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Sample records for electroweak chiral lagrangian

  1. Determination of the electroweak chiral-lagrangian parameters at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobado, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Urdiales, M.T. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1996-08-01

    In this work we report on the results obtained in a detailed and systematical study of the possibility to measure the parameters appearing in the electroweak chiral lagrangian. The main novelty of our approach is that we do not use the equivalence theorem and therefore we work explicitly with all the gauge boson degrees of freedom. (orig.). With 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. QFT justification of the κ-framework using the electroweak chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, Gerhard; Cata, Oscar; Celis, Alejandro; Krause, Claudius [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We consider the electroweak chiral Lagrangian as effective field theory (EFT) for the Standard Model at the electroweak scale v. This EFT describes the phenomenology of the Standard Model with generalized Higgs couplings in a consistent way. This is motivated by (but not restricted to) a new, strongly-coupled sector responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. After a brief discussion of the systematics of the effective expansion, I present its application to current LHC Higgs data. I show how the leading effects are related to the κ-framework that is currently used by the experiments at the LHC. The κ-framework was introduced as a pure phenomenological signal-strength parametrization and is criticized as being inconsistent with quantum field theory. I will show that the latter is not the case and present a justification of the κ-framework using the leading order analysis of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian. It is therefore well defined and can straightforwardly be extended to higher orders within the EFT. I also present a fit of the chiral Lagrangian to the LHC Higgs data.

  3. Fingerprints of heavy scales in electroweak effective Lagrangians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pich, Antonio [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Rosell, Ignasi [Departamento de Matemáticas, Física y Ciencias Tecnológicas,Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, E-46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Santos, Joaquín [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Sanz-Cillero, Juan José [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-04

    The couplings of the electroweak effective theory contain information on the heavy-mass scales which are no-longer present in the low-energy Lagrangian. We build a general effective Lagrangian, implementing the electroweak chiral symmetry breaking SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R}→SU(2){sub L+R}, which couples the known particle fields to heavier states with bosonic quantum numbers J{sup P}=0{sup ±} and 1{sup ±}. We consider colour-singlet heavy fields that are in singlet or triplet representations of the electroweak group. Integrating out these heavy scales, we analyze the pattern of low-energy couplings among the light fields which are generated by the massive states. We adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs, without making any assumption about its possible doublet structure. Special attention is given to the different possible descriptions of massive spin-1 fields and the differences arising from naive implementations of these formalisms, showing their full equivalence once a proper short-distance behaviour is required.

  4. N = 3 chiral supergravity compatible with the reality condition and higher N chiral Lagrangian density

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Motomu

    2000-01-01

    We obtain N = 3 chiral supergravity (SUGRA) compatible with the reality condition by applying the prescription of constructing the chiral Lagrangian density from the usual SUGRA. The $N = 3$ chiral Lagrangian density in first-order form, which leads to the Ashtekar's canonical formulation, is determined so that it reproduces the second-order Lagrangian density of the usual SUGRA especially by adding appropriate four-fermion contact terms. We show that the four-fermion contact terms added in t...

  5. Chiral Lagrangian with Heavy Quark-Diquark Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Hu; Thomas Mehen

    2005-11-29

    We construct a chiral Lagrangian for doubly heavy baryons and heavy mesons that is invariant under heavy quark-diquark symmetry at leading order and includes the leading O(1/m{sub Q}) symmetry violating operators. The theory is used to predict the electromagnetic decay width of the J=3/2 member of the ground state doubly heavy baryon doublet. Numerical estimates are provided for doubly charm baryons. We also calculate chiral corrections to doubly heavy baryon masses and strong decay widths of low lying excited doubly heavy baryons.

  6. Chiral Lagrangians and quark condensate in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, J.; Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of density of quark condensate in nuclear medium with interacting nucleons, including the short range correlations is examined. Two chiral models are used, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. It is shown that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. The non-linear models restricted to pure s-wave pion-nucleon scattering are examined. (author). 28 refs.; Submitted to nuclear Physics, A (NL).

  7. Effective Lagrangians and chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, M.A.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M. [Department of Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    1995-08-15

    Recently, sum rules were derived for the inverse eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. They were obtained in two different ways: (i) starting from the low-energy effective Lagrangian and (ii) starting from a random matrix theory with the symmetries of the Dirac operator. This suggests that the effective theory can be obtained directly from the random matrix theory. Previously, this was shown for three or more colors with fundamental fermions. In this paper we construct the effective theory from a random matrix theory for two colors in the fundamental representation and for an arbitrary number of colors in the adjoint representation. We construct a fermionic partition function for Majorana fermions in Euclidean spacetime. Their reality condition is formulated in terms of complex conjugation of the second kind.

  8. Chiral Lagrangians, anomalies, supersymmetry, and holomorphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, Andrei; Moore, Gregory; Nekrasov, Nikita; Shatashvili, Samson

    1997-02-01

    We investigate higher-dimensional analogues of the bc systems of 2D RCFT. When coupled to gauge fields and Beltrami differentials defining integrable holomorphic structures, the bc partition functions can be explicitly evaluated using anomalies and holomorphy. The resulting induced actions generalize the chiral algebras of 2D RCFT to 2 n dimensions. Moreover, bc systems in four and six dimensions are closely related to supersymmetric matter. In particular, we show that d = 4, N = 2 hypermultiplets induce a theory of self-dual Yang-Mills fields coupled to self-dual gravity. In this way the bc systems fermionize both the algebraic sector of the WZW 4 theory, as defined by Losev et al., and the classical open NWS = 2 string.

  9. Chiral Lagrangians, anomalies, supersymmetry, and holomorphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Shatashvili, S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-01-20

    We investigate higher-dimensional analogues of the bc systems of 2D RCFT. When coupled to gauge fields and Beltrami differentials defining integrable holomorphic structures, the bc partition functions can be explicitly evaluated using anomalies and holomorphy. The resulting induced actions generalize the chiral algebras of 2D RCFT to 2n dimensions. Moreover, bc systems in four and six dimensions are closely related to supersymmetric matter. In particular, we show that d=4, N=2 hypermultiplets induce a theory of self-dual Yang-Mills fields coupled to self-dual gravity. In this way the bc systems fermionize both the algebraic sector of the WZW{sub 4} theory, as defined by Losev et al., and the classical open N{sub ws}=2 string. (orig.).

  10. The Effective Chiral Lagrangian for a Light Dynamical "Higgs Particle"

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.; Yepes, J.

    2013-01-01

    We generalize the basis of CP-even chiral effective operators describing a dynamical Higgs sector, to the case in which the Higgs-like particle is light. Gauge and gauge-Higgs operators are considered up to mass dimension five. This analysis completes the tool needed to explore at leading order the connection between linear realizations of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism - whose extreme case is the Standard Model - and non-linear realizations with a light Higgs-like particle present. It may also provide a model-independent guideline to explore which exotic gauge-Higgs couplings may be expected, and their relative strength to Higgsless observable amplitudes. With respect to fermions, the analysis is reduced by nature to the consideration of those flavour-conserving operators that can be written in terms of pure-gauge or gauge-Higgs ones via the equations of motion, but for the standard Yukawa-type couplings.

  11. Meson-Baryon Effective Chiral Lagrangian at $O(q^3)$ Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, José Antonio; Verbeni, Michela; Oller, Jose Antonio; Prades, Joaquim; Verbeni, Michela

    2007-01-01

    After our work [1] was published, Frink and Meissner [2] pointed out that the O(q^3) three-flavour meson-baryon chiral Lagrangian presented there was not minimal. Here, we critically review their paper and revise ours. Remarkably, we find that the effective meson-baryon chiral Lagrangian at O(q^3) contains 76 monomials, i.e. eight less than in [1] and two less than in [2].

  12. Phenomenology and Cosmology of an Electroweak Pseudo-Dilaton and Electroweak Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Bruce A; Olive, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    In many strongly-interacting models of electroweak symmetry breaking the lowest-lying observable particle is a pseudo-Goldstone boson of approximate scale symmetry, the pseudo-dilaton. Its interactions with Standard Model particles can be described using a low-energy effective nonlinear chiral Lagrangian supplemented by terms that restore approximate scale symmetry, yielding couplings of the pseudo-dilaton that differ from those of a Standard Model Higgs boson by fixed factors. We review the experimental constraints on such a pseudo-dilaton in light of new data from the LHC and elsewhere. The effective nonlinear chiral Lagrangian has Skyrmion solutions that may be identified with the `electroweak baryons' of the underlying strongly-interacting theory, whose nature may be revealed by the properties of the Skyrmions. We discuss the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition in the low-energy effective theory, finding that the possibility of a first-order electroweak phase transition is resurrected. We disc...

  13. "LEPTOP" electroweak corrections at LEP1

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, V; Vysotsky, M I

    1995-01-01

    This work discusses parameters of the electroweak Lagrangian, coupling constants, the alpha Born approximation, W mass, Z mass, Z decays, one-loop electroweak corrections, electroweak corrections for the "gluon-free" observables, gluonic corrections to electroweak loops. (12 refs).

  14. CERN LHC sensitivity to the resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peláez, J R; Ruiz-Morales, Ester

    2000-01-01

    We present a unified analysis of the two main production processes of vector boson pairs at the CERN LHC, VV-fusion and qq annihilation, in a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Using a unitarized electroweak chiral Lagrangian formalism and modeling the final V/sub L/V/sub L/ strong rescattering effects by a form factor, we describe qq annihilation processes in terms of the two chiral parameters that govern elastic V/sub L/V/sub L/ scattering. Depending on the values of these two chiral parameters, the unitarized amplitudes may present resonant enhancements in different angular momentum-isospin channels. Scanning this two parameter space, we generate the general resonance spectrum of a minimal strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector and determine the regions that can be probed at the CERN LHC. (47 refs).

  15. Minimal nonuniversal electroweak extensions of the standard model: A chiral multiparameter solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Richard H.; Muñoz, Luis; Ponce, William A.; Rodríguez, Oscar; Rojas, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    We report the most general expression for the chiral charges of a nonuniversal U (1 )' with identical charges for the first two families but different charges for the third one. The model is minimal in the sense that only standard model fermions plus right-handed neutrinos are required. By imposing anomaly cancellation and constraints coming from Yukawa couplings, we obtain two different solutions. In one of these solutions, the anomalies cancel between fermions in different families. These solutions depend on four independent parameters which result very useful for model building. We build different benchmark models in order to show the flexibility of the parametrization. We also report LHC and low energy constraints for these benchmark models.

  16. Gaugino condensates and chiral-linear duality an effective lagrangian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Quevedo, Fernando; Quirós, Mariano; Burgess, C P; Derendinger, J P; Quevedo, F; Quiros, M

    1995-01-01

    We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We prove the duality equivalence of this approach with the more familiar formulation using a chiral superfield. In so doing, we resolve a longstanding puzzle as to how a linear-multiplet formulation can be consistent with the dynamical breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry which is thought to occur once the gauginos condense. In our approach, the composite gauge degrees of freedom are described by a real vector superfield, V, rather than the chiral superfield that is obtained in the traditional dual formulation. Our dualization, when applied to the case of several condensing gauge groups, provides strong evidence that this duality survives strong-coupling effects in string theory. We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We...

  17. Application of chiral resonance Lagrangian theories to the muon g-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We think that phenomenological resonance Lagrangian models, constrained by global fits from low energy hadron reaction data, can help to improve muon g-2 predictions. The main issue are those contributions which cannot be calculated by perturbative means: the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) effects and the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) scattering contribution. I review recent progress in the evaluation of the HVP contribution within the broken Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) framework, worked out in collaboration with M. Benayoun, P. David and L. Del-Buono. Our HLS driven estimate reads a{sub {mu}}{sup LO} {sup had} = (688.60{+-}4.24) . 10{sup -10} and we find a{sub {mu}}{sup the} = (11659177.65{+-}5.76) . 10{sup -10}.

  18. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  19. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the condensate. In our template, a mass term for the fermions in the fundamental theory acts as a stabilizer of the Higgs potential, without the need for partners of the top quark. We constrain the available parameter......Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...

  20. Species doubling and effective Lagrangians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Tytgat, M.

    1996-09-01

    Coupling gauge fields to the chiral currents from an effective Lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons naturally gives rise to a species doubling phenomenon similar to that seen with fermionic fields in lattice gauge theory. 17 refs.

  1. Nuclear forces from chiral Lagrangians using the method of unitary transformation II: The two-nucleon system

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf G

    2000-01-01

    We employ the chiral nucleon-nucleon potential derived in [Nucl. Phys. A 637 (1998) 107] to study bound and scattering states in the two-nucleon system. At next-to-leading order, this potential is the sum of renormalized one-pion and two-pion exchange and contact interactions. At next-to-next-to-leading order, we have additional chiral two-pion exchange with low-energy constants determined from pion-nucleon scattering. Alternatively, we consider the DELTA(1232) as an explicit degree of freedom in the effective field theory. The nine parameters related to the contact interactions can be determined by a fit to the np S- and P-waves and the mixing parameter epsilon sub 1 for laboratory energies below 100 MeV. The predicted phase shifts and mixing parameters for higher energies and higher angular momenta are mostly well described for energies below 300 MeV. The S-waves are described as precisely as in modern phenomenological potentials. We find a good description of the deuteron properties.

  2. Alternate Gauge Electroweak Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    We describe an alternate gauge electroweak model that permits neutrinos with mass, and at the same time explains why right-handed neutrinos do not appear in weak interactions. This is a local gauge theory involving a space [V ] of three scalar functions. The standard Lagrangian density for the Yang-Mills field part and Higgs doublet remain invariant. A ma jor change is made in the transformation and corresponding Lagrangian density parts involving the right-handed leptons. A picture involving two types of right-handed leptons emerges. A dichotomy of matter on the [V ] space corresponds to coupled and uncoupled right-handed Leptons. Here, we describe a covariant dipole-mode solution in which the neutral bosons A{\\mu} and Z{\\mu} produce precessions on [V ]. The W {\\pm} {\\mu} bosons provide nutations on [V ], and consequently, provide transitions between the coupled and uncoupled regions. To elucidate the [V ] space matter dichotomy, and to generate the boson masses, we also provide an alternate potential Lagran...

  3. The minimal fermionic model of electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egana-Ugrinovic, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    We present the minimal model of electroweak baryogenesis induced by fermions. The model consists of an extension of the Standard Model with one electroweak singlet fermion and one pair of vector like doublet fermions with renormalizable couplings to the Higgs. A strong first order phase transition is radiatively induced by the singlet-doublet fermions, while the origin of the baryon asymmetry is due to asymmetric reflection of the same set of fermions on the expanding electroweak bubble wall. The singlet-doublet fermions are stabilized at the electroweak scale by chiral symmetries and the Higgs potential is stabilized by threshold corrections coming from a multi-TeV ultraviolet completion which does not play any significant role in the phase transition. We work in terms of background symmetry invariants and perform an analytic semiclassical calculation of the baryon asymmetry, showing that the model may effectively generate the observed baryon asymmetry for percent level values of the unique invariant CP violating phase of the singlet-doublet sector. We include a detailed study of electron electric dipole moment and electroweak precision limits, and for one typical benchmark scenario, we also recast existing collider constraints, showing that the model is consistent with all current experimental data. We point out that fermion induced electroweak baryogenesis has irreducible phenomenology at the 13 TeV LHC since the new fermions must be at the electroweak scale, have electroweak quantum numbers and couple strongly to the Higgs. The most promising searches involve topologies with multiple leptons and missing energy in the final state.

  4. Status of electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUSY breaking. (gaugino)2 ? 100 GeV. Electroweak: SU(2)¢U(1) U(1)em. SM Higgs. 100 MeV. QCD chiral phase transition. nqДqК this negative conclusion by ... А, and perturbation theory breaks down for heavy Higgs bosons, ..... and S is a CP-violating source term arising from the force on the particles or from quantum.

  5. Introduction to chiral symmetry in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdjian H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of chiral symmetry in QCD are presented. The necessity of its spontaneous breakdown is explained. Some low-energy theorems are reviewed. The role of chiral effective Lagrangians in the formulation and realization of chiral perturbation theory is emphasized. The consequences of the presence of anomalies are sketched.

  6. Electroweak monopoles and the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil [The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2017-07-15

    We consider an isolated electroweak monopole solution within the Standard Model with a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of the hypercharge gauge field. Monopole (and dyon) solutions in such an extension are regular and their masses are predicted to be proportional to the Born-Infeld mass parameter. We argue that cosmological production of electroweak monopoles may delay the electroweak phase transition and make it more strongly first order for monopole masses M >or similar 9.3 . 10{sup 3} TeV, while the nucleosynthesis constraints on the abundance of relic monopoles impose the bound M electroweak phase transition. (orig.)

  7. An electroweak basis for neutrinoless double β decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Michael L.

    2017-08-01

    A discovery of neutrinoless double- β decay would be profound, providing the first direct experimental evidence of Δ L = 2 lepton number violating processes. While a natural explanation is provided by an effective Majorana neutrino mass, other new physics interpretations should be carefully evaluated. At low-energies such new physics could man-ifest itself in the form of color and SU(2) L × U(1) Y invariant higher dimension operators. Here we determine a complete set of electroweak invariant dimension-9 operators, and our analysis supersedes those that only impose U(1) em invariance. Imposing electroweak invariance implies: 1) a significantly reduced set of leading order operators compared to only imposing U(1) em invariance; and 2) other collider signatures. Prior to imposing electroweak invariance we find a minimal basis of 24 dimension-9 operators, which is reduced to 11 electroweak invariant operators at leading order in the expansion in the Higgs vacuum expectation value. We set up a systematic analysis of the hadronic realization of the 4-quark operators using chiral perturbation theory, and apply it to determine which of these operators have long-distance pion enhancements at leading order in the chiral expansion. We also find at dimension-11 and dimension-13 the electroweak invariant operators that after electroweak symmetry breaking produce the remaining Δ L = 2 operators that would appear at dimension-9 if only U(1) em is imposed.

  8. Electroweak Results from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We present recent CMS measurements on electroweak boson production including single, double, and triple boson final states. Electroweak processes span many orders of magnitude in production cross section. Measurements of high-rate processes provide stringent tests of the standard model. In addition, rare triboson proceses and final states produced through vector boson scattering are newly accessible with the large integrated luminosity provided by the LHC. If new physics lies just beyond the reach of the LHC, its effects may manifest as enhancements to the high energy kinematics in mulitboson production. We present limits on new physics signatures using an effective field theory which models these modifications as modifications of electroweak gauge couplings. Since electroweak measurements will continue to benefit from the increasing integrated luminosity provided by the LHC, the future prospects of electroweak physics are discussed.

  9. Study of electroweak gauge boson scattering in the WZ channel with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socher, Felix

    2016-07-15

    high centre-of-mass energies and luminosities to study these processes successfully. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a circular proton-proton collider equipped to supply a suitable environment for such studies with the colliding protons being the sources for the scattering of massive electroweak gauge bosons. The dataset collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a total luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1} and a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is analysed in this work. The elastic scattering process WZ → WZ is studied due to its clean signal properties. It provides a complementary measurement to W{sup ±}W{sup ±}→W{sup ±}W{sup ±} which reported the first significant evidence for massive electroweak gauge boson scattering. Given the current data, WZ→WZ scattering is not observed with large significantly. A cross section upper limit of 2.5 fb at 95% confidence level is measured, compatible with the cross section of 0.54 fb predicted by the Standard Model. In addition, distributions for several observables sensitive to electroweak gauge boson scattering are unfolded, removing effects caused by the measuring process. Physics beyond the Standard Model is probed in the framework of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian which expresses the size of effects from new physics in terms of strength parameters. The two strength parameters influencing the quartic gauge couplings are constrained to -0.44<α{sub 4}<0.49 and -0.49<α{sub 5}<0.47 thus limiting the possible size of new physics contributions.

  10. Electroweak instantons/sphalerons at VLHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    There is a close analogy between electroweak instanton-induced baryon plus lepton number (B+L) violating processes in Quantum Flavor Dynamics (QFD) and hard QCD instanton-induced chirality violating processes in deep-inelastic scattering. In view of the recent information about the latter both from lattice simulations and from the H1 experiment at HERA, it seems worthwhile to reconsider electroweak B+L violation at high energies. We present a state of the art evaluation of QFD instanton-induced parton-parton cross-sections, as relevant at future high energy colliders in the hundreds of TeV regime, such as the projected Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We find that the cross-sections are unobservably small in a conservative fiducial kinematical region inferred from the above mentioned QFD--QCD analogy. An extrapolation -- still compatible with lattice results and HERA -- beyond this conservative limit indicates possible observability at VLHC.

  11. Electroweak single-pion production off the nucleon: From threshold to high invariant masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, R.; Jachowicz, N.; Niewczas, K.; Nys, J.; Pandey, V.; Van Cuyck, T.; Van Dessel, N.

    2017-06-01

    Neutrino-induced single-pion production (SPP) provides an important contribution to neutrino-nucleus interactions, ranging from intermediate to high energies. There exists a good number of low-energy models in the literature to describe the neutrino production of pions in the region around the Delta resonance. Those models consider only lowest-order interaction terms and, therefore, fail in the high-energy region (pion-nucleon invariant masses, W ≳2 GeV ). Our goal is to develop a model for electroweak SPP off the nucleon, which is applicable to the entire energy range of interest for present and future accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation experiments. We start with the low-energy model of [E. Hernández, J. Nieves, and M. Valverde, Phys. Rev. D 76, 033005 (2007)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.033005], which includes resonant contributions and background terms derived from the pion-nucleon Lagrangian of chiral-perturbation theory [S. Scherer and M. R. Schindler, A Primer for Chiral Perturbation Theory (Springer, Berlin, 2012), p. 1.]. Then, from the background contributions, we build a high-energy model using a Regge approach. The low- and high-energy models are combined, in a phenomenological way, into a hybrid model. The hybrid model is identical to the low-energy model in the low-W region, but, for W >2 GeV , it implements the desired high-energy behavior dictated by Regge theory. We have tested the high-energy model by comparing with one-pion production data from electron and neutrino reactions. The hybrid model is compared with electron-proton scattering data, with neutrino SPP data and with the predictions of the NuWro Monte Carlo event generator. Our model is able to provide satisfactory predictions of the electroweak one-pion production cross section from pion threshold to high W . Further investigation and more data are needed to better understand the mechanisms playing a role in the electroweak SPP process in the high-W region, in particular, those involving

  12. The electroweak theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Quigg

    2001-08-10

    After a short essay on the current state of particle physics, the author reviews the antecedents of the modern picture of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and then undertakes a brief survey of the SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} electroweak theory. The authors reviews the features of electroweak phenomenology at tree level and beyond, presents an introduction to the Higgs boson and the 1-TeV scale, and examines arguments for enlarging the electroweak theory. The author concludes with a brief look at low-scale gravity.

  13. Electroweak penguins at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073177

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are flavour-changing neutral current processes, and are highly suppressed in the Stan- dard Model. They can only proceed via loop diagrams. Such decays may receive contributions from New Physics and change their decay behaviours like decay rate and angular distribution. Studying the properties of these decays thus provides a powerful method to probe for New Physics. In this contribution the most recent LHCb results on electroweak penguin decays are reported.

  14. Electroweak penguins at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are flavour-changing neutral current processes, and are highly suppressed in the Standard Model. They can only proceed via loop diagrams. Such decays may receive contributions from New Physics and change their decay behaviours like decay rate and angular distribution. Studying the properties of these decays thus provides a powerful method to probe for New Physics. In this contribution the most recent LHCb results on electroweak penguin decays are reported.

  15. Effective Lagrangian for a light Higgs-like scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Grojean, Christophe; Muhlleitner, Margarete; Spira, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider the effective Lagrangian that describes a light Higgs-like boson and better clarify a few issues which were not exhaustively addressed in the previous literature. In particular we highlight the strategy to determine whether the dynamics responsible for the electroweak symmetry breaking is weakly or strongly interacting. We also discuss how the effective Lagrangian can be implemented into automatic tools for the calculation of Higgs decay rates and production cross sections. Finally, we present eHDECAY, a modified version of the program HDECAY which includes the full list of leading bosonic operators of the effective Lagrangian and implements two benchmark composite Higgs models.

  16. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  17. Generalized Skyrmions in QCD and the Electroweak Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Praszalowicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the stability and masses of topological solitons in QCD and strongly-interacting models of electroweak symmetry breaking with arbitrary combinations of two inequivalent Lagrangian terms of fourth order in the field spatial derivatives. We find stable solitons for only a restricted range of the ratio of these combinations, in agreement with previous results, and we calculate the corresponding soliton masses. In QCD, the experimental constraints on the fourth-order terms force the soliton to resemble the original Skyrmion solution. However, this is not necessarily the case in strongly-interacting models of electroweak symmetry breaking, in which a non-Skyrmion-like soliton is also possible. This possibility will be constrained by future LHC measurements and dark matter experiments. Current upper bounds on the electroweak soliton mass range between 18 and 59 TeV, which would be reduced to 4.6 to 8.1 TeV with the likely sensitivity of LHC data to the fourth-order electroweak Lagrangian parameters.

  18. Fundamentals of electroweak theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hořejší, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    This monograph of Prof. Horejší is based on a series of his lectures which took place at Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University during 1990s. The author gives a thorough and easy-to-read account of the basic principles of the standard model of electroweak interactions, describes various theories of electromagnetic and weak interactions, and explains the gauge theory of electroweak interactions. Five appendices expound on some special techniques of the Standard Model, used in the main body of the text. Thanks to the author's pedagogical skills and professional erudition, the book can be read just with a preliminary knowledge of quantum field theory.

  19. Effective Lagrangian approach to the EWSB sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fraile, J.

    2016-04-01

    In a model independent framework, the effects of new physics at the electroweak scale can be parametrized in terms of an effective Lagrangian expansion. Assuming the SU(2)L xU(1)Y gauge symmetry is linearly realized, the expansion at the lowest order span dimension-six operators built from the observed Standard model (SM) particles, in addition to a light scalar doublet. After a proper choice of the operator basis we present a global fit to all the updated available data related to the electroweak symmetry breaking sector: triple gauge boson vertex (TGV) collider measurements, electroweak precision tests and Higgs searches. In this framework modifications of the interactions of the Higgs field to the electroweak gauge bosons are related to anomalous TGV's, and given the current experimental precision, we show that the analysis of the latest Higgs boson data at the LHC and Tevatron gives rise to strong bounds on TGV's that are complementary to those from direct TGV measurements. Interestingly, we present how this correlated pattern of deviations from the SM predictions could be different for theories based on a non-linear realization of the SU(2)L xU(1)Y symmetry, characteristic of for instance composite Higgs models. Furthermore, anomalous TGV signals expected at first order in the non-linear realization may appear only at higher orders of the linear one, and viceversa. Their study could lead to hints on the nature of the observed boson.

  20. Electroweak physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bifani, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of electroweak boson production provide an important test of the Standard Model at the LHC energies and allow the partonic content of the proton to be constrained. $W$ and $Z$ bosons are reconstructed in several leptonic final states using data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to about 1 $fb^{-1}$. Inclusive and associated production cross-sections are reported.

  1. Electroweak penguin B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Nikodem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) are sensitive probes for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), so-called New Physics. An example of a FCNC is the $b \\to s$ quark transition described by the electroweak penguin Feynman diagram shown in Figure 1. In the SM such FCNC are only allowed with a loop structure (as e:g: shown in the figure) and not by tree level processes. In the loops heavy particles appear virtually and do not need to be on shell. Therefore also not yet discovered heavy particles with up to a mass $\\mathcal{O}$(TeV) could virtually contribute significantly to observables. Several recent measurements of electroweak penguin B decays exhibit interesting tensions with SM predictions, most prominently in the angular observable $P'_5$ 5 of the decay $B^0 \\to K^{*0} \\mu^+ \\mu^1$[1], which triggered a lot of discussion in the theory community [2]-[14].

  2. An Electroweak-like Theory from Four Fermion Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    An electroweak-like theory of a broken chiral symmetry that is constructed by the collective modes of fermion pairs from four fermion interactions of one lepton generation is presented. The products of Dirac spinors lead to the separation of the two chiral fermions to couple respectively with two different kinds of polarization states. Because of a broken vacuum, a fermion and an anti-fermion out of the four pair up to form vector bosons, which behave like gauge bosons, such as $W^\\pm$, $Z$ and $\\gamma$ in a group structure of $SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y$. The pairing of spinors only allows left-handed fermions to interact with charged bosons to secure the gauge invariance, while, as desired, $Z$-like bosons mediate different weak forces for two chiral fermions and $\\gamma$-like bosons interact freely with fermions.

  3. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  4. The chiral anomaly in non-leptonic weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Pich, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    The interplay between the chiral anomaly and the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian is studied. The structure of the corresponding effective Lagrangian of odd intrinsic parity is established. It is shown that the factorizable contributions (leading in $1/N_C$) to that Lagrangian can be calculated without free parameters. As a first application, the decay $K^+ \\ra \\pi^+ \\pi^0 \\gamma$ is investigated.

  5. Is electroweak baryogenesis dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Electroweak baryogenesis is severely challenged in its traditional settings: the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and in more general two Higgs doublet models. Fine tuning of parameters is required, or large couplings leading to a Landau pole at scales just above the new physics introduced. The situation is somewhat better in models with a singlet scalar coupling to the Higgs so as to give a strongly first-order phase transition due to a tree-level barrier, but even in this case no UV complete models had been demonstrated to give successful baryogenesis. Here, we point out some directions that overcome this limitation, by introducing a new source of particle-antiparticle (CP) violation in the couplings of the singlet field. A model of electroweak baryogenesis requiring no fine tuning and consistent to scales far above 1 TeV is demonstrated, in which dark matter plays the leading role in creating a CP asymmetry that is the source of the baryon asymmetry. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  6. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gregory W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, <Φ>T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of <Φ>T. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase <Φ>T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value <Φ> = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state <Φ> = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state <Φ> = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  7. Electroweak probes with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Milov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measuring electroweak bosons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at high energy provide an opportunity to understand temporal evolution of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collisions by constraining the initial state of the interaction. Due to lack of colour charges the bosons and or particles produced in their leptonic decays are unaffected by the quark-gluon plasma and therefore preserve the information about the very early stage of the collision when they were born. This singles EW bosons as a unique and very interesting class of observables in HI collisions. The ATLAS experiment at LHC measures production of electroweak bosons in $pp$, $p$+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions systems. A review of the existing results is given in this proceeding that includes studies made with isolated photons to constraint kinematic properties and flavour composition of associated jets, measurements of $W$ and $Z$ bosons used to estimate nuclear modification of PDF and the production rates of the bosons used to verify geometric...

  8. Chiral symmetry breaking from Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the large-volume and small-mass dependences of the quark condensate in quenched QCD using Neuberger's operator. We find good agreement with the predictions of quenched chiral perturbation theory, enabling a determination of the chiral lagrangian parameter \\Sigma, up to a multiplicative renormalization.

  9. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a random matrix theory (RMT) for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered RMT is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  10. Electroweak phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.W.

    1991-09-16

    An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T}. In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase {l angle}{phi}{r angle}{sub T} so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state {l angle}{phi}{r angle} = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field.

  11. eHDECAY: an Implementation of the Higgs Effective Lagrangian into HDECAY

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Grojean, Christophe; Muhlleitner, Margarete; Spira, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present eHDECAY, a modified version of the program HDECAY which includes the full list of leading bosonic operators of the Higgs effective Lagrangian with a linear or non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry and implements two benchmark composite Higgs models.

  12. Pseudotoric structures: Lagrangian submanifolds and Lagrangian fibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    This survey presents a generalization of the notion of a toric structure on a compact symplectic manifold: the notion of a pseudotoric structure. The language of these new structures appears to be a convenient and natural tool for describing many non-standard Lagrangian submanifolds and cycles (Chekanov's exotic tori, Mironov's cycles in certain particular cases, and others) as well as for constructing Lagrangian fibrations (for example, special fibrations in the sense of Auroux on Fano varieties). Known properties of pseudotoric structures and constructions based on these properties are discussed, as well as open problems whose solution may be of importance in symplectic geometry and mathematical physics. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  13. Chiral dynamics of baryons in the perturbative chiral quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumsa-ard, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we develop and apply variants of a perturbative chiral quark model (PCQM) to the study of baryonic properties dominantly in the low-energy region. In a first step we consider a noncovariant form of the PCQM, where confinement is modelled by a static, effective potential and chiral corrections are treated to second order, in line with similar chiral quark models. We apply the PCQM to the study of the electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet. We focus in particular on the low-energy observables such as the magnetic moments, the charge and magnetic radii. In addition, the electromagnetic N-delta transition is also studied in the framework of the PCQM. In the chiral loop calculations we consider a quark propagator, which is restricted to the quark ground state, or in hadronic language to nucleon and delta intermediate states, for simplicity. We furthermore include the low-lying excited states to the quark propagator. In particular, the charge radius of the neutron and the transverse helicity amplitudes of the N-delta transition are considerably improved by this additional effect. In a next step we develop a manifestly Lorentz covariant version of the PCQM, where in addition higher order chiral corrections are included. The full chiral quark Lagrangian is motivated by and in analogy to the one of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). This Lagrangian contains a set of low energy constants (LECs), which are parameters encoding short distance effects and heavy degrees of freedom. We evaluate the chiral Lagrangian to order O(p{sup 4}) and to one loop to generate the dressing of the bare quark operators by pseudoscalar mesons. In addition we include the vector meson degrees of freedom in our study. Projection of the dressed quark operators on the baryonic level serves to calculate the relevant matrix elements. In a first application of this scheme, we resort to a parameterization of the valence quark form factors in the electromagnetic sector. Constraints

  14. Electroweak physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Matthias U

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the recent experimental results obtained at the LHC that involve electroweak bosons. The results are placed into an appropriate theoretical and historical context. The work pays special attention to the rising subject of hadronically decaying bosons with high boosts, documenting the state-of-the-art identification techniques and highlighting example results their application. The document is not limited to electroweak physics in the strict sense, but also discusses the use of electroweak vector-bosons as tool in the study of other subjects in particle physics, such as determinations of the proton structure or the search for new exotic particles. The book is particularly well suited for graduate students, starting their thesis work on topics that involve electroweak bosons, as the book provides a comprehensive description of phenomena observable at current accelerators as well as a summary of the most relevant experimental techniques.

  15. Electroweak results from the tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak results are presented from the CDF and DO experiments based on data collected in recent runs of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurements include the mass and width of the W boson, the production cross sections of the W and Z bosons, and the W charge asymmetry. Additional results come from studies of events with pairs of electroweak gauge bosons and include limits on anomalous couplings.

  16. Quantum transport and electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Thomas

    2013-02-15

    We review the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis. The main focus of the review lies on the development of quantum transport equations from first principles in the Kadanoff-Baym framework. We emphasize the importance of the semi-classical force that leads to reliable predictions in most cases. Besides, we discuss the status of electroweak baryogenesis in the light of recent electric dipole moment probes and collider experiments in a variety of models.

  17. Electroweak boson production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sestini, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment offers a complementary phase space to ATLAS and CMS to study electroweak processes, thanks to the forward acceptance and the large bandwidth of the trigger allowing low energy thresholds. For this reason electroweak measurements at LHCb can provide unique constraints to the Parton Distribution Functions. Moreover these measurements can be used to validate reconstruction techniques. In these proceedings the latest measurements on W and Z bosons production performed during the LHC Run I and Run II data taking are presented.

  18. Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ouimet, P P A

    2005-01-01

    In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.

  19. Chiral photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S

  20. Chiral algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beilinson, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch

  1. Cosmological Implications of Electroweak Monopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Y. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this talk we review the basic features of the electroweak monopole, and estimate the remnant electroweak monopole density of the standard model in the present universe. We show that, although the electroweak phase transition is of the first order, the monopole production comes from the thermal fluctuations of the Higgs field after the phase transition, not the vacuum bubble collisions during the phase transition. Moreover, most of the monopoles produced initially are annihilated as soon as created, and this annihilation continues very long time, longer than the muon pair annihilation time. As the result the remnant monopole density at present universe becomes very small, of 10-11 of the critical density, too small to be the dark matter. We discuss the physical implications of our results on the ongoing monopole detection experiments.

  2. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  3. Electroweak precision measurements at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Matthias Artur; Boyko, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an option for a future electron-positron collider operating at centre-of-mass energies from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. Details will be presented on two recent physics benchmark analyses of electroweak measurements at CLIC based on full detector simulations and assuming centre-of-mass energies of 1.4 and 3 TeV. Vector boson scattering gives insight into the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. The processes e$^+$e$^-\\rightarrow$WW$\

  4. A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishida@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kitazawa, Noriaki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu–Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further show that our model can make the electroweak vacuum stable.

  5. A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Haba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu–Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further show that our model can make the electroweak vacuum stable.

  6. Gedanken Worlds without Higgs: QCD-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /Karlsruhe U., TTP; Shrock, Robert; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2009-01-01

    To illuminate how electroweak symmetry breaking shapes the physical world, we investigate toy models in which no Higgs fields or other constructs are introduced to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two models incorporate the standard SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} gauge symmetry and fermion content similar to that of the standard model. The first class--like the standard electroweak theory--contains no bare mass terms, so the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry within quantum chromodynamics is the only source of electroweak symmetry breaking. The second class adds bare fermion masses sufficiently small that QCD remains the dominant source of electroweak symmetry breaking and the model can serve as a well-behaved low-energy effective field theory to energies somewhat above the hadronic scale. A third class of models is based on the left-right-symmetric SU(3){sub c} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} {circle_times} U(1)B?L gauge group. In a fourth class of models, built on SU(4){sub PS} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry, lepton number is treated as a fourth color. Many interesting characteristics of the models stem from the fact that the effective strength of the weak interactions is much closer to that of the residual strong interactions than in the real world. The Higgs-free models not only provide informative contrasts to the real world, but also lead us to consider intriguing issues in the application of field theory to the real world.

  7. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for {open_quotes}new physics{close_quotes} is described.

  8. ELECTROWEAK MEASUREMENTS AT THE LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Angular coefficients measured in the Z boson production are compared with theoretical predictions. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is presented.

  9. Moriond Electroweak 2006: Theory summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    A concise look at the big picture of particle physics, including the status of the Standard Model, neutrinos, supersymmetry, extra dimensions and cosmology. Based upon the theoretical summary presented at the XLIst Rencontres de Moriond on Electroweak Interactions and Unified Theories, La Thuile, 11-18 March 2006.

  10. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  11. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Peter

    2018-01-01

    An introductory textbook exploring the subject of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, with a relaxed and self-contained setting. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics is the continuation of Newton's classical physics into new formalisms, each highlighting novel aspects of mechanics that gradually build in complexity to form the basis for almost all of theoretical physics. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics also acts as a gateway to more abstract concepts routed in differential geometry and field theories and can be used to introduce these subject areas to newcomers. Journeying in a self-contained manner from the very basics, through the fundamentals and onwards to the cutting edge of the subject, along the way the reader is supported by all the necessary background mathematics, fully worked examples, thoughtful and vibrant illustrations as well as an informal narrative and numerous fresh, modern and inter-disciplinary applications. The book contains some unusual topics for a classical mechanics textbook. Mo...

  12. Chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes. PMID:28560336

  13. Unanswered Questions in the Electroweak Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris

    2009-11-01

    This article is devoted to the status of the electroweak theory on the eve of experimentation at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. A compact summary of the logic and structure of the electroweak theory precedes an examination of what experimental tests have established so far. The outstanding unconfirmed prediction of the electroweak theory is the existence of the Higgs boson, a weakly interacting spin-zero particle that is the agent of electroweak symmetry breaking, the giver of mass to the weak gauge bosons, the quarks, and the leptons. General arguments imply that the Higgs boson or other new physics is required on the TeV energy scale. Indirect constraints from global analyses of electroweak measurements suggest that the mass of the standard-model Higgs boson is less than 200 GeV. Once its mass is assumed, the properties of the Higgs boson follow from the electroweak theory, and these inform the search for the Higgs boson. Alternative mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed, and the importance of electroweak symmetry breaking is illuminated by considering a world without a specific mechanism to hide the electroweak symmetry. For all its triumphs, the electroweak theory has many shortcomings.

  14. Extending Chiral Perturbation Theory with an Isosinglet Scalar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Langaeble, Kasper; Sannino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We augment the chiral Lagrangian by an isosinglet scalar and compute the one-loop radiative corrections to the pion mass and decay constant, as well as the scalar mass. The calculations are carried out for different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking of immediate relevance for phenomenology and...... and lattice investigations. By construction our results encompass several interesting limits, ranging from the dilaton to the linear sigma model....

  15. More relaxed supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riotto, A.

    1998-11-01

    We reanalyze the issue of the generation of baryon asymmetry at the electroweak phase transition in the MSSM and compute the baryon asymmetry assuming the presence of nontrivial CP-violating phases in the parameters associated with the left-right top squark mixing term and the Higgsino mass μ. Making use of the closed time-path formalism of nonequilibrium field theory, we write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. CP-violating sources manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transport theory and are not present in the classical approach. Compared to previous estimates, these non-Markovian features enhance the final baryon asymmetry by at least two orders of magnitude. This means that a CP-violating phase \\|sin φμ\\| as small as 10-3 (or even smaller) is enough to generate the observed baryon asymmetry.

  16. Precision electroweak physics at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, M.

    1994-12-01

    Copious event statistics, a precise understanding of the LEP energy scale, and a favorable experimental situation at the Z{sup 0} resonance have allowed the LEP experiments to provide both dramatic confirmation of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and to place substantially improved constraints on the parameters of the model. The author concentrates on those measurements relevant to the electroweak sector. It will be seen that the precision of these measurements probes sensitively the structure of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, where the calculation of the observables measured at LEP is affected by the value chosen for the top quark mass. One finds that the LEP measurements are consistent with the Standard Model, but only if the mass of the top quark is measured to be within a restricted range of about 20 GeV.

  17. Electroweak Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Gerhard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk summarises results on electroweak processes at the Large Hadron Collider by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. It covers results from sqrt(s) = 7, 8 TeV data from LHC Run-1, and also results using sqrt(s) = 13 TeV data from the recent LHC Run-2. The status of cross section measurements of single and di-boson production, as well as rare electroweak processes such as vector boson scattering and tri- boson production are presented. Processes that can not be observed (yet) allow to set limits on the respective cross sections. All observations are compatible with Standard Model descriptions and allow to constrain new physics which would manifest through extra gauge couplings, or Standard Model gauge couplings deviating from their predicted value. Limits on such anomalous gauge couplings are derived.

  18. Electroweak Physics at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The measurements resulting from the analysis of the LEP2 data have brought more strong evidence in support of the standard electroweak model. In particular the LEP2 data has revealed (i) the first determination of the SU(2) gauge bosons self-couplings, (ii) the first direct measurements of the W decay-couplings, and (iii) the current best direct measurement of the W mass.

  19. LHCb: Electroweak studies at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Salustino Guimaraes, V

    2012-01-01

    Results on the measurement of the $W^{\\pm}$ and $Z^{0}$ cross-sections are presented using final state leptons with pseudorapidities between 2 and 4.5. Due to its acceptance, LHCb can probe a regime of low low-x electroweak boson production, where parton distribution functions are not well constrained. We summarize the $W^{\\pm}$ measurements performed in the decay $\\mu^{\\pm}\

  20. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A set of selected precise measurements of the SM parameters from the LHC experiments is discussed. Results on W-mass measurement and forward-backward asymmetry in production of the Drell--Yan events in both dielectron and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is discussed.

  1. Electroweak measurements at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Jose E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-06-01

    Recent Electroweak measurements by the CDF and D0 collaborations in p{bar p} collisions {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented here. Measurements of W, Z and diboson production cross sections as well as W asymmetry using integrated luminosities up to 800 pb{sup -1} are reviewed. Limits on triple gauge anomalous couplings on diboson production are discussed elsewhere.

  2. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  3. Electroweak results from D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M.; D0 Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Preliminary results from D0 are presented on properties of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} electroweak gauge bosons, using final states containing electrons and muons. In particular, preliminary measurements of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} production cross sections with decay into final states containing electrons are shown and a status report on the determination of M{sub w}/M{sub z} is given.

  4. Electroweak vacuum stability and the seesaw mechanism revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.N. [TRIUMF, Theory Department, Vancouver, BC (Canada); De la Puente, Alejandro [TRIUMF, Theory Department, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Carleton University, Department of Physics, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    We study the electroweak vacuum stability in Type I seesaw models for three generations of neutrinos in scenarios where the right-handed neutrinos have explicit bare mass terms in the Lagrangian and where these are dynamically generated through the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. To best highlight the difference of the two cases we concentrate on the absolute stability of the scalar potential. We observe that for the first scenario, the scale at which the scalar potential becomes unstable is lower from that within the standard model. In addition the Yukawa couplings Y{sub ν} are constrained such that Tr[Y{sub ν}{sup †}Y{sub ν}] electroweak stability can be improved in a large region of parameter space. However, we found that the scalar used to break the lepton number symmetry cannot be too light and have a large coupling to right-handed neutrinos in order for the seesaw mechanism to be a valid mechanism for neutrino mass generation. In this case we have Tr[Y{sub ν}{sup †}Y{sub ν}]

  5. Chiral perturbation theory with tensor sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cata, Oscar; Cata, Oscar; Mateu, Vicent

    2007-05-21

    We construct the most general chirally-invariant Lagrangian for mesons in the presence of external sources coupled to the tensor current \\bar psi sigma_mu nu psi. In order to have only even terms in the chiral expansion, we consider the new source of O(p2). With this choice, we build the even-parity effective Lagrangian up to the p6-order (NLO). While there are only 4 new terms at the p4-order, at p6-order we find 78 terms for n_f=2 and 113 terms for n_f=3. We provide a detailed discussion on the different mechanisms that ensure that our final set of operators is complete and non-redundant. We also examine the odd-parity sector, to conclude that the first operators appear at the p8-order (NNLO).

  6. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  7. On the importance of electroweak corrections for B anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride; Pattori, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The growing experimental indication of Lepton Flavour Universality Violation (LFUV) both in charged- and neutral-current semileptonic B-decays, has triggered many theoretical interpretations of such non-standard phenomena. Focusing on popular scenarios where the explanation of these anomalies requires New Physics at the TeV scale, we emphasise the importance of including electroweak corrections to obtain trustable predictions for the models in question. We find that the most important quantum effects are the modifications of the leptonic couplings of the W and Z vector bosons and the generation of a purely leptonic effective Lagrangian. Although our results do not provide an inescapable no-go theorem for the explanation of the B anomalies, the tight experimental bounds on Z-pole observables and τ decays challenge an explanation of the current non-standard data. We illustrate how these effects arise, by providing a detailed discussion of the running and matching procedure which is necessary to derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian.

  8. Electroweak stars: Electroweak Matter Destruction as an Exotic Stellar Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Dejan; DAI, De Chang [Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Starkman, Glenn [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University - CWRU, 10900 Euclid ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Lue, Arthur [Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Stellar evolution from a protostar to neutron star is of one of the best studied subjects in modern astrophysics. Yet, it appears that there is still a lot to learn about the extreme conditions where the fundamental particle physics meets strong gravity regime. After all of the thermonuclear fuel is spent, and after the supernova explosion, but before the remaining mass crosses its own Schwarzschild radius, the temperature of the central core of the star might become higher than the electroweak symmetry restoration temperature. The source of energy, which can at least temporarily balance gravity, are baryon number violating instanton processes which are basically unsuppressed at temperatures above the electroweak scale. We constructed a solution to the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation which describes such a star. The energy release rate is enormous at the core, but gravitational redshift and the enhanced neutrino interaction cross section at these densities make the energy release rate moderate at the surface of the star. The lifetime of this new quasi-equilibrium can be more than ten million years, which is long enough to represent a new stage in the evolution of a star. (authors)

  9. Electroweak precision measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soldatov, Evgeny; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed integrated and differential cross-section measurements of heavy bosons and di-boson pairs production in fully-leptonic and semi-leptonic final states at the centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV for pp collisions provided by the LHC. These measurements represent stringent tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model and provide a model-independent means to search for the new physics at the TeV scale. The results are compared to theory predictions at NLO (and NNLO) and provide constraints on the new physics, by setting limits on anomalous gauge couplings.

  10. Electroweak precision measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2017-01-01

    An overview of recent results on electroweak precision measurements from the CMS Collaboration is presented. Studies of the weak boson differential transverse momentum spectra, Z boson angular coefficients, forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs and charge asymmetry of W boson production are made in comparison to the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo generators and theoretical predictions. The results show a good agreement with the Standard Model. As a proof of principle for future W mass measurements, a W-like analysis of the Z boson mass is performed.

  11. Top transport in electroweak baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fromme, L; Fromme, Lars; Huber, Stephan J.

    2007-01-01

    In non-supersymmetric models of electroweak baryogenesis the top quark plays a crucial role. Its CP-violating source term can be calculated in the WKB approximation. We point out how to resolve certain discrepancies between computations starting from the Dirac equation and the Schwinger--Keldysh formalism. We also improve on the transport equations, keeping the W-scatterings at finite rate. We apply these results to a model with one Higgs doublet, augmented by dimension-6 operators, where our refinements lead to an increase in the baryon asymmetry by a factor of up to about 5.

  12. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  13. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  14. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  15. Exotic meson decays in the environment with chiral imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, A. A.; Andrianov, V. A.; Espriu, D.; Iakubovich, A. V.; Putilova, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    An emergence of Local Parity Breaking (LPB) in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) at high energies is discussed. LPB in the fireball can be produced by a difference between the number densities of right- and left-handed chiral fermions (Chiral Imbalance) which is implemented by a chiral (axial) chemical potential. The effective meson lagrangian induced by QCD is extended to the medium with Chiral Imbalance and the properties of light scalar and pseudoscalar mesons (π, α0) are analyzed. It is shown that exotic decays of scalar mesons arise as a result of mixing of π and α0 vacuum states in the presence of chiral imbalance. The pion electromagnetic formfactor obtains an unusual parity-odd supplement which generates a photon polarization asymmetry in pion polarizability. We hope that the above pointed indications of LPB can be identified in experiments on LHC, RHIC, CBM FAIR and NICA accelerators.

  16. Exotic meson decays in the environment with chiral imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An emergence of Local Parity Breaking (LPB in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC at high energies is discussed. LPB in the fireball can be produced by a difference between the number densities of right- and left-handed chiral fermions (Chiral Imbalance which is implemented by a chiral (axial chemical potential. The effective meson lagrangian induced by QCD is extended to the medium with Chiral Imbalance and the properties of light scalar and pseudoscalar mesons (π, α0 are analyzed. It is shown that exotic decays of scalar mesons arise as a result of mixing of π and α0 vacuum states in the presence of chiral imbalance. The pion electromagnetic formfactor obtains an unusual parity-odd supplement which generates a photon polarization asymmetry in pion polarizability. We hope that the above pointed indications of LPB can be identified in experiments on LHC, RHIC, CBM FAIR and NICA accelerators.

  17. CMS results in Electroweak Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of electroweak studies performed using data collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Besides their intrinsic interest as unique samples to calibrate and understand the CMS detector response to leptons, jets and missing energy, events containing W and Z bosons appear as dominant components in many Higgs seaches and in most of the searches beyond the Standard Model, either as signal or as background. In addition, the excellent level of theoretical and experimental understanding of these processes allows electroweak tests at the LHC at an unprecendented level of precision. CMS uses a wide range of final states to measure cross sections, asymmetries, polarizations and differential distributions in general. The current integrated luminosity is already sufficient to perform not just inclusive measurements using W and Z decays into muons and electrons, but also precise studies of associated jet production and final states containing taus, as well...

  18. Electroweak relaxation from finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Edward [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-12

    We study theories which naturally select a vacuum with parametrically small Electroweak Scale due to finite temperature effects in the early universe. In particular, there is a scalar with an approximate shift symmetry broken by a technically natural small coupling to the Higgs, and a temperature dependent potential. As the temperature of the universe drops, the scalar follows the minimum of its potential altering the Higgs mass squared parameter. The scalar also has a periodic potential with amplitude proportional to the Higgs expectation value, which traps it in a vacuum with a small Electroweak Scale. The required temperature dependence of the potential can occur through strong coupling effects in a hidden sector that are suppressed at high temperatures. Alternatively, it can be generated perturbatively from a one-loop thermal potential. In both cases, for the scalar to be displaced, a hidden sector must be reheated to temperatures significantly higher than the visible sector. However this does not violate observational constraints provided the hidden sector energy density is transferred to the visible sector without disrupting big bang nucleosynthesis. We also study how the mechanism can be implemented when the visible sector is completed to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at a high scale. Models with a UV cutoff of 10 TeV and no fields taking values over a range greater than 10{sup 12} GeV are possible, although the scalar must have a range of order 10{sup 8} times the effective decay constant in the periodic part of its potential.

  19. Lagrangian vector field and Lagrangian formulation of partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Lagrangian formulation of a system of second order quasilinear partial differential equations. Specifically we construct a Lagrangian vector field such that the flows of the vector field satisfy the original system of partial differential equations.

  20. Chiral pinwheel clusters lacking local point chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Shao, Ting-Na; Xie, Jia-Le; Lan, Meng; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Xiong, Zu-Hong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2012-07-09

    The supramolecular pinwheel cluster is a unique chiral structure with evident handedness. Previous studies reveal that the chiral pinwheels are composed of chiral or achiral molecules with polar groups, which result in strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding or dipole interactions. Herein, it is shown that the simple linear aromatic molecule, pentacene, can be self-assembled into large chiral pinwheel clusters on the semimetal Bi(111) surface, due to enhanced intermolecular interactions. The pentacene pinwheels reveal two levels of organizational chirality: the chiral hexamers resulting from asymmetric shifting along the long molecular axis, and chiral arrangement of six hexamers with a rotor motif. Furthermore, a new relation between the local point chirality and organizational chirality is identified from the pinwheels: the former is not essential for the latter in 2D pinwheel clusters of the pentacene molecule. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Punctuated Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Thorarinson, Joel; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-01-01

    Most biomolecules occur in mirror, or chiral, images of each other. However, life is homochiral: proteins contain almost exclusively levorotatory (L) amino acids, while only dextrorotatory (R) sugars appear in RNA and DNA. The mechanism behind this fundamental asymmetry of life remains an open problem. Coupling the spatiotemporal evolution of a general autocatalytic polymerization reaction network to external environmental effects, we show through a detailed statistical analysis that high int...

  2. Chiral streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, Xinpei, E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O. Box 218, Sydney, New South Wales 2070 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  3. Chiral Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nitti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic nanotubes, as assembled nanospaces, in which to carry out host–guest chemistry, reversible binding of smaller species for transport, sensing, storage or chemical transformation purposes, are currently attracting substantial interest, both as biological ion channel mimics, or for addressing tailored material properties. Nature’s materials and machinery are universally asymmetric, and, for chemical entities, controlled asymmetry comes from chirality. Together with carbon nanotubes, conformationally stable molecular building blocks and macrocycles have been used for the realization of organic nanotubes, by means of their assembly in the third dimension. In both cases, chiral properties have started to be fully exploited to date. In this paper, we review recent exciting developments in the synthesis and assembly of chiral nanotubes, and of their functional properties. This review will include examples of either molecule-based or macrocycle-based systems, and will try and rationalize the supramolecular interactions at play for the three-dimensional (3D assembly of the nanoscale architectures.

  4. Recent Electroweak Results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Tiesheng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of multi-boson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. Production processes sensitive to vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering such as electroweak production of single vector boson associated with two forward jets and the di-boson production at 8 TeV p-p collisions are also presented and compared to Standard Model expectations. A measurement of the cross section and branching fraction for Z-> 4 leptons are presented and are found consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model. Measurements of Standard Model parameters are performed with high precision by ATLAS, such as the weak mixing angle, and are compared to world averages.

  5. Electroweak phase transition recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc

    2000-01-01

    Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.

  6. Recent Electroweak results at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Aparajita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of multi-boson production processes involving combinations of up to three W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. Production processes sensitive to vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering such as electroweak production of single Z and W bosons associated with two forward jets and the same-sign WW production at 8 TeV pp collisions are also presented and compared to Standard Model expectations. A measurement of the inclusive 4 lepton mass spectrum from 80 to 1000 GeV is presented, where several distinct physics processes are involved: the single Z resonant process, the Higgs production at 125 GeV, as well as continuum ZZ production processes with qqbar and gg initial states.

  7. Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; /SLAC /Michigan U., MCTP; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2012-02-15

    We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.

  8. Towards a consistent estimate of the chiral low-energy constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirigliano, V. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ecker, G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Eidemueller, M. [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Kaiser, R. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Unite mixte de recherche (UMR 6207) du CNRS et des Universites Aix-Marseille I, Aix-Marseille II, et du Sud Toulon-Var, laboratoire affilie a la FRUMAM (FR 2291). CNRS-Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Pich, A. [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Portoles, J. [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Edifici d' Instituts de Paterna, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: jorge.portoles@ific.uv.es

    2006-10-02

    Guided by the large-N{sub C} limit of QCD, we construct the most general chiral resonance Lagrangian that can generate chiral low-energy constants up to O(p{sup 6}). By integrating out the resonance fields, the low-energy constants are parametrized in terms of resonance masses and couplings. Information on those couplings and on the low-energy constants can be extracted by analysing QCD Green functions of currents both for large and small momenta. The chiral resonance theory generates Green functions that interpolate between QCD and chiral perturbation theory. As specific examples we consider the and Green functions.

  9. Electroweak baryogenesis and low energy supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M S; Riotto, Antonio; Vilja, I; Wagner, C E M

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak baryogenesis is an interesting theoretical scenario, which demands physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales of the order of the weak boson masses. It has been recently emphasized that, in the presence of light stops, the electroweak phase transition can be strongly first order, opening the window for electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM. For the realization of this scenario, the Higgs boson must be light, at the reach of the LEP2 collider. In this article, we compute the baryon asymmetry assuming the presence of non-trivial CP violating phases in the parameters associated with the left-right stop mixing term and the Higgsino mass $\\mu$. We conclude that a phase $|\\sin \\phi_{\\mu}| > 0.01$ and Higgsino and gaugino mass parameters $|\\mu| \\simeq M_2$, and of the order of the electroweak scale, are necessary in order to generate the observed baryon asymmetry.

  10. Kolmogorov's Lagrangian similarity law revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjona, Manuel; da Silva, Carlos B.

    2017-10-01

    Kolmogorov's similarity turbulence theory in a Lagrangian frame is assessed with new direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence with and without hyperviscosity, which attain higher Reynolds numbers than previously available. It is demonstrated that hyperviscous simulations can be used to accurately predict the second order Lagrangian velocity structure function (LVSF-2) in the inertial range, by using an original new procedure. The results strongly support Kolmogorov's Lagrangian similarity assumption and allow the universal constant of LVSF-2 to be computed with a new level of confidence with C0=7.4 ±0.2 .

  11. Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector -First Run 2 measurements of electroweak processes -Run 1 measurements of SM parameters, i.e. W mass and weak mixing angle -Recent Run 1 measurements of di- and multi-boson production cross-sections as well as vector boson fusion and scattering processes at 8 TeV -Recent Run 1 measurements of exclusive di-lepton and WW production

  12. Thermal Fluctuations in Electroweak Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.

    1995-11-01

    We estimate the amplitude of thermal fluctuations by calculating the typical size of subcritical bubbles in cosmological electroweak phase transition and show that this thermal fluctuation effect drastically changes dynamics of the phase transition from the ordinary first order type with supercooling. From this fact, we conclude that the standard electroweak baryogenesis scenario associated with such a first order transition does not work in the minimal standard model in certain conditions.

  13. Electroweak Measurements with Heavy Quarks at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellodi, Giulia

    2000-10-03

    The SLD detector collected a sample of 550K hadronic events at the Z{sup 0} peak from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at the SLC during the 1993 to 1998 period. Polarized electron beams, a small and stable interaction point and the excellent performance of the 3-D CCD vertex detector provide a unique environment for precision electroweak tests of the Standard Model. Improved measurements of heavy quark electroweak parameters are presented here.

  14. Electroweak boson production with jets at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hortiangtham, Apichart

    2017-01-01

    The production of electroweak bosons (W, Z or gamma) in association with jets is a stringent test of perturbative QCD and is a background process in searches for new physics. Total and differential cross-section measurements of electroweak bosons produced in association with jets (and heavy flavour quarks) in proton-proton collisions are presented. The data have been recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC and are compared to the predictions of event generators and theoretical calculations.

  15. Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-08-01

    Like watching a balloon borne by the breeze, a Lagrangian model tracks a parcel of air as it flows through the atmosphere. Whether running forward or backward in time, Lagrangian models offer a powerful tool for tracking and understanding the fates, or origins, of atmospheric flows. In the AGU monograph Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere, editors John Lin, Dominik Brunner, Christoph Gerbig, Andreas Stohl, Ashok Luhar, and Peter Webley explore the nuances of the modeling technique. In this interview Eos talks to Lin about the growing importance of Lagrangian modeling as the world settles on climate change mitigation strategies, the societal value of operational modeling, and how recent advances are making it possible to run these complex calculations at home.

  16. Freudenthal Dual Lagrangians

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A

    2013-01-01

    The global U-dualities of extended supergravity have played a central role in differentiating the distinct classes of extremal black hole solutions. When the U-duality group satisfies certain algebraic conditions, as is the case for a broad class of supergravities, the extremal black holes enjoy a further symmetry known as Freudenthal duality (F-duality), which although distinct from U-duality preserves the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Here it is shown that, by adopting the doubled Lagrangian formalism, F-duality, defined on the doubled field strengths, is not only a symmetry of the black hole solutions, but also of the equations of motion themselves. A further role for F-duality is introduced in the context of world-sheet actions. The Nambu-Goto world-sheet action in any (t, s) signature spacetime can be written in terms of the F-dual. The corresponding field equations and Bianchi identities are then related by F-duality allowing for an F-dual formulation of Gaillard-Zumino duality on the world-sheet. An equi...

  17. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  18. Axion-Assisted Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    We consider a hidden-valley gauge sector, G, with strong coupling scale Lambda~TeV and CP-violating topological parameter, theta, as well as a new axion degree of freedom which adjusts theta to near zero in the current universe. If the G-sector couples to the Standard Model via weak-scale states charged under both, then in the early universe it is possible for the CP-violation due to theta (which has not yet been adjusted to zero by the hidden axion) to feed in to the SM and drive efficient baryogenesis during the electroweak (EW) phase transition, independent of the effectively small amount of CP violation present in the SM itself. While current constraints on both the new axion and charged states are easily satisfied, we argue that the LHC can investigate the vast majority of parameter space where EW-baryogenesis is efficiently assisted, while the hidden axion should comprise a significant fraction of the dark matter density. In the supersymmetric version, the ``messenger'' matter communicating between the ...

  19. The serendipity of electroweak baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine

    2018-03-06

    The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe remains unexplained in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The origin of the flavour structure is another major puzzle of the theory. In this article, we report on recent work attempting to link the two themes through the appealing framework of electroweak (EW) baryogenesis. We show that Yukawa couplings of SM fermions can be the source of CP violation for EW baryogenesis if they vary at the same time as the Higgs is acquiring its vacuum expectation value, offering new avenues for EW baryogenesis. The advantage of this approach is that it circumvents the usual severe bounds from electric dipole moments. These ideas apply if the mechanism explaining the flavour structure of the SM is connected to EW symmetry breaking, as motivated for instance in Randall-Sundrum or Composite Higgs models. We compute the resulting baryon asymmetry for different configurations of the Yukawa coupling variation across the bubble wall and show that it can naturally be of the right order.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. The serendipity of electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe remains unexplained in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The origin of the flavour structure is another major puzzle of the theory. In this article, we report on recent work attempting to link the two themes through the appealing framework of electroweak (EW) baryogenesis. We show that Yukawa couplings of SM fermions can be the source of CP violation for EW baryogenesis if they vary at the same time as the Higgs is acquiring its vacuum expectation value, offering new avenues for EW baryogenesis. The advantage of this approach is that it circumvents the usual severe bounds from electric dipole moments. These ideas apply if the mechanism explaining the flavour structure of the SM is connected to EW symmetry breaking, as motivated for instance in Randall-Sundrum or Composite Higgs models. We compute the resulting baryon asymmetry for different configurations of the Yukawa coupling variation across the bubble wall and show that it can naturally be of the right order. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  1. Fermions on the electroweak string

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano; Moreno, J M; Oaknin, D H; Quiros, M

    1995-01-01

    We construct a simple class of exact solutions of the electroweak theory including the naked Z--string and fermion fields. It consists in the Z--string configuration (\\phi,Z_\\theta), the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons (Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) and a fermion condensate (lepton or quark) zero mode. The Z--string is not altered (no feed back from the rest of fields on the Z--string) while fermion condensates are zero modes of the Dirac equation in the presence of the Z--string background (no feed back from the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons on the fermion fields). For the case of the n--vortex Z--string the number of zero modes found for charged leptons and quarks is (according to previous results by Jackiw and Rossi) equal to |n|, while for (massless) neutrinos is |n|-1. The presence of fermion fields in its core make the obtained configuration a superconducting string, but their presence (as well as that of Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) does not enhance the stability of the Z--stri...

  2. Recent Electroweak Results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Baas, Alessandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of multi­-boson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. In processes like WW, ZZ, Zgamma or Wgamma large next­-to­-next­-to­-leading order QCD corrections were recently calculated and are confronted with integrated and differential data measurements. Furthermore a measurement of the differential cross section for the inclusive four­-lepton production as a function of the mass ranging from 80 to 1000 GeV is presented. Several distinct physics processes give rise to the production of 4-­lepton final state: the single Z resonant processes, the Higgs production at 125 GeV, as well as continuum ​ ZZ production processes with ​qq​ and gg initial states. Production processes sensitive to vector­ boson fusion and vector ­boson scattering such as electroweak production of single and double vector boson associated with two forward jets at 8 TeV pp collisions are also presented and compared to Standard Model expectations.

  3. Distinguishing standard model extensions using monotop chirality at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Flórez, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia); Gao, Yu [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kamon, Teruki [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kolev, Nikolay [Department of Physics, University of Regina,SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Mueller, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Segura, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia)

    2016-12-13

    We present two minimal extensions of the standard model, each giving rise to baryogenesis. They include heavy color-triplet scalars interacting with a light Majorana fermion that can be the dark matter (DM) candidate. The electroweak charges of the new scalars govern their couplings to quarks of different chirality, which leads to different collider signals. These models predict monotop events at the LHC and the energy spectrum of decay products of highly polarized top quarks can be used to establish the chiral nature of the interactions involving the heavy scalars and the DM. Detailed simulation of signal and standard model background events is performed, showing that top quark chirality can be distinguished in hadronic and leptonic decays of the top quarks.

  4. Dynamical Local Chirality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly dis...

  5. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schindler, Matthias R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  6. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  7. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntharan Arunasalam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T≲132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10−8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  8. Low temperature electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model with hidden scale invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil; Lagger, Cyril; Liang, Shelley; Zhou, Albert

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a cosmological phase transition within the Standard Model which incorporates spontaneously broken scale invariance as a low-energy theory. In addition to the Standard Model fields, the minimal model involves a light dilaton, which acquires a large vacuum expectation value (VEV) through the mechanism of dimensional transmutation. Under the assumption of the cancellation of the vacuum energy, the dilaton develops a very small mass at 2-loop order. As a result, a flat direction is present in the classical dilaton-Higgs potential at zero temperature while the quantum potential admits two (almost) degenerate local minima with unbroken and broken electroweak symmetry. We found that the cosmological electroweak phase transition in this model can only be triggered by a QCD chiral symmetry breaking phase transition at low temperatures, T ≲ 132 MeV. Furthermore, unlike the standard case, the universe settles into the chiral symmetry breaking vacuum via a first-order phase transition which gives rise to a stochastic gravitational background with a peak frequency ∼10-8 Hz as well as triggers the production of approximately solar mass primordial black holes. The observation of these signatures of cosmological phase transitions together with the detection of a light dilaton would provide a strong hint of the fundamental role of scale invariance in particle physics.

  9. Eta-photoproduction in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ruić, Dino; Mai, Maxim; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze photoproduction of η mesons off the proton in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson–baryon scattering is derived from the leading order chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe–Salpeter equation. The recent precise threshold data from the Crystal Ball at MAMI can be described rather well and the complex pole corresponding to the S11(1535)S11(1535) is extracted. An extension of the kernel is also discussed.

  10. {eta}-Photoproduction in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruic, Dino [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Mai, Maxim, E-mail: mai@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Meissner, Ulf-G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-10-25

    We analyze photoproduction of {eta} mesons off the proton in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the leading order chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. The recent precise threshold data from the Crystal Ball at MAMI can be described rather well and the complex pole corresponding to the S{sub 11}(1535) is extracted. An extension of the kernel is also discussed.

  11. Electroweak baryogenesis from a dark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tucker-Smith, David

    2017-06-01

    Adding an extra singlet scalar S to the Higgs sector can provide a barrier at tree level between a false vacuum with restored electroweak symmetry and the true one. This has been demonstrated to readily give a strong phase transition as required for electroweak baryogenesis. We show that with the addition of a fermionic dark matter particle χ coupling to S , a simple UV-complete model can realize successful electroweak baryogenesis. The dark matter gets a C P asymmetry that is transferred to the standard model through a C P portal interaction, which we take to be a coupling of χ to τ leptons and an inert Higgs doublet. The C P asymmetry induced in left-handed τ leptons biases sphalerons to produce the baryon asymmetry. The model has promising discovery potential at the LHC, while robustly providing a large enough baryon asymmetry and correct dark matter relic density with reasonable values of the couplings.

  12. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  13. Opening the window for electroweak baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M S; Wagner, C E M

    1996-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the behaviour of the electroweak phase transition in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, in the presence of light stops. We show that, in previously unexplored regions of parameter space, the order parameter v(T_c)/T_c can become significantly larger than one, for values of the Higgs and supersymmetric particle masses consistent with the present experimental bounds. This implies that baryon number can be efficiently generated at the electroweak phase transition. As a by-product of this study, we present an analysis of the problem of colour breaking minima at zero and finite temperature, and we use it to investigate the region of parameter space preferred by the best fit to the present precision electroweak measurement data, in which the left-handed stops are much heavier than the right-handed ones.

  14. Electroweak probes with ATLAS arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Milov, Alexander

    Measuring electroweak bosons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at high energy provide an opportunity to understand temporal evolution of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collisions by constraining the initial state of the interaction. Due to lack of color charges the bosons and or particles produced in their leptonic decays are unaffected by the quark-gluon plasma and therefore preserve the information about the very early stage of the collision when they were born. This singles electroweak bosons as a unique and very interesting class of observables in heavy ion collisions. The ATLAS experiment at LHC measures production of electroweak bosons in pp, p+Pb, and Pb + Pb collisions systems. A review of the existing results is given in this proceeding that includes studies made with isolated photons to constraint kinematic properties and flavour composition of associated jets, measurements of W and Z bosons used to estimate nuclear modification of parton distribution function and the production rates of ...

  15. Top and Electroweak Measurements at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, P. [Comenius U.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we summarize the latest results of the top-quark mass and electroweak measurements from the Tevatron. Since the world combination of top-quark mass measurements was done, CDF and D0 experiments improved the precision of several results. Some of them reach the relative precition below 1% for a single measurement. From the electroweak results, we report on the WW and WZ production cross section, measurements of the weak mixing angle and indirect measurements of W boson mass. The Tevatron results of the weak mixing angle are still the most precise ones of hadron colliders.

  16. Recent results on Electroweak measurements from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benekos Nektarios Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ATLAS measurements of multiboson production processes involving combinations of W,Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV and at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z → v v̅, as well as semileptonic channels. Measurements of single and diboson production in association with two forward jets is sensitive to electroweak vector boson fusion and scattering processes. An observation of the electroweak production of the Z boson and an evidence of same sign WW production are reported.

  17. Electroweak and heavy flavor physics at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willocq, S.; SLD Collaboration

    1997-12-01

    The authors review recent electroweak and B physics results obtained in polarized e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at the SLC by the SLD experiment. Unique and precise measurements of the electroweak parameters A{sub e}, A{sub b}, A{sub c}, R{sub b} and R{sub c} provide powerful constraints on the Standard Model. The excellent 3-D vertexing capabilities of SLD are further exploited to extract precise B{sup +} and B{sub d}{sup 0} lifetimes, as well as measurements of the time evolution of B{sup 0}-{ovr B{sup 0}} mixing.

  18. Electroweak phase transition and some related phenomena–a brief

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we give a bird's eye view of the research on electroweak phase transition and some related phenomena, viz., cosmological baryogenesis, electroweak bubble dynamics and generation of gravitationalwaves. Our presentation revolves around the observation that a strong first-order electroweak phase transition ...

  19. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  20. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  1. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  2. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  3. On the Ambjorn-Olesen electroweak condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Daniele; De Marchis, Francesca

    2012-07-01

    We obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of the Ambjorn-Olesen ["On electroweak magnetism," Nucl. Phys. B315, 606-614 (1989), 10.1016/0550-3213(89)90004-7] electroweak N-vortices in case N ⩾ 1 and therefore generalize earlier results [D. Bartolucci and G. Tarantello, "Liouville type equations with singular data and their applications to periodic multivortices for the electroweak theory," Commun. Math. Phys. 229, 3-47 (2002), 10.1007/s002200200664; J. Spruck and Y. Yang, "On multivortices in the electroweak theory I: Existence of periodic solutions," Commun. Math. Phys. 144, 1-16 (1992), 10.1007/BF02099188] which handled the cases N ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4}. The variational argument provided here has its own independent interest as it generalizes the one adopted by Ding et al. ["Existence results for mean field equations," Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Anal. Non Lineaire 16, 653-666 (1999), 10.1016/S0294-1449(99)80031-6] to obtain solutions for Liouville-type equations on closed 2-manifolds. In fact, we obtain at once a second proof of the existence of supercritical conformal metrics on surfaces with conical singularities and prescribed Gaussian curvature recently established by Bartolucci, De Marchis and Malchiodi [Int. Math. Res. Not. 24, 5625-5643 (2011), 10.1093/imrn/rnq285].

  4. Electroweak Physics in the Forward Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Sirendi, Marek

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has an active electroweak physics programme with measurements of inclusive processes such as Z and W production in leptonic final states already published. The EW working group is also branching into jet physics with completed Z+jet and Z+b-jet analyses. Recent results in this field are presented.

  5. Electroweak precision data and gravitino dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electroweak precision measurements can provide indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry already at the present level of accuracy. We review present day sensitivities of precision data in mSUGRA-type models with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). The 2 fit is based on , ...

  6. On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica

    2011-07-01

    In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)

  7. Discovering Chiral Higgsinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2006-11-10

    The concept of chirality is extended to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and the {micro} term is forbidden by a gauged U(1){prime} symmetry. R-parity automatically emerges after symmetry breaking, suppressing proton decay and protecting the LSP. Exotics charged under the SM pose a challenge to traditional SU(5) unification, but unification is still implemented in deconstructed GUTs. Because of the multitude of additional states to the MSSM, the Z{prime} has a large width, and the SM background, neglected in previous theoretical studies, becomes important for Z{prime} discovery. As a result, the LHC reach is reduced from 3.2 TeV, for a Z{prime} with SM decays, to 1.5 TeV, when additional decay channels are included. This model also predicts possibly long-lived colored and electroweak exotics.

  8. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  9. Low-energy effective field theory below the electroweak scale: anomalous dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Stoffer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of the low-energy effective Lagrangian below the electroweak scale, up to terms of dimension six. The theory has 70 dimension-five and 3631 dimension-six Hermitian operators that preserve baryon and lepton number, as well as additional operators that violate baryon number and lepton number. The renormalization group equations for the quark and lepton masses and the QCD and QED gauge couplings are modified by dimension-five and dimension-six operator contributions. We compute the renormalization group equations from one insertion of dimension-five and dimension-six operators, as well as two insertions of dimension-five operators, to all terms of dimension less than or equal to six. The use of the equations of motion to eliminate operators can be ambiguous, and we show how to resolve this ambiguity by a careful use of field redefinitions.

  10. Lagrangian for the Frenkel electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Deriglazov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We found Lagrangian action which describes spinning particle on the base of non-Grassmann vector and involves only one auxiliary variable. It provides the right number of physical degrees of freedom and yields generalization of the Frenkel and BMT equations to the case of an arbitrary electromagnetic field. For a particle with anomalous magnetic moment, singularity in the relativistic equations generally occurs at the speed different from the speed of light.

  11. The More Relaxed Supersymmetric Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We reanalyze the issue of generation of the baryon asymmetry at the electroweak phase transition in the MSSM and compute the baryon asymmetry assuming the presence of non-trivial CP-violating phases in the parameters associated with the left-right stop mixing term and the Higgsino mass $\\mu$. Making use of the closed time-path (CTP) formalism of nonequilibrium field theory, we write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. CP-violating sources manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transport theory and are not present in the classical approach. Compared to previous estimates, these non-Markovian features enhance the final baryon asymmetry by at least two orders of magnitude. This means that a CP-violating phase $|\\sin \\phi_{\\mu}|$ as small as $10^{-3}$ (or even smaller) is enough to generate the observed baryon asymmetry.

  12. Electroweak sphaleron with dimension-six operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xucheng; Long, Andrew J.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2017-12-01

    New physics at the TeV scale can affect the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in many ways. In this paper, we evaluate its impact on the rate of baryon-number violation via sphaleron transitions. We parametrize the effect of new physics with dimension-six operators, and we use the Newton-Kantorovich method to numerically solve the resulting equations of motion. Depending on the sign of the coefficient of the dimension-six operators, their presence can either increase or decrease the sphaleron energy at the level of a few percent, parametrically of order mW2/Λ2 where Λ is the scale suppressing the dimension-six operator. The baryon-number washout condition, typically written as vc/Tc>1 , is directly proportional to the sphaleron energy, and we discuss how the presence of dimension-six operators can affect electroweak baryogenesis.

  13. A Determination of Electroweak Parameters at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Using the deep inelastic e^+p and e^-p charged and neutral current scattering cross sections previously published, a combined electroweak and QCD analysis is performed to determine electroweak parameters accounting for their correlation with parton distributions. The data used have been collected by the H1 experiment in 1994-2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 117.2 pb^{-1}. A measurement is obtained of the W propagator mass in charged current ep scattering. The weak mixing angle sin^2 theta_W is determined in the on-mass-shell renormalisation scheme. A first measurement at HERA is made of the light quark weak couplings to the Z^0 boson and a possible contribution of right-handed isospin components to the weak couplings is investigated.

  14. Relaxation of the chiral imbalance in dense matter of a neutron star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvornikov Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the quantum field theory methods, we calculate the helicity flip of an electron scattering off protons in dense matter of a neutron star. The influence of the electroweak interaction between electrons and background nucleons on the helicity flip is examined. We also derive the kinetic equation for the chiral imbalance. The derived kinetic equation is compared with the results obtained by other authors.

  15. Electroweak Calibration of the Higgs Characterization Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will present the preliminary results of histogram fits using the Higgs Combine histogram fitting package. These fits can be used to estimate the effects of electroweak contributions to the p p -> H mu+ mu- Higgs production channel and calibrate Beyond Standard Model (BSM) simulations which ignore these effects. I will emphasize my findings' significance in the context of other research here at CERN and in the broader world of high energy physics.

  16. Searches for electroweak SUSY production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Heidegger, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, the latest results of searches for electroweak production of supersymmetry with a data set of pp collisions at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $35.9\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ collected by the CMS detector in 2016 are presented. Exclusion limits at $95\\,\\%$ confidence level on the masses of charginos and neutralinos reach up to $1150\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$.

  17. Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The seminar presents an overview of the ATLAS electroweak physics programme. Recent measurements of di-boson and multi-boson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons, associated with up to two jets, at 8 TeV proton-proton collisions are discussed. Inclusive, fiducial and differential production cross sections are presented, including vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering processes. These measurements allow to derive constraints on anomalous triple and quartic gauge couplings.

  18. On stability of electroweak vacuum during inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shkerin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study Coleman–De Luccia tunneling of the Standard Model Higgs field during inflation in the case when the electroweak vacuum is metastable. We verify that the tunneling rate is exponentially suppressed. The main contribution to the suppression is the same as in flat space–time. We analytically estimate the corrections due to the expansion of the universe and an effective mass term in the Higgs potential that can be present at inflation.

  19. The Strongly Interacting Electroweak Phase Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bergerhoff, B.; Wetterich, C

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative discussion of nonperturbative effects for the high temperature electroweak phase transition is presented. We propose a method for the computation of the temperature dependent effective scalar potential that takes into account the running of the effective gauge coupling. Compared to perturbation theory we find a moderate decrease of the critical temperature and an important change in the strength of the first order transition. We conclude that perturbation theory gives a mislead...

  20. Electroweak theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2004-01-01

    There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development/test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector.

  1. Mechanical separation of chiral dipoles by chiral light

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Optical forces take on a specific form when involving chiral light fields interacting with chiral objects. We show that optical chirality density and flow can have mechanical effects through reactive and dissipative components of chiral forces exerted on chiral dipoles. Remarkably, these force components are directly related to standard observables: optical rotation and circular dichroism, respectively. As a consequence, resulting forces and torques are dependent on the enantiomeric form of the chiral dipole. This leads to promising strategies for the mechanical separation of chiral objects using chiral light forces.

  2. Emergent Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with Composite W, Z Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yanou; Wells, James D

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of electroweak symmetry breaking in a warped extra dimension where electroweak symmetry is broken at the UV (or Planck) scale. An underlying conformal symmetry is broken at the IR (or TeV) scale generating masses for the electroweak gauge bosons without invoking a Higgs mechanism. By the AdS/CFT correspondence the W,Z bosons are identified as composite states of a strongly-coupled gauge theory, suggesting that electroweak symmetry breaking is an emergent phenomenon at the IR scale. The model satisfies electroweak precision tests with reasonable fits to the S and T parameter. In particular the T parameter is sufficiently suppressed since the model naturally admits a custodial SU(2) symmetry. The composite nature of the W,Z-bosons provide a novel possibility of unitarizing WW scattering via form factor suppression. Constraints from LEP and the Tevatron as well as discovery opportunities at the LHC are discussed for these composite electroweak gauge bosons.

  3. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...

  4. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1994-12-05

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ``strong, high priority`` one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities.

  5. Competitive chiral induction in a 2D molecular assembly: Intrinsic chirality versus coadsorber-induced chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center–controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, (S)-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction–mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.

  6. Chiral magnetic superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharzeev Dmitri E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this “Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity” (CMS is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different – the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 – 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...

  8. Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleppe, A.

    1997-05-01

    The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m{sub 0} implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm{sub 0}, R{sup 2}m{sub 0}, .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way.

  9. Optical chirality breaking in a bilayered chiral metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-09-18

    We propose a planar optical bilayered chiral metamaterial, which consists of periodic metallic arrays of two L-shaped structures and a nanorod twisted on both sides of a dielectric slab, to investigate the optical chirality breaking effect by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Even the metamaterial is with chiral symmetry, an optical chirality breaking window in the asymmetric transmission pass band is obtained in chiral metamaterial structure. We analyze the plasmonic mode properties and attribute the mechanism of the optical chirality breaking effect to the plasmonic analogue of EIT. The optical chirality breaking window can be modulated by changing the geometric parameters of the nanorods in the structure.

  10. Parton shower matching for electroweak corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Michael; Mueck, Alexander; Oymanns, Lennart [RWTH Aachen, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The POWHEG method is widely used to match next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations with standard parton shower programs. It is also possible to use the POWHEG method to match electroweak (EW) corrections with parton showers. We present how the POWHEG method can be extended to handle EW corrections, including photon radiation, and we use it to investigate the Drell-Yan process (pp → μ{sup +}μ{sup -}). Our implementation is compared to an existing implementation in the POWHEGBOX and to NLO calculations for QCD and EW corrections.

  11. Diboson and Electroweak Physics at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Vest, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    LHC data at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are used to perform measurements of electroweak diboson and Zjj production with the ATLAS detector. These measurements comprise combinations of W, Z and isolated photons, and use leptonic as well as semi-leptonic decay channels. No significant deviations from the Standard Model have been observed and the measurements are used to place constraints on anomalous gauge boson couplings. In addition, the prospects for vector boson scattering and triboson production at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV are discussed.

  12. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  13. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  14. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  15. Precision tests of the standard electroweak model

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    High precision measurements of weak neutral current and charged current processes and of the properties of the Z and W bosons have established the standard electroweak model as correct down to a distance scale of 10-16 cm, and are a sensitive probe of possible underlying physics. In this book, all aspects of the program are considered in detail, including the structure of the standard model, radiative corrections, high precision experiments, and their implications. The major classes of experiments are surveyed, covering the experiments themselves, the data analysis, results, and prospects. Thi

  16. Chiral separation by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gübitz, G; Schmid, M G

    2000-01-01

    The state of art in chiral capillary electrochromatography is reviewed. Chiral separations by capillary electrochromatography were carried out using capillaries packed with chiral stationary phases or achiral stationary phases in combination with a chiral selector added to the mobile phase. Furthermore, the use of open tubular capillaries containing the chiral selector coated to the capillary wall was also reported. Among other separation principles moleculary imprinted polymers represent a challenging approach for chiral capillary electrochromatography. A recent trend is the use of polymeric continuous beds with a chiral selector incorporated.

  17. Electroweak symmetry breaking and beyond the Standard Model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    398 ± 0.025 GeV. 2.1 Constraints on the Higgs mass. (a) Electroweak fit: The Higgs mass enters electroweak fit through the ∆ρ and. S parameters. At the tree level, ρSM = 1. The quantum corrections show a logarithmic sensitivity to the Higgs ...

  18. A functional LMO invariant for Lagrangian cobordisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheptea, Dorin; Habiro, Kazuo; Massuyeau, Gwénaël

    2008-01-01

    Lagrangian cobordisms are three-dimensional compact oriented cobordisms between once-punctured surfaces, subject to some homological conditions. We extend the Le–Murakami–Ohtsuki invariant of homology three-spheres to a functor from the category of Lagrangian cobordisms to a certain category...

  19. Relativistic chiral mean field model and chiral property of finite nuclei and nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko; Hu, Jinniu

    2009-10-01

    We study the role of pion in finite nuclei and nuclear matter with the relativistic chiral mean field (RCMF) model. In the RCMF model, we use the linear sigma model Lagrangian, which contains the nucleon field and sigma and pion fields in chiral symmetric way. We introduce further the omega meson coupling in order to include necessary repulsion to form nucleus. We take first the mean field approximation and obtain meson fluctuation terms to be treated in the 2p-2h space so that the pion exchange interaction is fully taken into account. The pion exchange interaction provides major contribution to the nuclear binding. We calculate ^4He, ^12C and ^16O and nuclear matter. For finite nuclei, we obtain more than a half of the attraction from the pion exchange interaction. We get an extra binding for ^12C than ^16O due to the pion exchange interaction coming from the Pauli-blocking effect. We find the nucleon mass is reduced about 20% from the free space value in the interior of finite nuclei. We calculate also chiral condensate in nuclear matter, which has a similar behavior to the model independent expression as a function of density. This behavior agrees with the behavior of isovector s-wave parameter extracted from deeply bound pionic atoms.

  20. Applications of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  1. Precision electroweak measurements on the $Z$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Schael, S; Brunelière, R; Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Trocmé, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Park, I C; Perlas, J; Riu, I; Ruiz, H; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Bazarko, A; Becker, U; Boix, G; Bird, F; Blucher, E; Bonvicini, B; Bright-Thomas, P; Barklow, T; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hagelberg, R; Halley, A W; Gianotti, F; Girone, M; Hansen, J B; 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    2006-01-01

    We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLD experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, $MZ$ and $GZ$, and its couplings to fermions, for example the $ ho$ parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: egin{eqnarray*} MZ & = & 91.1875 pm 0.0021~GeV \\ GZ & = & 2.4952 pm 0.0023~GeV \\ ho_ell & = & 1.0050 pm 0.0010 \\ swsqeffl & =& 0.23153 pm 0.00016 ,. end{eqnarray*} The number of light neutrino species is determined to be $2.9840pm0.0082$, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the pr...

  2. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rindler-Daller, Tanja [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Institut für Astrophysik, Universitätssternwarte Wien, University of Vienna,Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Wells, James D. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-09

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  3. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  4. Lagrangian multi-particle statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthi, Beat; Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren

    2007-01-01

    . Based on an analytical result and on a sensitivity analysis, both presented here, we estimate the accuracy for filtered strain, (s) over tilde (2), and enstrophy, (omega) over tilde (2), at around 30%. The accuracy improves with higher tracer seeding density and with smaller filter scale Delta. We...... obtain good scaling with t* = root 2r(2)/15S(2)(r) for filtered strain and vorticity and present filtered R-Q invariant maps with the typical 'tear drop' shape that is known from velocity gradients at viscous scales. Lagrangian results are given for the growth of particle pairs, triangles and tetrahedra...... that the contribution from the coarse-grained strain field, r(i)r(j)(s) over tilde (ij) filtered at scale Delta = r, is responsible for roughly 2/3 of the separation rate, while 1/3 stems from scales Delta r....

  5. arXiv Chiral Effective Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bishara, Fady

    2017-02-03

    We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces. Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.

  6. Chiral symmetry breakings in supersymmetric QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, Mamoru; Yamawaki, Koichi (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-05-01

    It is argued that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD is due to the boson pair condensation instead of the fermion pair condensation in sharp contrast to the ordinary QCD. We further construct a low energy effective Lagrangian for supersymmetric QCD, which realizes the symmetry breaking, SU(N) sub(L) x SU(N) sub(R) x U(1) sub(V) x U(1) sub(X) down to SU(N) sub(V) x U(1) sub(V), in the massless limit. Our Lagrangian has no singular behaviour in the massless limit, supersymmetry being preserved independently of the quark mass m. It is shown that linear masses (instead of quadratic masses) of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons are proportional to the quark mass and supersymmetric variants of Dashen's formulae are all saturated by the condensations -- O(m..lambda../sup 2/) and -- O (..lambda../sup 2/) for m -- 0.

  7. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  8. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  9. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  10. Precision Electroweak Measurements on the Z Presonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleph,Delphi,L3,Opal,SLD , Collaborations

    2005-09-08

    The authors report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. the data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLD experiment using a polarized beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarized asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m{sub Z} and {Lambda}{sub Z}, and its couplings to fermions, for example the {rho} parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m{sub Z} = 91.1875 {+-} 0.0021 GeV; {Lambda}{sub Z} = 2.4952 {+-} 0.0023 GeV; {rho}{sub {ell}} = 1.0050 {+-} 0.0010; sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}{sup lept} = 0.23153 {+-} 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 {+-} 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its Standard Model expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m{sub t} = 173{sub -10}{sup +13} GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m{sub W} = 80.363 {+-} 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model. Using in addition the direct measurements of m{sub t} and m{sub W}, the mass of the as yet unobserved Standard Model Higgs boson is predicted with a

  11. Chiral symmetry in pion-quark interactions: a first study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, C.M.; Robilotta, M.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-12-31

    In the study of nuclear processes we learn that chiral symmetry is an important symmetry for systems with pions. The works of Weinberg have shown that effective Lagrangians can be used to reproduce current algebra results, with advantage of allowing simpler calculations for processes with several pions. In the case of nucleon-nucleon interactions processes with range less than 1 fm require the use of phenomenological models with quark degrees of freedom. This approach avoids in hadron physics, the problem of the very strong effective coupling constant of QCD in this region. One believes that chiral symmetry plays an important role in hadron physics. The purpose of this work is to study how this symmetry works when one connects pions with constituents quarks. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  13. Effective theory for electroweak doublet dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Spanos, V. C.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the standard model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2) doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for dark matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable d =4 operators, and nonrenormalizable d =5 operators that appear after integrating out extra degrees of freedom above the TeV scale. We study collider, cosmological and astrophysical probes for this effective theory of dark matter. We find that a weakly interacting dark matter particle with a mass nearby the electroweak scale, and thus observable at the LHC, is consistent with collider and astrophysical data only when fairly large magnetic dipole moment transition operators with the gauge bosons exist, together with moderate Yukawa interactions.

  14. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  15. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  16. Energy helps accuracy: Electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Farina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that high energy measurements of Drell–Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell–Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell–Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  17. Energy helps accuracy: electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Marco

    2017-09-10

    We show that high energy measurements of Drell-Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell-Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell-Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  18. Do present LEP data provide evidence for electroweak corrections?

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, V A; Vysotsky, M I

    1993-01-01

    The Born approximation, based on $\\bar\\alpha \\equiv\\alpha (m_Z)$ instead of $\\alpha$, reproduces all electroweak precision measurements within their $(1\\sigma)$ accuracy. The low upper limits for the genuinely electroweak corrections constitute one of the major achievements of LEP. The astonishing smallness of these corrections results from the cancellation of a large positive contribution from the heavy top quark and large negative contributions from all other virtual particles. It is precisely the non-observation of electroweak radiative corrections that places stringent upper and lower limits on the top mass.

  19. Chiral Random Matrix Theory and Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Poul H, E-mail: phdamg@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD has traditionally been inferred indirectly through low-energy theorems and comparison with experiments. Thanks to the understanding of an unexpected connection between chiral Random Matrix Theory and chiral Perturbation Theory, the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD can now be shown unequivocally from first principles and lattice simulations. In these lectures I give an introduction to the subject, starting with an elementary discussion of spontaneous breaking of global symmetries.

  20. Measuring And Explaining The Supersymmetric Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L

    2002-01-01

    The issues of measuring the supersymmetric Lagrangian once data is available, and making the connections between the low energy effective Lagrangian and fundamental theory, are considered. After a brief introduction to the fundamentals of supersymmetry and overview of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), case studies in ways of measuring different parameters in the low energy MSSM Lagrangian are presented. They include: measuring CP violation phases and LSP masses in gluino decay; Higgs production and detection; flavor and CP violation in b → sγ processes; signature of cold dark matter in the cosmic rays. Potential ambiguities in the process of recovering the high energy effective Lagrangian from low energy data are discussed. A new basis, which is explicitly independent of unphysical parameters, is proposed to write the renormalization group equations. After a brief survey of some basic issues of string theory phenomenology, a string theory motivated Pati-Salam like model is const...

  1. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The

  2. Generalized Lagrangian dynamics and Noetherian symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, D.R. (Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Inst. of Atomic Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania))

    1992-11-10

    In this paper, the authors propose a generalization of the usual Lagrangian formulation of dynamics, suggested by the Souriau approach to analytical mechanics. It is a global formulation in which the Lagrangian is defined, in general, only locally. Some examples of generalized dynamics are given in this sense. The authors analyze in detail the Galilean invariant N-particle system and we also study the case of identical particles.

  3. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  4. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  5. The Electroweak Phase Transition, Part 2: $\\epsilon$-Expansion Results

    OpenAIRE

    Yaffe, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Talk presented at the conference Quarks `94: Vladimir, Russia. I summarize the application of $\\epsilon$-expansion methods to the electroweak phase transition. Results from both leading and next-to-leading order calculations are discussed.

  6. Models of little Higgs and electroweak precision tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The little Higgs idea is an alternative to supersymmetry as a solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. In this note, the author reviews various little Higgs models and their phenomenology with emphasis on the precision electroweak constraints in these models.

  7. NLO Electroweak Corrections to Higgs Decay to Two Photons

    OpenAIRE

    Actis, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The recent calculation of the next-to-leading order electroweak corrections to the decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson to two photons in the framework of the complex-mass scheme is briefly summarized.

  8. Combined QCD and electroweak analysis of HERA data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronenko, Volodymyr [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A simultaneous fit of PDFs and electroweak parameters to HERA deep inelastic scattering data is presented. The input data are the neutral current, NC, and charged current, CC, inclusive cross sections that were previously used in the QCD analysis providing the HERAPDF2.0 PDFs. The NLO QCD plus LO electroweak analysis uses information on polarisation of the electron beam for the ZEUS data taken between 2004 and 2007. Results on the vector and axial-vector couplings of the Z boson to u- and d-type quarks, on the value of the electroweak mixing angle and the mass of the W boson are presented. The values obtained for the electroweak parameters are in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  9. Theory Overview of Electroweak Physics at Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John M. [Fermilab

    2016-09-03

    This contribution summarizes some of the important theoretical progress that has been made in the arena of electroweak physics at hadron colliders. The focus is on developments that have sharpened theoretical predictions for final states produced through electroweak processes. Special attention is paid to new results that have been presented in the last year, since LHCP2015, as well as on key issues for future measurements at the LHC.

  10. New searches for supersymmetry in electroweak production with CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The large set of proton-proton collision data recorded in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is the basis for first results on electroweak production of supersymmetric particles in LHC Run 2. CMS results on the production of chargino / neutralino pairs are presented based on the analysis of final states with one or more leptons and interpreted under several assumptions for the decay modes of the electroweak gauginos.

  11. Duke Workshop: Electroweak Measurements at the Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities for future directions of precision electroweak measurements from the current results and extrapolations at the LHC to a wide range of potential upgrades and new collider facilities are presented and compared. The strategies for producing simulation results and the benchmarks for physics and detector performances are discussed.This workshop is a major kick-off meeting for the development of the Snowmass report on future Electroweak Physics for summer 2013.

  12. Concepts of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Bock, M; Mühlleitner, M; Spira, M; Zerwas, P M

    2008-01-01

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e+e- linear colliders are discussed.

  13. Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Bock, M. [Benemerita Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-Le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 74 (France)]|[CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. Theor. Physik E]|[Univ. Paris- Sud, Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique

    2007-12-15

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Electroweak vacuum metastability and low-scale inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    We study the stability of the electroweak vacuum in low-scale inflation models whose Hubble parameter is much smaller than the instability scale of the Higgs potential. In general, couplings between the inflaton and Higgs are present, and hence we study effects of these couplings during and after inflation. We derive constraints on the couplings between the inflaton and Higgs by requiring that they do not lead to catastrophic electroweak vacuum decay, in particular, via resonant production of the Higgs particles.

  15. Can monoatomic xenon become chiral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, K; El Haouaj, M; Luhmer, M; Collet, A; Reisse, J

    2000-12-15

    A chiral host, cryptophane-A (1), makes even a monoatomic noble gas chiral. The interaction of xenon and 1 was monitored by (129) Xe NMR and in the presence of a chiral chemical shift reagent. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  16. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  17. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bin Lin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. 1H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  18. Towards racemizable chiral organogelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian Bin; Dasgupta, Debarshi; Cantekin, Seda; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2010-10-06

    A chiral organogelator has been synthesized that can be racemized and self-assembled in apolar solvents whilst at higher concentrations organogels are formed. Field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of bundle fibrils that are able to gelate the solvent. ¹H NMR studies showed hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide head groups of neighbouring organogelator molecules. The enantiomerically pure organogelator can be racemized by the base DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene) as was evident from chiral high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

  19. MSSM Electroweak Baryogenesis and LHC Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, Marcela; Nardini, Germano; Quiros, Mariano; Wagner, Carlos E.M.

    2013-02-01

    Electroweak baryogenesis is an attractive scenario for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe as its realization depends on the presence at the weak scale of new particles which may be searched for at high energy colliders. In the MSSM it may only be realized in the presence of light stops, and with moderate or small mixing between the left- and right-handed components. Consistency with the observed Higgs mass around 125 GeV demands the heavier stop mass to be much larger than the weak scale. Moreover the lighter stop leads to an increase of the gluon-gluon fusion Higgs production cross section which seems to be in contradiction with indications from current LHC data. We show that this tension may be considerably relaxed in the presence of a light neutralino with a mass lower than about 60 GeV, satisfying all present experimental constraints. In such a case the Higgs may have a significant invisible decay width and the stop decays through a three or four body decay channel, including a bottom quark and the lightest neutralino in the final state. All these properties make this scenario testable at a high luminosity LHC.

  20. Warped Electroweak Breaking Without Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for m > 1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  1. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-12-09

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...

  2. Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Dru B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Feng, Xu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-06-15

    Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements, effective field theory techniques and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we mention applications to the Adler function, which can be used to determine the strong coupling constant, and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.

  3. Nonperturbative QCD corrections to electroweak observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dru B Renner, Xu Feng, Karl Jansen, Marcus Petschlies

    2011-12-01

    Nonperturbative QCD corrections are important to many low-energy electroweak observables, for example the muon magnetic moment. However, hadronic corrections also play a significant role at much higher energies due to their impact on the running of standard model parameters, such as the electromagnetic coupling. Currently, these hadronic contributions are accounted for by a combination of experimental measurements and phenomenological modeling but ideally should be calculated from first principles. Recent developments indicate that many of the most important hadronic corrections may be feasibly calculated using lattice QCD methods. To illustrate this, we will examine the lattice computation of the leading-order QCD corrections to the muon magnetic moment, paying particular attention to a recently developed method but also reviewing the results from other calculations. We will then continue with several examples that demonstrate the potential impact of the new approach: the leading-order corrections to the electron and tau magnetic moments, the running of the electromagnetic coupling, and a class of the next-to-leading-order corrections for the muon magnetic moment. Along the way, we will mention applications to the Adler function, the determination of the strong coupling constant and QCD corrections to muonic-hydrogen.

  4. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  5. Electroweak contributions to squark-pair production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germer, Jan

    2011-04-28

    We study the electroweak (EW) contributions to squark-squark and sbottom-anti-sbottom production processes at the LHC within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Aiming at precise theoretical predictions, the EW contributions are considered up to next-to leading order (NLO) which are of O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}{alpha}). Since the EW interaction distinguishes flavor and chirality of the initial- and final-state quarks and squarks, respectively, the contributing processes are manifold and their interplay is non-trivial. All technical details needed in order to calculate the NLO EW contributions to the hadronic cross section for the abovementioned processes are given within this dissertation. This includes appropriate regularization and renormalization prescriptions and a proper treatment of mass singularities in order to get ultraviolet finite and infrared and collinear safe observables. Squark-squark production consists of 36 processes and the same amount for anti-squark- anti-squark production. The tree-level EW contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}+{alpha}{sup 2}) and the NLO EW contributions are calculated for all processes. Depending on the flavor and chirality of the produced squarks, many interferences between EW-mediated and QCD-mediated diagrams give non-zero contributions at tree-level and NLO EW. While the tree-level EW contributions to the integrated cross section can reach the 20% level, the NLO EW corrections typically lower the LO prediction by a few percent. Sbottom-anti-sbottom pair production exhibits specific features like left-right mixing and the renormalization of the sbottom sector which has to be chosen with care in order to get reliable predictions. In addition, Yukawa couplings get enhanced for large values of tan {beta} with the related need of resummation. This renders the computation of the electroweak contributions substantially different from the corresponding computations for squark-anti- squark and stop

  6. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingful. In particular, it is interesting to analyze the hadronic tensor that parametrizes the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and confront the model predictions with empirical data. This picture has led to interesting studies of hadron structure functions in bosonized chiral quark models. Here I will present the results of refs [5–7].

  7. Naturally realized two dark Z 's near the electroweak scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihn E.

    2017-09-01

    Chiral representations are the key to obtaining light fermions from some ultraviolet completed theories. The well-known chiral example is one family set of 15 chiral fields in the standard model. We find a new chiral theory SU(2 ) dark× U (1 )Q with 16 chiral fields, which does not have any gauge and gravitational anomalies. The group SU(2 ) dark× U (1 )Q may belong to the dark sector, and we present a derivation of the spectrum from the E8×E8' heterotic string. Necessarily, there appear two degrees at low energy: two dark-Z' 's, or a dark-Z' plus a dark photon. Being chiral, there is a chance to probe this theory at TeV accelerators. Since the model belongs to the dark sector, the way to probe it is through the kinetic mixing.

  8. Chiral sum rules and vacuum condensates from tau-lepton decay data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.; Hernandez, L. A.; Schilcher, K.; Spiesberger, H.

    2015-03-01

    QCD finite energy sum rules, together with the latest updated ALEPH data on hadronic decays of the tau-lepton are used in order to determine the vacuum condensates of dimension d = 2 and d = 4. These data are also used to check the validity of the Weinberg sum rules, and to determine the chiral condensates of dimension d = 6 and d = 8, as well as the chiral correlator at zero momentum, proportional to the counter term of the Lagrangian of chiral perturbation theory, . Suitable (pinched) integration kernels are introduced in the sum rules in order to suppress potential quark-hadron duality violations. We find no compelling indications of duality violations in the kinematic region above s ≃ 2 .2 GeV2 after using pinched integration kernels.

  9. Chiral sum rules and vacuum condensates from tau-lepton decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, C.A.; Hernandez, L.A. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics,University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics,Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Schilcher, K.; Spiesberger, H. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics,University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics,Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-10

    QCD finite energy sum rules, together with the latest updated ALEPH data on hadronic decays of the tau-lepton are used in order to determine the vacuum condensates of dimension d=2 and d=4. These data are also used to check the validity of the Weinberg sum rules, and to determine the chiral condensates of dimension d=6 and d=8, as well as the chiral correlator at zero momentum, proportional to the counter term of the O(p{sup 4}) Lagrangian of chiral perturbation theory, L-bar{sub 10}. Suitable (pinched) integration kernels are introduced in the sum rules in order to suppress potential quark-hadron duality violations. We find no compelling indications of duality violations in the kinematic region above s≃2.2 GeV{sup 2} after using pinched integration kernels.

  10. The recursion relation in Lagrangian perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampf, Cornelius, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    We derive a recursion relation in the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory, appropriate for studying the inhomogeneities of the large scale structure of the universe. We use the fact that the perturbative expansion of the matter density contrast is in one-to-one correspondence with standard perturbation theory (SPT) at any order. This correspondence has been recently shown to be valid up to fourth order for a non-relativistic, irrotational and dust-like component. Assuming it to be valid at arbitrary (higher) order, we express the Lagrangian displacement field in terms of the perturbative kernels of SPT, which are itself given by their own and well-known recursion relation. We argue that the Lagrangian solution always contains more non-linear information in comparison with the SPT solution, (mainly) if the non-perturbative density contrast is restored after the displacement field is obtained.

  11. A chiral rhenium complex with predicted high parity violation effects: synthesis, stereochemical characterization by VCD spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Nidal; Roisnel, Thierry; Guy, Laure; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond; Darquié, Benoît; Crassous, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    With their rich electronic, vibrational, rotational and hyperfine structure, molecular systems have the potential to play a decisive role in precision tests of fundamental physics. For example, electroweak nuclear interactions should cause small energy differences between the two enantiomers of chiral molecules, a signature of parity symmetry breaking. Enantioenriched oxorhenium(VII) complexes S-(-)- and R-(+)-3 bearing a chiral 2-methyl-1-thio-propanol ligand have been prepared as potential candidates for probing molecular parity violation effects via high resolution laser spectroscopy of the Re=O stretching. Although the rhenium atom is not a stereogenic centre in itself, experimental vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra revealed a surrounding chiral environment, evidenced by the Re=O bond stretching mode signal. The calculated VCD spectrum of the R enantiomer confirmed the position of the sulfur atom cis to the methyl, as observed in the solid-state X-ray crystallographic structure, and showed the ...

  12. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  13. Learn the Lagrangian: A Vector-Valued RKHS Approach to Identifying Lagrangian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-An; Huang, Han-Pang

    2016-12-01

    We study the modeling of Lagrangian systems with multiple degrees of freedom. Based on system dynamics, canonical parametric models require ad hoc derivations and sometimes simplification for a computable solution; on the other hand, due to the lack of prior knowledge in the system's structure, modern nonparametric models in machine learning face the curse of dimensionality, especially in learning large systems. In this paper, we bridge this gap by unifying the theories of Lagrangian systems and vector-valued reproducing kernel Hilbert space. We reformulate Lagrangian systems with kernels that embed the governing Euler-Lagrange equation-the Lagrangian kernels-and show that these kernels span a subspace capturing the Lagrangian's projection as inverse dynamics. By such property, our model uses only inputs and outputs as in machine learning and inherits the structured form as in system dynamics, thereby removing the need for the mundane derivations for new systems as well as the generalization problem in learning from scratches. In effect, it learns the system's Lagrangian, a simpler task than directly learning the dynamics. To demonstrate, we applied the proposed kernel to identify the robot inverse dynamics in simulations and experiments. Our results present a competitive novel approach to identifying Lagrangian systems, despite using only inputs and outputs.

  14. The Mather problem for lower semicontinuous Lagrangians

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we develop the Aubry-Mather theory for Lagrangians in which the potential energy can be discontinuous. Namely we assume that the Lagrangian is lower semicontinuous in the state variable, piecewise smooth with a (smooth) discontinuity surface, as well as coercive and convex in the velocity. We establish existence of Mather measures, various approximation results, partial regularity of viscosity solutions away from the singularity, invariance by the Euler-Lagrange flow away from the singular set, and further jump conditions that correspond to conservation of energy and tangential momentum across the discontinuity. © 2013 Springer Basel.

  15. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M; Stuart, Marc C A; Szymański, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-05-12

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The molecules co-assemble into helical fibers through hydrogen bonding and the handedness of the fibers is biased by the chiral, ring-closed diarylethene. Photochemical ring closure of the open diarylethene yields the ring-closed product, which is enriched in the template enantiomer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking without the $\\mu^2$ Term

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that from a low energy perspective a viable electroweak symmetry breaking can be achieved without the (negative sign) $\\mu^2$ mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators. We show that such a setup is self consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of $D\\geq 4$, consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In an appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.

  17. Studying the Electroweak Sector with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bittrich, Carsten; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The large integrated luminosities that are available at the LHC, allow to test the gauge structure of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model to highest precision. In this talk, we review the latest results of the ATLAS collaboration involving di-boson and multiboson final states as well as the corresponding limits on anomalous gauge couplings. Moreover, we discuss the electroweak production of vector boson at 13 TeV. Another approach to test the consistency of the electroweak sector is via precision measurements. ATLAS has recently published a measurement of the tau-polarization in Z events as well as a three dimensional cross-section measurement of the Drell-Yan process. The latter allows for the extraction of the forward-backward asymmetry that can be interpreted as a measurement of the weak mixing angle. Both results will be presented and discussed.

  18. Combined QCD and electroweak analysis of HERA data

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Antonelli, S; Aushev, V; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bloch, I; Boos, EG; Brock, I; Brook, NH; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bussey, PJ; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, CD; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, AM; Corradi, M; Dementiev, RK; Devenish, RCE; Dusini, S; Foster, B; Gach, G; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, LK; Golubkov, Yu A; Grzelak, G; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, ZA; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Januschek, F; Jomhari, NZ; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Kaur, P; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Korzhavina, IA; Kotański, A; Kötz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Krupa, B; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, BB; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, OYu; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mohamad Idris, F; Mohammad Nasir, N; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nobe, T; Nowak, RJ; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlański, W; Pokrovskiy, NS; Przybycien, M; Roloff, P; Ruspa, M; Saxon, DH; Schioppa, M; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Shcheglova, LM; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Shyrma, Yu; Singh, I; Skillicorn, IO; Słomiński, W; Solano, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Tassi, E; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Wan Abdullah, WAT; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Żarnecki, AF; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, BO; Zotkin, DS; Bhadra, S; Gwenlan, C; Hlushchenko, O; Polini, A; Mastroberardino, A

    2016-05-03

    A simultaneous fit of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and electroweak parameters to HERA data on deep inelastic scattering is presented. The input data are the neutral current and charged current inclusive cross sections which were previously used in the QCD analysis leading to the HERAPDF2.0 PDFs. In addition, the polarisation of the electron beam was taken into account for the ZEUS data recorded between 2004 and 2007. Results on the vector and axial-vector couplings of the Z boson to u- and d-type quarks, on the value of the electroweak mixing angle and the mass of the W boson are presented. The values obtained for the electroweak parameters are in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  19. Inert scalars and vacuum metastability around the electroweak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Świeżewska, Bogumiła [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-22

    We analyse effective potential around the electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) extended with a heavy scalar doublet. We show that the additional scalars can have a strong impact on vacuum stability. Although the additional heavy scalars may improve the behaviour of running Higgs self-coupling at large field values, we prove that they can destabilise the vacuum due to EW-scale effects. A new EW symmetry conserving minimum of the effective potential can appear rendering the electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) minimum meta- or unstable. However, for the case of the inert doublet model (IDM) with a 125 GeV Higgs boson we demonstrate that the parameter space region where the vacuum is meta- or unstable cannot be reconciled with the constraints from perturbative unitarity, electroweak precision tests (EWPT) and dark matter relic abundance measurements.

  20. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Theory Department, TRIUMF,4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  1. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim, E-mail: nblinov@triumf.ca, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: tistefan@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  2. Combined QCD and electroweak analysis of HERA data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-03-15

    A simultaneous fit of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and electroweak parameters to HERA data on deep inelastic scattering is presented. The input data are the neutral current and charged current inclusive cross sections which were previously used in the QCD analysis leading to the HERAPDF2.0 PDFs. In addition, the polarisation of the electron beam was taken into account for the ZEUS data recorded between 2004 and 2007. Results on the vector and axial-vector couplings of the Z boson to u- and d-type quarks, on the value of the electroweak mixing angle and the mass of the W boson are presented. The values obtained for the electroweak parameters are in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  3. A Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We propose a Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies in the context of composite Higgs bosons. Standard model fermions are represented by algebraic spinors of six-dimensional binary Clifford algebra, while ternary Clifford algebra-related flavor projection operators control allowable flavor-mixing interactions. There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons resulted from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three groups are determined by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the Large Hadron Collider, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel.

  4. Chiral logarithms to five loops

    OpenAIRE

    Bissegger, Moritz; Fuhrer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate two specific Green functions in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. We show that, using analyticity and unitarity, their leading logarithmic singularities can be evaluated in the chiral limit to any desired order in the chiral expansion, with a modest calculational cost. The claim is illustrated with an evaluation of the leading logarithm for the scalar two-point function to five-loop order.

  5. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  6. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  7. Augmented Lagrangian Method For Discretized Optimal Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aid of Augmented Lagrangian method, a quadratic function with a control operator (penalized matrix) amenable to conjugate gradient method is generated. Numerical experiments verify the efficiency of the proposed technique which compares much more favourably to the existing scheme. Keywords: Trapezoidal ...

  8. Lagrangian duality and cone convexlike functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); G. Kassay

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will show that the closely K-convexlike vector-valued functions with K Rm a nonempty convex cone and related classes of vector-valued functions discussed in the literature arise naturally within the theory of biconjugate functions applied to the Lagrangian perturbation

  9. Electroweak Precision Tests with a Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Menges, W

    2001-01-01

    Future high energy linear electron positron colliders with centre-of-mass enegies between 90 and 1000 GeV offer a unique opportunity to study precisely the Standard Model and phenomena from new physics. Most important, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking can be established in full depth if one or more Higgs bosons are observed. Precision measurements of electroweak processes open a window into the multi-TeV energy range for searching for new physics, which is of particular importance if no light Higgs boson is observed.

  10. Electroweak and B physics results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, K.T.

    2001-01-30

    This writeup is an introduction to some of the experimental issues involved in performing electroweak and b physics measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron. In the electroweak sector, we discuss W and Z boson cross section measurements as well as the measurement of the mass of the W boson. For b physics, we discuss measurements of B{sup 0}/{bar B}{sup 0} mixing and CP violation. This paper is geared towards nonexperts who are interested in understanding some of the issues and motivations for these measurements and how the measurements are carried out.

  11. Quantum Boltzmann equations for electroweak baryogenesis including gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kainulainen, K; Schmidt, M G; Weinstock, S; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.; Weinstock, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    We review and extend to include the gauge fields our derivation of the semiclassical limit of the collisionless quantum transport equations for the fermions in presence of a CP-violating bubble wall at a first order electroweak phase transition. We show how the (gradient correction modified) Lorenz-force appears both in the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and in the semiclassical WKB-treatment. In the latter approach the inclusion of gauge fields removes the apparent phase reparametrization dependence of the intermediate calculations. We also discuss setting up the fluid equations for practical calculations in electroweak baryogenesis including the self-consistent (hyper)electric field and the anomaly.

  12. Electroweak radiative corrections in Z-boson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Vysotsky, M I; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Rozanov, A N

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed review of the electroweak radiative corrections to the Z-boson decay, in the framework of the minimal standard model (MSM). After a short historical introduction, we describe the optimal parametrization of the MSM, especially of the Born approximation, and derive expressions for the one-loop electroweak corrections. Finally a global fit of all relevant experimental data is performed, resulting in fitted values of the t-quark mass, m/sub t/, and strong coupling constant alpha /sub s/. The allowed range for the value of the Higgs boson mass, m/sub H/, is discussed. Various details of calculations are described in 16 appendices. (83 refs).

  13. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Barberio, E; Bourilkov, D; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Clare, R; D'Hondt, J; de la Cruz, B; de Jong, P; Della Ricca, G; Dierckxsens, M; Duchesneau, D; Duckeck, G; Elsing, M; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hansen, J B; Hawkings, R; Jezequel, St; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Lançon, E; Liebig, W; Malgeri, L; Mele, S; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Renton, P B; Riemann, S; Sachs, K; Strässner, A; Strom, D; Tenchini, R; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Todorova-Nová, S; Valassi, A; Venturi, A; Voss, H; Ward, C P; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wynhoff, St

    2007-01-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D{\\O}at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, M{\\o}ller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering.

  14. Electroweak supersymmetric dark matter annihilation in DM rate at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiemann, Saskia; Klasen, Michael; Kovarik, Karol; Steppeler, Patrick [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [LAPTh, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS (France); Harz, Julia [CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP) (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE (France)

    2016-07-01

    Today there are several pieces of evidence for dark matter. One well-known experiment is the measurement of the Dark Matter relic density by the Planck satellite. The talk introduces the 'Dark Matter at next-to-leading order' (DM rate at NLO) project which provides predictions for the dark matter relic density in the MSSM including higher-order corrections. After an introduction of the project DM rate at NLO, I shortly speak about the calculation of the electroweak processes. The main focus lies on the effects of the electroweak tree-level processes on the relic density of neutralinos within selected scenarios.

  15. Production of electroweak bosons at hadron colliders: theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2016-01-01

    Since the W and Z discovery, hadron colliders have provided a fertile ground, in which continuously improving measurements and theoretical predictions allow to precisely determine the gauge boson properties, and to probe the dynamics of electroweak and strong interactions. This article will review, from a theoretical perspective, the role played by the study, at hadron colliders, of electroweak boson production properties, from the better understanding of the proton structure, to the discovery and studies of the top quark and of the Higgs, to the searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model.

  16. CP-violation for electroweak baryogenesis from dynamical CKM matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine

    2017-11-01

    We show that the CKM matrix can be the source of CP violation for electroweak baryogenesis if Yukawa couplings vary at the same time as the Higgs acquires its vacuum expectation value. This offers new avenues for explaining the baryon asymmetry of the universe. These ideas apply if the mechanism explaining the flavour structure of the Standard Model is connected to electroweak symmetry breaking. We compute the resulting baryon asymmetry for various low-scale flavour models and different configurations of the Yukawa coupling variation across the bubble wall, and show that it can naturally be of the right order.

  17. Towards Reviving Electroweak Baryogenesis with a Fourth Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    universe. However, it does not work within the standard model due to two reasons: (1 the strength of CP violation from the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism with three generations is too small; (2 the electroweak phase transition is not first order for the experimentally allowed Higgs boson mass. We discuss possibilities to solve these problems by introducing a fourth generation of fermions and how electroweak baryogenesis might be revived. We also discuss briefly the recent observation of a Higgs-like boson with mass around 125 GeV, which puts the fourth generation in a difficult situation, and the possible way out.

  18. Extragalactic magnetic fields unlikely generated at the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, Jacques M.; Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: jwagstaff@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: banerjee@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, University of Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that magnetic fields generated at the electroweak phase transition are most likely too weak to explain the void magnetic fields apparently observed today unless they have considerable helicity. We show that, in the simplest estimates, the helicity naturally produced in conjunction with the baryon asymmetry is too small to explain observations, which require a helicity fraction at least of order 10{sup −14}–10{sup −10} depending on the void fields constraint used. Therefore new mechanisms to generate primordial helicity are required if magnetic fields generated during the electroweak phase transition should explain the extragalactic fields.

  19. Chiral algebras of class S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beem, Christopher [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Rees, Balt C. van [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-05

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  20. Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014

  1. Lagrangian statistics in turbulent channel flow: implications for Lagrangian stochastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzenmuller, Nickolas; Polanco, Juan Igancio; Vinkovic, Ivana; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Lagrangian acceleration and velocity correlations in statistically one-dimesional turbulence are presented in the context of the development of Lagrangian stochastic models of inhomogeneous turbulent flows. These correlations are measured experimentally by 3D PTV in a high aspect ratio water channel at Reτ = 1450 , and numerically from DNS performed at the same Reynolds number. Lagrangian timescales, key components of Lagrangian stochastic models, are extracted from acceleration and velocity autocorrelations. The evolution of these timescales as a function of distance to the wall is presented, and compared to similar quantities measured in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. A strong dependance of all Lagrangian timescales on wall distance is present across the width of the channel. Significant cross-correlations are observed between the streamwise and wall-normal components of both acceleration and velocity. Lagrangian stochastic models of this flow must therefore retain dependance on the wall-normal coordinate and the components of acceleration and velocity, resulting in significantly more complex models than those used for homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, LabEx Tec 21, and CONICYT Becas Chile.

  2. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2017-03-01

    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  3. Chiral nanophotonics chiral optical properties of plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schäferling, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the physics behind the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures focusing on chiral aspects. It explains in detail how the geometry determines chiral near-fields and how to tailor their shape and strength. Electromagnetic fields with strong optical chirality interact strongly with chiral molecules and, therefore, can be used for enhancing the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopy techniques. Besides a short review of the latest results in the field of plasmonically enhanced enantiomer discrimination, this book introduces the concept of chiral plasmonic near-field sources for enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy. The discussion of the fundamental properties of these light sources provides the theoretical basis for further optimizations and is of interest for researchers at the intersection of nano-optics, plasmonics and stereochemistry. .

  4. Natural Cold Baryogenesis from Strongly Interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Konstandin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of "cold electroweak baryogenesis" has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on...

  5. Sakurai Prize Lecture: Thirty Years of Precision Electroweak Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    We discuss the development of the theory of electroweak radiative corrections and its role in testing the Standard Model, predicting the top quark mass, constraining the Higgs boson mass, and searching for deviations that may signal the presence of new physics.

  6. Measurement of Electroweak Top Quark Production at {D\\O}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model-independent measurement of the electroweak single top-quark production cross section in proton-antiproton (p- $\\bar{p}$) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV in 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the DØ detector.

  7. Electroweak and Higgs boson production at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazopoulos Achilleas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available I summarize very briefly the status of theory predictions for the production of electroweak and Higgs bosons at the LHC, highlighting recent developments and issues that have attracted the interest of the theory community. The focus is on inclusive and fixed order differential computations and related developments in parton showers are not discussed at all in this contribution.

  8. Quantum chromodynamics effects in electroweak and Higgs physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several examples of the often intricate effects of higher-order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) corrections on predictions for hadron-collider observables, are discussed, using the production of electroweak gauge boson and the Standard Model Higgs boson as examples. Particular attention is given to the interplay of QCD ...

  9. Search for electroweak production of supersymmetry at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Miaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    We report on searches for supersymmetry via pair production of partners of electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons. The searches use proton-proton collision data recorded in 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The results are interpreted in terms of several simplified models of supersymmetry.

  10. Electroweak Higgs plus three jet production at NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanario, Francisco [Valencia-CSIC Univ. (Spain). IFIC; Figy, Terrance M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Plaetzer, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sjoedahl, Malin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics

    2013-11-15

    We calculate next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to electroweak Higgs plus three jet production. Both vector boson fusion (VBF) and Higgs-strahlung type contributions are included along with all interferences. The calculation is implemented within the Matchbox NLO framework of the Herwig++ event generator.

  11. Neutrinos and Physics Beyond Electroweak and Cosmological Standard Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilova, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This is a short review of the established and the proposed by physics beyond Standard Electroweak Model and beyond Standard Cosmological Model neutrino characteristics. In particular, cosmological effects of and cosmological constraints on: extra neutrino families, neutrino mass differences and mixing, lepton asymmetry in the neutrino sector, neutrino masses, light sterile neutrino, are discussed.

  12. The sphaleron rate through the electroweak cross-over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari; Tranberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Using lattice simulations, we measure the sphaleron rate in the Standard Model as a function of temperature through the electroweak cross-over, for the Higgs masses m(H) = 115 and m(H) = 160GeV. We pay special attention to the shutting off of the baryon rate as the temperature is lowered. This qu......Using lattice simulations, we measure the sphaleron rate in the Standard Model as a function of temperature through the electroweak cross-over, for the Higgs masses m(H) = 115 and m(H) = 160GeV. We pay special attention to the shutting off of the baryon rate as the temperature is lowered....... This quantity enters computations of Baryogenesis via Leptogenesis, where non-zero lepton number is converted into non-zero baryon number by equilibrium sphaleron transitions. Combining existing numerical methods applicable in the symmetric and broken electroweak phases, we find the temperature dependence...... of the sphaleron rate at very high temperature, through the electroweak cross-over transition, and deep into the broken phase....

  13. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  14. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  15. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  16. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  17. Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque

    2008-01-01

    This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and

  18. Lagrangian perturbation theory for modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a formalism to compute Lagrangian displacement fields for a wide range of cosmologies in the context of perturbation theory up to third order. We emphasize the case of theories with scale-dependent gravitational strengths, such as chameleons, but our formalism can be accommodated to other modified gravity theories. In the nonlinear regime, two qualitative features arise. One, as is well known, is that nonlinearities lead to a screening of the force mediated by the scalar field. The second is a consequence of the transformation of the Klein-Gordon equation from Eulerian to Lagrangian coordinates, producing frame lagging terms that are important especially at large scales, and if not considered, the theory does not reduce to the Λ CDM model in that limit. We apply our formalism to compute the one-loop power spectrum and the correlation function in f (R ) gravity by using different resummation schemes. We further discuss the IR divergences of these formalisms.

  19. Engineering dynamics from the Lagrangian to simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2013-01-01

    This engineering dynamics textbook is aimed at beginning graduate students in mechanical engineering and other related engineering disciplines who need training in dynamics as applied to engineering mechanisms. It introduces the formal mathematical development of Lagrangian mechanics (and its corollaries), while solving numerous engineering applications. The author’s goal is to instill an understanding of the basic physics required for engineering dynamics, while providing a recipe (algorithm) for the simulation of engineering mechanisms such as robots. The book is reasonably self-contained so that the practicing engineer interested in this area can also make use of it. This book is made accessible to the widest possible audience by numerous, solved examples and diagrams that apply the principles to real engineering applications. • Provides an applied textbook for intermediate/advanced engineering dynamics courses; • Discusses Lagrangian mechanics in the context of numerous engineering applications...

  20. Lagrangian scale of particle dispersion in turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transport of mass, heat and momentum in turbulent flows by far exceeds that in stable laminar fluid motions. As turbulence is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, it is not clear which of these scales mostly affects particle dispersion. Also, it is not uncommon that turbulence coexists with coherent vortices. Here we report on Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that fluid particle dispersion is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale. These experiments offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales possesses temporal coherency. The results are applicable to oceanographic and atmospheric data, such as those obtained from trajectories of free-drifting instruments in the ocean.

  1. Functional integral for non-Lagrangian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kochan, Denis

    2010-01-01

    A novel functional integral formulation of quantum mechanics for non-Lagrangian systems is presented. The new approach, which we call "stringy quantization," is based solely on classical equations of motion and is free of any ambiguity arising from Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. The functionality of the proposed method is demonstrated on several examples. Special attention is paid to the stringy quantization of systems with a general A-power friction force $-\\kappa[\\dot{q}]^A$. Results for $A = 1$ are compared with those obtained in the approaches by Caldirola-Kanai, Bateman and Kostin. Relations to the Caldeira-Leggett model and to the Feynman-Vernon approach are discussed as well.

  2. Symmetry in monotone Lagrangian Floer theory

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jack Edward

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we study the self-Floer theory of a monotone Lagrangian submanifold $L$ of a closed symplectic manifold $X$ in the presence of various kinds of symmetry. First we consider the group $\\mathrm{Symp}(X, L)$ of symplectomorphisms of $X$ preserving $L$ setwise, and extend its action on the Oh spectral sequence to coefficients of arbitrary characteristic, working over an enriched Novikov ring. This imposes constraints on the differentials in the spectral sequence which force them to...

  3. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  4. Equivalent Lagrangians: Generalization, Transformation Maps, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent Lagrangians are used to find, via transformations, solutions and conservation laws of a given differential equation by exploiting the possible existence of an isomorphic algebra of Lie point symmetries and, more particularly, an isomorphic Noether point symmetry algebra. Applications include ordinary differential equations such as the Kummer equation and the combined gravity-inertial-Rossbywave equation and certain classes of partial differential equations related to multidimensional wave equations.

  5. Lagrangian Vortices in Developing Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    noted that trajectories that remain in vortex cores satisfy the OW condition for elliptic stability for longer times than generic trajectories , and define...a Lagrangian OW criterion based on the time that trajectories spend in elliptic or hyperbolic regions. Other methods of objectively identifying...a quantity that can be positive or negative, depending on whether a trajectory is located in a hyperbolic or elliptic region. The integral of a

  6. Toroidal regularization of the guiding center Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.

    2017-11-01

    In the Lagrangian theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B*=B +(m /e )v∥∇× b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the Lagrangian guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. This letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, the Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in regularizing the guiding center Lagrangian by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.

  7. Inverse Variational Problem for Nonstandard Lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Talukdar, B.

    2014-06-01

    In the mathematical physics literature the nonstandard Lagrangians (NSLs) were introduced in an ad hoc fashion rather than being derived from the solution of the inverse problem of variational calculus. We begin with the first integral of the equation of motion and solve the associated inverse problem to obtain some of the existing results for NSLs. In addition, we provide a number of alternative Lagrangian representations. The case studies envisaged by us include (i) the usual modified Emden-type equation, (ii) Emden-type equation with dissipative term quadratic in velocity, (iii) Lotka-Volterra model and (vi) a number of the generic equations for dissipative-like dynamical systems. Our method works for nonstandard Lagrangians corresponding to the usual action integral of mechanical systems but requires modification for those associated with the modified actions like S =∫abe L(x ,x˙ , t) dt and S =∫abL 1 - γ(x ,x˙ , t) dt because in the latter case one cannot construct expressions for the Jacobi integrals.

  8. Lagrangian methods of cosmic web classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.; Johnson, M. S. T.

    2016-05-01

    The cosmic web defines the large-scale distribution of matter we see in the Universe today. Classifying the cosmic web into voids, sheets, filaments and nodes allows one to explore structure formation and the role environmental factors have on halo and galaxy properties. While existing studies of cosmic web classification concentrate on grid-based methods, this work explores a Lagrangian approach where the V-web algorithm proposed by Hoffman et al. is implemented with techniques borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The Lagrangian approach allows one to classify individual objects (e.g. particles or haloes) based on properties of their nearest neighbours in an adaptive manner. It can be applied directly to a halo sample which dramatically reduces computational cost and potentially allows an application of this classification scheme to observed galaxy samples. Finally, the Lagrangian nature admits a straightforward inclusion of the Hubble flow negating the necessity of a visually defined threshold value which is commonly employed by grid-based classification methods.

  9. Applications the Lagrangian description in aperiodic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carolina; Mancho, Ana Maria

    2012-11-01

    We use several recently developed Lagrangian tools for describing transport in general aperiodic flows. In our approach the first step is based in a Lagrangian descriptor (the so called function M). It measures the length of particle trajectories on the ocean surface over a given interval of time. We describe its output over satellite altimetry data on the Kuroshio current. The technique is combined with the direct computation of manifolds of Distinguished Hyperbolic trajectories and a very detailed description of transport is achieved across an eddy and a jet on the Kuroshio current,. A second velocity data set is examined with the M function tool. These are obtained from the HYCOM project on the Gulf of Mexico during the time of the oil-spill. We have identified underlying Lagrangian structures and dynamics. We acknowledge to the hospitality of the university of Delaware and the assistance of Bruce Lipphardt and Helga Huntley in accessing the model data sets. We acknowledge to the grants: UPM-AL12-PAC-09, Becas de Movilidad de Caja Madrid 2011, MTM2011-26696 and ILINK-0145.

  10. Lagrangian predictability characteristics of an Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2014-11-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) Ocean Model, provided by INGV, has been chosen as case study to analyze Lagrangian trajectory predictability by means of a dynamical systems approach. To this regard, numerical trajectories are tested against a large amount of Mediterranean drifter data, used as sample of the actual tracer dynamics across the sea. The separation rate of a trajectory pair is measured by computing the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) of first and second kind. An additional kinematic Lagrangian model (KLM), suitably treated to avoid "sweeping"-related problems, has been nested into the MFS in order to recover, in a statistical sense, the velocity field contributions to pair particle dispersion, at mesoscale level, smoothed out by finite resolution effects. Some of the results emerging from this work are: (a) drifter pair dispersion displays Richardson's turbulent diffusion inside the [10-100] km range, while numerical simulations of MFS alone (i.e., without subgrid model) indicate exponential separation; (b) adding the subgrid model, model pair dispersion gets very close to observed data, indicating that KLM is effective in filling the energy "mesoscale gap" present in MFS velocity fields; (c) there exists a threshold size beyond which pair dispersion becomes weakly sensitive to the difference between model and "real" dynamics; (d) the whole methodology here presented can be used to quantify model errors and validate numerical current fields, as far as forecasts of Lagrangian dispersion are concerned.

  11. A Lagrangian-Lagrangian Model for Two-Phase Bubbly Flow around Circular Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shademan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lagrangian-Lagrangian model is developed using an in-house code to simulate bubble trajectory in two-phase bubbly flow around circular cylinder. Random Vortex Method (RVM which is a Lagrangian approach is used for solving the liquid phase. The significance of RVM relative to other RANS/LES methods is its capability in directly modelling the turbulence. In RVM, turbulence is modeled by solving the vorticity transport equation and there is no need to use turbulence closure models. Another advantage of RVM relative to other CFD approaches is its independence from mesh generation. For the bubbles trajectory, equation of motion of bubbles which takes into account effect of different forces are coupled with the RVM. Comparison of the results obtained from current model with the experimental data confirms the validity of the model. Effect of different parameters including flow Reynolds number, bubble diameter and injection point on the bubbles' trajectory are investigated. Results show that increase in the Reynolds number reduces the rising velocity of the bubbles. Similar behavior is observed for the bubbles when their diameter was decreased. According to the analysis carried out, present Lagrangian-Lagrangian model solves the issues of mesh generation and turbulence modelling which exist in common two phase flow modelling schemes.

  12. The chiral S = -1 meson-baryon interaction with new constraints on the NLO contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Feijoo, A.; Magas, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the S = - 1 meson-baryon interaction, employing a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. The parameters of the model have been fitted to a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, to threshold branching ratios, and to the precise SIDDHARTA value of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen. In contrast to other groups, we have taken into consideration the K- p →K+Ξ- ,K0Ξ0 reaction data, since we found in a previous work to be especially sensitive to the NLO parameters of the chiral Lagrangian. In the present work we also include the Born terms, which usually have very little effect, and find them to be non-negligible in the K- p → KΞ channels, correspondingly causing significant modifications to the NLO parameters. We furthermore show that the importance of the Born terms becomes more visible in the isospin projected amplitudes of the K- p → KΞ reactions. The measurement of processes that filter single isospin components, like the KL0 p →K+Ξ0 reaction that could be measured at the proposed secondary KL0 beam at Jlab, would put valuable constraints on the chiral models describing the meson-baryon interaction in the S = - 1 sector.

  13. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  14. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  15. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexander; Andrianov, Vladimir; Espriu, Domenec

    2017-03-01

    The chiral imbalance (ChI) is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial) chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB) in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  16. Dynamics of Multibody Systems Near Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian

    This thesis examines the dynamics of a physically connected multi-spacecraft system in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points of a Circular Restricted Three-Body System. The spacecraft system is arranged in a wheel-spoke configuration with smaller and less massive satellites connected to a central hub using truss/beams or tether connectors. The kinematics of the system is first defined, and the kinetic, gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy of the system are derived. The Assumed Modes Method is used to discretize the continuous variables of the system, and a general set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the connectors and the central hub are obtained using the Lagrangian method. The flexible body dynamics of the tethered and truss connected systems are examined using numerical simulations. The results show that these systems experienced only small elastic deflections when they are naturally librating or rotating at moderate angular velocities, and these deflections have relatively small effect on the attitude dynamics of the systems. Based on these results, it is determined that the connectors can be modeled as rigid when only the attitude dynamics of the system is of interest. The equations of motion of rigid satellites stationed at the Lagrangian points are linearized, and the stability conditions of the satellite are obtained from the linear equations. The required conditions are shown to be similar to those of geocentric satellites. Study of the linear equations also revealed the resonant conditions of rigid Lagrangian point satellites, when a librational natural frequency of the satellite matches the frequency of its station-keeping orbit leading to large attitude motions. For tethered satellites, the linear analysis shows that the tethers are in stable equilibrium when they lie along a line joining the two primary celestial bodies of the Three-Body System. Numerical simulations are used to study the long term

  17. Turbulence Interface Simulation by Lagrangian Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, V. H.

    2015-12-01

    Most computational fluid-dynamics codes are developed using the Eulerian description. To find the numerical solution, fluxes are estimated on the surface of the finite volume using a truncation series. Spurious numerical oscillations and artificial numerical diffusion are consequences, particularly in regions across flow discontinuities. Diffusion often is introduced synthetically in many schemes to gain computational stability. Occasional switching to a diffusive upwind scheme, for example, is one classic strategy to manage the numerical oscillations [see e.g., Ghannadi & Chu 2015]. Lagrangian-block simulation offers an alternative that could minimize the spurious oscillations and false diffusive error. The blocks move in the direction of the flow. The squares of the block widths expand in proportion to the diffusivities. The block simulation procedure consists of (i) Lagrangian advection and diffusion, (ii) division into portions, and (iii) reassembly of the portions into new blocks. The blocks are renewed in each time increment to prevent excessive distortion. Details of the Lagrangian-block simulations method have been given in a series of papers by Tan & Chu (2012), Chu & Altai (2012, 2015}. In this paper, the exchanges across turbulence interfaces are considered for two problems. The first series of the simulations are conducted to find the mass and momentum exchanges across a shallow flow of two different depth. In the simulations, the advection and diffusion of three separated systems of blocks that contain the mass, momentum and potential vorticity are carried out using the Lagrangian-block simulation method. The simulation results are compared with data obtained from a previous laboratory investigation and related to the shear instability problem in rotating shear flow previously considered by Chu (2014). The second problem involves the turbulence generation across the interface of an internal waves. The simulation shows the development of gravitational

  18. Eta photoproduction as a test of the extended chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-08-09

    We analyze the {gamma}p->{eta}p process from threshold up to 1.2 GeV, employing an effective Lagrangian approach that allows for a mixing of eta couplings of pseudoscalar and pseudovector nature. The mixing ratio of the couplings may serve as a quantitative estimation of the SU{sub L}(3)xSU{sub R}(3) extended chiral symmetry violation in this energy regime. The data analyzed (differential cross sections and asymmetries) show a preference for the pseudoscalar coupling-91% of pseudoscalar coupling component for the best fit. We stress that a more conclusive answer to this question requires a more complete electromagnetic multipole database than the presently available one.

  19. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory To Lattice Qcd

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Water, R S

    2005-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory that describes the interaction of quarks and gluons. Thus, in principle, one should be able to calculate all properties of hadrons from the QCD Lagrangian. It turns out, however, that such calculations can only be performed numerically on a computer using the nonperturbative method of lattice QCD, in which QCD is simulated on a discrete spacetime grid. Because lattice simulations use unphysically heavy quark masses (for computational reasons), lattice results must be connected to the real world using expressions calculated in chiral perturbation theory (χPT), the low-energy effective theory of QCD. Moreover, because real spacetime is continuous, they must be extrapolated to the continuum using an extension of χPT that includes lattice discretization effects, such as staggered χPT. This thesis is organized as follows. We motivate the need for lattice QCD and present the basic methodology in Chapter 1. We describe a common approximat...

  20. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  1. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  2. Hubbard-Stratonovich transformations to self-energies with coset decomposition to anomalous pair condensates for the standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mieck, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of the strong and electroweak interactions is transformed from the ordinary path integral with the Lagrangians of quarks and leptons and with the Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields to corresponding self-energies. We apply the precise formulation in terms of massless Majorana Fermi fields with 'Nambu' doubling which naturally leads to the appropriate HST's of the self-energies and to the subsequent coset decomposition for the SSB. The total coset decomposition of the Fermi fields is given by the dimension N0=90 for the symmetry breaking SO(N0,N0)/U(N0)xU(N0) where the densities of fermions, related to the invariant subgroup U(N0), are contained in a background functional for the remaining SO(N0,N0)/U(N0) coset field degrees of freedom.

  3. Pinning down electroweak dipole operators of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, Markus

    2016-08-19

    We consider hadronic top quark pair production and pair production in association with a photon or a $Z$ boson to probe electroweak dipole couplings in $t\\bar{b}W$, $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ interactions. We demonstrate how measurements of these processes at the 13 TeV LHC can be combined to disentangle and constrain anomalous dipole operators. The construction of cross section ratios allows us to significantly reduce various uncertainties and exploit orthogonal sensitivity between the $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ and $t\\bar{t}Z$ couplings. In addition, we show that angular correlations in $t\\bar{t}$ production can be used to constrain the remaining $t\\bar{b}W$ dipole operator. Our approach yields excellent sensitivity to the anomalous couplings and can be a further step towards precise and direct measurements of the top quark electroweak interactions.

  4. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-11

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2007 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and width and the mass of the top quark.

  5. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-11-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.

  6. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The , ALEPH, CDF, D0, ...

    2009-12-11

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.

  7. Precision electroweak measurements and constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results obtained at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.

  8. Electroweak baryogenesis in a supersymmetric U(1)' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junhai; Langacker, Paul; Li, Tianjun; Liu, Tao

    2005-02-18

    We construct an anomaly-free supersymmetric U(1)' model with a secluded U(1)'-breaking sector. We study the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature and show that there exists a strong enough first order electroweak phase transition for electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG) because of the large trilinear term AhhSHdHu in the tree-level Higgs potential. Unlike in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, the lightest top squark can be very heavy. We consider the nonlocal EWBG mechanism in the thin wall regime and find that within uncertainties the observed baryon number can be generated from the tau lepton contribution, with the secluded sector playing an essential role. The chargino and neutralino contributions and the implications for the Z' mass and electric dipole moments are briefly discussed.

  9. Electroweak baryogenesis in the Z_3 -invariant NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Sujeet; Balázs, Csaba; Dunn, Liam; White, Graham

    2017-11-01

    We calculate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the Z_3 -invariant Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model where the interactions of the singlino provide the necessary source of charge and parity violation. Using the closed time path formalism, we derive and solve transport equations for the cases where the singlet acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV) before and during the electroweak phase transition. We perform a detailed scan to show how the baryon asymmetry varies throughout the relevant parameter space. Our results show that the case where the singlet acquires a VEV during the electroweak phase transition typically generates a larger baryon asymmetry, although we expect that the case where the singlet acquires a VEV first is far more common for any model in which parameters unify at a high scale. Finally, we examine the dependence of the baryon asymmetry on the three-body interactions involving gauge singlets.

  10. Electroweak baryogenesis and dark matter from a singlet Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, James M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada); Kainulainen, Kimmo, E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: kimmo.kainulainen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-01-01

    If the Higgs boson H couples to a singlet scalar S via λ{sub m}|H|{sup 2}S{sup 2}, a strong electroweak phase transition can be induced through a large potential barrier that exists already at zero temperature. In this case properties of the phase transition can be computed analytically. We show that electroweak baryogenesis can be achieved using CP violation from a dimension-6 operator that couples S to the top-quark mass, suppressed by a new physics scale that can be well above 1 TeV. Moreover the singlet is a dark matter candidate whose relic density is ∼<3% of the total dark matter density, but which nevertheless interacts strongly enough with nuclei (through Higgs exchange) to be just below the current XENON100 limits. The DM mass is predicted to be in the range 80–160 GeV.

  11. Toward verification of electroweak baryogenesis by electric dipole moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fuyuto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study general aspects of the CP-violating effects on the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU and electric dipole moments (EDMs in models extended by an extra Higgs doublet and a singlet, together with electroweak-interacting fermions. In particular, the emphasis is on the structure of the CP-violating interactions and dependences of the BAU and EDMs on masses of the relevant particles. In a concrete mode, we investigate a relationship between the BAU and the electron EDM for a typical parameter set. As long as the BAU-related CP violation predominantly exists, the electron EDM has a strong power in probing electroweak baryogenesis. However, once a BAU-unrelated CP violation comes into play, the direct correlation between the BAU and electron EDM can be lost. Even in such a case, we point out that verifiability of the scenario still remains with the help of Higgs physics.

  12. CP violation and electroweak baryogenesis in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauner Tomáš

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major unresolved problems in current physics is understanding the origin of the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe. It has become a common lore to claim that the Standard Model of particle physics cannot produce sufficient asymmetry to explain the observation. Our results suggest that this conclusion can be alleviated in the so-called cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario. On the Standard Model side, we continue the program initiated by Smit eight years ago; one derives the effective CP-violating action for the Standard Model bosons and uses the resulting effective theory in numerical simulations. We address a disagreement between two previous computations performed effectively at zero temperature, and demonstrate that it is very important to include temperature effects properly. Our conclusion is that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario within the Standard Model is tightly constrained, yet producing enough baryon asymmetry using just known physics still seems possible.

  13. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and DØ at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Møller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.

  14. Combined electroweak and QCD fit to HERA data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Gwenlan, C. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Foster, B. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Myronenko, V.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A simultaneous Electroweak and QCD fit of electroweak parameters and parton distribution functions to HERA data on deep inelastic scattering is presented. The input data are neutral current and charged current inclusive cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at the ep collider HERA. The polarisation of the electron beam was taken into account for the ZEUS and H1 data recorded between 2004 and 2007. Results are presented on the vector and axial-vector couplings of the Z boson to u- and d-type quarks. The values are in agreement with Standard Model predictions. The results on a{sub u} and v{sub u} represent the most precise measurements from a single process.

  15. Chiral higher spin gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  16. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  17. A Chiang-type lagrangian in CP^2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas da Silva, Ana

    2017-12-01

    We analyse a monotone lagrangian in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard lagrangian RP^2 , yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1 . This lagrangian thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.

  18. Electroweak Penguin and Leptonic Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, F.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-08-26

    Recent BABAR results on electroweak penguin and leptonic decays are reviewed. In particular, the measurements of B {yields} K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and the preliminary results on B {yields} X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} are presented. Also summarized are the preliminary limits on B{sup +} {yields} l{sup +}{nu} (l = e,{mu}) and B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  19. Precise Determination of Electroweak Parameters in Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, G. P.; McFarland, K. S.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J. A.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McDonald, J.; McNulty, C.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tzanov, M.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2002-03-01

    The NuTeV Collaboration has extracted the electroweak parameter 2θW from the measurement of the ratios of neutral current to charged current ν and νbar cross sections. Our value, 2θ(on-shell)W = 0.2277+/-0.0013(stat)+/-0.0009(syst), is 3 standard deviations above the standard model prediction. We also present a model independent analysis of the same data in terms of neutral-current quark couplings.

  20. Electroweak precision constraints at present and future colliders

    CERN Document Server

    de Blas, Jorge; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Pierini, Maurizio; Reina, Laura; Silvestrini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the global fit to electroweak precision observables in the Standard Model and present model-independent bounds on several general new physics scenarios. We present a projection of the fit based on the expected experimental improvements at future $e^+ e^-$ colliders, and compare the constraining power of some of the different experiments that have been proposed. All results have been obtained with the HEPfit code.

  1. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  2. Semi-Lagrangian modelling of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudykiewicz, Janusz A.; Kallaur, A.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    1997-07-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of ozone in the lower part of the troposphere is considered as one of the most important issues of tropospheric chemistry. The chemical mechanisms of tropospheric ozone formation are complex, and highly variable meteorological conditions contribute additionally to difficulties in an accurate prediction of ozone episodes. An effective way to increase our understanding of the problem and eventually improve our ability to predict the concentration of tropospheric ozone and to formulate emission control strategies is by applying a comprehensive model representing accurately the interaction between meteorological processes and chemical reactions. This paper presents a 3-dimensional semi-Lagrangian, chemical tracer model (CTM) featuring an accurate transport algorithm, comprehensive oxidants chemistry and deposition modules. The CTM is executed in off line mode with a semi-Lagrangian, nonhydrostatic, mesoscale meteorological model that contains an extensive parameterization of physical processes (including a boundary layer scheme and clouds). The system of models was run for a time period of 6days in order to generate a tropospheric ozone field during a smog episode observed in the eastern part of North America, in the beginning of August 1988. The numerical simulation was performed on grids with resolution of 20 and 40km with 25 vertical levels. The emissions inventory considered in the simulation included point sources, surface biogenic sources, surface mobile sources and surface non-mobile sources. An evaluation of the model results against observations clearly indicates the ability of the system to simulate regional aspects of a tropospheric ozone episode. The model performance compares well to other models' results reported in the literature. An important achievement of this work is improving the physical realism of simulations by using highly accurate, nonoscillatory semi-Lagrangian advection transport algorithms.

  3. Lagrangian transport properties of pulmonary interfacial flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford J; Lukens, Sarah; Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Gaver, Donald P

    2011-11-09

    Disease states characterized by airway fluid occlusion and pulmonary surfactant insufficiency, such as respiratory distress syndrome, have a high mortality rate. Understanding the mechanics of airway reopening, particularly involving surfactant transport, may provide an avenue to increase patient survival via optimized mechanical ventilation waveforms. We model the occluded airway as a liquid-filled rigid tube with the fluid phase displaced by a finger of air that propagates with both mean and sinusoidal velocity components. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields are employed to analyse the convective transport characteristics, taking note of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) and their effects on transport. The Lagrangian perspective of these techniques reveals flow characteristics that are not readily apparent by observing Eulerian measures. These analysis techniques are applied to surfactant-free velocity fields determined computationally, with the boundary element method, and measured experimentally with micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV). We find that the LCS divides the fluid into two regimes, one advected upstream (into the thin residual film) and the other downstream ahead of the advancing bubble. At higher oscillatory frequencies particles originating immediately inside the LCS experience long residence times at the air-liquid interface, which may be conducive to surfactant transport. At high frequencies a well-mixed attractor region is identified; this volume of fluid cyclically travels along the interface and into the bulk fluid. The Lagrangian analysis is applied to velocity data measured with 0.01 mg ml(-1) of the clinical pulmonary surfactant Infasurf in the bulk fluid, demonstrating flow field modifications with respect to the surfactant-free system that were not visible in the Eulerian frame.

  4. Equivalent Lagrangian densities and invariant collective coordinates equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Sillero, ElIas [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Building 27 Winterthurerstrasse 190 CH-8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Shapovalov, Alexander V, E-mail: e.zamora@bioc.uzh.ch, E-mail: shpv@phys.tsu.ru [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-11

    In the framework of the Lagrangian formalism the partial differential equation under study does not define univocally the Lagrangian density. In this paper we obtain a necessary and sufficient consistency condition over the ansatz that assures the invariance of the collective coordinates (CCs) equations under the change of equivalent Lagrangian densities. When this condition is not fulfilled we show explicitly that different equations of CCs may emerge from equivalent Lagrangian densities and a good agreement between the CCs and the partial differential equations is not expected.

  5. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  6. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  7. Meta-Chirality: Fundamentals, Construction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chiral metamaterials represent a special type of artificial structures that cannot be superposed to their mirror images. Due to the lack of mirror symmetry, cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields exist in chiral mediums and present unique electromagnetic characters of circular dichroism and optical activity, which provide a new opportunity to tune polarization and realize negative refractive index. Chiral metamaterials have attracted great attentions in recent years and have given rise to a series of applications in polarization manipulation, imaging, chemical and biological detection, and nonlinear optics. Here we review the fundamental theory of chiral media and analyze the construction principles of some typical chiral metamaterials. Then, the progress in extrinsic chiral metamaterials, absorbing chiral metamaterials, and reconfigurable chiral metamaterials are summarized. In the last section, future trends in chiral metamaterials and application in nonlinear optics are introduced.

  8. Mars interplanetary trajectory design via Lagrangian points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Roshan Thomas; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-09-01

    With the increase in complexities of interplanetary missions, the main focus has shifted to reducing the total delta-V for the entire mission and hence increasing the payload capacity of the spacecraft. This paper develops a trajectory to Mars using the Lagrangian points of the Sun-Earth system and the Sun-Mars system. The whole trajectory can be broadly divided into three stages: (1) Trajectory from a near-Earth circular parking orbit to a halo orbit around Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2. (2) Trajectory from Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit to Sun-Mars L1 halo orbit. (3) Sun-Mars L1 halo orbit to a circular orbit around Mars. The stable and unstable manifolds of the halo orbits are used for halo orbit insertion. The intermediate transfer arcs are designed using two-body Lambert's problem. The total delta-V for the whole trajectory is computed and found to be lesser than that for the conventional trajectories. For a 480 km Earth parking orbit, the total delta-V is found to be 4.6203 km/s. Another advantage in the present approach is that delta-V does not depend upon the synodic period of Earth with respect to Mars.

  9. Lagrangian descriptors of driven chemical reaction manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Galen T.; Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2017-08-01

    The persistence of a transition state structure in systems driven by time-dependent environments allows the application of modern reaction rate theories to solution-phase and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. However, identifying this structure is problematic in driven systems and has been limited by theories built on series expansion about a saddle point. Recently, it has been shown that to obtain formally exact rates for reactions in thermal environments, a transition state trajectory must be constructed. Here, using optimized Lagrangian descriptors [G. T. Craven and R. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 148301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.148301], we obtain this so-called distinguished trajectory and the associated moving reaction manifolds on model energy surfaces subject to various driving and dissipative conditions. In particular, we demonstrate that this is exact for harmonic barriers in one dimension and this verification gives impetus to the application of Lagrangian descriptor-based methods in diverse classes of chemical reactions. The development of these objects is paramount in the theory of reaction dynamics as the transition state structure and its underlying network of manifolds directly dictate reactivity and selectivity.

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Lagrangian Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopesino, C.; Balibrea-Iniesta, F.; García-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mancho, A. M.

    This paper provides a theoretical background for Lagrangian Descriptors (LDs). The goal of achieving rigorous proofs that justify the ability of LDs to detect invariant manifolds is simplified by introducing an alternative definition for LDs. The definition is stated for n-dimensional systems with general time dependence, however we rigorously prove that this method reveals the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic points in four particular 2D cases: a hyperbolic saddle point for linear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for linear nonautonomous systems and a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear nonautonomous systems. We also discuss further rigorous results which show the ability of LDs to highlight additional invariants sets, such as n-tori. These results are just a simple extension of the ergodic partition theory which we illustrate by applying this methodology to well-known examples, such as the planar field of the harmonic oscillator and the 3D ABC flow. Finally, we provide a thorough discussion on the requirement of the objectivity (frame-invariance) property for tools designed to reveal phase space structures and their implications for Lagrangian descriptors.

  11. The supersymmetry method for chiral random matrix theory with arbitrary rotation-invariant weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Vural; Kieburg, Mario; Guhr, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In the past few years, the supersymmetry method has been generalized to real symmetric, Hermitian, and Hermitian self-dual random matrices drawn from ensembles invariant under the orthogonal, unitary, and unitary symplectic groups, respectively. We extend this supersymmetry approach to chiral random matrix theory invariant under the three chiral unitary groups in a unifying way. Thereby we generalize a projection formula providing a direct link and, hence, a ‘short cut’ between the probability density in ordinary space and that in superspace. We emphasize that this point was one of the main problems and shortcomings of the supersymmetry method, since only implicit dualities between ordinary space and superspace were known before. To provide examples, we apply this approach to the calculation of the supersymmetric analogue of a Lorentzian (Cauchy) ensemble and an ensemble with a quartic potential. Moreover, we consider the partially quenched partition function of the three chiral Gaussian ensembles corresponding to four-dimensional continuum quantum chromodynamics. We identify a natural splitting of the chiral Lagrangian in its lowest order into a part for the physical mesons and a part associated with source terms generating the observables, e.g. the level density of the Dirac operator.

  12. Effective Lagrangians in Pseudo-Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Matthias

    2002-12-06

    The author discusses effective field theories of brane-world models where different sectors break different halves of the extended bulk supersymmetry. It is shown how to consistently couple N = 2 supersymmetric matter to N = 1 superfields that lack N = 2 partners but transform in a non-linear representation of the N = 2 algebra. In particular, I explain how to couple an N = 2 vector to N = 1 chiral fields such that the second supersymmetry is non-linearly realized. This method is then used to study systems where different sectors break different halves of supersymmetry, which appear naturally in models of intersecting branes.

  13. Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2017-12-07

    In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral

  14. Chiral Ramachandran Plots I: Glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Shpigler, Yael; Wang, Huan; Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Avnir, David

    2017-10-24

    Ramachandran plots (RPs) map the wealth of conformations of the polypeptide backbone and are widely used to characterize protein structures. A limitation of the RPs is that they are based solely on two dihedral angles for each amino acid residue and provide therefore only a partial picture of the conformational richness of the protein. Here we extend the structural RP analysis of proteins from a two-dimensional (2D) map to a three-dimensional map by adding the quantitative degree of chirality-the continuous chirality measure (CCM)-of the amino acid residue at each point in the RP. This measure encompasses all bond angles and bond lengths of an amino acid residue. We focus in this report on glycine (Gly) because, due to its flexibility, it occupies a large portion of the 2D map, thus allowing a detailed study of the chirality measure, and in order to evaluate the justification of classically labeling Gly as the only achiral amino acid. We have analyzed in detail 4366 Gly residues extracted from high resolution crystallographic data of 160 proteins. This analysis reveals not only that Gly is practically always conformationally chiral, but that upon comparing with the backbone of all amino acids, the quantitative chirality values of Gly are of similar magnitudes to those of the (chiral) amino acids. Structural trends and energetic considerations are discussed in detail. Generally we show that adding chirality to Ramachandran plots creates far more informative plots that highlight the sensitivity of the protein structure to minor conformational changes.

  15. Complementary Lagrangians in infinite dimensional symplectic Hilbert spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Paolo; Tausk, Daniel V

    2005-12-01

    We prove that any countable family of Lagrangian subspaces of a symplectic Hilbert space admits a common complementary Lagrangian. The proof of this puzzling result, which is not totally elementary also in the finite dimensional case, is obtained as an application of the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators.

  16. Bayesian Nonlinear Assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian Coastal Flow Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bayesian Nonlinear Assimilation of Eulerian and...Develop and apply theory, schemes and computational systems for rigorous Bayesian nonlinear assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian coastal flow data...of coastal ocean fields by assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian flow data. - Apply our DO and GMM-DO schemes, as well as their theoretical

  17. Parallel Lagrangian models for turbulent transport and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, Gilia Cornelia

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis we give an overview of recent stochastic Lagrangian models and present a new particle model for turbulent dispersion and chemical reactions. Our purpose is to investigate and assess the feasibility of the Lagrangian approach for modelling the turbulent dispersion and chemistry

  18. Discrete variational principles for lagrangians linear in velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, Fahd; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2007-02-01

    The discrete Hamiltonian formulation of Lagrangian linear in velocities is investigated andthe equivalence of Hamilton and Euler-Lagrange equations is obtained. The role of Lagrange multipliers is discussed within discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations for some systems with constraints. Three illustrative examples are investigated in details.

  19. Parcel Eulerian-Lagrangian fluid dynamics for rotating geophysical flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Oliver, M.

    2006-01-01

    Parcel Eulerian-Lagrangian Hamiltonian formulations have recently been used in structure-preserving numerical schemes, asymptotic calculations and in alternative explanations of fluid parcel (in) stabilities. A parcel formulation describes the dynamics of one fluid parcel with a Lagrangian kinetic

  20. Numerical methods for Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Després, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the interplay between Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws for systems that admit physical motivation and originate from continuum mechanics. Ultimately, it highlights what is specific to and beneficial in the Lagrangian approach and its numerical methods. The two first chapters present a selection of well-known features of conservation laws and prepare readers for the subsequent chapters, which are dedicated to the analysis and discretization of Lagrangian systems. The text is at the frontier of applied mathematics and scientific computing and appeals to students and researchers interested in Lagrangian-based computational fluid dynamics. It also serves as an introduction to the recent corner-based Lagrangian finite volume techniques.

  1. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  2. Reagent controlled addition of chiral sulfur ylides to chiral aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Jie

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The degree of reagent and substrate control in the reaction of chiral sulfur ylides with chiral aldehydes has been investigated. Specifically, the reactions of the two enantiomers of the chiral benzyl sulfonium salt 1 with glyceraldehyde acetonide were studied in detail. Of the two new stereogenic centers created, it was found that the C1 stereochemistry was largely controlled by the reagent, whereas control at the C2 center was dependent on the aldehyde used. In one case, the trans isomer was produced via reversible formation of the intermediate betaine, whereas in the alternative case, the C2 center was under Felkin Anh/Cornforth control through non-reversible formation of the betaine. Thus, the aldehyde stereocenter influenced the degree of reversibility in betaine formation, which impacted on the stereocontrol at the C2 position.

  3. Magnetic chirality as probed by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, V.; Loire, M.; Ballou, R.

    2012-11-01

    We review the concept of chirality, at first briefly in a general context then in the specific framework of the spin networks. We next discuss to what extent neutron scattering appears as an unconvertible tool to probe magnetic chirality in the static and dynamical regimes of the spins. The remarkable chiral ground state and excitations of the Fe-langasite compound finally serves to illustrate the use of neutron polarimetry in the experimental studies of the magnetic chirality.

  4. Quantum oscillations in the chiral magnetic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sahal; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2017-06-01

    In strong magnetic field, the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in three-dimensional chiral materials is shown to exhibit a new type of quantum oscillations arising from the chiral magnetic effect (CME). These quantum CME oscillations are predicted to dominate over the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) ones in chiral materials with an approximately conserved chirality of quasiparticles at strong magnetic fields. The phase of quantum CME oscillations differs from the phase of the conventional SdH oscillations by π /2 .

  5. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  6. Lagrangian mixing in an axisymmetric hurricane model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rutherford

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension of established Lagrangian mixing measures to make them applicable to data extracted from a 2-D axisymmetric hurricane simulation. Because of the non-steady and unbounded characteristics of the simulation, the previous measures are extended to a moving frame approach to create time-dependent mixing rates that are dependent upon the initial time of particle integration, and are computed for nonlocal regions. The global measures of mixing derived from finite-time Lyapunov exponents, relative dispersion, and a measured mixing rate are applied to distinct regions representing different characteristic feautures within the model. It is shown that these time-dependent mixing rates exhibit correlations with maximal tangential winds during a quasi-steady state, establishing a connection between mixing and hurricane intensity.

  7. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  8. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.

  9. Classical Mechanics Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Deriglazov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Formalism of classical mechanics underlies a number of powerful mathematical methods that are widely used in theoretical and mathematical physics. This book considers the basics facts of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, as well as related topics, such as canonical transformations, integral invariants, potential motion in geometric setting, symmetries, the Noether theorem and systems with constraints. While in some cases the formalism is developed beyond the traditional level adopted in the standard textbooks on classical mechanics, only elementary mathematical methods are used in the exposition of the material. The mathematical constructions involved are explicitly described and explained, so the book can be a good starting point for the undergraduate student new to this field. At the same time and where possible, intuitive motivations are replaced by explicit proofs and direct computations, preserving the level of rigor that makes the book useful for the graduate students intending to work in one of the...

  10. A Lagrangian View of Spring Phytoplankton Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shinichiro; Ito, Takamitsu

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms of spring phytoplankton blooms are investigated from a Lagrangian framework by using a Lagrangian NPZD model that can track the movement and transfers of nutrient parcels in a turbulent environment. The model reveals that the onset of spring blooms depends on the cumulative euphotic age, which is the total time that inorganic nutrient is exposed to light before the photosynthetic conversion to phytoplankton biomass. A spring bloom, defined as a tenfold increase of near-surface phytoplankton, occurs when this cumulative euphotic age is approximately μeff-1·ln⁡10, where μeff is the effective growth rate in the euphotic layer, regardless of the underlying mechanism. If the turbulent layer depth is shallower than the critical depth and turbulence is strong, nutrient parcels accumulate enough light exposure through multiple entries to the sun-lit zone near the surface. If turbulence is weak, as that considered in the critical turbulence theory, the accumulation of the light exposure depends on the residence time of the nutrients parcels near the surface. The spectral shape of the cumulative euphotic age can clearly distinguish these two modes of spring blooms. The spectrum shows a peak at the theoretical growth timescale when multiple entries become important, while it shows a maximum near age zero that decays with age when the near-surface residence time becomes important. Mortality increases the cumulative euphotic age necessary for a bloom but does not affect the spectral shape, suggesting that it does not alter the primary mechanism behind the accumulation of cumulative euphotic age.

  11. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic modes corresponding to the C director fluctuations in the chiral smectic C phase and the behaviour of the Goldstone-mode near the chiral smectic C–smectic A phase transition. In cholesteric liquid ...

  12. Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1972-01-01

    The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).

  13. Electroweak corrections uncertainty on the W mass measurement at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Cossutti, F

    2005-01-01

    The systematic uncertainty on the W mass and width measurement resulting from the imperfect knowledge of electroweak radiative corrections is discussed. The intrinsic uncertainty in the 4-f generator used by the DELPHI Collaboration is studied following the guidelines of the authors of YFSWW, on which its radiative corrections part is based. The full DELPHI simulation, reconstruction and analysis chain is used for the uncertainty assessment. A comparison with the other available 4-f calculation implementing DPA O(alpha) corrections, RacoonWW, is also presented. The uncertainty on the W mass is found to be below 10 MeV for all the WW decay channels used in the measurement.

  14. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  15. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-07-22

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}), O({alpha}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  16. Electroweak vacua, collider phenomenology, and possible connection with dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Halstead, Evan; Poltis, Robert; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2009-05-01

    Higher dimensional nonrenormalizable operators may modify the standard model Higgs potential in many interesting ways. Here, we consider the appearance of a second vacuum which may play an important role in cosmology. For a certain range of parameters, the usual second-order electroweak phase transition is followed by a first-order phase transition that may drive the late time accelerated expansion of the Universe. Such a potential contains kinklike solutions which in turn can play a crucial role in reconstructing the global shape of the potential in colliders, as we explicitly demonstrate.

  17. Electroweak vacuum stabilized by moduli during/after inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ema

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the present electroweak vacuum is likely to be metastable and it may lead to a serious instability during/after inflation. We propose a simple solution to the problem of vacuum instability during/after inflation. If there is a moduli field which has Planck-suppressed interactions with the standard model fields, the Higgs quartic coupling in the early universe naturally takes a different value from the present one. A slight change of the quartic coupling in the early universe makes the Higgs potential absolutely stable and hence we are free from the vacuum instability during/after inflation.

  18. Electroweak baryogenesis driven by extra top Yukawa couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fuyuto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study electroweak baryogenesis driven by the top quark in a general two Higgs doublet model with flavor-changing Yukawa couplings, keeping the Higgs potential CP invariant. With Higgs sector couplings and the additional top Yukawa coupling ρtt all of O(1, one naturally has sizable CP violation that fuels the cosmic baryon asymmetry. Even if ρtt vanishes, the favor-changing coupling ρtc can still lead to successful baryogenesis. Phenomenological consequences such as t→ch, τ→μγ electron electric dipole moment, h→γγ, and hhh coupling are discussed.

  19. Electroweak baryogenesis driven by extra top Yukawa couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyuto, Kaori; Hou, Wei-Shu; Senaha, Eibun

    2018-01-01

    We study electroweak baryogenesis driven by the top quark in a general two Higgs doublet model with flavor-changing Yukawa couplings, keeping the Higgs potential CP invariant. With Higgs sector couplings and the additional top Yukawa coupling ρtt all of O(1), one naturally has sizable CP violation that fuels the cosmic baryon asymmetry. Even if ρtt vanishes, the favor-changing coupling ρtc can still lead to successful baryogenesis. Phenomenological consequences such as t → ch, τ → μγ electron electric dipole moment, h → γγ, and hhh coupling are discussed.

  20. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. First Order Electroweak Phase Transition from (Non)Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Virkajärvi, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    We analyse and compare the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition properties of classically (non)conformal extensions of the Standard Model. In the classically conformal scenarios the breaking of the electroweak symmetry is generated radiatively. The models feature new scalars coupled co...... the associated models are testable at the upcoming Large Hadron Collider run two experiments....

  2. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 1996

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Antilogus, P; Behnke, T; Bertucci, B; Bloch, D; Blondel, A; Charlton, D G; Clare, R; Clarke, P; Dutta, S; Elsing, M; Ganguli, S N; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hamacher, K; Hawkes, C M; Hildreth, M D; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Khokhlov, Yu A; Lohmann, W; Mariotti, C; Martínez, M; Morii, M; Mönig, K; Nippe, A; Olshevskii, A G; Paus, C; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Roney, J M; Schlatter, W D; Schumm, B; Sobie, Randall J; Su, D; Tenchini, Roberto; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wells, P S

    1996-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1996 summer conferences. Averages of the results concerning electroweak physics are presented. They are derived from the measurements of hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the $\\tau$ polarisation asymmetries, the $\\bb$ and $\\cc$ partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the $\\qq$ charge asymmetry. Almost every measurement including the LEP beam energy calibration has been updated with respect to the summer 1995 conferences. The results are compared to precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of precise electroweak results.

  3. An Analysis of the Mass Terms in the Electroweak Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Giani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    After the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, several apparent mass relations with other fundamental particles have been studied in the recent literature. An investigation is done in this work to understand possible reasons of these relations, remaining in the framework of SU(2)xU(1). Some representations of the Lagrangian mass terms are shown to evaluate physics hypotheses potentially determining constraints related to masses.

  4. Chiral symmetry in light-front QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menh-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2004-04-01

    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole part so that the associate chiral charge smoothly describes pion transitions for various hadronic processes.

  5. Galvano-rotational effect induced by electroweak interactions in pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, Maxim [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN), 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Physics Faculty, National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-21

    We study electroweakly interacting particles in rotating matter. The existence of the electric current along the axis of the matter rotation is predicted in this system. This new galvano-rotational effect is caused by the parity violating interaction between massless charged particles in the rotating matter. We start with the exact solution of the Dirac equation for a fermion involved in the electroweak interaction in the rotating frame. This equation includes the noninertial effects. Then, using the obtained solution, we derive the induced electric current which turns out to flow along the rotation axis. We study the possibility of the appearance of the galvano-rotational effect in dense matter of compact astrophysical objects. The particular example of neutron and hypothetical quark stars is discussed. It is shown that, using this effect, one can expect the generation of toroidal magnetic fields comparable with poloidal ones in old millisecond pulsars. We also briefly discuss the generation of the magnetic helicity in these stars. Finally we analyze the possibility to apply the galvano-rotational effect for the description of the asymmetric neutrino emission from a neutron star to explain pulsars kicks.

  6. Bounds on dark matter interactions with electroweak gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R. C.; Hewett, J. L.; Le, M. -P.; Rizzo, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter interacts with the Standard Model primarily through electroweak gauge bosons. We employ an effective field theory framework wherein the Standard Model and the dark matter particle are the only light states in order to derive model-independent bounds. Bounds on such interactions are derived from dark matter production by weak boson fusion at the LHC, indirect detection searches for the products of dark matter annihilation and from the measured invisible width of the Z 0 . We find that limits on the UV scale, Λ , reach weak scale values for most operators and values of the dark matter mass, thus probing the most natural scenarios in the weakly interacting massive particle dark matter paradigm. Our bounds suggest that light dark matter ( m χ ≲ m Z / 2 or m χ ≲ 100 – 200 GeV , depending on the operator) cannot interact only with the electroweak gauge bosons of the Standard Model, but rather requires additional operator contributions or dark sector structure to avoid overclosing the Universe.

  7. The [epsilon] expansion and the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P.; Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-03-15

    Standard perturbative (or mean field theory) techniques are not adequate for studying the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition in some cases of interest to scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. We instead study the properties of this transition using the renormalization group and the [epsilon] expansion. This expansion, based on dimensional continuation from 3 to 4--[epsilon] spatial dimensions, provides a systematic approximation for computing the effects of (near-)critical fluctuations. The [epsilon] expansion is known to predict a first-order transition in Higgs theories, even for heavy Higgs boson masses. The validity of this conclusion in the standard model is examined in detail. A variety of physical quantities are computed at leading and next-to-leading order in [epsilon]. For moderately light Higgs boson masses (below 100 GeV), the [epsilon] expansion suggests that the transition is more strongly first order than is predicted by the conventional analysis based on the one-loop (ring-improved) effective potential. Nevertheless, the rate of baryon nonconservation after the transition is found to be [ital larger] than that given by the one-loop effective potential calculation. Detailed next-to-leading order calculations of some sample quantities suggests that the [epsilon] expansion is reasonably well behaved for Higgs boson masses below 100--200 GeV. We also compare the [epsilon] expansion with large-[ital N] results (where [ital N] is the number of scalar fields) and find that the [epsilon] expansion is less well behaved in this limit.

  8. Status of the global electroweak fit of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Höcker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Results from the global Standard Model fit to electroweak precision data, including newest Tevatron measurements, are reviewed and discussed. The complete fit using also the constraints from the direct Higgs boson searches yields an upper limit on the Higgs mass of 153 GeV at 95% CL. The top mass is indirectly determined to be (177.2 +10.5 -7.8) GeV and (179.5 +8.8 -5.2) GeV for fits including or not the constraints from the direct Higgs searches, respectively. Using the 3NLO perturbative prediction of the massless QCD Adler function, the strong coupling constant at the Z-mass scale is determined to be alpha_s(MZ)=0.1193 +- 0.0028 +- 0.0001, which is in excellent agreement with the 3NLO result from hadronic tau decays. The perspectives of the electroweak fit for forthcoming and proposed future collider projects are discussed. The available constraints on the Higgs mass are convolved with the high-scale behaviour of the Higgs quartic coupling to derive likelihoods for the survival of the Standard Model versus ...

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking and precision tests with a fifth dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [ISAS-SISSA and INFN, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [ISAS-SISSA and INFN, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); Wulzer, Andrea [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: wulzer@ifae.es

    2007-01-29

    We perform a complete study of flavor and CP conserving electroweak observables in a slight refinement of a recently proposed five-dimensional model on R{sup 4}xS{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}, where the Higgs is the internal component of a gauge field and the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the fifth dimension. Interestingly enough, the relevant corrections to the electroweak observables turn out to be of universal type and essentially depend only on the value of the Higgs mass and on the scale of new physics, in our case the compactification scale 1/R. The model passes all constraints for 1/R>=4.7 TeV at 90% C.L., with a moderate fine-tuning in the parameters. The Higgs mass turns out to be always smaller than 200 GeV although higher values would be allowed, due to a large correction to the T parameter. The lightest non-SM states in the model are typically colored fermions with a mass of order 1-2 TeV.

  10. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in standard model extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Gogoladze, Ilia; Khan, S.

    2017-05-01

    We study the possibility of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking where loop corrections to the mass parameter of the Higgs boson trigger the symmetry breaking in various extensions of the Standard Model (SM). Although the mechanism fails in the SM, it is shown to be quite successful in several extensions which share a common feature of having an additional scalar around the TeV scale. The positive Higgs mass parameter at a high energy scale is turned negative in the renormalization group flow to lower energy by the cross couplings between the scalars in the Higgs potential. The type-II seesaw model with a TeV scale weak scalar triplet, a two-loop radiative neutrino mass model with new scalars at the TeV scale, the inert doublet model, scalar singlet dark matter model, and a universal seesaw model with an additional U (1 ) broken at the TeV scale are studied and shown to exhibit successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking.

  11. Lagrangian relaxation based algorithm for trigeneration planning with storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto; Luh, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of three energy commodities follows a joint characteristic. This paper presents a Lagrangian relaxation (LR) based algorithm for trigeneration planning with storages based on deflected subgradient optimization method. The trigeneration planning problem is modeled as a linear programming (LP) problem...... an effective method for the long-term planning problem based on the proper strategy to form Lagrangian subproblems and solve the Lagrangian dual (LD) problem based on deflected subgradient optimization method. We also develop a heuristic for restoring feasibility from the LD solution. Numerical results based...

  12. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S.; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; McKee, Marc D.

    2017-04-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a `right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas `left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a `mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential `daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  13. Mesoscale structure of chiral nematic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Guo, Ashley; Zhang, Rui; Armas-Perez, Julio C; Martínez-González, José A; Rahimi, Mohammad; Sadati, Monirosadat; de Pablo, Juan J

    2016-11-09

    There is considerable interest in understanding and controlling topological defects in nematic liquid crystals (LCs). Confinement, in the form of droplets, has been particularly effective in that regard. Here, we employ a Landau-de Gennes formalism to explore the geometrical frustration of nematic order in shell geometries, and focus on chiral materials. By varying the chirality and thickness in uniform shells, we construct a phase diagram that includes tetravalent structures, bipolar structures (BS), bent structures and radial spherical structures (RSS). It is found that, in uniform shells, the BS-to-RSS structural transition, in response to both chirality and shell geometry, is accompanied by an abrupt change of defect positions, implying a potential use for chiral nematic shells as sensors. Moreover, we investigate thickness heterogeneity in shells and demonstrate that non-chiral and chiral nematic shells exhibit distinct equilibrium positions of their inner core that are governed by shell chirality c.

  14. Chiral flat bands: Existence, engineering, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ajith; Andreanov, Alexei; Flach, Sergej

    2017-10-01

    We study flat bands in bipartite tight-binding networks with discrete translational invariance. Chiral flat bands with chiral symmetry eigenenergy E =0 and host compact localized eigenstates for finite range hopping. For a bipartite network with a majority sublattice chiral flat bands emerge. We present a simple generating principle of chiral flat-band networks and as a showcase add to the previously observed cases a number of new potentially realizable chiral flat bands in various lattice dimensions. Chiral symmetry respecting network perturbations—including disorder and synthetic magnetic fields—preserve both the flat band and the modified compact localized states. Chiral flat bands are spectrally protected by gaps and pseudogaps in the presence of disorder due to Griffiths effects.

  15. Hadronic contributions to the muon anomaly in the Constituent Chiral Quark Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greynat David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon which are relevant for the confrontation between theory and experiment at the present level of accuracy, are evaluated within the same framework: the constituent chiral quark model. This includes the contributions from the dominant hadronic vacuum polarization as well as from the next–to–leading order hadronic vacuum polarization, the contributions from the hadronic light-by-light scattering, and the contributions from the electroweak hadronic Zγγ vertex. They are all evaluated as a function of only one free parameter: the constituent quark mass. We also comment on the comparison between our results and other phenomenological evaluations.

  16. A Lagrangian perspective towards studying entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Giuseppe A.; Rival, David E.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a method for characterizing entrainment using Lagrangian data. Specifically, the method exploits the temporal evolution of enstrophy along pathlines to determine if pathlines undergo entrainment. The method only recently became feasible with the development of four-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry [4D-PTV; see Schanz et al. (Exp Fluids 57(5):7, 2016)], which produces pathlines of temporal length and spatial density that was previously unattainable. The proposed entrainment method was tested on experimentally acquired 4D-PTV data of a turbulent starting vortex forming behind a linearly accelerating circular plate. The method is shown to be insensitive to its control parameters. The first control parameter is an enstrophy threshold used to identify pathlines that always exhibit low enstrophy. The second control parameter is the size of an "enstrophy-source region", which is placed within the measurement domain to identify pathlines that gain enstrophy through interactions with an enstrophy source. In the case of the starting vortex, the method reveals topological features significant to the entrainment process, such as the roll-up of irrotational fluid between the shear layer and vortex core, and pockets of entrainment that exist within undulations on the shear layer's outboard side. Whereas the method proposed here measures the entrainment ratio directly, the use of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to quantify entrainment is shown to be infeasible for turbulent flows due to the presence of complex material manifolds for such flows. Furthermore, unlike results from Rosi and Rival (J Fluid Mech 811:3750, 2017), which analyzed the spreading of enstrophy isocontours to characterize entrainment into a starting vortex, the proposed method produces an entrainment rate that is insensitive to the enstrophy threshold, and clearly reveals mechanisms of entrainment. Using the starting vortex data, the proposed technique measured an entrainment

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  18. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  19. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the CLEO Collaboration. Other sources could be the decay τ →ππν. In the modern context, a fresh Roy equation analysis with the view of combining dis- persion relations with chiral perturbation theory has been carried out [20]. The evaluation of the inhomogeneous terms, the so-called 'driving terms' for the Roy equations ...

  20. Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols.

  1. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Krikun, A. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-23

    We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.

  2. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- lies, Juan Mañes, Raymond Stora and Bruno Zumino, Communications in Mathematical Physics 102, 157–174. (1985) Springer-Verlag. Even though at variance with normal Pramana policy, we ...

  3. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...

  4. Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria-Enriquez, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Roman-Roy, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica

    1996-10-01

    We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether`s theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)

  5. Symplectic linearization of singular Lagrangian foliations in M4

    OpenAIRE

    Currás-Bosch, Carlos; Miranda, Eva

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the singular Lagrangian foliation of a 2-degree of freedom integrable Hamiltonian system, is symplectically equivalent to the linearized foliation in a neighbourhood of a non-degenerate singular orbit.

  6. Assimilating Eulerian and Lagrangian data in traffic-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chao; Cochrane, Courtney; DeGuire, Joseph; Fan, Gaoyang; Holmes, Emma; McGuirl, Melissa; Murphy, Patrick; Palmer, Jenna; Carter, Paul; Slivinski, Laura; Sandstede, Björn

    2017-05-01

    Data assimilation of traffic flow remains a challenging problem. One difficulty is that data come from different sources ranging from stationary sensors and camera data to GPS and cell phone data from moving cars. Sensors and cameras give information about traffic density, while GPS data provide information about the positions and velocities of individual cars. Previous methods for assimilating Lagrangian data collected from individual cars relied on specific properties of the underlying computational model or its reformulation in Lagrangian coordinates. These approaches make it hard to assimilate both Eulerian density and Lagrangian positional data simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach that allows us to assimilate both Eulerian and Lagrangian data. We show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and works well in different traffic scenarios and regardless of whether ensemble Kalman or particle filters are used. We also show that the algorithm is capable of estimating parameters and assimilating real traffic observations and synthetic observations obtained from microscopic models.

  7. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  8. Disentangling the Cosmic Web with Lagrangian Submanifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2016-10-01

    The Cosmic Web is a complicated highly-entangled geometrical object. Remarkably it has formed from practically Gaussian initial conditions, which may be regarded as the simplest departure from exactly uniform universe in purely deterministic mapping. The full complexity of the web is revealed neither in configuration no velocity spaces considered separately. It can be fully appreciated only in six-dimensional (6D) phase space. However, studies of the phase space is complicated by the fact that every projection of it on a three-dimensional (3D) space is multivalued and contained caustics. In addition phase space is not a metric space that complicates studies of geometry. We suggest to use Lagrangian submanifold i.e., x = x(q), where both x and q are 3D vectors instead of the phase space for studies the complexity of cosmic web in cosmological N-body dark matter simulations. Being fully equivalent in dynamical sense to the phase space it has an advantage of being a single valued and also metric space.

  9. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  10. Semi-Lagrangian methods in air pollution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hansen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Various semi-Lagrangian methods are tested with respect to advection in air pollution modeling. The aim is to find a method fulfilling as many of the desirable properties by Rasch andWilliamson (1990 and Machenhauer et al. (2008 as possible. The focus in this study is on accuracy and local mass conservation.

    The methods tested are, first, classical semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation, see e.g. Durran (1999, second, semi-Lagrangian cubic cascade interpolation, by Nair et al. (2002, third, semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation with the modified interpolation weights, Locally Mass Conserving Semi-Lagrangian (LMCSL, by Kaas (2008, and last, semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation with a locally mass conserving monotonic filter by Kaas and Nielsen (2010.

    Semi-Lagrangian (SL interpolation is a classical method for atmospheric modeling, cascade interpolation is more efficient computationally, modified interpolation weights assure mass conservation and the locally mass conserving monotonic filter imposes monotonicity.

    All schemes are tested with advection alone or with advection and chemistry together under both typical rural and urban conditions using different temporal and spatial resolution. The methods are compared with a current state-of-the-art scheme, Accurate Space Derivatives (ASD, see Frohn et al. (2002, presently used at the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI in Denmark. To enable a consistent comparison only non-divergent flow configurations are tested.

    The test cases are based either on the traditional slotted cylinder or the rotating cone, where the schemes' ability to model both steep gradients and slopes are challenged.

    The tests showed that the locally mass conserving monotonic filter improved the results significantly for some of the test cases, however, not for all. It was found that the semi-Lagrangian schemes, in almost every case, were not able to outperform the current ASD scheme

  11. Approximate Subgradient Methods for Lagrangian Relaxations on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Eugenio

    Nonlinear network flow problems with linear/nonlinear side con- straints can be solved by means of Lagrangian relaxations. The dual problem is the maximization of a dual function whose value is estimated by minimizing approximately a Lagrangian function on the set defined by the network constraints. We study alternative stepsizes in the approximate subgradient methods to solve the dual problem. Some basic convergence results are put forward. Moreover, we compare the quality of the computed solutions and the efficiency of these methods.

  12. A new nodal solver for the two dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corot, T.; Mercier, B.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a cell-centered Godunov type scheme for the Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations on general unstructured meshes with nodal fluxes. The nodal solver only depends on the angular repartition of the physical variables around the node and not on the length of the edges. The scheme verifies a weak consistency property. Numerical results are compared to EUCCLHYD and GLACE schemes which are also cell-centered schemes with node based fluxes for Lagrangian hydrodynamics.

  13. Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kostrykin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE: Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingnan; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are composed of periodically arranged artificial structures. They show peculiar properties, such as negative refraction and super-lensing, which are not seen in natural materials. The conventional metamaterials require both negative epsilon and negative μ to achieve negative refraction. Chiral metamaterial is a new class of metamaterials offering a simpler route to negative refraction. In this paper, we briefly review the history of metamaterials and the developments on chiral metamaterials. We study the wave propagation properties in chiral metamaterials and show that negative refraction can be realized in chiral metamaterials with a strong chirality, with neither epsilon nor μ negative required. We have developed a retrieval procedure, adopting a uniaxial bi-isotropic model to calculate the effective parameters such as n ± , κ, epsilon and μ of the chiral metamaterials. Our work on the design, numerical calculations and experimental measurements of chiral metamaterials is introduced. Strong chiral behaviors such as optical activity and circular dichroism are observed and negative refraction is obtained for circularly polarized waves in these chiral metamaterials. We show that 3D isotropic chiral metamaterials can eventually be realized.

  15. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  16. Top quark electroweak couplings at future lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Christoph; Russell, Michael [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We perform a comparative study of the reach of future e{sup +}e{sup -} collider options for the scale of non-resonant new physics effects in the top quark sector, phrased in the language of higher-dimensional operators. Our focus is on the electroweak top quark pair production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → Z*/γ → t anti t, and we study benchmark scenarios at the ILC and CLIC. We find that both are able to constrain mass scales up to the few TeV range in the most sensitive cases, improving by orders of magnitude on the forecast capabilities of the LHC. We discuss the role played by observables such as forward-backward asymmetries, and making use of different beam polarisation settings, and highlight the possibility of lifting a degeneracy in the allowed parameter space by combining top observables with precision Z-pole measurements from LEP1. (orig.)

  17. Electroweak Higgs production with HiggsPO at NLO QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino; Lindert, Jonas M.; Marzocca, David; Zhang, Hantian

    2017-12-01

    We present the HiggsPO UFO model for Monte Carlo event generation of electroweak VH and VBF Higgs production processes at NLO in QCD in the formalism of Higgs pseudo-observables (PO). We illustrate the use of this tool by studying the QCD corrections, matched to a parton shower, for several benchmark points in the Higgs PO parameter space. We find that, while being sizable and thus important to be considered in realistic experimental analyses, the QCD higher-order corrections largely factorize. As an additional finding, based on the NLO results, we advocate to consider 2D distributions of the two-jet azimuthal-angle difference and the leading jet p_T for new physics searches in VBF Higgs production. The HiggsPO UFO model is publicly available.

  18. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  19. Dispersion Relations for Electroweak Observables in Composite Higgs Models

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We derive dispersion relations for the electroweak oblique observables measured at LEP in the context of $SO(5)/SO(4)$ composite Higgs models. It is shown how these relations can be used and must be modified when modeling the spectral functions through a low-energy effective description of the strong dynamics. The dispersion relation for the parameter $\\epsilon_3$ is then used to estimate the contribution from spin-1 resonances at the 1-loop level. Finally, it is shown that the sign of the contribution to the $\\hat S$ parameter from the lowest-lying spin-1 states is not necessarily positive definite, but depends on the energy scale at which the asymptotic behavior of current correlators is attained.

  20. Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Severijns, N; Naviliat-Cuncic, O

    2006-01-01

    We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C_A/C_V = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed.

  1. Electroweak Sudakov corrections to new physics searches at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Mauro; Montagna, Guido; Barzè, Luca; Moretti, Mauro; Nicrosini, Oreste; Piccinini, Fulvio; Tramontano, Francesco

    2013-09-20

    We compute the one-loop electroweak Sudakov corrections to the production process Z(νν)+n jets, with n=1, 2, 3, in pp collisions at the LHC. It represents the main irreducible background to new physics searches at the energy frontier. The results are obtained at the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy by implementing the general algorithm of Denner and Pozzorini in the event generator for multiparton processes alpgen. For the standard selection cuts used by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, we show that the Sudakov corrections to the relevant observables can grow up to -40% at sqrt[s ]= 14 TeV. We also include the contribution due to undetected real radiation of massive gauge bosons, to show to what extent the partial cancellation with the large negative virtual corrections takes place in realistic event selections.

  2. Tests of the standard electroweak model in beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severijns, N.; Beck, M. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [Caen Univ., CNRS-ENSI, 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2006-05-15

    We review the current status of precision measurements in allowed nuclear beta decay, including neutron decay, with emphasis on their potential to look for new physics beyond the standard electroweak model. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of phenomenological model-independent descriptions of nuclear beta decay as well as in some specific extensions of the standard model. The values of the standard couplings and the constraints on the exotic couplings of the general beta decay Hamiltonian are updated. For the ratio between the axial and the vector couplings we obtain C{sub A},/C{sub V} = -1.26992(69) under the standard model assumptions. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the sensitivity and complementarity of different precision experiments in direct beta decay. The prospects and the impact of recent developments of precision tools and of high intensity low energy beams are also addressed. (author)

  3. Electroweak bosons in heavy ion collisions in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsigmond, Anna Julia

    2014-06-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is fully equipped to measure leptonic decays of electroweak probes in the high multiplicity environment of nucleus–nucleus collisions. The inclusive and differential Z boson yields in the muon and electron decay channels are presented, together with measurements of the yield of W bosons decaying into a muon and an (anti)neutrino as a function of centrality, and the W charge asymmetry as a function of rapidity. The results confirm the binary scaling hypothesis, and show that possible modifications due to nuclear PDFs with respect to pp collisions, scaled by the number of elementary nucleon–nucleon collisions, are within the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the current measurements.

  4. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario

    2014-08-19

    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  5. New Models and Methods for the Electroweak Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Linda [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-26

    This is the Final Technical Report to the US Department of Energy for grant DE-SC0013529, New Models and Methods for the Electroweak Scale, covering the time period April 1, 2015 to March 31, 2017. The goal of this project was to maximize the understanding of fundamental weak scale physics in light of current experiments, mainly the ongoing run of the Large Hadron Collider and the space based satellite experiements searching for signals Dark Matter annihilation or decay. This research program focused on the phenomenology of supersymmetry, Higgs physics, and Dark Matter. The properties of the Higgs boson are currently being measured by the Large Hadron collider, and could be a sensitive window into new physics at the weak scale. Supersymmetry is the leading theoretical candidate to explain the natural nessof the electroweak theory, however new model space must be explored as the Large Hadron collider has disfavored much minimal model parameter space. In addition the nature of Dark Matter, the mysterious particle that makes up 25% of the mass of the universe is still unknown. This project sought to address measurements of the Higgs boson couplings to the Standard Model particles, new LHC discovery scenarios for supersymmetric particles, and new measurements of Dark Matter interactions with the Standard Model both in collider production and annihilation in space. Accomplishments include new creating tools for analyses of Dark Matter models in Dark Matter which annihilates into multiple Standard Model particles, including new visualizations of bounds for models with various Dark Matter branching ratios; benchmark studies for new discovery scenarios of Dark Matter at the Large Hardon Collider for Higgs-Dark Matter and gauge boson-Dark Matter interactions; New target analyses to detect direct decays of the Higgs boson into challenging final states like pairs of light jets, and new phenomenological analysis of non-minimal supersymmetric models, namely the set of Dirac

  6. Neutral current Drell-Yan with combined QCD and electroweak corrections in the POWHEG BOX

    CERN Document Server

    Barze', Luca; Nason, Paolo; Nicrosini, Oreste; Piccinini, Fulvio; Vicini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Following recent work on the combination of electroweak and strong radiative corrections to single W-boson hadroproduction in the POWHEG BOX framework, we generalize the above treatment to cover the neutral current Drell-Yan process. According to the POWHEG method, we combine both the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak and QED multiple photon corrections with the native NLO and Parton Shower QCD contributions. We show comparisons with the predictions of the electroweak generator HORACE, to validate the reliability and accuracy of the approach. We also present phenomenological results obtained with the new tool for physics studies at the LHC.

  7. Effective field theory and electroweak baryogenesis in the singlet-extended Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, P.H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Haarr, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,Stavanger, N-4036 (Norway); O’Connell, D. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Tranberg, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,Stavanger, N-4036 (Norway)

    2016-02-16

    Electroweak baryogenesis is a simple and attractive candidate mechanism for generating the observed baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Its viability is sometimes investigated in terms of an effective field theory of the Standard Model involving higher dimension operators. We investigate the validity of such an effective field theory approach to the problem of identifying electroweak phase transitions strong enough for electroweak baryogenesis to be successful. We identify and discuss some pitfalls of this approach due to the modest hierarchy between mass scales of heavy degrees or freedom and the Higgs, and the possibility of dimensionful couplings violating the decoupling between light and heavy degrees of freedom.

  8. Higgs bosons, electroweak symmetry breaking, and the physics of the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, a 7 {circle_plus} 7 TeV proton-proton collider under construction at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva), will take experiments squarely into a new energy domain where mysteries of the electroweak interaction will be unveiled. What marks the 1-TeV scale as an important target? Why is understanding how the electroweak symmetry is hidden important to our conception of the world around us? What expectations do we have for the agent that hides the electroweak symmetry? Why do particle physicists anticipate a great harvest of discoveries within reach of the LHC?

  9. Large Electroweak Corrections to Vector-Boson Scattering at the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Benedikt; Denner, Ansgar; Pellen, Mathieu

    2017-06-30

    For the first time full next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to off-shell vector-boson scattering are presented. The computation features the complete matrix elements, including all nonresonant and off-shell contributions, to the electroweak process pp→μ^{+}ν_{μ}e^{+}ν_{e}jj and is fully differential. We find surprisingly large corrections, reaching -16% for the fiducial cross section, as an intrinsic feature of the vector-boson-scattering processes. We elucidate the origin of these large electroweak corrections upon using the double-pole approximation and the effective vector-boson approximation along with leading-logarithmic corrections.

  10. Chiral heat wave and mixing of magnetic, vortical and heat waves in chiral media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernodub, M.N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique,Université de Tours, 37200 (France); Soft Matter Physics Laboratory, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent,Krijgslaan 281, S9, Gent (Belgium)

    2016-01-18

    We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective mode associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This mode, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. The coupling of the Chiral Magnetic and Chiral Vortical Waves is also demonstrated. We find that the coupled waves — which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents — have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves.

  11. Nuclear chiral axial currents and applications to few-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Alessandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This Thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part discusses basic aspects of chiral effective field theory and the formalism, based on time ordered perturbation theory, used to to derive the nuclear potentials and currents from the chiral Lagrangians. The second part deals with the actual derivation, up to one loop, of the two-nucleon potential and one- and two-nucleon weak axial charge and current. In both derivations ultraviolet divergences generated by loop corrections are isolated using dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. A complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed. The third part of this Thesis discusses two applications: (i) the calculation of the Gamow-Teller matrix element of tritium, used to constrain the single low-energy constant entering the axial current; (ii) the calculation of neutrino-deuteron inclusive cross sections at low energies. These results have confirmed previous predictions obtained in phenomenological approaches. These latter studies have played an important role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  12. Pion-nucleon scattering in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit Delta resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, De-Liang [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Siemens, D. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Bernard, V. [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8606,CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Epelbaum, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Gasparyan, A.M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gegelia, J. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi (Georgia); Krebs, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-05-05

    We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P-partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.

  13. Lagrangian computations of radiating fire plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, Issam Adnan

    2000-09-01

    Modeling and simulation of fires are useful in determining their impact on nearby and distant objects, quantifying their environmental impact, improving fire suppression techniques, etc. Fires, essentially naturally aspirated combustion phenomena, are buoyancy driven diffusion flames in which the fuel supply rate is governed by the burn rate itself. It has been observed experimentally that the complex interaction between the flow, transport process and chemistry in a fire leads to large scale ``puffing'' an unsteady phenomenon manifested in the periodic ejection of bellowing smoke. The complexity of the phenomenon defies analytical treatment except at the very coarse grain level essentially using similarity principles. Numerical solutions based on ensemble averaging/closure and flow- combustion interaction models are encumbered by uncertainty and unproven hypotheses. A viable alternative is a numerical simulation of the unsteady governing equations with sufficient resolution to capture the important scales. In this work, contributions to a grid- free Lagrangian approach to simulate numerically fire plumes are suggested. The physical model incorporates unsteady buoyancy dynamics, transport of heat and mass by diffusion and convection, radiative transport of heat, and a single-step, infinite-rate chemical reaction with exothermic heat release. The numerical approach is based on the vortex method in which the unsteady conservation equations of vorticity, chemical species and energy are solved using a set of moving computational elements carrying time dependent quantities. A compatible approach is proposed to solve the radiative transport equations. Simulations of an axisymmetric plume are used to identify the dynamic mechanisms leading to ``puffing'', the processes which govern entrainment into the rising unsteady plume, burn rate, and overall observable quantities such as the flame height, radiation flux, etc. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  14. Chiral nanoparticles in singular light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, Ilia A.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Zhu, Weiren; Shalkovskiy, Alexey G.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.

    2017-04-01

    The studying of how twisted light interacts with chiral matter on the nanoscale is paramount for tackling the challenging task of optomechanical separation of nanoparticle enantiomers, whose solution can revolutionize the entire pharmaceutical industry. Here we calculate optical forces and torques exerted on chiral nanoparticles by Laguerre-Gaussian beams carrying a topological charge. We show that regardless of the beam polarization, the nanoparticles are exposed to both chiral and achiral forces with nonzero reactive and dissipative components. Longitudinally polarized beams are found to produce chirality densities that can be 109 times higher than those of transversely polarized beams and that are comparable to the chirality densities of beams polarized circularly. Our results and analytical expressions prove useful in designing new strategies for mechanical separation of chiral nanoobjects with the help of highly focussed beams.

  15. Duality and symmetry in chiral Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Shi-shyr

    2009-08-01

    We discover an Ising-type duality in the general N-state chiral Potts model, which is the Kramers-Wannier duality of a planar Ising model when N = 2. This duality relates the spectrum and eigenvectors of one chiral Potts model at a low temperature (of small k') to those of another chiral Potts model at a high temperature (of k'-1). The τ(2) model and chiral Potts model on the dual lattice are established alongside of the dual chiral Potts models. With the aid of this duality relation, we exact a precise relationship between the Onsager-algebra symmetry of a homogeneous superintegrable chiral Potts model and the sl2-loop-algebra symmetry of its associated spin- (N-1)/2 XXZ chain through the identification of their eigenstates.

  16. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  17. Chiral vortical effect for bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avkhadiev, Artur; Sadofyev, Andrey V.

    2017-08-01

    The thermal contribution to the chiral vortical effect is believed to be related to the axial anomaly in external gravitational fields. We use the universality of the spin-gravity interaction to extend this idea to a wider set of phenomena. We consider the Kubo formula at weak coupling for the spin current of a vector field and derive a novel anomalous effect caused by the medium rotation: the chiral vortical effect for bosons. The effect consists in a spin current of vector bosons along the angular velocity of the medium. We argue that it has the same anomalous nature as in the fermionic case and show that this effect provides a mechanism for helicity transfer, from flow helicity to magnetic helicity.

  18. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson Chiral Fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, wh...

  19. CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E. W.; Feringa, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical switching is demonstrated. The additional options offered by the combination of circularly polarized light and chiral molecules gives rise to the observation of Second Harmonic Generation from centrosym...

  20. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  1. Chiral Symmetry in Light-front QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meng-Hsiu; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2003-01-01

    The definition of chiral transformations in light-front field theory is very different from the conventional form in equal-time formalism. We study the consistency of chiral transformations and chiral symmetry in light-front QCD and derive a complete new light-front axial-vector current for QCD. The breaking of chiral symmetry in light-front QCD is only associated with helicity flip interaction between quarks and gluons. Remarkably, the new axial-vector current does not contain the pion pole ...

  2. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  3. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Antilogus, P; Behnke, T; Bertucci, B; Blondel, A; Burgard, C; Clare, R; Clarke, P E L; Dutta, S; Elsing, M; Faccini, R; Fassouliotis, D; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J B; Jones, R W L; de Jong, P; Kawamoto, T; Kobel, M; Lançon, E; Lohmann, W; Mariotti, C; Martínez, M; Matteuzzi, C; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Molnár, P; Nippe, A; Olshevskii, A G; Paus, C; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Petzold, S; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Roney, J M; Sekulin, R L; Tenchini, Roberto; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Timmermans, J; Turner-Watson, M F; Wahlen, H; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Weber, A

    1997-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1997 summer conferences. Averages are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross-sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the $\\tau$ polarisation asymmetries, the $\\bb$ and $\\cc$ partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the $\\qq$ charge asymmetry. The major changes with respect to results presented last year are updated results of $\\ALR$ from SLD, and the inclusion of the first direct measurements of the W mass and triple-gauge-boson couplings performed at LEP. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  4. Revisiting the Global Electroweak Fit of the Standard Model and Beyond with Gfitter

    CERN Document Server

    Flächer, Henning; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Mönig, K; Stelzer, J

    2009-01-01

    The global fit of the Standard Model to electroweak precision data, routinely performed by the LEP electroweak working group and others, demonstrated impressively the predictive power of electroweak unification and quantum loop corrections. We have revisited this fit in view of (i) the development of the new generic fitting package, Gfitter, allowing flexible and efficient model testing in high-energy physics, (ii) the insertion of constraints from direct Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron, and (iii) a more thorough statistical interpretation of the results. Gfitter is a modular fitting toolkit, which features predictive theoretical models as independent plugins, and a statistical analysis of the fit results using toy Monte Carlo techniques. The state-of-the-art electroweak Standard Model is fully implemented, as well as generic extensions to it. Theoretical uncertainties are explicitly included in the fit through scale parameters varying within given error ranges. This paper introduces the Gfitter projec...

  5. Is there a hot electroweak phase transition at m$_{H}$ $\\geq$ m$_{W}$?

    CERN Document Server

    Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E

    1996-01-01

    We provide non-perturbative evidence for the fact that there is no hot electroweak phase transition at large Higgs masses, m_H = 95, 120 and 180 GeV. This means that the line of first order phase transitions separating the symmetric and broken phases at small m_H has an end point m_{H,c}. In the minimal standard electroweak theory 70 GeV electroweak theory is weakly coupled and the Higgs boson is found to be heavier than the critical value (which depends on the theory in question), cosmological remnants from the electroweak epoch are improbable.

  6. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M

    1999-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1998 summer conferences. Averages are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross-sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the *polarisation asymmetries, the bb and cc partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the qq charge asymmetry. The major changes with respect to results presented in summer 1997 are updates to the measurements of the Z lineshape, tau polarisation, W mass and triple-gaugeboson couplings from LEP, and ALR from SLD. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. A signifi- cant update here is a new measurement of the mixing angle from the NuTeV Collaboration. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  7. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 2000

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1999 summer conferences. Averages are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the $\\tau$ polarisation asymmetries, the $\\bb$ and $\\cc$ partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the $\\qq$ charge asymmetry. The major changes with respect to results presented in summer 1998 are updates to the lineshape, W mass and triple-gauge-boson couplings from LEP, and $\\cAb$ and $\\cAc$ from SLD. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. A significant update here are new W mass measurements from CDF and D\\O. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  8. The role of electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole QCD penguin on hadronic b Quark Decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mehrban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research, works with the effective Hamiltonian and the quark model. Using, the decay rates of matter-antimatter of b quark was investigated. We described the effective Hamiltonian theory which was applied to the calculation of current-current (Q1,2, QCD penguin (Q3,…,6, magnetic dipole (Q8 and electroweak penguin (Q7,…,10 decay rates. The gluonic penguin structure of hadronic decays b→qkg→qkqiqj was studied through the Wilson coefficients of the effective Hamiltonian. The branching ratios of the Tree-Level, effective Hamiltonian, effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin, effective Hamiltonian including magnetic dipole and the effective Hamiltonian including electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole b quark decays b→qiqkqj, qi{u,c}, qk{d,s}, qj{u,c} have been calculated. It was shown that, the electroweak penguin and magnetic dipole contributions in b quark decays are small and current-current operators are dominated.

  9. Pinch technique prescription to compute the electroweak corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Rosetti, L.G.; Lopez Castro, G.; Pestieau, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We apply a simple prescription derived from the framework of the Pinch Technique formalism to check the calculation of the gauge-invariant one-loop bosonic electroweak corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  10. Radiatively Generating the Higgs Potential and Electroweak Scale via the Seesaw Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Ilaria; Trott, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The minimal seesaw scenario can radiatively generate the Higgs potential to induce electroweak symmetry breaking while supplying an origin of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from an underlying Majorana scale. If the Higgs potential and (derived) electroweak scale have this origin, the heavy SU (3 )×SU (2 )×U (1 )Y singlet states are expected to reside at mN˜10 - 500 PeV for couplings |ω |˜10-4.5-10-6 between the Majorana sector and the standard model. In this framework, the usual challenge of the electroweak scale hierarchy problem with a classically assumed potential is absent as the electroweak scale is not a fundamental scale. The new challenge is the need to generate or accommodate PeV Majorana mass scales while simultaneously suppressing tree-level contributions to the potential in ultraviolet models.

  11. Introduction to the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    These lectures notes cover the basic ideas of gauge symmetries and the phe- nomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking which are used in the construc- tion of the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions.

  12. QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D; Shimada, Kengo

    2017-10-06

    If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model. In particular, relatively light weakly coupled particles are predicted, with implications for collider searches. This scenario is also potentially rich in cosmological consequences, such as renewed possibilities for electroweak baryogenesis, altered dark matter production, and gravitational wave production, as we briefly comment upon.

  13. Searches for electroweak production of supersymmetric gauginos and sleptons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grout, Zara Jane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry models with light electroweak sparticles are well motivated by naturalness and have less stringent exclusion limits on the supersymmetric particle masses than strong production. ATLAS searches for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles in a number of channels, which include multiple leptons and therefore benefit from lower numbers of background process events. Results are presented here for searches using $\\sqrt{s}=13$TeV ATLAS data collected in 2015 and the most recent findings are summarised.

  14. The Optical Chirality Flux as a Useful Far-Field Probe of Chiral Near Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Poulikakos, Lisa V; McPeak, Kevin M; Burger, Sven; Niegemann, Jens; Hafner, Christian; Norris, David J

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the interaction between chiral matter and highly twisted light, quantities that can help characterize chiral electromagnetic fields near nanostructures are needed. Here, by analogy with Poynting's theorem, we formulate the time-averaged conservation law of optical chirality in lossy dispersive media and identify the optical chirality flux as an ideal far-field observable for characterizing chiral optical near fields. Bounded by the conservation law, we show that it provides precise information, unavailable from circular dichroism spectroscopy, on the magnitude and handedness of highly twisted fields near nanostructures.

  15. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-08-27

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2002 summer conferences. Averages from Z resonance results are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the {tau} polarization asymmetries, the b{bar b} and c{bar c} partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the q{bar q} charge asymmetry. Above the Z resonance, averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in summer 2001 are updates to the Z-pole heavy flavour results from SLD and LEP, and new combinations of results above the Z pole. A new investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented. For the first time, colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably the recent final result on the electroweak mixing angle determined in neutrino-nucleon scattering by the NuTeV collaboration. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  16. Chirally-modified metal surfaces: energetics of interaction with chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyev, Petr; Peter, Matthias; Adamovsky, Sergey; Schauermann, Swetlana

    2015-09-21

    Imparting chirality to non-chiral metal surfaces by adsorption of chiral modifiers is a highly promising route to create effective heterogeneously catalyzed processes for the production of enantiopure pharmaceuticals. One of the major current challenges in heterogeneous chiral catalysis is the fundamental-level understanding of how such chirally-modified surfaces interact with chiral and prochiral molecules to induce their enantioselective transformations. Herein we report the first direct calorimetric measurement of the adsorption energy of chiral molecules onto well-defined chirally-modified surfaces. Two model modifiers 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and 2-methylbutanoic acid were used to impart chirality to Pt(111) and their interaction with propylene oxide was investigated by means of single-crystal adsorption calorimetry. Differential adsorption energies and absolute surface uptakes were obtained for the R- and S-enantiomers of propylene oxide under clean ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Two types of adsorption behavior were observed for different chiral modifiers, pointing to different mechanisms of imparting chirality to metal surfaces. The results are analyzed and discussed in view of previously reported stereoselectivity of adsorption processes.

  17. The hadronic standard model for strong and electroweak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczka, R. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    We propose a new model for strong and electro-weak interactions. First, we review various QCD predictions for hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron processes. We indicate that the present formulation of strong interactions in the frame work of Quantum Chromodynamics encounters serious conceptual and numerical difficulties in a reliable description of hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron interactions. Next we propose to replace the strong sector of Standard Model based on unobserved quarks and gluons by the strong sector based on the set of the observed baryons and mesons determined by the spontaneously broken SU(6) gauge field theory model. We analyse various properties of this model such as asymptotic freedom, Reggeization of gauge bosons and fundamental fermions, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon high energy scattering, generation of {Lambda}-polarization in inclusive processes and others. Finally we extend this model by electro-weak sector. We demonstrate a remarkable lepton and hadron anomaly cancellation and we analyse a series of important lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes such as e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} hadrons, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +} + W{sup -}, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {yields} p + anti-p, e + p {yields} e + p and p + anti-p {yields} p + anti-p processes. We obtained a series of interesting new predictions in this model especially for processes with polarized particles. We estimated the value of the strong coupling constant {alpha}(M{sub z}) and we predicted the top baryon mass M{sub {Lambda}{sub t}} {approx_equal} 240 GeV. Since in our model the proton, neutron, {Lambda}-particles, vector mesons like {rho}, {omega}, {phi}, J/{psi} ect. and leptons are elementary most of experimentally analysed lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron processes in LEP1, LEP2, LEAR, HERA, HERMES, LHC and SSC experiments may be relatively easily analysed in our model. (author). 252 refs, 65 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Evaluation of Dalbavancin as chiral selector for HPLC and comparison with Teicoplanin based chiral stationary phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, XIAOTONG; BAO, YE; HUANG, KE; BARNETT-RUNDLETT, KIMBER L.; ARMSTRONG, DANIEL W.

    2015-01-01

    Dalbavancin is a new compound of the macrocyclic glycopeptide family. It was covalently linked to 5μm silica particles by using two different binding chemsitries. Approximately two hundred and fifty racemates including (A) heterocyclic compounds; (B) chiral acids; (C) chiral amines; (D) chiral alcohols; (E) chiral sulfoxides and sulfilimines; (F) amino acids and amino acid derivatives; and (G) other chiral compounds were tested on the two new chiral stationary phases (CSP) using three different mobile phases. As dalbavancin is structurally related to teicoplanin, the same set of chiral compounds was screened on two commercially available teicoplanin CSPs for comparison. The dalbavancin CSPs were able to separate some enantiomers that were not separated by the teicoplanin CSPs and also showed improved separations for many racemates. However, there were other compounds only separated or better separated on teicoplanin CSPS. Therefore, the dalbavancin CSPs are complementary to the teicoplanin CSPs. PMID:19676111

  19. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian constraints for guiding-center Hamiltonian theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tronko, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    A consistent guiding-center Hamiltonian theory is derived by Lie-transform perturbation method, with terms up to second order in magnetic-field nonuniformity. Consistency is demonstrated by showing that the guiding-center transformation presented here satisfies separate Jacobian and Lagrangian constraints that have not been explored before. A new first-order term appearing in the guiding-center phase-space Lagrangian is identified through a calculation of the guiding-center polarization. It is shown that this new polarization term also yields a simpler expression of the guiding-center toroidal canonical momentum, which satisfies an exact conservation law in axisymmetric magnetic geometries. Lastly, an application of the guiding-center Lagrangian constraint on the guiding-center Hamiltonian yields a natural interpretation for its higher-order corrections.

  20. Variational equations and symmetries in the Lagrangian formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, D.R. [Dept. of Theor. Phys., Inst. of Atomic Phys., Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    1995-05-21

    Symmetries in the Lagrangian formalism of arbitrary order are analysed with the help of the so-called Anderson-Duchamp-Krupka equations. For the case of second-order equations and a scalar field we establish a polynomial structure in the second-order derivatives. This structure can be used to clarify the form Symmetries in the Lagrangian formalism of arbitrary order are analysed with the help of the so-called Anderson-Duchamp-Krupka equations. For the case of second-order equations and a scalar field we establish a polynomial structure in the second-order derivatives. This structure can be used to clarify the form of a general symmetry. As an illustration we analyse the case of Lagrangian equations with Poincare invariance or with universal invariance of a general symmetry. (author)

  1. Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colladay, Don

    2017-09-01

    A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.

  2. Does a Functional Integral Really Need a Lagrangian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Path integral formulation of quantum mechanics (and also other equivalent formulations depends on a Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian function that is chosen to describe the underlying classical system. The arbitrariness presented in this choice leads to a phenomenon called Quantization ambiguity. For example both L1 = ˙q2 and L2 = eq˙ are suitable Lagrangians on a classical level (δL1 = δL2, but quantum mechanically they are diverse. This paper presents a simple rearrangement of the path integral to a surface functional integral. It is shown that the surface functional integral formulation gives transition probability amplitude which is free of any Lagrangian/Hamiltonian and requires just the underlying classical equations of motion. A simple example examining the functionality of the proposed method is considered.

  3. Lagrangian analysis, data covariance, and the impulse time integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lagrangian analysis is mathematical analysis of data derived from flow experiments in which embedded gauges move with the material motion (constant Lagrangian mass-point coordinate). With sufficient data, the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy are applied to the data in order to construct flow-variable fields, of particle velocity, stress, density, et cetera. Toward this end, a new Lagrangian analysis method has been constructed, that is centered upon a function, {alpha}, that incorporates conservation of mass and momentum into its definition. Further, the existence of {alpha} allows simultaneous, consistent, least-squares fitting of surfaces to all of the flow data. The method also incorporates a novel treatment of the data covariance effects resulting from gauge-to-gauge calibration uncertainty. Analysis of a synthetic data set illustrates the method. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  4. A spectral route to determining chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Usi...

  5. CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  6. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  7. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  8. High harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaofan; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-09-18

    Axial chiral molecules, whose stereogenic element is an axis rather than a chiral center, have attracted widespread interest due to their important application, such as asymmetric synthesis and chirality transfer. We investigate high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules with bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields. High harmonic generation from three typical molecules: (Sa)-3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol, propadiene, and (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene is simulated with time-dependent density-functional theory and strong field approximation. We found that harmonic spectra for 3D oriented axial chiral molecules exhibit obvious circular dichroism. However, the circular dichroism of High harmonic generation from an achiral molecule is much trivial. Moreover, the dichroism of high harmonic generation still exists when axial chiral molecules are 1D oriented,such as (Sa) -3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol. For a special form of axial chiral molecules with the formula abC=C=Cab (a, b are different substituents), like (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene, the dichroism discriminations disappear when the molecules are only in 1D orientation. The circular dichroism of high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules is well explained by the trajectory analysis based on the semiclassical three-step mechanism.

  9. On infinite regular and chiral maps

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán

    2015-01-01

    We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.

  10. Chiral gauge theories with domain wall fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Golterman, M.; Jansen, K.; Petcher, D.; Vink, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated a proposal to construct chiral gauge theories on the lattice using domain wall fermions. The model contains two opposite chirality zeromodes, which live on two domain walls. We couple only one of them to a gauge field, but find that mirror fermions which also couple to the gauge field always seem to exist.

  11. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness. +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is ...

  12. Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.

  13. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  14. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of classical electrodynamics without potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, Dan N.

    2017-10-01

    In the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach to Maxwell's theory the potentials A^{μ} are taken as the dynamical variables. In this paper I take the electric field \\overrightarrow{E} and the magnetic field \\overrightarrow{B} as the dynamical variables. I find a Lagrangian that gives the dynamical Maxwell equations and include the constraint equations by using Lagrange multipliers. In passing to the Hamiltonian one finds that the canonical momenta \\overrightarrow{Π}E and \\overrightarrow{Π}B are constrained giving 6 second class constraints at each point in space. Gauss's law and \\overrightarrow{\

  15. Lagrangian Approach to Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Choudhuri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive a Lagrangian based approach to study the compatible Hamiltonian structure of the dispersionless KdV and supersymmetric KdV hierarchies and claim that our treatment of the problem serves as a very useful supplement of the so-called r-matrix method. We suggest specific ways to construct results for conserved densities and Hamiltonian operators. The Lagrangian formulation, via Noether's theorem, provides a method to make the relation between symmetries and conserved quantities more precise. We have exploited this fact to study the variational symmetries of the dispersionless KdV equation.

  16. A Spectral Clustering Approach to Lagrangian Vortex Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjighasem, Alireza; Karrasch, Daniel; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Haller, George

    2015-11-01

    One of the ubiquitous features of real-life turbulent flows is the existence and persistence of coherent vortices. Here we show that such coherent vortices can be extracted as clusters of Lagrangian trajectories. We carry out the clustering on a weighted graph, with the weights measuring pairwise distances of fluid trajectories in the extended phase space of positions and time. We then extract coherent vortices from the graph using tools from spectral graph theory. Our method locates all coherent vortices in the flow simultaneously, thereby showing high potential for automated vortex tracking. We illustrate the performance of this technique by identifying coherent Lagrangian vortices in several two- and three-dimensional flows.

  17. Spectral-clustering approach to Lagrangian vortex detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjighasem, Alireza; Karrasch, Daniel; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Haller, George

    2016-06-01

    One of the ubiquitous features of real-life turbulent flows is the existence and persistence of coherent vortices. Here we show that such coherent vortices can be extracted as clusters of Lagrangian trajectories. We carry out the clustering on a weighted graph, with the weights measuring pairwise distances of fluid trajectories in the extended phase space of positions and time. We then extract coherent vortices from the graph using tools from spectral graph theory. Our method locates all coherent vortices in the flow simultaneously, thereby showing high potential for automated vortex tracking. We illustrate the performance of this technique by identifying coherent Lagrangian vortices in several two- and three-dimensional flows.

  18. Microwave chirality discrimination in enantiomeric liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2017-07-01

    Chirality discrimination is of fundamental interest in biology, chemistry, and metamaterial studies. In optics, near-field plasmon-resonance spectroscopy with superchiral probing fields is effectively applicable for analyses of large biomolecules with chiral properties. We show possibility for microwave near-field chirality discrimination analysis based on magnon-resonance spectroscopy. Newly developed capabilities in microwave sensing using magnetoelectric (ME) probing fields originated from multiresonance magnetic-dipolar-mode oscillations in quasi-2D yttrium-iron-garnet disks provide potential for unprecedented measurements of chemical and biological objects. We report on microwave near-field chirality discrimination for aqueous D- and L-glucose solutions. The shown ME-field sensing is addressed to deepen our understanding of microwave-biosystem interactions. It can also be important for an analysis and design of microwave chiral metamaterials.

  19. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  20. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed.

  1. Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. B. Jennifer; Huang, Xiongyi; Gumulya, Yosephine; Chen, Kai; Arnold, Frances H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature’s catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo. Here we report the discovery, evolution and generalization of a fully genetically encoded platform for producing chiral organoboranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli cells harbouring wild-type cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus (Rma cyt c) were found to form carbon–boron bonds in the presence of borane–Lewis base complexes, through carbene insertion into boron–hydrogen bonds. Directed evolution of Rma cyt c in the bacterial catalyst provided access to 16 novel chiral organoboranes. The catalyst is suitable for gram-scale biosynthesis, providing up to 15,300 turnovers, a turnover frequency of 6,100 h–1, a 99:1 enantiomeric ratio and 100% chemoselectivity. The enantiopreference of the biocatalyst could also be tuned to provide either enantiomer of the organoborane products. Evolved in the context of whole-cell catalysts, the proteins were more active in the whole-cell system than in purified forms. This study establishes a DNA-encoded and readily engineered bacterial platform for borylation; engineering can be accomplished at a pace that rivals the development of chemical synthetic methods, with the ability to achieve turnovers that are two orders of magnitude (over 400-fold) greater than those of known chiral catalysts for the same class of transformation. This tunable method for manipulating boron in cells could expand the scope of boron chemistry in living systems.

  2. Indications of the CMSSM Mass Scale from Precision Electroweak Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Olive, Keith A; Weiglein, Georg

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the sensitivities of present-day electroweak precision data to the possible scale of supersymmetry within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM). Our analysis is based on M_W, sin^2 theta_eff, (g-2)_mu, BR(b -> s gamma), and the lightest MSSM Higgs boson mass, M_h. We display the impact of the recent reduction in m_t from 178.0 +- 4.3 GeV to 172.7 +- 2.9 GeV on the interpretation of the precision observables. We show the currently preferred values of the CMSSM mass scale m_{1/2} based on a global chi^2 fit, assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a neutralino, and fixing m_0 so as to obtain the cold dark matter density allowed by WMAP and other cosmological data for specific values of A_0, tan beta and mu > 0. The recent reduction in m_t reinforces previous indications for relatively light soft supersymmetry-breaking masses, offering good prospects for the LHC and the ILC, and in some cases also for the Tevatron. Finally, we discuss the se...

  3. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  4. Studies of strong electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kingman

    1994-10-01

    It has recently been shown that the studies of strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) at photon colliders, via photon splitting into a W pair followed by longitudinal W-boson scattering, could be possible. Here we present a signal-background analysis for the scattering channels W+LW-L-->ZLZL and W+LW-L-->W+LW-L with the background coming from the standard model (SM) production of γγ-->WWZZ and WWWW, respectively. We illustrate the analysis using the SM with a heavy Higgs boson (mH~=1 TeV) to represent a typical strongly interacting EWSB model and the SM with a light Higgs boson (mH~=0.1 TeV) to represent the background. We come up with a set of kinematic acceptance to enhance the signal-to-background ratio. The extension of the kinematic acceptance to other strongly interacting EWSB models is then trivial, and the signal cross sections for various EWSB models are calculated. We found that it is very feasible to probe the EWSB sector at a photon collider of center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV with a luminosity of just 10 fb-1.

  5. Precision Electroweak measurements at the FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Because of a luminosity of up to five orders of magnitude larger than at LEP, electroweak precision measurements at the FCC-ee -- the Future Circular Collider with electron-positron beams -- would provide improvements by orders of magnitude over the present status and constitute a broad search for the existence of new, weakly interacting particles up to very high energy scales. The FCC-ee will address centre-of-mass energies ranging from below the Z pole to the $\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}$ threshold and above. At energies around the Z pole, the Z-boson mass and width can be measured to better than 100 keV each. Asymmetry measurements at the Z pole allow improvements in the determination of the weak mixing angle by at least a factor 30 to $\\delta\\sin^2\\theta\\mathrm{_W^{eff}}\\simeq 6\\times 10^{-6}$. A determination of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the Z energy scale, $\\alpha_\\mathrm{QED}(m_\\mathrm{Z}^2)$, to a relative precision of $3\\times 10^{-5}$ can be obtained via measurement of the forward-backward asym...

  6. Electroweak Bosons in Heavy Ion Collisions with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qipeng; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak bosons processes (W, Z and photon) provide experimental controls over initial geometric and nuclear PDFs (nPDFs). The ATLAS has measured the production of all three bosons in Pb+Pb at 2.76 TeV and the production of Z bosons in p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. Z bosons are measured via both di-electron and di-muon decay channel. W bosons are measured with isolated single leptons and missing transverse energy constructed from tracks. Photons are measured using ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter and calorimeter-based isolation observables. The yields of all three bosons in Pb+Pb collisions are found to obey binary collision scaling. But Run 1 Pb+Pb data is not yet sensitive enough to discern specific features of nPDF effects. The Z yield in p+Pb collisions provide another excellent opportunity to test nPDF effects. In addition, the centrality dependence of Z boson production in p+Pb is measured and analyzed within standard Glauber model and the Glauber-Gribov model with event-by-event fluctuations. The ef...

  7. Suppressing Electroweak Precision Observables in 5D Warped Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    We elaborate on a recently proposed mechanism to suppress large contributions to the electroweak precision observables in five dimensional (5D) warped models, without the need for an extended 5D gauge sector. The main ingredient is a modification of the AdS metric in the vicinity of the infrared (IR) brane corresponding to a strong deviation from conformality in the IR of the 4D holographic dual. We compute the general low energy effective theory of the 5D warped Standard Model, emphasizing additional IR contributions to the wave function renormalization of the light Higgs mode. We also derive expressions for the S and T parameters as a function of a generic 5D metric and zero-mode wave functions. We give an approximate formula for the mass of the radion that works even for strong deviation from the AdS background. We proceed to work out the details of an explicit model and derive bounds for the first KK masses of the various bulk fields. The radion is the lightest new particle although its mass is already at...

  8. Effective field theory, electric dipole moments and electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Csaba; White, Graham; Yue, Jason

    2017-03-01

    Negative searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) heavily constrain models of baryogenesis utilising various higher dimensional charge and parity violating (CPV) operators. Using effective field theory, we create a model independent connection between these EDM constraints and the baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) produced during a strongly first order electroweak phase transition. The thermal aspects of the high scale physics driving the phase transition are paramaterised by the usual kink solution for the bubble wall profile. We find that operators involving derivatives of the Higgs field yield CPV contributions to the BAU containing derivatives of the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev), while non-derivative operators lack such contributions. Consequently, derivative operators cannot be eliminated in terms of non-derivative operators (via the equations of motion) if one is agnostic to the new physics that leads to the phase transition. Thus, we re-classify the independent dimension six operators, restricting ourselves to third generation quarks, gauge bosons and the Higgs. Finally, we calculate the BAU (as a function of the bubble wall width and the cutoff) for a derivative and a non-derivative operator, and relate it to the EDM constraints.

  9. Precision measurements of electroweak observables with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration measured the di-lepton mass range up to the TeV scale as well as the triple differential cross-section measurement as a function of Mll, dilepton rapidity and cosθ defined in the Collins-Soper frame. This measurement provides sensitivity to the PDFs and the weak mixing angle. The latest results of the ATLAS collaboration will be presented. A second important observable in the electroweak sector is the W boson mass in order to test the overall consistency of the Standard Model. Since the discovery of a Higgs Boson, the the W boson mass is predicted to 7 MeV precision, while the world average of all measurements is 15 MeV, making the improved measurement an important goal. Large samples of leptonic decays of W and Z bosons were collected with efficient single lepton triggers in the 7 TeV data set correspo...

  10. Latest LHCb measurements of Electroweak Boson Production in Run-1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production using proton-proton collisions recorded in LHC Run-1. The seminar shall discuss measurements of the 8 TeV W & Z boson production cross-sections. These results make use of LHCb's excellent integrated luminosity determination to provide constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton. These LHCb measurements probe a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. We also present measurements of cross-section ratios, and ratios of results in 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. These results provide precision tests of the Standard Model. The seminar shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the coupling of the Z boson to left and right handed particles, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (...

  11. Electroweak interacting dark matter with a singlet scalar portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate an electroweak interacting dark matter (DM model in which the DM is the neutral component of the SU(2L triplet fermion that couples to the standard model (SM Higgs sector via an SM singlet Higgs boson. In this setup, the DM can have a CP-violating coupling to the singlet Higgs boson at the renormalizable level. As long as the nonzero Higgs portal coupling (singlet-doublet Higgs boson mixing exists, we can probe CP violation of the DM via the electric dipole moment of the electron. Assuming the O(1 CP-violating phase in magnitude, we investigate the relationship between the electron EDM and the singlet-like Higgs boson mass and coupling. It is found that for moderate values of the Higgs portal couplings, current experimental EDM bound is not able to exclude the wide parameter space due to a cancellation mechanism at work. We also study the spin-independent cross section of the DM in this model. It is found that although a similar cancellation mechanism may diminish the leading-order correction, as often occurs in the ordinary Higgs portal DM scenarios, the residual higher-order effects leave an O(10−47 cm2 correction in the cancellation region. It is shown that our benchmark scenarios would be fully tested by combining all future experiments of the electron EDM, DM direct detection and Higgs physics.

  12. Quantum electroweak symmetry breaking through loop quadratic contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Bai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on two postulations that (i the Higgs boson has a large bare mass mH≫mh≃125 GeV at the characteristic energy scale Mc which defines the Standard Model (SM in the ultraviolet region, and (ii quadratic contributions of Feynman loop diagrams in quantum field theories are physically meaningful, we show that the SM electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by the quadratic contributions from loop effects. As the quadratic running of Higgs mass parameter leads to an additive renormalization, which distinguishes from the logarithmic running with a multiplicative renormalization, the symmetry breaking occurs once the sliding energy scale μ moves from Mc down to a transition scale μ=ΛEW at which the additive renormalized Higgs mass parameter mH2(Mc/μ gets to change the sign. With the input of current experimental data, this symmetry breaking energy scale is found to be ΛEW≃760 GeV, which provides another basic energy scale for the SM besides Mc. Studying such a symmetry breaking mechanism could play an important role in understanding both the hierarchy problem and naturalness problem. It also provides a possible way to explore the experimental implications of the quadratic contributions as ΛEW lies within the probing reach of the LHC and the future Great Collider.

  13. Confronting electroweak fine-tuning with No-Scale Supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Leggett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying No-Scale Supergravity boundary conditions at a heavy unification scale to the Flipped SU(5 grand unified theory with extra TeV-scale vector-like multiplets, i.e. No-Scale F-SU(5, we express the Z-boson mass MZ as an explicit function of the boundary gaugino mass M1/2, MZ2=MZ2(M1/22, with implicit dependence upon a dimensionless ratio c of the supersymmetric Higgs mixing parameter μ and M1/2. Setting the top Yukawa coupling consistent with mt=174.3 GeV at MZ=91.2 GeV, the value of c naturally tends toward c≃1, which indirectly suggests underlying action of the Giudice–Masiero mechanism. Proportional dependence of all model scales upon the unified gaugino mass M1/2 in the No-Scale F-SU(5 model suggests one possible mechanism of confronting the electroweak fine-tuning problem.

  14. Electroweak Structure of Three- and Four-Body Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This work reports results for (i) the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the trin- of ucleons; (ii) the nuclear response functions of interest in ~ experiments, 3 He(~e; e 0 ) experiments, at VERSITY excitation energies below the deuteron breakup threshold; (iii) the astrophysical ark S-factor for proton weak capture on 3 He (the hep reaction). The initial and nal using state wave functions are calculated using the correlated hyperspherical harmonics onsisting method, from a realistic Hamiltonian consisting of the Argonne v 18 two-nucleon uclear and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions. The nuclear electroweak charge and ts. current operators include one- and many-body components. The predicted mag- netic form factor of 3 H, charge form factors and static properties of both 3 H and ntal 3 He, are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. However, the po- sition of the zero in the magnetic form factor of 3 He is underpredicted by theory. disintegration The calculated nuclear response functions in 3 He electrodisintegration at thresh- er old are in good agreement with the experimental data, which have however rather s large errors. Finally, the astrophysical S-factor for the hep reaction is predicted ortant ' 4.5 larger than the value adopted in the standard-solar-model, with important consequences for the solar neutrino spectrum measured by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration.

  15. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  16. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.

    2016-06-22

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Chirality controlled responsive self-assembled nanotubes in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, D. J.; Stacko, P.; Stuart, M. C. A.; Browne, W. R.; Feringa, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using chirality to dictate dimensions and to store chiral information in self-assembled nanotubes in a fully controlled manner is presented. We report a photoresponsive amphiphile that co-assembles with its chiral counterpart to form nanotubes and demonstrate how chirality can be used

  19. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements And Constraints on the Standard Model (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.

    2005-03-07

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2004 summer conferences. Averages from Z resonance results are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the {tau} polarization asymmetries, the b{bar b} and c{bar c} partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the q{bar q} charge asymmetry. Above the Z resonance, averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. Also, an investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented, and colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in summer 2003 are updates to the W branching fractions and four-fermion cross sections measured at LEP-2, and the SLD/LEP heavy-flavour results measured at the Z pole. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably the final result on the electroweak mixing angle determined in neutrino-nucleon scattering by the NuTeV collaboration, the latest result in atomic parity violation in Caesium, and the measurement of the electroweak mixing angle in Moller scattering. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of high-Q{sup 2} electroweak results.

  20. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  1. comparison of euler-lagrangian and fischer's methods of predicting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Keywords: dispersion coefficient, euler-lagrangian method, analysis, comparison. 1. Introduction. Mixing and dispersion phenomenon that occur as natural processes in river system help to reduce the local pollution level considerably by distributing the dissolved substances gradually with time [1, 2]. The.

  2. Classical dynamical variables for the Wess-Zumino matter Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, G.; Levinas, M.; Umerez, N.

    1989-05-01

    We study the macroscopic behaviour of the Wess-Zumino matter multiplet. The Lagrangian and the energy-momentum tensor are obtained in terms of densities and velocities of an interacting fluid in N=1 supergravity background. Equations of motion and conditions for consistency are found.

  3. Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)

  4. Extended Lagrangian formalism for rheonomic systems with variable mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mušicki Đorđe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extended Lagrangian formalism for the rheonomic systems (Dj. Mušicki, 2004, which began with the modification of the mechanics of such systems (V. Vujičić, 1987, is extended to the systems with variable mass, with emphasis on the corresponding energy relations. This extended Lagrangian formalism is based on the extension of the set of chosen generalized coordinates by new quantities, suggested by the form of nonstationary constraints, which determine the position of the frame of reference in respect to which these generalized coordinates refer. As a consequence, an extended system of the Lagrangian equations is formulated, accommodated to the variability of the masses of particles, where the additional ones correspond to the additional generalized coordinates. By means of these equations, the energy relations of such systems have been studied, where it is demonstrated that here there are four types of energy conservation laws. The obtained energy laws are more complete and natural than the corresponding ones in the usual Lagrangian formulation for such systems. It is demonstrated that the obtained energy laws, are in full accordance with the energy laws in the corresponding vector formulation, if they are expressed in terms of the quantities introduced in this formulation of mechanics. The obtained results are illustrated by an example: the motion of a rocket, which ejects the gasses backwards, while this rocket moves up a straight line on an oblique plane, which glides uniformly in a horizontal direction.

  5. Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The behaviour of mixed fluid finite elements, formulated based on the Lagrangian frame of reference, is investigated to understand the effects of locking due to incompressibility and irrotational constraints. For this purpose, both linear and quadratic mixed triangular fluid elements are formulated. It is found that there exists a ...

  6. Lagrangian Predictive Skill Assessment for the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipphardt, B. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Sulman, M.; Kirwan, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform produced enormous human, ecological, and economic impacts. At the same time this disaster provided an unprecedented amount of Lagrangian information on ocean processes, including a large number of surface and near-surface drifters deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as well as remotely sensed images of the surface oil slick. In addition several global and regional ocean model predictions were used to forecast the spill movements. These models generally exhibited large variations in the mesoscale flow near the Deepwater Horizon site, even though they all assimilated similar sets of ocean observations. This provides a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess model Lagrangian predictive skill. Here, the predictive skill of one model, a regional implementation of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), is evaluated using data from more than 80 drifter trajectories in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These trajectories are compared with maps of Lagrangian coherent structures, computed from near-surface model velocities, to determine whether the observations are consistent with the larger scale transport structure predicted by the model. We also discuss new metrics to assess model Lagrangian predictive skill of the plume movement.

  7. Lagrangian statistics for fluid particles and bubbles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Lohse, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion of bubbles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is numerically examined. The fluid velocity field evolves according to the Navier¿ Stokes equations that are solved by direct numerical simulation. The bubble paths are followed by Lagrangian tracking. The aim of thework is to

  8. Formation control of marine surface craft: a Lagrangian approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for formation control of marine surface craft inspired by Lagrangian mechanics. The desired formation configuration and response of the marine surface craft are given as a set of constraints in analytical mechanics. Thus, constraints forces arise and feedback from...

  9. Infinitely many inequivalent field theories from one Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    100__; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben

    2014-01-01

    Logarithmic time-like Liouville quantum field theory has a generalized PT invariance, where T is the time-reversal operator and P stands for an S-duality reflection of the Liouville field $\\phi$. In Euclidean space the Lagrangian of such a theory, $L=\\frac{1}{2}(\

  10. Implicit Lagrangian equations and the mathematical modeling of physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreau, Luc; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a class of optimal control problems on manifolds which gives rise (via the Pontryagin maximum principle) to a class of implicit Lagrangian systems (a notion which is introduced in the paper). We apply this to the mathematical modeling of interconnected mechanical systems and mechanical

  11. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  12. What {pi}-{pi} scattering tells us about chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.; Sazdjian, H. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Fuchs, N.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-12-31

    A rearrangement of the standard expansion of the symmetry breaking part of the QCD effective Lagrangian is described that includes into each order additional terms which in the standard chiral perturbation theory {chi}PT, are relegated to higher orders. The new expansion represents a systematic and unambiguous generalization of the standard {chi}PT and is more likely to converge rapidly. It provides a consistent framework for a measurement of the importance of additional `higher order` terms whose smallness is usually assumed but has never been checked. A method of measuring, among other quantities, the QCD parameters m-circumflex(q-barq) and the quark mass ratio m{sub s}/m-circumflex is elaborated in detail. The method is illustrated using various sets of available data. The importance of new, more accurate, experimental information on low-energy {pi}-{pi} scattering is stressed. (author) 33 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs.

  13. R2SM: a package for the analytic computation of the R{sub 2} Rational terms in the Standard Model of the Electroweak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzelli, M.V. [INFN (Italy); Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE; Malamos, I. [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Department of Theoretical High Energy Physics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The analytical package written in FORM presented in this paper allows the computation of the complete set of Feynman Rules producing the Rational terms of kind R{sub 2} contributing to the virtual part of NLO corrections in the Standard Model of the Electroweak interactions. Building block topologies filled by means of generic scalars, vectors and fermions, allowing to build these Feynman Rules in terms of specific elementary particles, are explicitly given in the R{sub {xi}} gauge class, together with the automatic dressing procedure to obtain the Feynman Rules from them. The results in more specific gauges, like the 't Hooft Feynman one, follow as particular cases, in both the HV and the FDH dimensional regularization schemes. As a check on our formulas, the gauge independence of the total Rational contribution (R{sub 1}+R{sub 2}) to renormalized S-matrix elements is verified by considering the specific example of the H {yields}{gamma}{gamma} decay process at 1-loop. This package can be of interest for people aiming at a better understanding of the nature of the Rational terms. It is organized in a modular way, allowing a further use of some its files even in different contexts. Furthermore, it can be considered as a first seed in the effort towards a complete automation of the process of the analytical calculation of the R{sub 2} effective vertices, given the Lagrangian of a generic gauge theory of particle interactions. (orig.)

  14. Three dimensional Lagrangian structures in the Antarctic Polar Vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Curbelo, Jezabel; Niang, Coumba; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wiggins, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical systems theory has supported the description of transport processes in fluid dynamics. For understanding trajectory patterns in chaotic advection the geometrical approach by Poincaré seeks for spatial structures that separate regions corresponding to qualitatively different types of trajectories. These structures have been referred to as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS), which typically in geophysical flows are well described under the approach of incompressible 2D flows. Different tools have been used to visualize LCS. In this presentation we use Lagrangian Descriptors [1,2,3,4] (function M) for visualizing 3D Lagrangian structures in the atmosphere, in particular in the Antarctic Polar Vortex. The function M is computed in a fully 3D incompressible flow obtained from data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast and it is represented in 2D surfaces. We discuss the findings during the final warming that took place in the spring of 1979 [5]. This research is supported by MINECO grant MTM2014-56392-R. Support is acknowledged also from CSIC grant COOPB20265, U.S. NSF grant AGS-1245069 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. C. Niang acknowledges Fundacion Mujeres por Africa and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 for financial support. [1] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [2] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [3] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, S. Wiggins and A. M. Mancho. Lagrangian descriptors for two dimensional, area preserving autonomous and nonautonomous maps. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 27 (2015) (1-3), 40-51. [4] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, V. J. García-Garrido, S. Wiggins, and A

  15. Tunneling and Parity Violation in Trisulfane (HSSSH): An Almost Ideal Molecule for Detecting Parity Violation in Chiral Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Horný, Ľuboš; Quack, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the parity-violating energy difference Δpv E between the enantiomers of chiral molecules is a major challenge of current physical-chemical stereochemistry. An important step towards this goal is to identify suitable molecules for such experiments by means of theory. This step has been made by calculations for the complex dynamics of tunneling and electroweak quantum chemistry of parity violation in the "classic" molecule trisulfane, HSSSH, which satisfies the relevant conditions for experiments almost ideally, as the molecule is comparatively simple and parity violation clearly dominates over tunneling in the ground state. At the same time, the barrier for stereomutation is easily overcome by the S-H infrared chromophore. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Next generation extended Lagrangian first principles molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2017-08-01

    Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended Lagrangian framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-05-01

    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  18. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-05-12

    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  19. Enhancing circular dichroism by super chiral hot spots from a chiral metasurface with apexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Teh, Bing Hong; Wang, Yue; Adamo, Giorgio; Teng, Jinghua; Sun, Handong

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating light spin (or circular polarization) is an important research field and may find broad applications from sensors, display technology, to quantum computing and communication. To this end, planar metasurfaces with larger circular dichroism are strongly demanded. However, current planar chiral metasurface structures suffer from either fabrication challenge, especially from near-infrared to visible spectrum, or insufficient circular dichroism. Here, we report a chiral metasurface composed of achiral nanoholes which allow for precisely creating apexes in the designed structure. Our investigation indicates that the apexes act as super chiral hot spots and enable the highly concentrated near-field optical chirality leading to a remarkable enhancement of circular dichroism in the far-field. A 4-fold enhancement of the circular dichroism and a strong optical activity of ˜15 degrees have been experimentally achieved. Besides the enhanced chirality, our design genuinely overcomes the nanofabrication challenge faced in existing planar chiral metasurfaces.

  20. Potential-driven chirality manifestations and impressive enantioselectivity by inherently chiral electroactive organic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannicolò, Francesco; Arnaboldi, Serena; Benincori, Tiziana; Bonometti, Valentina; Cirilli, Roberto; Dunsch, Lothar; Kutner, Włodzimierz; Longhi, Giovanna; Mussini, Patrizia R; Panigati, Monica; Pierini, Marco; Rizzo, Simona

    2014-03-03

    The typical design of chiral electroactive materials involves attaching chiral pendants to an electroactive polyconjugated backbone and generally results in modest chirality manifestations. Discussed herein are electroactive chiral poly-heterocycles, where chirality is not external to the electroactive backbone but inherent to it, and results from a torsion generated by the periodic presence of atropisomeric, conjugatively active biheteroaromatic scaffolds, (3,3'-bithianaphthene). As the stereogenic element coincides with the electroactive one, films of impressive chiroptical activity and outstanding enantiodiscrimination properties are obtained. Moreover, chirality manifestations can be finely and reversibly tuned by the electric potential, as progressive injection of holes forces the two thianaphthene rings to co-planarize to favor delocalization. Such deformations, revealed by CD spectroelectrochemistry, are elastic and reversible, thus suggesting a breathing system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.