Element Circuit Method'' is developed. This method can be easily applied to various geometrical shapes of thin conductors. The eddy currents on the vacuum vessel and the upper and lower support plates of JT-60 machine (which is now being constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) are calculated by this method. The magnetic field induced by the eddy current is estimated in the domain occupied by the plasma. And the force exerted to the vacuum vessel is also estimated
A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis
Lane, John
2009-01-01
A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.
Improving the seismic performance of eccentrically braced frames by using a ductile element
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Naghipour
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Stability of structures against earthquake is much important to prevent total or partial failure of structures and loss of financial and human investments of people and country. Eccentrically braced frames, as one of the most commonly used earthquake resistant systems, with good ductility and toughness, have different arrangements; one of them is Link beam-to-column connection. This type of connection was considered as bending form before the North Ridge earthquake (1994. But conducted research after the North Ridge Earthquake showed that the link beam-to-column connections were subjected to brittle failure, similar to connections which were located in Moment frames. So, after the North Ridge Earthquake, researchers began looking for ways to improve these types of connections, which indicates necessity of research in this field more than before. In this study, a new type of Energy absorption was introduced. This absorption consists of a ring which increases the ductility and energy absorption of earthquake and a box to increase the bearing capacity which is connected to the ring through connection plates. for evaluating the performance of the proposed elements in steel frames with eccentrically braces, under nonlinear time history analysis, the OpenSees software has been used. The obtained Hysteresis curves suggest that introduced element can act as an energy absorbing member and a fuse to Reducing damage to structures with reduced rotation of link-beam, Cutting base and Relative story displacement in addition to providing the necessary ductility.
Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strickert, R.G.
1980-12-01
The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH - , CO -- 3 ) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states
Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strickert, R.G.
1980-12-01
The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.
Multi-element analysis of unidentified fallen objects from Tatale in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A multi-element analysis has been carried out on two fallen objects, # 01 and # 02, using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. A total of 17 elements were identified in object # 01 while 21 elements were found in object # 02. The two major elements in object # 01 were Fe and Mg, which together constitute ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaowen Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical morphology (MM is an efficient nonlinear signal processing tool. It can be adopted to extract fault information from bearing signal according to a structuring element (SE. Since the bearing signal features differ for every unique cause of failure, the SEs should be well tailored to extract the fault feature from a particular signal. In the following, a signal based triangular SE according to the statistics of the magnitude of a vibration signal is proposed, together with associated methodology, which processes the bearing signal by MM analysis based on proposed SE to get the morphology spectrum of a signal. A correlation analysis on morphology spectrum is then employed to obtain the final classification of bearing faults. The classification performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of bearing vibration signals with inner race, ball, and outer race faults, respectively. Results show that all faults can be detected clearly and correctly. Compared with a commonly used flat SE, the correlation analysis on morphology spectrum with proposed SE gives better performance at fault diagnosis of bearing, especially the identification of the location of outer race fault and the level of fault severity.
Analysis of a sandwich-type generator with self-heating thermoelectric elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Mikyung; Yang, Hyein; Wee, Daehyun
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A novel and unique type of thermoelectric generators is proposed. • Heat source is combined in thermoelectric elements, reducing heat transfer problems. • Embedding radioactive isotopes is proposed as a way to implement the new design. • Conversion efficiency and power density are estimated for the proposed design. - Abstract: A novel and unique design of thermoelectric generators, in which a heat source is combined with thermoelectric elements, is proposed. By placing heat-generating radioactive isotopes inside the thermoelectric elements, the heat transfer limitation between the generator and the heat source can be eliminated, ensuring simplicity. The inner electrode is sandwiched between identical thermoelectric elements, which naturally allows the inner core to act as the hot side. Analysis shows that conversion efficiency and power density increase as the heat density inside the thermoelectric elements increases and as the thermoelectric performance of the material improves. The theoretical maximum efficiency is shown to be 50%. However, realistic performance under practical constraint is much worse. In realistic cases, the efficiency would be about 3% at best. The power density of the proposed design exhibits a much more reasonable value as high as 3000 W/m 2 . Although the efficiency is low, the simplicity of the proposed design combined with its reasonable power density may result in some, albeit limited, potential applications. Further investigation must be performed in order to realize such potential
Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.
1978-01-01
A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)
Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A.
1996-01-01
Using the 22'' isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)
Analysis of contaminating elements in tree rings in Santiago, Chile
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romo-Kroeger, C.M.; Avila, M.J.; Eaton, L.C.; Lopez, L.A. [Faculty of Sciences. Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile)
1996-12-31
Using the 22`` isochronous cyclotron at the University of Chile, we have performed PIXE analyses on a group of samples collected from trees of metropolitan parks in Santiago. Dendrochronology was performed on each sample, which was then sectioned for the PIXE and other analyses, neutron activation and electro-chemistry. Available samples are trunk sections or cores obtained by the use of a 4.0 mm stainless steel incremental corer. We took three cores from each tree with permission of the municipalities. For the PIXE we use infinitely thick targets, as wood slabs taken along the trunk radius, and thin targets obtained by acid digestion of wood pieces and deposition on Kapton foils. Self supporting thick targets were placed directly in the PIXE chamber in a position so as to allow the irradiation of a specific annual ring. Potassium and Calcium appear as the most abundant elements in wood. Other elements such as S, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb were detected in amounts above the natural background in wood, and can be attributed to environmental contamination. The K/Ca ratios appear to be different for each species of tree, and seem to be related to the physico-chemical properties of wood. Preliminary results show important amounts of As and Cu (supposedly from mining origin) with increasing presence in the recent years. Pb and Zn (supposedly from vehicle origin) are also higher in recent years. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikeska, Tomas; Svendsen, Svend
2013-01-01
The thermal performance of radiant heating and cooling systems (RHCS) composed of capillary micro tubes (CMT) integrated into the inner plate of sandwich elements made of high performance concrete (HPC) was investigated in the article. Temperature distribution in HPC elements around integrated CM...... and cooling purposes of future low energy buildings. The investigations were conceived as a low temperature concept, where the difference between the temperature of circulating fluid and air in the room was kept in range of 1–4 °C.......The thermal performance of radiant heating and cooling systems (RHCS) composed of capillary micro tubes (CMT) integrated into the inner plate of sandwich elements made of high performance concrete (HPC) was investigated in the article. Temperature distribution in HPC elements around integrated CMT...... HPC layer covering the CMT. This paper shows that CMT integrated into the thin plate of sandwich element made of HPC can supply the energy needed for heating (cooling) and at the same time create the comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants. This solution is very suitable for heating...
Elemental analysis of Oum er Rbia Moroccan river-water using TXRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; El Hamdaoui, A.; Labraimi, M.
2000-01-01
The x-ray fluorescence analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 17 elements has been performed utilizing the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and total reflection excitation. SPM samples were dissolved in nitric acid. For all samples direct measurements are feasible by spiking a few ml of the sample with Ga as internal standard element, and drying an aliquot of 20 μl on a quartz glass carrier. The detection limits of 10 to 20 ppb are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for accuracy by the analysis of the 15474 ICP multi-elemental standard I. Some results were also compared with AAS and ICP-AES. The results for most of the elements obtained by TXRF were accurate to about 2-15 %. The objectives of the analysis were to determine the geo-chemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanism of sediment transport and to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 36 samples had been collected along the river between its source in Middle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. (author)
Analysis of TRU waste for RCRA-listed elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahan, C.; Gerth, D.; Yoshida, T.
1996-01-01
Analytical methods for RCRA listed elements on Portland cement type waste have been employed using both microwave and open hot plate digestions with subsequent analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption and fluorescence (CVAA/CVAFS). Four different digestion procedures were evaluated including an open hot plate nitric acid digestion, EPA SW-846 Method 3051, and 2 methods using modifications to Method 3051. The open hot plate and the modified Method 3051, which used aqua regia for dissolution, were the only methods which resulted in acceptable data quality for all 14 RCRA-listed elements. Results for the nitric acid open hot plate digestion were used to qualify the analytical methods for TRU waste characterization, and resulted in a 99% passing score. Direct chemical analysis of TRU waste is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in an attempt to circumvent the problems associated with strong acid digestion methods. Technology development includes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), dc arc CID atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-AES), and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Analytical methods using the Portland cement matrix are currently being developed for each of the listed techniques. Upon completion of the development stage, blind samples will be distributed to each of the technology developers for RCRA metals characterization
Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Mirzaei
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.
X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, R.H.
1973-01-01
A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)
Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.
1982-09-01
The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt
Elemental analysis by IBA and NAA — A critical comparison
Watterson, J. I. W.
1988-12-01
In this review neutron activation analysis (NAA) and ion beam analysis (IBA) have been compared in the context of the entire field of analytical science using the discipline of scientometrics, as developed by Braun and Lyon. This perspective on the relative achievements of the two methods is modified by considering and comparing their particular attributes and characteristics, particularly in relation to their differing degree of maturity. This assessment shows that NAA, as the more mature method, is the most widely applied nuclear technique, but the special capabilities of IBA give it the ability to provide information about surface composition and elemental distribution that is unique, while it is still relatively immature and it is not yet possible to define its ultimate role with any confidence.
Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powell, G.H.
1974-09-01
The theory and computational procedures used in the computer program B169TJ/EP for the analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints are described, and detailed user's guide is presented. The program is particularly applicable to joints conforming to the ANSI B16.9 Manufacturing Standard, but can also be applied to other joint geometries. The joint may be loaded by internal pressure and by arbitrary combinations of applied forces and moments at the ends of the branch and run pipes, and the loading sequence may be arbitrary. The joint material is assumed to yield according to the von Mises criterion, and to exhibit either linear kinematic hardening or nonlinear isotropic hardening after yield. The program makes use of the finite element and mesh generation procedures previously applied in the elastic stress analysis program B16.9TJ/ SA, with minor modifications. (U.S.)
Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akoto Bamford, Samuel; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Aboh, I.J.; Odamtten, G.T.
2001-01-01
Research work is currently going on to determine the suitability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The study areas being investigated are the gold-mining areas situated in the Moist Evergreen and Semi-Deciduous forests in Ghana. The nuclear analytical techniques being used in this work are instrumental neutron activation analysis and tube-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The present report covers results of quality control exercise carried out to validate the quantitative methods being used. This includes our participation in an intercomparison exercise carried out among participants of the IAEA coordinated research project. The samples analyzed were two lichen samples from two completely different areas using neutron activation analysis. Only short- and medium-lived irradiations were carried out. Satisfactory results were obtained for most of the elements identified and quantified. (author)
Development of environmental education system using online element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niizeki, T.; Yoshihara, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kawasaki, K.; Komiya, K.
2007-01-01
We have constructed a network system which enables one to access and analyze environmental data obtained at different and distant laboratories. As a preliminary feasibility test of the system, we studied the elements in the water of the Tesio River using PIXE and ion chromatography. Students used the data online to carry out analysis via internet. We found two factors with different features in calcium from the factor analysis. The comparison of the specific result and relevant geology information has revealed a remarkable presence of Ca 2+ which might come from dissolution of limestone in the upper Tesio River. PIXE data gave crucial information to draw such a conclusion. The present system has been found useful in environmental education in universities, online sharing of PIXE data in particular. (author)
Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.
1990-01-01
The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.
2017-09-01
Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.
Application of the INAA technique for elemental analysis of metallic biomaterials used in dentistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cincu, Em; Craciun, L.; Manea-Grigore, Ioana; Cazan, I.L.; Manu, V.; Barbos, D.; Cocis, A.
2009-01-01
The sensitive nuclear analytical technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied on several types of metallic biomaterials (Heraenium CE, Ventura Nibon, Wiron 99 and Ducinox which are currently used for restoration in the dental clinics) to study its performance in elemental analysis and identify eventual limitations. The investigation has been performed by two NAA Laboratories and aimed at getting an answer to the question on how the biomaterials compositions influence the patients' health over the course of time, taking into account the EC Directive 94/27/EC recommendations concerning Ni toxicity.
Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, O.
2016-01-01
The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)
Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k0 neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.
2000-01-01
Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method (k 0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method
Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using solidworks software ... high safety and at the same time can be built according to market demands. ... Keywords: finite element analysis; impact test; Solidworks; automation, car hood.
Evaluating the performance of the particle finite element method in parallel architectures
Gimenez, Juan M.; Nigro, Norberto M.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.
2014-05-01
This paper presents a high performance implementation for the particle-mesh based method called particle finite element method two (PFEM-2). It consists of a material derivative based formulation of the equations with a hybrid spatial discretization which uses an Eulerian mesh and Lagrangian particles. The main aim of PFEM-2 is to solve transport equations as fast as possible keeping some level of accuracy. The method was found to be competitive with classical Eulerian alternatives for these targets, even in their range of optimal application. To evaluate the goodness of the method with large simulations, it is imperative to use of parallel environments. Parallel strategies for Finite Element Method have been widely studied and many libraries can be used to solve Eulerian stages of PFEM-2. However, Lagrangian stages, such as streamline integration, must be developed considering the parallel strategy selected. The main drawback of PFEM-2 is the large amount of memory needed, which limits its application to large problems with only one computer. Therefore, a distributed-memory implementation is urgently needed. Unlike a shared-memory approach, using domain decomposition the memory is automatically isolated, thus avoiding race conditions; however new issues appear due to data distribution over the processes. Thus, a domain decomposition strategy for both particle and mesh is adopted, which minimizes the communication between processes. Finally, performance analysis running over multicore and multinode architectures are presented. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number used influences the efficiency of the parallelization and, in some cases, a weighted partitioning can be used to improve the speed-up. However the total cputime for cases presented is lower than that obtained when using classical Eulerian strategies.
Static aeroelastic analysis and tailoring of a single-element racing car wing
Sadd, Christopher James
This thesis presents the research from an Engineering Doctorate research programme in collaboration with Reynard Motorsport Ltd, a manufacturer of racing cars. Racing car wing design has traditionally considered structures to be rigid. However, structures are never perfectly rigid and the interaction between aerodynamic loading and structural flexibility has a direct impact on aerodynamic performance. This interaction is often referred to as static aeroelasticity and the focus of this research has been the development of a computational static aeroelastic analysis method to improve the design of a single-element racing car wing. A static aeroelastic analysis method has been developed by coupling a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD analysis method with a Finite Element structural analysis method using an iterative scheme. Development of this method has included assessment of CFD and Finite Element analysis methods and development of data transfer and mesh deflection methods. Experimental testing was also completed to further assess the computational analyses. The computational and experimental results show a good correlation and these studies have also shown that a Navier-Stokes static aeroelastic analysis of an isolated wing can be performed at an acceptable computational cost. The static aeroelastic analysis tool was used to assess methods of tailoring the structural flexibility of the wing to increase its aerodynamic performance. These tailoring methods were then used to produce two final wing designs to increase downforce and reduce drag respectively. At the average operating dynamic pressure of the racing car, the computational analysis predicts that the downforce-increasing wing has a downforce of C[1]=-1.377 in comparison to C[1]=-1.265 for the original wing. The computational analysis predicts that the drag-reducing wing has a drag of C[d]=0.115 in comparison to C[d]=0.143 for the original wing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hong Pyo, E-mail: hplee@kepri.re.k [Nuclear Power Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-02-15
Research highlights: Finite element program with 9-node degenerated shell element was developed. The developed program was mainly forced to analyze nuclear containment building. Concrete material model is adapted Niwa and Yamada failure criteria. The performance of program developed is verified through various numerical examples. The numerical analysis results similar to the experimental data. - Abstract: This paper describes a 9-node degenerated shell finite element (FE), an analysis program developed for ultimate pressure capacity evaluation and nonlinear analysis of a nuclear containment building. The shell FE developed adopts the Reissner-Mindlin (RM) assumptions to consider the degenerated shell solidification technique and the degree of transverse shear strain occurring in the structure. The material model of the concrete determines the level of the concrete stress and strain by using the equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationship. When a crack occurs in the concrete, the material behavior is expressed through the tension stiffening model that takes adhesive stress into account and through the shear transfer mechanism and compressive strength reduction model of the crack plane. In addition, the failure envelope proposed by Niwa is adopted as the crack occurrence criteria for the compression-tension region, and the failure envelope proposed by Yamada is used for the tension-tension region. The performance of the program developed is verified through various numerical examples. The analysis based on the application of the shell FE developed from the results of verified examples produced results similar to the experiment or other analysis results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hong Pyo
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Finite element program with 9-node degenerated shell element was developed. → The developed program was mainly forced to analyze nuclear containment building. → Concrete material model is adapted Niwa and Yamada failure criteria. → The performance of program developed is verified through various numerical examples. → The numerical analysis results similar to the experimental data. - Abstract: This paper describes a 9-node degenerated shell finite element (FE), an analysis program developed for ultimate pressure capacity evaluation and nonlinear analysis of a nuclear containment building. The shell FE developed adopts the Reissner-Mindlin (RM) assumptions to consider the degenerated shell solidification technique and the degree of transverse shear strain occurring in the structure. The material model of the concrete determines the level of the concrete stress and strain by using the equivalent stress-equivalent strain relationship. When a crack occurs in the concrete, the material behavior is expressed through the tension stiffening model that takes adhesive stress into account and through the shear transfer mechanism and compressive strength reduction model of the crack plane. In addition, the failure envelope proposed by Niwa is adopted as the crack occurrence criteria for the compression-tension region, and the failure envelope proposed by Yamada is used for the tension-tension region. The performance of the program developed is verified through various numerical examples. The analysis based on the application of the shell FE developed from the results of verified examples produced results similar to the experiment or other analysis results.
Finite element analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.D.; Cook, W.A.; Anderson, C.A.
1977-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a finite element code suitable for the safety analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The project has involved modification of a general purpose computer code to handle reinforced concrete structures as well as comparison of results obtained with the code against published experimental data. The NONSAP nonlinear structural analysis program was selected for the ease with which it can be modified to encompass problems peculiar to nuclear reactors. Pre- and post-processors have been developed for mesh generation and for graphical display of response variables. An out-of-core assembler and solver have been developed for the analysis of large three dimensional problems. The constitutive model for short term loads forms an orthotropic stress-strain relationship in which the concrete and the reinforcing steel are treated as a composite. The variation of stiffness and strength of concrete under multiaxial stress states is accounted for. Cracks are allowed to form at element integration points based on a three dimensional failure envelope in stress space. Composite tensile and shear properties across a crack are modified to account for bond degradation and for dowel action of the reinforcement. The constitutive law for creep is base on the expansion of the usual creep compliance function in the form of a Dirichlet exponential series. Empirical creep data are then fit to the Dirichlet series approximation by means of a least squares procedure. The incremental deformation process is subsequently reduced to a series of variable stiffness elasticity problems in which the past stress history is represented by a finite number of hidden material variables
Neutron activation analysis for uranium and associated elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowman, W.W.
1977-01-01
The samples obtained by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program are activated in the intense neutron flux from a Savannah River Plant production reactor. A pilot-scale facility was installed at the reactor site to provide analyses of samples through the initial phase of the program and to develop design data for a full-scale facility. Sediments are analyzed by direct activation of 0.5-g samples. However, to analyze ground or surface water samples, mineral elements from 1-liter samples are concentrated on ion exchange resin and then approximately 5-g samples of resin are activated. Uranium concentration is determined by counting neutrons emitted from specific short-lived products of fission induced in 235 U by the primary neutron flux. Repetitive short cycles of irradiation and counting permit detection and determination of <0.1 μg of uranium. Elements associated with uranium are determined by spectral analysis of the gamma ray activities induced by the cyclic and subsequent longer irradiations. The pilot facility consists of four irradiation positions (plus 2 spare positions), a sample loader and unloader, and counting stations with neutron and gamma ray detectors, all interconnected with a pneumatic sample transport system. A computer controls both the transport system and the data acquisition devices. Gamma ray counting data are stored on magnetic tape for further processing by a large central computer. Facility hardware and software are described. Repetitive analyses of standards have shown an accuracy within +-10% for uranium values and within +-25% for associated elements. A quality assurance program has been developed to maintain these levels of reliability
PIXE-quantified AXSIA: Elemental mapping by multivariate spectral analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doyle, B.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Kotula, P.G.; Antolak, A.J.; Ryan, C.G.; Campbell, J.L.; Barrett, K.
2006-01-01
Automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis techniques are useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of chemical components (spectra and images) that are needed to describe the measurement. We report the first use of the multivariate spectral analysis program AXSIA (Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to quantitatively analyze micro-PIXE data maps. AXSIA implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that reduces the spectral image data sets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (including both spectra and images). We show that the principal component spectra can be further analyzed using conventional PIXE programs to convert the weighting images into quantitative concentration maps. A common elemental data set has been analyzed using three different PIXE analysis codes and the results compared to the cases when each of these codes is used to separately analyze the associated AXSIA principal component spectral data. We find that these comparisons are in good quantitative agreement with each other
Freight performance measures : approach analysis.
2010-05-01
This report reviews the existing state of the art and also the state of the practice of freight performance measurement. Most performance measures at the state level have aimed at evaluating highway or transit infrastructure performance with an empha...
Heat Conduction Analysis Using Semi Analytical Finite Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wargadipura, A. H. S.
1997-01-01
Heat conduction problems are very often found in science and engineering fields. It is of accrual importance to determine quantitative descriptions of this important physical phenomena. This paper discusses the development and application of a numerical formulation and computation that can be used to analyze heat conduction problems. The mathematical equation which governs the physical behaviour of heat conduction is in the form of second order partial differential equations. The numerical resolution used in this paper is performed using the finite element method and Fourier series, which is known as semi-analytical finite element methods. The numerical solution results in simultaneous algebraic equations which is solved using the Gauss elimination methodology. The computer implementation is carried out using FORTRAN language. In the final part of the paper, a heat conduction problem in a rectangular plate domain with isothermal boundary conditions in its edge is solved to show the application of the computer program developed and also a comparison with analytical solution is discussed to assess the accuracy of the numerical solution obtained
Inelastic finite element cyclic analysis of a nozzle-to-cylinder intersection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barsoum, R.S.; Loomis, R.W.
1976-01-01
A finite element elastic-plastic and creep analysis of a nozzle-to-cylinder intersection subject to cyclic thermal shock, internal pressure, and mechanical loads is presented. The nozzle configuration is that of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The analysis was performed using the general purpose program MARC. Both the elastic and inelastic results of the analysis are presented. The intention of this study to analytically investigate the applicability of simplified ratchetting and creep-fatigue rules for LMFBR components, as a part of a program covering various geometries and loadings
Finite element analysis of residual stress in plasma-sprayed ceramic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullen, R.L.; Hendricks, R.C.; McDonald, G.
1985-01-01
Residual stress in a ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 ceramic coating resulting from the plasma spraying operation is calculated. The calculations were done using the finite element method. Both thermal and mechanical analysis were performed. The resulting residual stress field was compared to the measurements obtained by Hendricks and McDonald. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured moment occurred. However, the resulting stress field is not in pure bending
Coupled Analytical-Finite Element Methods for Linear Electromagnetic Actuator Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Srairi
2005-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a linear electromagnetic actuator with moving parts is analyzed. The movement is considered through the modification of boundary conditions only using coupled analytical and finite element analysis. In order to evaluate the dynamic performance of the device, the coupling between electric, magnetic and mechanical phenomena is established. The displacement of the moving parts and the inductor current are determined when the device is supplied by capacitor discharge voltage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlovic, R.; Todorovic, D.; Plecas, I.
2000-01-01
Safety analysis of possible accident during performing ventilation and inspection operations on barrels in which spent fuel elements are stored has been proposed. Investigation is confined to a case when primary contamination is localized to the disposal room and controlled release of gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. 85 Kr is the most important radionuclide considered risk estimation due to release of gaseous fission products (author) [sr
PAPIRUS - a computer code for FBR fuel performance analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Y.; Tsuboi, Y.; Sogame, M.
1991-01-01
The FBR fuel performance analysis code PAPIRUS has been developed to design fuels for demonstration and future commercial reactors. A pellet structural model was developed to describe the generation, depletion and transport of vacancies and atomic elements in unified fashion. PAPIRUS results in comparison with the power - to - melt test data from HEDL showed validity of the code at the initial reactor startup. (author)
Guidelines to perform Life Cycle Analysis of Buildings
Blok, R.; Gervasio, H.; Braganca, L.; Koukkari, H.; Blok, R.
2008-01-01
This paper gives a short introduction and attempts to give guidelines on how to perform a life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of a Building. Because a building is a complex system with many subsystems with building elements out of different materials, each fulfilling different functions the LCA of a building
In-situ elemental analysis of coal by neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.; Tanner, A.B.
1986-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has worked to develop neutron techniques for the borehole measurement of the elemental composition of ores since 1969, and first demonstrated a borehole ultimate analysis of coal in 1977. Borehole measurements such as these permit real-time evaluation of coal quality without the expense of coring or the delays associated with laboratory analyses. Two technological innovations make such measurements possible: the availability, from Savannah River Operations Office, DOE, of small californium-252 (/sup 252/Cf) fission neutron sources, and the development, by USGS and Princeton Gamma-Techn, of the melting-cryogen-cooled high-purity germanium borehole gamma-ray detector. A technique of relating mass fractions to measured gamma-ray intensities, which eliminates the need for detailed knowledge of the geometry of the neutron distribution, is used to calculate elemental compositions without resorting to the test pits or computer borehole modeling. In coal, all of the major constituents (C, H, N, S, Si, Al, Fe, Ti) except oxygen can be determined quantitatively by thermal neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy
Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br
2007-07-01
Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)
Active earth pressure model tests versus finite element analysis
Pietrzak, Magdalena
2017-06-01
The purpose of the paper is to compare failure mechanisms observed in small scale model tests on granular sample in active state, and simulated by finite element method (FEM) using Plaxis 2D software. Small scale model tests were performed on rectangular granular sample retained by a rigid wall. Deformation of the sample resulted from simple wall translation in the direction `from the soil" (active earth pressure state. Simple Coulomb-Mohr model for soil can be helpful in interpreting experimental findings in case of granular materials. It was found that the general alignment of strain localization pattern (failure mechanism) may belong to macro scale features and be dominated by a test boundary conditions rather than the nature of the granular sample.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Algirdas Krivka
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The article raises the problem of the complex analysis of competitive environment of an enterprise, which is considered to be the main source of factors, influencing enterprise‘s strategic behaviour and performance. The elements of competitive environment are derived from “traditional” market structure characteristics, developed by the scholars of classical economics and modern microeconomics, with additional factors coming from industrial organization, theoretical oligopoly models, M. Porter’s five competitive forces and diamond. The developed set of the elements of competitive environment is applied for the comparative analysis of three Lithuanian oligopolic markets. The results obtained confirm the potential for practical application of the developed classification for similar analysis.Article in Lithuanian
Comparative analysis of elemental components in airborne particulate matter by k0-NAA methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong-Sam; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Je; Kim, Young-Jin
2005-01-01
A comparison of the analytical data obtained by three k 0 -NAA software programs was carried out using both the airborne particulate matter collected from an urban site and the certified reference materials of the air filter and urban dust to evaluate the performance of the analysis. The individual k 0 -NAA standardization methods of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam which had been modified from the well established k 0 -program were used for the comparative analysis. The measured concentrations of 30 elements from the two kinds of air samples based on this software were in agreement with each other within about 20% analytical error except for a few elements. By contrast, the results of China and Vietnam were moderately higher than that of Korea due to a systematic error associated with the detection efficiency, gamma peak analysis and geometric effect
Multi-element RIMS Analysis of Genesis Solar Wind Collectors
Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.
2009-12-01
The samples of Solar Wind (SW) delivered by the NASA Genesis mission, present significant challenges for surface analytical techniques, in part due to severe terrestrial contamination of the samples on reentry, in part due to the ultra-shallow and diffused ion implants in the SW collector materials. We are performing measurements of metallic elements in the Genesis collectors using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS), an ultra-sensitive analytical method capable of detecting SW in samples with lateral dimensions of only a few mm and at concentrations from above one ppm to below one ppt. Since our last report at 2008 AGU Fall Meeting, we have (a) developed and tested new resonance ionization schemes permitting simultaneous measurements of up to three (Ca, Cr, and Mg) elements, and (b) improved reproducibility and accuracy of our RIMS analyses for SW-like samples (i.e. shallow ion implants) by developing and implementing an optimized set of new analytical protocols. This is important since the quality of scientific results from the Genesis mission critically depends on the accuracy of analytical techniques. In this work, we report on simultaneous RIMS measurements of Ca and Cr performed on two silicon SW collector samples, (#60179 and #60476). First, we have conducted test experiments with 3×1013 at/cm2 52Cr and 44Ca implants in silicon to evaluate the accuracy of our quantitative analyses. Implant fluencies were measured by RIMS to be 2.73×1013 and 2.71×1013 at/cm2 for 52Cr and 44Ca, respectively, which corresponds to an accuracy of ≈10%. Using the same implanted wafer as a reference, we conducted RIMS analyses of the Genesis samples: 3 spots on #60179 and 4 spots on #60476. The elemental SW fluencies expected for Cr and Ca are 2.95×1010 and 1.33×1011 at/cm2 , respectively. Our measurements of 52Cr yielded 3.0±0.6×1011 at/cm2 and 5.1±4.1×1010 at/cm2 for #60179 and #60476, respectively. For 40Ca, SW fluencies of 1.39±0.70×1011 at/cm2 in #60179
Finite-element analysis of elastic sound-proof coupling thermal state
Tsyss, V. G.; Strokov, I. M.; Sergaeva, M. Yu
2018-01-01
The aim is in calculated determining of the elastic rubber-metal element thermal state of soundproof coupling ship shafting under variable influence during loads in time. Thermal coupling calculation is performed with finite element method using NX Simens software with Nastran solver. As a result of studies, the following results were obtained: - a volumetric picture of the temperature distribution over the array of the deformed coupling body is obtained; - time to reach steady-state thermal coupling mode has been determined; - dependences of maximum temperature and time to reach state on the established operation mode on rotation frequency and ambient temperature are determined. The findings prove the conclusion that usage of finite element analysis modern software can significantly speed up problem solving.
Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Zhanling
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.
Finite Element Analysis of Saferooms Subjected to Tornado Impact Loads
Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.
2017-10-01
A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes - where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.
Obtaining local reciprocal lattice vectors from finite-element analysis.
Sutter, John P; Connolley, Thomas; Hill, Tim P; Huang, Houcheng; Sharp, Doug W; Drakopoulos, Michael
2008-11-01
Finite-element analysis is frequently used by engineers at synchrotron beamlines to calculate the elastic deformation of a single crystal undergoing mechanical bending or thermal load. ANSYS Workbench software is widely used for such simulations. However, although ANSYS Workbench software provides useful information on the displacements, strains and stresses within the crystal, it does not yield the local reciprocal lattice vectors that would be required for X-ray diffraction calculations. To bridge this gap, a method based on the shape functions and interpolation procedures of the software itself has been developed. An application to the double-crystal bent Laue monochromator being designed for the I12 (JEEP) wiggler beamline at the Diamond Light Source is presented.
Finite element analysis of mechanical stability of coarsened nanoporous gold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Hoon-Hwe; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Dunand, David C.
2016-01-01
The mechanical stability of nanoporous gold (np-Au) at various stages of thermal coarsening is studied via finite element analysis under volumetric compression using np-Au architectures imaged via X-ray nano-tomography. As the np-Au is coarsened thermally over ligament sizes ranging from 185 to 465 nm, the pore volume fraction is determinant for the mechanical stability of the coarsened np-Au, unlike the curvature and surface orientation of the ligaments. The computed Young's modulus and yield strength of the structures are compared with the Gibson–Ashby model. The geometry of the structures determines the locations where stress concentrations occur at the onset of yielding.
Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K
1974-01-01
Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.
Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis
Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.
2017-07-01
Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.
Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis
Qu, Zu-Qing
2004-01-01
Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in archaeology interpretation beyond elemental abundance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, Ronald L.
2001-01-01
Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to the study of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of the source or sources used to produce pottery. Groups of relatively homogeneous elemental abundances are shown to be statically distinct from one another often leading to the assesment of what was locally produced and what was imported to a site. These assesment, however are among the most preliminary interpretations. Archaeology is concerned with the reasons for artificial distributions and how and why the distribution varied through time 3 reasons that include the social and political basis of ancient economics and how these responded to other factors, such as ideology. These objectives are addressed through the increasing refinement of compositional groups leading toward greater specificity of attribution. In so doing the role of analytical precision among other considerations groves in importance. This paper illustration some of these considerations with examples from the U.S. southwest, the Maya region of southern mexico, and lower central America
Heterogeneous modelling and finite element analysis of the femur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Binkai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As the largest and longest bone in the human body, the femur has important research value and application prospects. This paper introduces a fast reconstruction method with Mimics and ANSYS software to realize the heterogeneous modelling of the femur according to Hu distribution of the CT series, and simulates it in various situations by finite element analysis to study the mechanical characteristics of the femur. The femoral heterogeneous model shows the distribution of bone mineral density and material properties, which can be used to assess the diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases. The stress concentration position of the femur under different conditions can be calculated by the simulation, which can provide reference for the design and material selection of prosthesis.
Elemental analysis of artefacts - establishing external beam PIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, A.; Johnston, P.; Short, R.; Bubb, I.
1999-01-01
The development of an external PIXE facility on the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator at RMIT has led to a wide range of research possibilities. A proton beam, generated inside a vacuum is brought into air via an Au coated Kapton foil exit window (thickness 8μm, diameter 0.35mm). Monitoring of the beam intensity is achieved by detecting backscattered protons from the inside Au coating on the window. Artefacts, which may be too large to be placed inside the vacuum, are positioned in the beamline opposite the exit window. An optical system consisting of a CCD camera, alignment laser and two mirrors allows viewing of a region of the target 10mm x 10mm. This technique provides quantitative analysis of elements in the pigments used in paintings and on ceramics, which is a valuable tool in art conservation and authentication. Application of the technique to a ceramic sample from the historic house 'Viewbank' is described
Overview of adaptive finite element analysis in computational geodynamics
May, D. A.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.
2013-10-01
The use of numerical models to develop insight and intuition into the dynamics of the Earth over geological time scales is a firmly established practice in the geodynamics community. As our depth of understanding grows, and hand-in-hand with improvements in analytical techniques and higher resolution remote sensing of the physical structure and state of the Earth, there is a continual need to develop more efficient, accurate and reliable numerical techniques. This is necessary to ensure that we can meet the challenge of generating robust conclusions, interpretations and predictions from improved observations. In adaptive numerical methods, the desire is generally to maximise the quality of the numerical solution for a given amount of computational effort. Neither of these terms has a unique, universal definition, but typically there is a trade off between the number of unknowns we can calculate to obtain a more accurate representation of the Earth, and the resources (time and computational memory) required to compute them. In the engineering community, this topic has been extensively examined using the adaptive finite element (AFE) method. Recently, the applicability of this technique to geodynamic processes has started to be explored. In this review we report on the current status and usage of spatially adaptive finite element analysis in the field of geodynamics. The objective of this review is to provide a brief introduction to the area of spatially adaptive finite analysis, including a summary of different techniques to define spatial adaptation and of different approaches to guide the adaptive process in order to control the discretisation error inherent within the numerical solution. An overview of the current state of the art in adaptive modelling in geodynamics is provided, together with a discussion pertaining to the issues related to using adaptive analysis techniques and perspectives for future research in this area. Additionally, we also provide a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tso, C.F. [Arup (United Kingdom); Hueggenberg, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany)
2004-07-01
Drop testing and analysis are the two methods for demonstrating the performance of packages in hypothetical drop accident scenarios. The exact purpose of the tests and the analyses, and the relative prominence of the two in the license application, may depend on the Competent Authority and will vary between countries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful analysis tool. A reliable finite element (FE) code when used correctly and appropriately, will allow a package's behaviour to be simulated reliably. With improvements in computing power, and in sophistication and reliability of FE codes, it is likely that FEM calculations will increasingly be used as evidence of drop test performance when seeking Competent Authority approval. What is lacking at the moment, however, is a standardised method of assessing a FE code in order to determine whether it is sufficiently reliable or pessimistic. To this end, the project Evaluation of Codes for Analysing the Drop Test Performance of Radioactive Material Transport Containers, funded by the European Commission Directorate-General XVII (now Directorate-General for Energy and Transport) and jointly performed by Arup and Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH, was carried out in 1998. The work consisted of three components: Survey of existing finite element software, with a view to finding codes that may be capable of analysing drop test performance of radioactive material packages, and to produce an inventory of them. Develop a set of benchmark problems to evaluate software used for analysing the drop test performance of packages. Evaluate the finite element codes by testing them against the benchmarks This paper presents a summary of this work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tso, C.F.; Hueggenberg, R.
2004-01-01
Drop testing and analysis are the two methods for demonstrating the performance of packages in hypothetical drop accident scenarios. The exact purpose of the tests and the analyses, and the relative prominence of the two in the license application, may depend on the Competent Authority and will vary between countries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful analysis tool. A reliable finite element (FE) code when used correctly and appropriately, will allow a package's behaviour to be simulated reliably. With improvements in computing power, and in sophistication and reliability of FE codes, it is likely that FEM calculations will increasingly be used as evidence of drop test performance when seeking Competent Authority approval. What is lacking at the moment, however, is a standardised method of assessing a FE code in order to determine whether it is sufficiently reliable or pessimistic. To this end, the project Evaluation of Codes for Analysing the Drop Test Performance of Radioactive Material Transport Containers, funded by the European Commission Directorate-General XVII (now Directorate-General for Energy and Transport) and jointly performed by Arup and Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH, was carried out in 1998. The work consisted of three components: Survey of existing finite element software, with a view to finding codes that may be capable of analysing drop test performance of radioactive material packages, and to produce an inventory of them. Develop a set of benchmark problems to evaluate software used for analysing the drop test performance of packages. Evaluate the finite element codes by testing them against the benchmarks This paper presents a summary of this work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzi, G.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.
1974-12-01
Standard and Certified Reference Materials programme of the JRC includes the determination of trace elements in complex biological samples delivered by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards: Bovine liver (NBS SRM 1577), Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM 1571) and Tomato Leaves. The study has been performed by the use of neutron activation analysis. Due to the very low concentration of some elements, radiochemical groups or elemental separation procedures were necessary. The paper describes the techniques used to analyse 25 elements. Computer assisted instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometry was considerably advantageous in the determination of Na, K, Cl, Mn, Fe, Rb and Co and in some cases of Ca, Zn, Cs, Sc, and Cr. For low contents of Ca, Mg, Ni and Si special chemical separation schemes, followed by Cerenkov counting have been developped. Two other separation procedures allowing the determination of As, Cd, Ga, Hg, Mo, Cu, Sr Se, Ba and P have been set up. The first, the simplified one involves the use of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors, the second, the more complete one involves a larger number of shorter measurements performed by simpler and more sensitive techniques, such as NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometry and Cerenkov counting. The results obtained are presented and discussed
Potential of PIXE for the elemental analysis of calcium hydroxide used in dentistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suciu, Ioana; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Bodnar, Dan; Preoteasa, Eugen A.; Gurban, Dan
2006-01-01
Calcium hydroxide is used in dentistry and generally shows a clinically acceptable biocompatibility. However various commercial assortments show differences in their clinical performances, suggesting that certain aspects of their action are not completely understood and pointing to the necessity of new investigation methods. We report a preliminary study on two types of calcium hydroxide products carried out by thick target PIXE with 3.0 MeV protons, aiming to assess the potential of this method for the analysis of such biomaterials used in endodontic dentistry. (Semi)quantitative analysis was performed by use of reference materials, and relative concentrations of elements with respect to Ca were determined with an accuracy of about 30%; tentative absolute concentrations were also estimated by using Ca as a reference element. In both formulations, a number of trace elements (Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr, and possibly Cu and Pb - probably impurities from the raw materials) were evidenced. These trace elements together with the Ba/Ca ratio are reliable fingerprints for the identification of the materials, and evidenced a different origin for the Ca(OH) 2 used in the two specimens. Possible applications of PIXE in dental research may bring relevant compositional insight, and further studies of such materials are suggested. (authors)
Burd, H J; Wilde, G S
2016-04-01
The use of a femtosecond laser to form planes of cavitation bubbles within the ocular lens has been proposed as a potential treatment for presbyopia. The intended purpose of these planes of cavitation bubbles (referred to in this paper as 'cutting planes') is to increase the compliance of the lens, with a consequential increase in the amplitude of accommodation. The current paper describes a computational modelling study, based on three-dimensional finite element analysis, to investigate the relationship between the geometric arrangement of the cutting planes and the resulting improvement in lens accommodation performance. The study is limited to radial cutting planes. The effectiveness of a variety of cutting plane geometries was investigated by means of modelling studies conducted on a 45-year human lens. The results obtained from the analyses depend on the particular modelling procedures that are employed. When the lens substance is modelled as an incompressible material, radial cutting planes are found to be ineffective. However, when a poroelastic model is employed for the lens substance, radial cuts are shown to cause an increase in the computed accommodation performance of the lens. In this case, radial cuts made in the peripheral regions of the lens have a relatively small influence on the accommodation performance of the lens; the lentotomy process is seen to be more effective when cuts are made near to the polar axis. When the lens substance is modelled as a poroelastic material, the computational results suggest that useful improvements in lens accommodation performance can be achieved, provided that the radial cuts are extended to the polar axis. Radial cuts are ineffective when the lens substance is modelled as an incompressible material. Significant challenges remain in developing a safe and effective surgical procedure based on this lentotomy technique.
A Finite Element Analysis of Optimal Variable Thickness Sheets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersson, Joakim S
1996-01-01
A quasimixed Finite Element (FE) method for maximum stiffness of variablethickness sheets is analysed. The displacement is approximated with ninenode Lagrange quadrilateral elements and the thickness is approximated aselementwise constant. One is guaranteed that the FE displacement solutionswill ...
Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong
2002-01-01
A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells
Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It was observed that these promoters have important regulatory elements, which are involved in various important functions. These elements have been compared on the basis of location, copy number, and distributed on positive and negative strands. It was also observed that some of these elements are common and ...
Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krausova, Ivana; Kucera, Jan; Dostalek, Pavel; Potesil, Vaclav
2011-01-01
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29 Si(n,p) 29 Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Najafgholipour
Full Text Available Abstract Reinforced concrete (RC beam-column connections especially those without transverse reinforcement in joint region can exhibit brittle behavior when intensive damage is concentrated in the joint region during an earthquake event. Brittle behavior in the joint region can compromise the ductile design philosophy and the expected overall performance of structure when subjected to seismic loading. Considering the importance of joint shear failure influences on strength, ductility and stability of RC moment resisting frames, a finite element modeling which focuses on joint shear behavior is presented in this article. Nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA of RC beam-column connections is performed in order to investigate the joint shear failure mode in terms of joint shear capacity, deformations and cracking pattern. A 3D finite element model capable of appropriately modeling the concrete stress-strain behavior, tensile cracking and compressive damage of concrete and indirect modeling of steel-concrete bond is used. In order to define nonlinear behavior of concrete material, the concrete damage plasticity is applied to the numerical model as a distributed plasticity over the whole geometry. Finite element model is then verified against experimental results of two non-ductile beam-column connections (one exterior and one interior which are vulnerable to joint shear failure. The comparison between experimental and numerical results indicates that the FE model is able to simulate the performance of the beam-column connections and is able to capture the joint shear failure in RC beam-column connections.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Congsi Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available As a critical component for wireless communication, active phased array antennas face the restrictions of creating effective performance with the effect of randomness in the position of the array element, which are inevitably produced in the manufacturing and operating process of antenna. A new method for efficiently and effectively evaluating the statistic performance of antenna is presented, with consideration of randomness in element position. A coupled structural-electromagnetic statistic model for array antenna is proposed from the viewpoint of electromechanical coupling. Lastly, a 12×12 planar array is illustrated to evaluate the performance of antenna with the saddle-shaped distortion and random position error. The results show that the presented model can obtain the antenna performance quickly and effectively, providing an advantageous guidance for structural design and performance optimization for array antennas in wireless application.
Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin
2004-03-01
Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used
Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin
2004-03-01
Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.
[Rapid multi-elemental analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines based on LIBS technique].
Liu, Xiao-na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jia, Shuai-yun; Zhao, Na; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Qiao, Yan-jiang
2015-06-01
The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a qualitative elementary analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines, i. e. Renqing Mangjue, Renqing Changjue, 25-herb coral pills and 25-herb pearl pills. The specific spectra of the four Tibetan medicines were established. In the experiment, Nd: YAG and 1 064 nm-baseband pulse laser were adopted to collect the spectra. A laser beam focused on the surface of the samples to generate plasma. Its spectral signal was detected by using spectrograph. Based on the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) database, LIBS spectral lines were indentified. The four Tibetan medicines mainly included Ca, Na, K, Mg and other elements and C-N molecular band. Specifically, Fe was detected in Renqing Changjue and 25-herb pearl pills; heavy mental elements Hg and Cu were shown in Renqing Mangjue and Renqing Changjue; Ag was found in Renqing Changjue. The results demonstrated that LIBS is a reliable and rapid multi-element analysis on the four Tibetan medicines. With Real-time, rapid and nondestructive advantages, LIBS has a wide application prospect in the element analysis on ethnic medicines.
Finite-element stress and deflection analysis of CDF yike and end plug
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wands, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.; Theriot, D.
1982-01-01
A large detector is being designed to study anti pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 2000 GeV as part of the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF). The central detector of this facility consists of a solenoid, calorimeter yoke, and a variety of particle measurement devices. The yoke will be a large steel structure that will provide the magnetic flux return path as well as support structure for calorimetry and other instrumentation. It must resist both electromagnetic and gravitational loads while exhibiting only small elastic deformations. The instrumented endplugs of the yoke are subjected to large electromagnetic loads. Moreover, due to the presence of wire chambers within these plugs, they must also be particularly stiff. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a finite element stress and deflection analysis of these structures under various anticipated load conditions. The PATRAN-G finite element modeling program, installed on a CDF-VAX 11/780 and operating from a Ramtek 6212 colorgraphics terminal, was used to generate the analysis models. The actual finite element analysis was performed by the ANSYS general purpose finite element program, installed on the Fermilab Cyber 175's
Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.
1983-01-01
Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed
Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE–RBS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C.D.; Liu, M.T.; Zhu, J.J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.
2015-01-01
Highlights: •We analyzed 61 unearthed porcelain shards in Yuan Dynasty by PIXE–RBS. •An electron gun was installed to solve the electric charge accumulations. •The factor analysis was performed for the element compositions. •The “exotic group” porcelain samples unearthed were produced locally. -- Abstract: A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB 6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907–960 A.D.) had been
Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro
2006-01-01
Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)
Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie
2011-11-01
The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.
Principle of neutron activation analysis and its use for determination of trace elements in sediment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verma, Rakesh
2012-01-01
Neutron Activation analysis (NAA) is a multi element analysis technique, often non-destructive in nature where approximately 75 elements can be measured with the detection limits ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -12 g of element in a sample. Typical sample sizes range from 1 mg to 1 g, however in principle much larger samples can be activated and the size is only limited by the capacity of the neutron irradiation facility. In NAA, a sample (solid or liquid or gas) is exposed to neutrons and radiations emitted by the radioactive products, formed during the nuclear reaction, are measured using a suitable detector. The energy of the emitted radiation is a characteristic of a radioisotope whereas the intensity of the emitted radiation is proportional to the mass of the analyte. NAA can be carried out by measurement of (i) prompt gamma rays emitted by compound nucleus, called prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) and (ii) β rays emitted from radioactive product or delayed gamma rays emitted subsequent to β decay, called conventional NAA or simply NAA. PGNAA is an online measurement method. PGNAA is complementary to conventional NAA in terms of analyzing low Z elements. Conventional NAA is an offline method and is easy to perform. Depending upon the nature of matrix and analyte to be determined, three approaches are possible in NAA namely, (i) instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), (ii) radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), and (iii) chemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA). Quantification is accomplished by any of the three standardisation methodologies namely (i) absolute method (ii) relative method and (iii) single comparator method. The relative method is most precise and simple to perform. Natural processes responsible for the formation of bottom sediments can be altered by anthropogenic activities. Bottom sediments are a sink as well as a source of contaminants in the aquatic environment. Analysis of-sediments provides environmentally significant
Finite element analysis of composite concrete-timber beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. C. S. FORTI
Full Text Available AbstractIn the search for sustainable construction, timber construction is gaining in popularity around the world. Sustainably harvested wood stores carbon dioxide, while reforestation absorbs yet more CO2. One technique involves the combination of a concrete slab and a timber beam, where the two materials are assembled by the use of flexible connectors. Composite structures provide reduced costs, environmental benefits, a better acoustic performance, when compared to timber structures, and maintain structural safety. Composite structures combine materials with different mechanical properties. Their mechanical performance depends on the efficiency of the connection, which is designed to transmit shear longitudinal forces between the two materials and to prevent vertical detachment. This study contributes with the implementation of a finite element formulation for stress and displacement determination of composite concrete-timber beams. The deduced stiffness matrix and load vector are presented along to numerical examples. Numerical examples are compared to the analytical equations available in Eurocode 5 and to experimental data found in the literature.
Shea, Camille; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley J.; Patterson, Holly N.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Holland, Albert W.
2012-01-01
This report is the result of a collaborative effort between NASA?s Behavioral Health & Performance (BHP) Research and Operations Group to investigate and determine the availability of data pertaining to behavioral performance (and other pertinent variables) that have been collected by the laboratories at NASA?s Johnson Space Center. BHP?s Operations and Research groups collaborated to systematically identify what types of performance data are needed in relevant BHP performance domains and also to conduct structured interviews with NASA personnel to identify which data do or do not exist currently (and for instances where such data exist, to evaluate the type, quality, accessibility, and confidentiality of those data). The authors defined outcome categories of performance that encapsulate BHP performance domains, mapped BHP Research Risks and Gaps onto those performance outcome categories, and identified and prioritized indicators for each outcome category. The team identified key points of contact (subject matter experts [SMEs]) as potential interviewees, created a template for structured interview questions about sources and accessibility of performance data, and coordinated and conducted structured interviews with the SMEs. The methodology, results, and implications of this effort, as well as forward work needed, are discussed in this report.
The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis
Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley
2007-12-01
Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajurkar, N.S.; Damame, M.M.
1997-01-01
Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the ayurveda for curing of cardiovascular diseases has been performed using the techniques of neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of elements Mn, Na, K and Cl has been estimated by NAA using a 252 Cf neutron source and a high purity germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, while the elements, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were analysed by ASS using a Perkin Elmer 3100 instrument. (author)
Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schelenz, R.; Bayat, I.; Fischer, E.
1976-05-01
For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distillation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br-82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.) [de
Finite Element Analysis of Patella Alta: A Patellofemoral Instability Model.
Watson, Nicole A; Duchman, Kyle R; Grosland, Nicole M; Bollier, Matthew J
2017-01-01
This study aims to provide biomechanical data on the effect of patella height in the setting of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using finite element analysis. The study will also examine patellofemoral joint biomechanics using variable femoral insertion sites for MPFL reconstruction. A previously validated finite element knee model was modified to study patella alta and baja by translating the patella a given distance to achieve each patella height ratio. Additionally, the models were modified to study various femoral insertion sites of the MPFL (anatomic, anterior, proximal, and distal) for each patella height model, resulting in 32 unique scenarios available for investigation. In the setting of patella alta, the patellofemoral contact area decreased, resulting in a subsequent increase in maximum patellofemoral contact pressures as compared to the scenarios with normal patellar height. Additionally, patella alta resulted in decreased lateral restraining forces in the native knee scenario as well as following MPFL reconstruction. Changing femoral insertion sites had a variable effect on patellofemoral contact pressures; however, distal and anterior femoral tunnel malpositioning in the setting of patella alta resulted in grossly elevated maximum patellofemoral contact pressures as compared to other scenarios. Patella alta after MPFL reconstruction results in decreased lateral restraining forces and patellofemoral contact area and increased maximum patellofemoral contact pressures. When the femoral MPFL tunnel is malpositioned anteriorly or distally on the femur, the maximum patellofemoral contact pressures increase with severity of patella alta. When evaluating patients with patellofemoral instability, it is important to recognize patella alta as a potential aggravating factor. Failure to address patella alta in the setting of MPFL femoral tunnel malposition may result in even further increases in patellofemoral contact pressures, making it
Nitinol Embolic Protection Filters: Design Investigation by Finite Element Analysis
Conti, Michele; de Beule, Matthieu; Mortier, Peter; van Loo, Denis; Verdonck, Pascal; Vermassen, Frank; Segers, Patrick; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Verhegghe, Benedict
2009-08-01
The widespread acceptance of carotid artery stenting (CAS) to treat carotid artery stenosis and its effectiveness compared with surgical counterpart, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), is still a matter of debate. Transient or permanent neurological deficits may develop in patients undergoing CAS due to distal embolization or hemodynamic changes. Design, development, and usage of embolic protection devices (EPDs), such as embolic protection filters, appear to have a significant impact on the success of CAS. Unfortunately, some drawbacks, such as filtering failure, inability to cross tortuous high-grade stenoses, malpositioning and vessel injury, still remain and require design improvement. Currently, many different designs of such devices are available on the rapidly growing dedicated market. In spite of such a growing commercial interest, there is a significant need for design tools as well as for careful engineering investigations and design analyses of such nitinol devices. The present study aims to investigate the embolic protection filter design by finite element analysis. We first developed a parametrical computer-aided design model of an embolic filter based on micro-CT scans of the Angioguard™ XP (Cordis Endovascular, FL) EPD by means of the open source pyFormex software. Subsequently, we used the finite element method to simulate the deployment of the nitinol filter as it exits the delivery sheath. Comparison of the simulations with micro-CT images of the real device exiting the catheter showed excellent correspondence with our simulations. Finally, we evaluated circumferential basket-vessel wall apposition of a 4 mm size filter in a straight vessel of different sizes and shape. We conclude that the proposed methodology offers a useful tool to evaluate and to compare current or new designs of EPDs. Further simulations will investigate vessel wall apposition in a realistic tortuous anatomy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Moon Kyum
2012-01-01
In this study, finite element analysis of beam on elastic foundation, which received great attention of researchers due to its wide applications in engineering, is performed for estimating dynamic responses of shallow foundation using exact stiffness matrix. First, element stiffness matrix based on the closed solution of beam on elastic foundation is derived. Then, we performed static finite element analysis included exact stiffness matrix numerically, comparing results from the analysis with some exact analysis solutions well known for verification. Finally, dynamic finite element analysis is performed for a shallow foundation structure under rectangular pulse loading using trapezoidal method. The dynamic analysis results exist in the reasonable range comparing solution of single degree of freedom problem under a similar condition. The results show that finite element analysis using exact stiffness matrix is evaluated as a good tool of estimating the dynamic response of structures on elastic foundation.
Transcriptomic analysis of rice aleurone cells identified a novel abscisic acid response element.
Watanabe, Kenneth A; Homayouni, Arielle; Gu, Lingkun; Huang, Kuan-Ying; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Shen, Qingxi J
2017-09-01
Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signalling. However, its consensus sequence (ACGTG(G/T)C) is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA-induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements, and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function. Gene ontology analysis was performed to predict the roles of genes containing the novel ABREs. This study revealed 2443 ABA-inducible genes and a novel ABRE, designated as ABREN, which was experimentally verified to mediate ABA signalling in rice aleurone cells. Many of the ABREN-containing genes are predicted to be involved in stress responses and transcription. Analysis of other species suggests that the ABREN may be monocot specific. This study also revealed interesting expression patterns of genes involved in ABA metabolism and signalling. Collectively, this study advanced our understanding of diverse cis-regulatory sequences and the transcriptomes underlying ABA responses in rice aleurone cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CFD Analysis on the Periodic Element of a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tak, Nam-il; Kim, Min-Hwan; Lee, Won-Jae
2007-01-01
A typical printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is composed of a large number of flow channels with lateral corrugations. In an effort to investigate fundamental thermo-fluid characteristics of a PCHE with corrugated channels, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were previously made in. One pair of flow channels (i.e., cold and hot channels) with the entire flow path was considered for the computational domain in the previous studies. Although only one pair of flow channels with coarse meshes was used, computational loads were found to be very high to simulate the entire flow path of the PCHE. Fortunately a recent study has shown that a simplified CFD methodology with a stream wise periodic assumption (called periodic CFD analysis) is feasible for a CFD evaluation of the thermo-fluid performance of compact heat exchangers. Since the periodic CFD analysis focuses on the periodic element of a flow channel, the required computing resources are dramatically reduced. In the present paper, the periodic CFD analysis has been applied to the periodic element of the PCHE. The results are compared with those of the full elements which have an entire flow path. Based on the periodic approach the effects of the corrugation parameters on the thermo-fluid performance of the PCHE are investigated
Thermo-plastic finite element analysis for metal honeycomb structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Zhanling
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with thermal-plastic analysis for the metal honeycomb structure. The heat transfer equation and thermal elastoplastic constitutive equation of a multilayer panel are established and studied numerically using ANSYS software. The paper elucidates that only the outer skin produces easily plastic deformation, and the outer skin still exists some residual stress and residual deformation after cooling. The dynamic evolution of plastic deformation and material performance degradation under high energy thermal load are revealed.
Sevilla, Galo T.; Almuslem, A. S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Cruz, Melvin; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
2016-01-01
shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using
The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes
Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...
Chansirisira, Pacharawit
2012-01-01
The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…
Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)
Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather
2013-01-01
Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…
Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...
Concrete model for finite element analysis of structures subjected to severe damages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamet, Ph.; Millard, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Nahas, G.; Barbe, B.
1984-01-01
A specific concrete model has been developed, in order to perform mechanical analysis of civil engineering structures, when subjected to accidental loadings, leading to severe damages. Its formulation is based on the physical mechanisms, which have been observed on laboratory specimens. The model has been implemented into the CASTEM finite element system, and the case of a concrete slab perforation by a rigid missile has been considered. The qualitative behaviour of the structure is well predicted by the model. Comparison between numerical and experimental results is also performed, using two main curves: missile velocity versus penetration depth; reaction forces versus time. (Author) [pt
Finite element analysis for prediction of the residual stresses induced by shot peening II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Cheol; Seok, Chang Sung; Yang, Won Ho; Ryu, Myung Hai
2002-01-01
Shot peening is a surface impact treatment widely used to improve the performance of metal parts and welded details subjected to fatigue loading, contact fatigue, stress corrosion and other damage mechanisms. The better performance of the peened parts is mainly due to the residual stresses resulting from the plastic deformation of the surface layers of the material caused by the impact of the shot. In this paper the simulation technique is applied to predict the magnitude and distribution of the residual stress and plastic deformation caused by shot peening with the help of finite element analysis
Investigation of faulted tunnel models by combined photoelasticity and finite element analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ladkany, S.G.; Huang, Yuping
1994-01-01
Models of square and circular tunnels with short faults cutting through their surfaces are investigated by photoelasticity. These models, when duplicated by finite element analysis can predict the stress states of square or circular faulted tunnels adequately. Finite element analysis, using gap elements, may be used to investigate full size faulted tunnel system