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Sample records for electrostatic spray assisted

  1. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  2. Controllable deposition of gadolinium doped ceria electrolyte films by magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksapabutr, Bussarin; Chalermkiti, Tanapol; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Panapoy, Manop

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-temperature approach to fabrication of dense and crack-free gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) thin films with controllable deposition by a magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influences of external permanent magnets on the deposition of GDC films were investigated. The coating area deposited using two magnets with the same pole arrangement decreased in comparison with the case of no magnets, whereas the largest deposition area was obtained in the system of the opposite poles. Analysis of as-deposited films at 450 °C indicated the formation of uniform, smooth and dense thin films with a single-phase fluorite structure. The films produced in the system using same poles were thicker, smaller in crystallite size and smoother than those fabricated under other conditions. Additionally, the GDC film deposited using the same pole arrangement showed the maximum in electrical conductivity of about 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at a low operating temperature of 500 °C. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray allows a controllable coating. • Dense, crack-free thin films were obtained at low process temperature of 450 °C. • Control of deposition, thickness and uniformity is easy to achieve simultaneously. • Films from the same pole were thicker, smaller in crystal size and smoother. • The maximum conductivity of doped ceria film was 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at 500 °C

  3. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films.

  5. A novel preparation method for drug nanocrystals and characterization by ultrasonic spray assisted electrostatic adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bing Gao,1–3 Jun Wang,2 Dunju Wang,1,2 Ziqiang Zhu,1,2 Zhiqiang Qiao,2 Guangcheng Yang,2 Fude Nie21School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, People's Republic of China, 2Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, People's Republic of China, 3Si Chuan Research Center of New Materials, Mianyang, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and continuous method for preparing a nanosized particle of drug crystals and to characterize its properties.Materials and methods: A new apparatus was introduced to crystallize nanosized drug crystals of amitriptyline hydrochloride as a model drug. The samples were prepared in the pure state by ultrasonic spray, and elaborated deposition was completed via electrostatic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the size of the particles; this was subsequently followed by differential scanning calorimetry.Results and discussion: Nanoparticles of drug crystals were successfully prepared. The size of the drug crystals ranged from 20 nm to 400 nm; the particle size of amitriptyline hydrochloride was approximately 71 nm. The particles were spherical and rectangular in shape. Moreover, the melting point of the nanoparticles decreased from 198.2°C to 196.3°C when compared to raw particle crystals. Furthermore, the agglomeration effect was also attenuated as a result of electrostatic repulsion among each particle when absorbed, and depositing on the inner wall of the gathering unit occurred under the electrostatic effect.Conclusion: Ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption is a very effective and continuous method to produce drug nanocrystals. This method can be applied to poorly water-soluble drugs, and it can also be a very effective alternative for industrial production. Once the

  6. Deposition of Ni-CGO composite anodes by electrostatic assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-S.; Hwang, B.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Deposition of composite films of Ni and Gd-doped ceria was carried out using the electrostatic assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method for the first time. The composite films were highly homogeneous, as revealed by element mapping via energy-dispersive spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope examinations revealed that deposition temperature and electric field strength had profound influence on resultant microstructure, while composition of the precursor solution had little effect. A highly porous cauliflower structure ideal for solid oxide fuel cell anode performance was obtained with a deposition temperature of 450 deg. C under an electric field introduced by an applied voltage of 12 kV. Films obtained with a lower deposition temperature of 250 deg. C or a higher applied voltage of 15 kV resulted in denser films with low porosity, while lower applied voltages of 7 or 5 kV resulted in thinner or discontinuous films due to the insufficient electrostatic attraction on the aerosol droplets. As revealed by AC impedance measurement, the area specific resistances of the Ni-CGO anode with porous cauliflower structure were rather low and a value of 0.09 Ω cm 2 at 550 deg. C was obtained

  7. Template-assisted electrostatic spray deposition as a new route to mesoporous, macroporous, and hierarchically porous oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, S; Paul, B; Ortel, E; Fischer, A; Kraehnert, R

    2011-03-01

    A novel film coating technique, template-assisted electrostatic spray deposition (TAESD), was developed for the synthesis of porous metal oxide films and tested on TiO(2). Organic templates are codeposited with the titania precursor by electrostatic spray deposition and then removed during calcination. Resultant films are highly porous with pores casted by uniformly sized templates, which introduced a new level of control over the pore morphology for the ESD method. Employing the amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic P123, PMMA latex spheres, or a combination of the two, mesoporous, macroporous, and hierarchically porous TiO(2) films are obtained. Decoupled from other coating parameters, film thickness can be controlled by deposition time or depositing multiple layers while maintaining the coating's structure and integrity.

  8. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  9. Ecofriendly and Nonvacuum Electrostatic Spray-Assisted Vapor Deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anower; Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2015-10-14

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin films have been deposited by a novel, nonvacuum, and cost-effective electrostatic spray-assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) method. The generation of a fine aerosol of precursor solution, and their controlled deposition onto a molybdenum substrate, results in adherent, dense, and uniform Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) films. This is an essential tool to keep the interfacial area of thin film solar cells to a minimum value for efficient charge separation as it helps to achieve the desired surface smoothness uniformity for subsequent cadmium sulfide and window layer deposition. This nonvacuum aerosol based approach for making the CIGSSe film uses environmentally benign precursor solution, and it is cheaper for producing solar cells than that of the vacuum-based thin film solar technology. An optimized CIGSSe thin film solar cell with a device configuration of molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrate/CIGSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO shows the photovoltaic (j-V) characteristics of Voc=0.518 V, jsc=28.79 mA cm(-2), fill factor=64.02%, and a promising power conversion efficiency of η=9.55% under simulated AM 1.5 100 mW cm(-2) illuminations, without the use of an antireflection layer. This demonstrates the potential of ESAVD deposition as a promising alternative approach for making thin film CIGSSe solar cells at a lower cost.

  10. Research on electrostatic electrification during jet kerosene spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Quanzhen; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Wentian; Sun, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Multiple electrostatic electrifications during aircraft fuelling process may cause a fire disaster or explosion, so study on the protection measure for electrostatic electrification is very important for the security of aircraft fuelling. This paper investigated the electrostatic voltage and charge of the fuel nozzle and metal parts during the fuel spraying by self-designed jet kerosene spraying electrostatic electrification test system. The experimental results indicate that the voltage on the fuel nozzle and metal parts is very dangerous for electrostatic safety if they are not reliably grounded.

  11. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  12. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  13. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  14. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  15. Presence of electrostatically adsorbed polysaccharides improves spray drying of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayse; Özçelik, Beraat; Sramek, Martin; Gibis, Monika; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-02-01

    Spray drying of liposomes with conventional wall materials such as maltodextrins often yields nonfunctional powders, that is, liposomes break down during drying and rehydration. Electrostatically coating the surface of liposomes with a charged polymer prior to spray drying may help solve this problem. Anionic lecithin liposomes (approximately 400 nm) were coated with lower (approximately 500 kDa, LMW-C) or higher (approximately 900 kDa, HMW-C) molecular weight cationic chitosan using the layer-by-layer depositing method. Low (DE20, LMW-MD) or high molecular weight (DE2, HMW-MD) maltodextrin was added as wall material to facilitate spray drying. If surfaces of liposomes (1%) were completely covered with chitosan (0.4%), no bridging or depletion flocculation would occur, and mean particle diameters would be approximately 500 nm. If maltodextrins (20%) were added to uncoated liposomes, extensive liposomal breakdown would occur making the system unsuitable for spray drying. No such aggregation or breakdown was observed when maltodextrin was added to chitosan-coated liposomes. Size changed little or even decreased slightly depending on the molecular weight of maltodextrin added. Scanning electron microscopy images of powders containing chitosan-coated liposomes revealed that their morphologies depended on the type of maltodextrin added. Powders prepared with LMW-MD contained mostly spherical particles while HMW-MD powders contained particles with concavities and dents. Upon redispersion, coated liposomes yielded back dispersions with particle size distributions similar to the original ones, except for LMW-C coated samples that had been spray dried with HMW-MD which yielded aggregates (approximately 30 μm). Results show that coating of liposomes with an absorbing polymer allows them to be spray dried with conventional maltodextrin wall materials. Liposomes have attracted considerable attention in the food and agricultural, biomedical industries for the delivery of

  16. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  17. Electrostatic-spray ionization mass spectrometry sniffing for perfume fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolkina, Elena; Qiao, Liang; Xu, Guobin; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-11-15

    The perfume market is growing significantly, and it is easy to find imitative fragrances of probably all types of perfume. Such imitative fragrances are usually of lower quality than the authentic ones, creating a possible threat for perfume companies. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient chemical analysis techniques to screen rapidly perfume samples. Electrostatic-spray ionization (ESTASI) was used to analyze directly samples sprayed or deposited on different types of paper. A linear ion trap mass spectrometer was used to detect the ions produced by ESTASI with a modified extended transfer capillary for 'sniffing' ions from the paper. Several commercial perfumes and a model perfume were analyzed by ESTASI-sniffing. The results obtained by paper ESTASI-MS of commercial fragrances were compared with those obtained from ESI-MS. In addition, a commercial fragrance was first nebulized on the hand and then soaked up by blotting paper, which was afterwards placed on an insulating plate for ESTASI-MS analysis. Analysis of peptides and proteins was also performed to show that the paper ESTASI-MS could be used for samples with very different molecular masses. Paper ESTASI-MS yields a rapid fingerprinting characterization of perfume fragrances, avoiding time-consuming sample-preparation steps, and thereby performing a rapid screening in a few seconds. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  19. Electrostatic spraying in the chemical control of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in guava trees (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rafael M; Cunha, João Par; Alves, Thales C; Bueno, Mariana R; Silva, Sérgio M; Zandonadi, César Hs

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the difficulty in reaching targets during pesticide applications on guava trees, it is important to evaluate new technologies that may improve pest management. In electrostatic spraying, an electric force is added to the droplets to control their movements such that they are efficiently directed to the target. The present study evaluated the performance of electrostatic and non-electrostatic spraying in the control of the guava psyllid, the deposition of the spray mixture on the leaves and the losses to the soil. The deposition of the spray mixture was up to 2 times greater when using electrostatic spraying in comparison with non-electrostatic application. The losses of the spray mixture to the soil were up to 4 times smaller with the electrostatic spraying. Electrostatic spraying had better control of the psyllid. It was possible to reduce the volume rate of application with electrostatic spraying without adversely affecting the control of the guava psyllid. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  1. Bone response adjacent to calcium phosphate electrostatic spray deposition coated implants: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, P.J.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates has been developed recently. This electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique seems to be very promising. It appears to have clinical advantages such as an inexpensive and simple set-up, high

  2. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  3. Electrostatic spray deposition of highly transparent silver nanowire electrode on flexible substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegeon; Canlier, Ali; Kim, Geun Hong; Choi, Jaeho; Park, Minkyu; Han, Seung Min

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a modified polyol synthesis by adding KBr and by replacing the AgCl with NaCl seed was used to obtain high quality silver nanowires with long aspect ratios with an average length of 13.5 μm in length and 62.5 nm in diameter. The Ag nanowires suspended in methanol solution after removing any unwanted particles using a glass filter system were then deposited on a flexible polycarbonate substrate using an electrostatic spray system. Transmittance of 92.1% at wavelength of 550 nm with sheet resistance of 20 Ω/sq and haze of 4.9% were measured for the electrostatic sprayed Ag nanowire transparent electrode.

  4. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  5. Standard addition strip for quantitative electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry analysis: determination of caffeine in drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolkina, Elena; Qiao, Liang; Roussel, Christophe; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-12-01

    Standard addition strips were prepared for the quantitative determination of caffeine in different beverages by electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESTASI-MS). The gist of this approach is to dry spots of caffeine solutions with different concentrations on a polymer strip, then to deposit a drop of sample mixed with an internal standard, here theobromine on each spot and to measure the mass spectrometry signals of caffeine and theobromine by ESTASI-MS. This strip approach is very convenient and provides quantitative analyses as accurate as the classical standard addition method by MS or liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  7. The influence of the crystallinity of electrostatic spray deposition-derived coatings on osteoblast-like cell behavior, in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, M.C.; Walboomers, X.F.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the influence of the crystallinity of carbonate apatite (CA) coatings on osteoblast-like cell behavior. Porous CA coatings were produced with electrostatic spray deposition (ESD), and subsequently, received heat treatments of 400, 500, or 700 degrees C to induce various

  8. Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guotuan; Tian, Yuping; Li, Zhantie; Lu, Dongfang

    2011-03-01

    Nano-sized Al2O3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al2O3 particles in the coating. As the Al2O3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68° to 165°. Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

  9. Electrostatic powder spraying process for the fabrication of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guotuan; Tian Yuping; Li Zhantie; Lu Dongfang

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized Al 2 O 3 particles were modified by heptadecafluorodecyl trimethoxysilane and 2,3-epoxy propoxy propyl trimethoxysilicane to make it both hydrophobic and reactive. The reactive nano-particles were mixed with polyester resin containing curing agents and electrostatic sprayed on stainless steel substrates to obtain stable superhydrophobic coatings after curing. The water contact angle (WCA) on the hybrid coating is influenced by the content of Al 2 O 3 particles in the coating. As the Al 2 O 3 concentration in the coating was increased from 0% to 8%, WCA increased from 68 o to 165 o . Surface topography of the coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-particles covered on the coating surface formed continuous film with greatly enhanced roughness, which was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method is simple and cost effective and can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating on large areas.

  10. A Humidity Sensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles Thin Film Prepared by Electrostatic Spray Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thutiyaporn Thiwawong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin film of silver nanoparticles for humidity sensor application was deposited by electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influence of the deposition times on properties of films was studied. The crystal structures of sample films, their surface morphology, and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. The crystalline structure of silver nanoparticles thin film was found in the orientation of (100 and (200 planes of cubic structure at diffraction angles 2θ  =  38.2° and 44.3°, respectively. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles thin films humidity sensor was fabricated onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor exhibited the humidity adsorption and desorption properties. The sensing mechanisms of the device were also elucidated by complex impedance analysis.

  11. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Jensen, Alexander C Ø; Kling, Kirsten I; Kling, Jens; Budtz, Hans Christian; Koponen, Ismo K; Tuinman, Ilse; Hussein, Tareq; Jensen, Keld A; Nørgaard, Asger; Levin, Marcus

    2018-01-05

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO 2 )-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m 3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm to 31μm-size particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as particle deposition onto room surfaces and on the spray gun user hand. The particle emission and deposition rates were quantified using aerosol mass balance modelling. The geometric mean particle number emission rate was 1.9×10 10 s -1 and the mean mass emission rate was 381μgs -1 . The respirable mass emission-rate was 65% lower than observed for the entire measured size-range. The mass emission rates were linearly scalable (±ca. 20%) to the process duration. The particle deposition rates were up to 15h -1 for deposited particles consisted of mainly TiO 2 , TiO 2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO 2 particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60nm to ca. 5μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated setup for spray assisted layer-by-layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Paul; Otto, Tobias; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The design for a setup allowing the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thin films consisting of various colloidal materials is presented. The proposed system utilizes the spray-assisted LbL approach and is capable of autonomously producing films. It provides advantages to existing LbL procedures in terms of process speed and applicability. The setup offers several features that are advantageous for routine operation like an actuated sample holder, stainless steel spraying nozzles, or an optical liquid detection system. The applicability is demonstrated by the preparation of films containing semiconductor nanoparticles, namely, CdSe∕CdS quantum dots and a polyelectolyte. The films of this type are of potential interest for applications in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or solar cells.

  13. Impact of Electrostatic Assist on Halftone Mottle in Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V. Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravure printing delivers intricate print quality and exhibit better feasibility for printing long run packaging jobs. PVC and PETG are widely used shrink films printed by gravure process. The variation in ink transfer from gravure cells on to the substrate results in print mottle. The variation is inevitable and requires close monitoring with tight control on process parameters to deliver good dot fidelity. The electrostatic assist in gravure improves the ink transfer efficiency but is greatly influenced by ESA parameters such as air gap (distance between charge bar and impression roller and voltage. Moreover, it is imperative to study the combined effect of ESA and gravure process parameters such as line screen, viscosity and speed for the minimization of half-tone mottle in shrink films. A general full factorial design was performed for the above mentioned parameters to evaluate half-tone mottle. The significant levels of both the main and interactions were studied by ANOVA approach. The statistical analysis revealed the significance of all the process parameters with viscosity, line screen and voltage being the major contributors in minimization of half-tone mottle. The optimized setting showed reduction in halftone mottle by 33% and 32% for PVC and PET-G respectively. The developed regression model was tested that showed more than 95% predictability. Furthermore, the uniformity of dot was measured by image to non-image area (ratio distribution. The result showed reduction in halftone mottle with uniform dot distribution.

  14. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  15. Charge-induced secondary atomization in diffusion flames of electrostatic sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alessandro; Chen, Gung

    1994-01-01

    The combustion of electrostatic sprays of heptane in laminar counterflow diffusion flames was experimentally studied by measuring droplet size and velocity distributions, as well as the gas-phase temperature. A detailed examination of the evolution of droplet size distribution as droplets approach the flame shows that, if substantial evaporation occurs before droplets interact with the flame, an initially monodisperse size distribution becomes bimodal. A secondary sharp peak in the size histogram develops in correspondence of diameters about one order of magnitude smaller than the mean. No evaporation mechanism can account for the development of such bimodality, that can be explained only in terms of a disintegration of droplets into finer fragments of size much smaller than that of the parent. Other evidence in support of this interpretation is offered by the measurements of droplet size-velocity correlation and velocity component distributions, showing that, as a consequence of the ejection process, the droplets responsible for the secondary peak have velocities uncorrelated with the mean flow. The fission is induced by the electric charge. When a droplet evaporates, in fact, the electric charge density on the droplet surface increases while the droplet shrinks, until the so-called Rayleigh limit is reached at which point the repulsion of electric charges overcomes the surface tension cohesive force, ultimately leading to a disintegraton into finer fragments. We report on the first observation of such fissions in combustion environments. If, on the other hand, insufficient evaporation has occurred before droplets enter the high temperature region, there appears to be no significant evidence of bimodality in their size distribution. In this case, in fact, the concentration of flame chemi-ions or, in the case of positively charged droplets, electrons may be sufficient for them to neutralize the charge on the droplets and to prevent disruption.

  16. MgO thin films deposited by electrostatic spray pyrolysis for protecting layers in AC-plasma display panel

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S G

    1999-01-01

    MgO thin films were deposited on SiO sub 2 (100) substrates by using electrostatic spray pyrolysis and Mg(tmhd) sub 2 as the precursor. The growth rates of the films varyed from 34 to 87 A/min and were measured for various substrate and guide temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis provide evidence that the MgO films deposited at temperatures as low as 400 approx 500 .deg. C had preferred orientation to (100) plane perpendicular to the substrate surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy data indicated that there were few organics incorporated in the films.

  17. Study on the shrinkage behavior and conductivity of silver microwires during electrostatic field assisted sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Lei; Ma, Liuhong; Li, Mengke; Peng, Wei; Zhong, Yinghui; Su, Yufeng; Duan, Zhiyong

    2018-05-01

    An electrostatic field was applied to sintering Ag microwires to achieve a more compact structure and better conductivity. The shrinkage behavior of Ag microwires shows anisotropy, since bigger particle sizes, less micropores and smoother surfaces were observed in the direction of the electrostatic field in comparsion with the direction perpendicular to the electrostatic field, and the shrinkage rate of Ag microwires in the direction of electrostatic field improves about 2.4% with the electrostatic field intensity of 800 V cm‑1. The electrostatic field assisted sintering model of Ag microwires is proposed according to thermal diffuse dynamics analysis and experimental research. Moreover, the grain size of Ag microwres sintered with electrostatic field increases with the electrostatic field intensity and reaches 113 nm when the electrostatic field intensity is 800 V cm‑1, and the resistivity decreases to 2.07  ×  10‑8 Ω m as well. This method may overcome the restriction of metal wires which fabricated by the pseudoplastic metal nanoparticle fluid and be used as interconnects in nanoimprint lithography.

  18. Effects of different needles and substrates on CuInS{sub 2} deposited by electrostatic spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncallo, S. [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Painter, J.D., E-mail: j.d.painter@cranfield.ac.u [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Healy, M.J.F. [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Ritchie, S.A.; Finnis, M.V. [Department of Engineering Systems and Management, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Rogers, K.D. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Scragg, J.J. [University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Dale, P.J. [Laboratoire Photovoltaique, University of Luxembourg, 41 Rue du Brill, L-4422, Belvaux (Luxembourg); Zoppi, G. [Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Northumbria, University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-31

    Copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited using the electrostatic spray deposition method. The effects of applied voltage and solution flow rate on the aerosol cone shape, film composition, surface morphology and current conversion were investigated. The effect of aluminium substrates and transparent fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) coated glass substrates on the properties of as-deposited CuInS{sub 2} films were analysed. An oxidation process occurs during the deposition onto the metallic substrates which forms an insulating layer between the photoactive film and substrate. The effects of two different spray needles on the properties of the as-deposited films were also studied. The results reveal that the use of a stainless steel needle results in contamination of the film due to the transfer of metal impurities through the spray whilst this is not seen for the glass needle. The films were characterised using a number of different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford back-scattering and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and opto-electronic measurements.

  19. Metal ion reactive thin films using spray electrostatic LbL assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, Kevin C; Lyon, Katharine F; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-11-20

    By using the spray-layer-by-layer (Spray-LbL) technique, the number of metal counterions trapped within LbL coatings is significantly increased by kinetically freezing the film short of equilibrium, potentially limiting interchain penetration and forcing chains to remain extrinsically compensated to a much greater degree than observed in the traditional dipped LbL technique. The basis for the enhanced entrapment of metal ions such as Cu2+, Fe2+, and Ag+ is addressed, including the equilibrium driving force for extrinsic compensation by soft versus hard metal ions and the impact of Spray-LbL on the kinetics of polymer-ion complexation. These polymer-bound metal-ion coatings are also demonstrated to be effective treatments for air filtration, functionalizing existing filters with the ability to strongly bind toxic industrial compounds such as ammonia or cyanide gases, as well as chemical warfare agent simulants such as chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. On the basis of results reported here, future work could extend this method to include other toxic soft-base ligands such as carbon monoxide, benzene, or organophosphate nerve agents.

  20. Study on Electric field assisted low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasonic spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Ilkyeong; Seong, Baekhoon; Marten, Darmawan; Byun, Doyoung

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic spray is one of the fabulous techniques to discharge small size of droplets because it utilizes ultrasonic vibration on nozzle. However, spray patterns and size of ejected droplet is hardly controlled in conventional ultrasonic spray method. Therefore, here we present electric field assisted ultrasonic spray, which combined conventional technique with electric field in order to control spray pattern and droplet size precisely. Six kinds of various liquid (D.I water, Ethanol, Acetone, Iso-propanol, Toluene, Hexane) with various dielectric constants were used to investigate the mechanism of this method. Also, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) was used and various variables were obtained including spray angle, amplitude of liquid vibration, current, and size distribution of ejected droplets. Our electric field assisted ultrasonic spray show that the standard deviation of atomized droplet was decreased up to 39.6%, and it shows the infinite possibility to be utilized in various applications which require precise control of high transfer efficiency. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2014-023284).

  1. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Schoonman, J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  2. In vitro performance of Ag-incorporated hydroxyapatite and its adhesive porous coatings deposited by electrostatic spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcekaya, Ozkan; Webster, Thomas J; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Ergun, Celaletdin

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial infection of implanted materials is a significant complication that might require additional surgical operations for implant retrieval. As an antibacterial biomaterial, Ag-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) may be a solution to reduce the incidences of implant associated infections. In this study, pure, 0.2mol% and 0.3mol% Ag incorporated HA powders were synthesized via a precipitation method. Colloidal precursor dispersions prepared from these powders were used to deposit porous coatings onto titanium and stainless steel substrates via electrostatic spraying. The porous coating layers obtained with various deposition times and heat treatment conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scratch tests were conducted to assess the adhesion strength of the coating. Antibacterial activity of Ag-incorporated HA was tested towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) at various incubation times. Osteoblast adhesion on Ag-incorporated HA was evaluated to assess biocompatibility. Improvement in adhesion strength of the coating layer was observed after the heat treatment process due to mutual ionic diffusion at the interface. The Ag-incorporated HA killed all viable E. coli after 24h of incubation, whereas no antibacterial activity was detected with pure HA. In addition, in vitro cell culture tests demonstrated osteoblast adhesion similar to pure HA, which indicated good cytocompatibility. In summary, results of this study provided significant promise for the future study of Ag-incorporated HA for numerous medical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrostatic spray deposition of porous SnO₂/graphene anode films and their enhanced lithium-storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinzhu; Yuan, Tianzhi; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Mi

    2012-11-01

    Porous SnO₂/graphene composite thin films are prepared as anodes for lithium ion batteries by the electrostatic spray deposition technique. Reticular-structured SnO₂ is formed on both the nickel foam substrate and the surface of graphene sheets according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Such an assembly mode of graphene and SnO₂ is highly beneficial to the electrochemical performance improvement by increasing the electrical conductivity and releasing the volume change of the anode. The novel engineered anode possesses 2134.3 mA h g⁻¹ of initial discharge capacity and good capacity retention of 551.0 mA h g⁻¹ up to the 100th cycle at a current density of 200 mA g⁻¹. This anode also exhibits excellent rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 507.7 mA h g⁻¹ after 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g⁻¹. The results demonstrate that such a film-type hybrid anode shows great potential for application in high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Microporous Ti implant compact coated with hydroxyapatite produced by electro-discharge-sintering and electrostatic-spray-deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y J; Kim, Y H; Jo, Y H; Seong, J G; Chang, S Y; Van Tyne, C J; Lee, W H

    2014-11-01

    A single pulse of 1.5 kJ/0.7 g of atomized spherical Ti powder from 300 μF capacitor was applied to produce the porous-surfaced Ti implant compact by electro-discharge-sintering (EDS). A solid core surrounded by porous layer was self-consolidated by a discharge in the middle of the compact in 122 μsec. Average pore size, porosity, and compressive yield strength of EDS Ti compact were estimated to be about 68.2 μm, 25.5%, and 266.4 MPa, respectively. Coatings with hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the Ti compact were conducted by electrostatic-spray-deposition (ESD) method. As-deposited HAp coating was in the form of porous structure and consisted of HAp particles which were uniformly distributed on the Ti porous structure. By heat-treatment at 700 degrees C, HAp particles were agglomerated each other and melted to form a highly smooth and homogeneous HAp thin film consisted of equiaxed nano-scaled grains. Porous-surfaced Ti implant compacts coated with highly crystalline apatite phase were successfully obtained by using the EDS and ESD techniques.

  5. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H W; Rizoiu, I; Welch, A J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment

  6. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H. W.; Rizoiu, I.; Welch, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment.

  7. Spray dried microparticles of chia oil using emulsion stabilized by whey protein concentrate and pectin by electrostatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noello, C; Carvalho, A G S; Silva, V M; Hubinger, M D

    2016-11-01

    Chia seed oil has a high content of α-linolenic acid (60%) and linoleic acid (20%). Use of this oil in different products is limited due to its liquid state, and the presence of insaturation is a trigger for oxidation. In this context, to facilitate the incorporation of chia oil in food products and increase its protection against oxidation, the aim of this work was to produce chia oil microparticles by spray drying using emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate (ζ-potential +13.4 at pH3.8) and pectin (ζ-potential -40.4 at pH3.8) through the electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition technique and emulsions prepared with only whey protein concentrate. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin were prepared using maltodextrin (10 DE) and modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100). They were characterized in relation to stability, droplet size, ζ-Potential and optical microscopy. The microparticles were characterized in relation to moisture content, water activity, particle size, microstructure and oxidative stability by the Rancimat method. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate-pectin with added maltodextrin 10 DE and emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate with added modified starch (Hi-Cap® 100) were stable after 24h. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate and by whey protein concentrate-pectin showed droplets with mean diameter ranging from 0.80 to 1.31μm, respectively and ζ-potential varying from -6.9 to -27.43mV, respectively. After spray drying, the microparticles showed an mean diameter ranging from 7.00 to 9.00μm. All samples presented high encapsulation efficiency values, above 99%. Microparticles produced with modified starch showed a smoother spherical surface than particles with maltodextrin 10 DE, which presented a wrinkled surface. All microparticles exhibited higher oxidative stability than chia oil in pure form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrostatic Spray Deposition-Based Manganese Oxide Films-From Pseudocapacitive Charge Storage Materials to Three-Dimensional Microelectrode Integrands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Richa; Adelowo, Ebenezer; Baboukani, Amin Rabiei; Villegas, Michael Franc; Henriques, Alexandra; Wang, Chunlei

    2017-07-26

    In this study, porous manganese oxide (MnO x ) thin films were synthesized via electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and evaluated as pseudocapacitive electrode materials in neutral aqueous media. Very interestingly, the gravimetric specific capacitance of the ESD-based electrodes underwent a marked enhancement upon electrochemical cycling, from 72 F∙g -1 to 225 F∙g -1 , with a concomitant improvement in kinetics and conductivity. The change in capacitance and resistivity is attributed to a partial electrochemical phase transformation from the spinel-type hausmannite Mn₃O₄ to the conducting layered birnessite MnO₂. Furthermore, the films were able to retain 88.4% of the maximal capacitance after 1000 cycles. Upon verifying the viability of the manganese oxide films for pseudocapacitive applications, the thin films were integrated onto carbon micro-pillars created via carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) for examining their application as potential microelectrode candidates. In a symmetric two-electrode cell setup, the MnO x /C-MEMS microelectrodes were able to deliver specific capacitances as high as 0.055 F∙cm -2 and stack capacitances as high as 7.4 F·cm -3 , with maximal stack energy and power densities of 0.51 mWh·cm -3 and 28.3 mW·cm -3 , respectively. The excellent areal capacitance of the MnO x -MEs is attributed to the pseudocapacitive MnO x as well as the three-dimensional architectural framework provided by the carbon micro-pillars.

  9. Electrostatic Spray Deposition-Based Manganese Oxide Films—From Pseudocapacitive Charge Storage Materials to Three-Dimensional Microelectrode Integrands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Agrawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous manganese oxide (MnOx thin films were synthesized via electrostatic spray deposition (ESD and evaluated as pseudocapacitive electrode materials in neutral aqueous media. Very interestingly, the gravimetric specific capacitance of the ESD-based electrodes underwent a marked enhancement upon electrochemical cycling, from 72 F∙g−1 to 225 F∙g−1, with a concomitant improvement in kinetics and conductivity. The change in capacitance and resistivity is attributed to a partial electrochemical phase transformation from the spinel-type hausmannite Mn3O4 to the conducting layered birnessite MnO2. Furthermore, the films were able to retain 88.4% of the maximal capacitance after 1000 cycles. Upon verifying the viability of the manganese oxide films for pseudocapacitive applications, the thin films were integrated onto carbon micro-pillars created via carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS for examining their application as potential microelectrode candidates. In a symmetric two-electrode cell setup, the MnOx/C-MEMS microelectrodes were able to deliver specific capacitances as high as 0.055 F∙cm−2 and stack capacitances as high as 7.4 F·cm−3, with maximal stack energy and power densities of 0.51 mWh·cm−3 and 28.3 mW·cm−3, respectively. The excellent areal capacitance of the MnOx-MEs is attributed to the pseudocapacitive MnOx as well as the three-dimensional architectural framework provided by the carbon micro-pillars.

  10. Spray deposition inside tree canopies from a newly developed variable-rate air assisted sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries are not target-oriented, resulting in significant waste of pesticides and contamination of the environment. To address this problem, a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer implementing laser scanning technology was developed to apply...

  11. Laser assisted cold spraying of aluminium alloy powder on stainless steel substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly acquired, in-house assembled laser assisted cold spraying coating technique had to be commissioned for use in future for metal coating for different industrial application which include, but not limited to chemical and orthopedic industries...

  12. Pheromone-assisted techniques to improve the efficacy of insecticide sprays against Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Tsai, Kasumi; Lopez, Carlos M; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    Outdoor residual sprays are among the most common methods for targeting pestiferous ants in urban pest management programs. If impervious surfaces such as concrete are treated with these insecticides, the active ingredients can be washed from the surface by rain or irrigation. As a result, residual sprays with fipronil and pyrethroids are found in urban waterways and aquatic sediments. Given the amount of insecticides applied to urban settings for ant control and their possible impact on urban waterways, the development of alternative strategies is critical to decrease the overall amounts of insecticides applied, while still achieving effective control of target ant species. Herein we report a "pheromone-assisted technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional sprays targeting the Argentine ant. By applying insecticide sprays supplemented with an attractive pheromone compound, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, Argentine ants were diverted from nearby trails and nest entrances and subsequently exposed to insecticide residues. Laboratory experiments with fipronil and bifenthrin sprays indicated that the overall kill of the insecticides on Argentine ant colonies was significantly improved (57-142% increase) by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the insecticide sprays. This technique, once it is successfully implemented in practical pest management programs, has the potential of providing maximum control efficacy with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment.

  13. Investigation of nozzle shape effect on Sm0.1Ce0.9O1.95 thin film prepared by electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksapabutr, Bussarin; Panapoy, Manop; Choncharoen, Kittikhun; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Traversa, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Dense samarium doped ceria (SDC) thin films are deposited using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique. The influences of nozzle shape on the distribution of liquid jet at the nozzle tip and the morphology of the deposited SDC films are elucidated. Geometries of three nozzles employed are flat, sawtooth and wedge tips. From the observation of jet formation, the nozzle in flat shape gives the highest distribution of emitted droplets. The deposited films are characterized using a combination of XRD, SEM and AFM techniques. XRD results reveal that the single-phase fluorite structure forms at a relatively low deposition temperature of 400 o C. The flat spray tip provides the most uniform and smooth thin films, and also presents the lowest agglomeration of particles on thin-film surface

  14. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  15. Performance experiment on spray atomization and droplets deposition of wind-curtain electrostatic boom spray%风幕式静电喷杆喷雾喷头雾化与雾滴沉积性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫东; 胡化超; 陈龙; 陈志刚; 魏新华

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of less liquid deposition on the middle and lower plant canopy and uneven distribution of particle diameter by traditional pesticide application methods, this paper conducted the exploratory research about the application of the technology of pneumatic auxiliary spray combined with electrostatic spray. The charge-to-mass ratios of the droplets under different spray pressures and voltages were measured by measurement system. The results indicated that the charge-to-mass ratio increased as the voltage increased and then tended to be stable, yet decreased with the increase of spray pressure. The particle diameter spatial distribution of the droplets under charging or not was measured by Winner318B laser particle size analyzer;the horizontal and longitudinal stent in the system could move precisely so as to adjust the position of the nozzle relative to the measuring line of the laser particle size analyzer. The results showed that the volume median diameters (VMD) of the droplets decreased and then tended to increase when the nozzle moved from 0 to 3 in the horizontal stent; in the condition of no charging, the VMD of the droplets was 108.48μm and the coefficient of variation of droplet sizes was 11.96%, while in the condition of charging, the VMD of the droplets was 83.67μm and the coefficient of variation of droplet sizes was 7.48%;and the VMD of the droplets increased when the nozzle moved from 6 to 4 in the longitudinal stent. For analyzing the influence of wind-curtain, spray pressure and voltage on droplets deposition performance, the wind-curtain electrostatic boom spray system was set up and the experiment on droplet deposition performance was conducted. The system used cochineal solution as spraying liquid, and used radermachera hainanensis merr. as simulation target. Layout the film on the upper, middle, lower position plant canopy for collecting the droplets deposited. In order to ensure the accuracy of the experimental data, the

  16. Sterilization of Escherichia coli by using near-UV LED and TiO{sub 2} nanofibers that were prepared by using electrostatic spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Gil; Hong, Ji-Tae; Son, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jun; Xu, Guo-Cheng; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanofiber films were prepared by a homemade electrostatic spray method at 13 kV using a high power supply. As-prepared TiO{sub 2} was used to sterilize enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in polluted water by using near-UV LEDs at three different wavelengths with variable exposure time and frequency of irradiation. Irrespective of the wavelength of the light source used, longer irradiation times such as 1 h completely inactivated the E. coli. However, a wavelength of 375 nm was effective in inactivating in a shorter irradiation time (15 min). When the frequency of irradiation was 1 kHz, almost 95% of the E. coli was inactivated after 30 min exposure.

  17. Evaluation of microstructure and micro-hardness of 410L SS coatings fabricated using laser assisted cold spraying: process development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathebula, TE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , contaminating and erosive environments which accelerate the degradation of these components. Surface coatings are generally used to protect and prolong the lifetime of the parts. Laser Assisted Cold Spray (LACS) is a relatively new surface coating process which...

  18. Evaluation of Breaking Performance in Vibration-Assisted Electrostatic Surface Induction Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemoto, Takeru; Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates breaking performance of an electrostatic surface induction actuator. The actuator is equipped with piezoelectric vibrator such that the friction between the slider and the stator electrodes can be dramatically reduced by squeeze-film effect. In such an actuator, the friction...... conditions. The result clearly shows the effect of friction change in breaking performance of the actuator....

  19. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Spray and Combustion Characteristics of a Novel Multi-circular Jet Plate in Air-assisted Atomizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Amirnordin Shahrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomization of liquid fuel in air-assisted atomizer is highly dependent on air mixing, which can be enhanced using turbulent generators, such as multi-circular jet (MCJ plates and swirler. This study aims to determine the effects of novel MCJ plates on the spray and combustion characteristics of an air-assisted atomizer by evaluating spray and flame parameters, such as penetration length, cone angle, and cone area. MCJ 30 and MCJ 45, with inclined jets at 30° and 45°, respectively, were used in the experiment. A swirler was also used for comparison. The spray and flame images were recorded at different equivalence ratios through direct photography and analyzed using image J software. Flame temperature was determined using a thermal infrared camera, and burning chamber and flue gas temperatures were measured using thermocouples. The spray and flame characteristics of MCJ 30 exhibited performance comparable with those of the MCJ 45 and swirler. The integration of turbulence and swirling motion concept into the novel MCJ plates can enhance the mixing formation and thus improve the performance of burner combustion.

  1. Use of an Electrostatic Spraying System or the Sprayed Lethality in Container Method To Deliver Antimicrobial Agents onto the Surface of Beef Subprimals To Control Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J Max; Luchansky, John B; Miller, Kelsey; Shoyer, Bradley A; Shane, Laura E; McGeary, Lianna; Osoria, Manuela; Stahler, Laura J; Sevart, Nicholas J; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of an electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the sprayed lethality in container (SLIC) method to deliver antimicrobial agents onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was evaluated. Beef subprimals were surface inoculated (lean side; ca. 5.8 log CFU per subprimal) with 2 mL of an eight-strain cocktail comprising single strains of rifampin-resistant (100 μg/mL) STEC (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:H - , O121:H19, O145:NM, and O157:H7). Next, inoculated subprimals were surface treated with lauric arginate (LAE; 1%), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 0.025%), or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; 0.4%) by passing each subprimal, with the inoculated lean side facing upward, through an ESS cabinet or via SLIC. Subprimals were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4°C. One set of subprimals was sampled after an additional 2 h, 3 days, or 7 days of refrigerated storage, whereas another set was retreated via SLIC after 3 days of storage with a different one of the three antimicrobial agents (e.g., a subprimal treated with LAE on day 0 was then treated with PAA or CPE on day 3). Retreated subprimals were sampled after 2 h or 4 days of additional storage at 4°C. A single initial application of LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC resulted in STEC reductions of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU per subprimal after 7 days of storage. However, when subprimals were initially treated with LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC and then separately retreated with a different one of these antimicrobial agents via SLIC on day 3, additional STEC reductions of 0.4 to 1.0 log CFU per subprimal were observed after an additional 4 days of storage. Application of LAE, PAA, or CPC, either alone or in combination, via ESS or SLIC is effective for reducing low levels (ca. 0.3 to 1.6 log CFU) of STEC that may be naturally present on the surface of beef subprimals.

  2. [Study on Xinyueshu spray drying assisted with copovidone and its effect on powder property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denayer, Jessica [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Bister, Geoffroy [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Laboratory LPS, University of Namur, rue de bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Aubry, Philippe [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Vertruyen, Bénédicte [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Henrist, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.henrist@ulg.ac.be [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis [Environmental and Material Research Association (CRIBC-INISMa), avenue gouverneur cornez 4, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Cloots, Rudi [Group of Research in Energy and Environment for MATerials (GREENMAT), University of Liège, allée de la chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted USP: a novel and low cost process to obtain high quality nickel oxide films, with or without lithium dopant. • Increased uniformity and reduced light scattering thanks to the addition of a surfactant. • Improved electrochromic performance (coloration efficiency and contrast) for lithium-doped films by comparison with the undoped NiO film. - Abstract: Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  4. Carbon decorative coatings by dip-, spin-, and spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkee; Kang, Sang Wook

    2011-09-01

    We performed a comparative surface analysis of all-carbon nano-objects (multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) or graphene oxide (GO) sheets) based multilayer coatings prepared using three widely used nanofilm fabrication methods: dip-, spin-, and spray-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. The resultant films showed a marked difference in their growth mechanisms and surface morphologies. Various carbon decorative coatings were synthesized with different surface roughness values, despite identical preparation conditions. In particular, smooth to highly rough all-carbon surfaces, as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were readily obtained by manipulating the LbL deposition methods. As was confirmed by the AFM and SEM analyses, this finding indicated the fundamental morphological evolution of one-dimensional nano-objects (MWNT) and two-dimensional nano-objects (GO) by control of the surface roughness through the deposition method. Therefore, an analysis of the three LbL-assembly methods presented herein may offer useful information about the industrial use of carbon decorative coatings and provide an insight into ways to control the structures of multilayer coatings by tuning the morphologies of carbon nano-objects.

  5. A novel MEMS inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist to prolong the contact time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Wang, Hong

    2018-03-01

    The MEMS inertial switch is widely used in various industries owing to its advantage of small size, high integration, low power consumption and low costs, especially in the timing of Internet of things, such as toys, handheld devices, accessories and vibration testing. This paper provided a novel inertial switch with a reinforcing rib structure and electrostatic power assist. The designed inertial switch can reduce the complexity of the post-processing circuit and broaden its application prospect. The continuous electrostatic force can extend the contact time of the designed inertia switch before the leakage of electricity ends. The moving electrode with a reinforcing rib structure can effectively restrain the bending of the lower surface of moving electrode caused by residual stress. The array-type fixed electrode can ensure stable contact between the electrodes when the device is sensitive to external shocks. The dynamic displacement-time curve can be simulated by the COMSOL finite element simulation software. The laminated plating process is used to produce the designed inertial switch and the drop hammer acceleration monitoring system is used to test the fabricated device. The results indicate that, compared with the traditional design, the bouncing phenomenon can be prevented and extend the contact time to 336μs.

  6. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  7. Pseudocapacitive properties of nano-structured anhydrous ruthenium oxide thin film prepared by electrostatic spray deposition and electrochemical lithiation/delithiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, K.B. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Nano-structured anhydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) thin films were prepared using an electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique followed by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. During the electrochemical lithiation process, RuO{sub 2} decomposed to nano-structured metallic ruthenium Ru with the concomitant formation of Li{sub 2}O. Nano-structured RuO{sub 2} was formed upon subsequent electrochemical extraction of Li from the Ru/Li{sub 2}O nanocomposite. Electrochemical lithiation/deliathiation at different charge/discharge rates (C-rate) was used to control the nano-structure of the anhydrous RuO{sub 2}. Electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of the RuO{sub 2} thin film electrode at different C-rates was closely related to the specific capacitance and high rate capability of the nano-structured anhydrous RuO{sub 2} thin film. Nano-structured RuO{sub 2} thin films prepared by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation at 2C rate showed the highest specific capacitance of 653 F g{sup -1} at 20 mV s{sup -1}, which is more than two times higher than the specific capacitance of 269 F g{sup -1} for the as-prepared RuO{sub 2}. In addition, it showed 14% loss in specific capacitance from 653 F g{sup -1} at 20 mV s{sup -1} to 559 F g{sup -1} at 200 mV s{sup -1}, indicating significant improvement in the high rate capability compared to the 26% loss of specific capacitance of the as-prepared RuO{sub 2} electrode from 269 F g{sup -1} at 20 mV s{sup -1} to 198 F g{sup -1} at 200 mV s{sup -1} for the same change in scan rate. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Impact of interface charge on the electrostatics of field-plate assisted RESURF devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, B.K.; Ferrara, A.; Heringa, A.; Steeneken, P.G.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of arbitrary parasitic charge profiles, such as trapped or fixed charge, on the 2-D potential distribution in the drain extension of reverse-biased field-plate-assisted reduced surface field (RESURF) devices is presented. Using TCAD device simulations and analytical

  9. A rich solution spray as a refining method in a small capacity, single effect, solar assisted absorption machine with the pair NH3/H2O: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.F.; Collares-Pereira, M.; Ziegler, F.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia vapour refining is a common procedure in ammonia-water absorption machines. A solar assisted single effect absorption machine that uses the pair ammonia-water was developed and tested. Its desorber has a built-in adiabatic refining column constituted by a rich solution spray. The refining method proved its feasibility. The spray provided a more or less constant ammonia vapour enrichment of about 1% which is enough for the working temperature ranges of this type of machine. It was also verified that the refining effect of the spray is almost independent of the refrigerant vapour and solution mass flow rates

  10. Deposição e perdas da calda em feijoeiro em aplicação com assistência de ar na barra pulverizadora Spray deposition and spray loss using air-assistance boom on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da assistência de ar na deposição da calda de pulverização, em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris aos 26 dias após a emergência (DAE, com pontas de pulverização de jato cônico vazio (JA-0,5 e JA-1 e jato plano (AXI-110015, e volumes de calda, foi realizado um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando como traçador o íon cobre. Alvos coletores (papel de filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nas partes superior e inferior das plantas. Para aplicar a solução traçadora, utilizou-se pulverizador com barras de 14 metros, com e sem assistência de ar, volumes de 60 e 100 L.ha-1, e velocidade do ar correspondente a 50% da rotação máxima do ventilador. Após a aplicação, os coletores foram lavados individualmente em solução extratora de ácido nítrico a 1,0 mol.L-1, e a quantificação dos depósitos através de espectrofotometria. A assistência de ar não influenciou na deposição da calda tanto a 60 quanto a 100 L.ha-1. O maior volume proporcionou maiores depósitos, sendo constatadas elevadas perdas para o solo (mais de 60%.Aiming to evaluate the effect of air-assistance in spray deposition on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris with hollow nozzles (JA-0,5 and JA-1 and flat fan nozzle type (AXI-110015, and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers, a completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper ion as a tracer to the evaluation of the deposits. At 26 days after emergence, artificial targets were positioned on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, on the top and bottom parts of the same plants under spray boom. For the application of tracer solution it was used a fourteen meter boom sprayer with and without air-assistance at 60 and 100 L.ha-1 of volume rates. The air flow was 50% of the maximum fan rotation. After application, targets were individually washed with an

  11. Identification of multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters by liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Kailasa, Suresh; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-08-15

    The development of liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (LNASI MS) for the analysis of multiply charged proteins (insulin, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, α-lactalbumin, myoglobin and BSA), peptides (glutathione, HW6, angiotensin-II and valinomycin) and amino acid (arginine) clusters is described. The charged droplets are formed by liquid nitrogen assisted sample spray through a stainless steel nebulizer and transported into mass analyzer for the identification of multiply charged protein ions. The effects of acids and modifier volumes for the efficient ionization of the above analytes in LNASI MS were carefully investigated. Multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters were effectively identified by LNASI MS. The present approach can effectively detect the multiply charged states of cytochrome c at 400 nM. A comparison between LNASI and ESI, CSI, SSI and V-EASI methods on instrumental conditions, applied temperature and observed charge states for the multiply charged proteins, shows that the LNASI method produces the good quality spectra of amino acid clusters at ambient conditions without applied any electric field and heat. To date, we believe that the LNASI method is the most simple, low cost and provided an alternative paradigm for production of multiply charged ions by LNASI MS, just as ESI-like ions yet no need for applying any electrical field and it could be operated at low temperature for generation of highly charged protein/peptide ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membrane assisted direct spray ionization mass spectrometry for agrochemicals screening in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor; Rodrigues, Marcella Ferreira; Chaves, Andréa Rodrigues; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo

    2018-02-01

    Paper spray ionization (PSI) has some limitations such as low sensitivity and ionization suppression when complex samples are analyzed. The use of sample preparation devices directly coupled to MS can avoid these restrictions. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are materials widely used as adsorbent in sample preparation methods such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction, and they can provide specifics cavities with affinity to a target molecule. Here, we introduce a new MIP membrane spray ionization method combining MIP and PSI. MIP was synthesized directly on a cellulose membrane. Monuron and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were used as template molecules in MIP synthesis for diuron and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) analyte sequesters, respectively. Apple, banana and grape methanolic extracts were used as matrices. The MIP membrane spray showed signal intensities of diuron and 2,4-D that were much higher compared to those obtained by non-imprinted polymers(NIP). Calibration curves exhibited R 2 > 0.99 for diuron and 2,4-D in all fruit extracts analyzed. LODs were found less than 0.60µgL -1 and LLOQs were found less than 2.00µgL -1 . The coefficients of variation and relative errors were less than 15% for almost all analyses. The apparent recovery test results ranged between 92,5% and 116.9%. Finally, the MIP membrane spray method was employed for the quantification of diuron and 2,4-D in real samples. Diuron contents were only found in three bananas (4.0, 6.5, and 9.9µgL -1 ). The proposed MIP membrane spray ionization method was straightforward, fast to carry out and provided satisfactory results for analyses of diuron and 2,4-D in apple, banana and grape samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  14. CFD simulation of pesticide spray from air-assisted sprayers in an apple orchard: Tree deposition and off-target losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Se-Woon; Zhao, Lingying; Zhu, Heping

    2018-02-01

    The ultimate goal of a pesticide spraying system is to provide adequate coverage on intended canopies with a minimum amount of spray materials and off-target waste. Better spray coverage requires an understanding of the fate and transport of spray droplets carried by turbulent airflows in orchards. In this study, an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict displacement of pesticide spray droplets discharged from an air-assisted sprayer, depositions onto tree canopies, and off-target deposition and airborne drift in an apple orchard. Pesticide droplets discharged from a moving sprayer were tracked using the Lagrangian particle transport model, and the deposition model was applied to droplets entering porous canopy zones. Measurements of the droplet deposition and drift in the same orchard were used to validate the model simulations. Good agreement was found between the measured and simulated spray concentrations inside tree canopies and off-target losses (ground deposition and airborne drifts) with the overall relative errors of 22.1% and 40.6%, respectively, under three growth stages. The CFD model was able to estimate the mass balance of pesticide droplets in the orchard, which was practically difficult to investigate by measurements in field conditions. As the foliage of trees became denser, spray deposition inside canopies increased from 8.5% to 65.8% and airborne drift and ground deposition decreased from 25.8% to 7.0% and 47.8% to 21.2%, respectively. Higher wind speed also increased the spray airborne drift downwind of the orchard. This study demonstrates that CFD model can be used to evaluate spray application performance and design and operate sprayers with increased spray efficiencies and reduced drift potentials.

  15. Rapid electrostatics-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of near-infrared-active colloidal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Khalid; Leo, Sin-Yen; Xu, Can; Liu, Danielle; Jiang, Peng

    2016-11-15

    Here we report a rapid and scalable bottom-up technique for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembling near-infrared-active colloidal photonic crystals consisting of large (⩾1μm) silica microspheres. By combining a new electrostatics-assisted colloidal transferring approach with spontaneous colloidal crystallization at an air/water interface, we have demonstrated that the crystal transfer speed of traditional Langmuir-Blodgett-based colloidal assembly technologies can be enhanced by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, the crystalline quality of the resultant photonic crystals is not compromised by this rapid colloidal assembly approach. They exhibit thickness-dependent near-infrared stop bands and well-defined Fabry-Perot fringes in the specular transmission and reflection spectra, which match well with the theoretical calculations using a scalar-wave approximation model and Fabry-Perot analysis. This simple yet scalable bottom-up technology can significantly improve the throughput in assembling large-area, multilayer colloidal crystals, which are of great technological importance in a variety of optical and non-optical applications ranging from all-optical integrated circuits to tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of conductive semi-transparent silver films deposited by a Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Balderas-Xicoténcatl, R. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Arrieta, M.L. Pérez [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Meza-Rocha, A.N.; Rivera-Álvarez, Z. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C., E-mail: cfalcony@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, , Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • We deposited metallic silver films without post-deposition annealing. • The spray pyrolysis technique is of low cost and scalable for industrial applications. • We obtained deposition rate of 60 nm min{sup −1} at 300 °C. • The average resistivity was 1E−7 Ω m. • Semi-transparent silver films were obtained at 350 °C and deposition time of 45 s. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of nanostructured silver films deposited on corning glass by a deposition technique called Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis are reported. Silver nitrate and triethanolamine were used as silver precursor and reducer agent, respectively. The substrate temperatures during deposition were in the range of 300–450 °C and the deposition times from 30 to 240 s. The deposited films are polycrystalline with cubic face-centered structure, and crystalline grain size less than 30 nm. Deposition rates up to 600 Å min{sup −1} were obtained at substrate temperature as low as 300 °C. The electrical, optical, and morphological properties of these films are also reported. Semi-transparent conductive silver films were obtained at 350 °C with a deposition time of 45 s.

  17. Synthesis of conductive semi-transparent silver films deposited by a Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Balderas-Xicoténcatl, R.; Arrieta, M.L. Pérez; Meza-Rocha, A.N.; Rivera-Álvarez, Z.; Falcony, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We deposited metallic silver films without post-deposition annealing. • The spray pyrolysis technique is of low cost and scalable for industrial applications. • We obtained deposition rate of 60 nm min −1 at 300 °C. • The average resistivity was 1E−7 Ω m. • Semi-transparent silver films were obtained at 350 °C and deposition time of 45 s. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of nanostructured silver films deposited on corning glass by a deposition technique called Pneumatically-Assisted Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis are reported. Silver nitrate and triethanolamine were used as silver precursor and reducer agent, respectively. The substrate temperatures during deposition were in the range of 300–450 °C and the deposition times from 30 to 240 s. The deposited films are polycrystalline with cubic face-centered structure, and crystalline grain size less than 30 nm. Deposition rates up to 600 Å min −1 were obtained at substrate temperature as low as 300 °C. The electrical, optical, and morphological properties of these films are also reported. Semi-transparent conductive silver films were obtained at 350 °C with a deposition time of 45 s

  18. Fabrication of high-performance fluorine doped-tin oxide film using flame-assisted spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by flame-assisted spray deposition method. By varying the NH{sub 4}F doping concentration, the optimal concentration was established as 8 at.%. X-ray diffractograms confirmed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO{sub 2}. In addition, the FTO film was comprised of nano-sized grains ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The heat-treated FTO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 21.8 {Omega}/{open_square} with an average transmittance of 81.9% in the visible region ({lambda} = 400-800 nm). The figures of merit shows that the prepared FTO film can be used for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells electrodes.

  19. Size Tunable Synthesis of Highly Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles using Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo; Maedler, Lutz; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2003-01-01

    Highly crystalline, dense BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a size range from 30 to 360nm with a narrow size distribution (σ g = 1.2-1.4) were prepared at various synthesis temperatures using a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis (SASP) method without the need for post-annealing. The effect of synthesis temperature on particle size, crystallinity and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the crystalline structure was analyzed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size decreased with decreasing operation temperature. The crystal phase was transformed from tetragonal to cubic at a particles size of about 50nm at room temperature. SASP can be used to produce high weight fraction of tetragonal BaTiO 3 nanoparticles down to 64nm in a single step

  20. Fuel composition effect on the electrostatically-driven atomization of bio-butanol containing engine fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agathou, Maria S.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sprays of alcohol-containing blends are amenable to electrostatic manipulation. ► Monodispersion is non-achievable for conditions pertaining to automotive applications. ► Electrical conductivity and surface tension do not determine fully the spray behavior. ► Non-dimensional analysis was performed to classify flow regimes for each blend. ► We numbers revealed the possibility of droplet secondary break-up. - Abstract: Electrostatically assisted sprays of three fuel blends of bio-butanol, ethanol and heptane were studied experimentally. Mixture composition was selected such that electrical conductivity and surface tension were kept constant for all three mixtures. In this manner, the effect of fuel composition was investigated in a context that broadens the classical focus on the effective decrease of surface tension through the action of electrostatic fields. High-speed visualization was used in order to capture e-spray morphology. In addition, probability density functions of the e-spray droplet size and velocity were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry for a variety of flow rates and applied voltages. The dependence of droplet average diameter on both flow rate and applied electric field was highlighted. Polydisperse sprays were observed which was rationalized through the calculation of droplet Weber numbers that pointed to the possibility of a secondary droplet break-up.

  1. Electrochemical performance of Li4Mn5O12 nano-crystallites prepared by spray-drying-assisted solid state reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.P.; Xie, J.; Cao, G.S.; Zhao, X.B.

    2010-01-01

    Nanosized Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 has been synthesized by a spray-drying-assisted solid state method. The effect of spray drying and drying temperature on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the final products has been investigated. The microstructure of the products has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performance of the products has been studied by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has been found that the products prepared with a spray-drying pretreatment of the precursor exhibit a smaller grain size and a narrower size distribution than that prepared without the pretreatment. Among the three samples with a precursor pretreatment, that pretreated at 250 o C shows the best electrochemical performance due to the smallest grain size of below 50 nm and the narrowest size distribution.

  2. Visible light assisted photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sugarcane factory wastewater by sprayed CZTS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunge, Y. M.; Mahadik, M. A.; Patil, V. L.; Pawar, A. R.; Gadakh, S. R.; Moholkar, A. V.; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Highly crystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films have been deposited onto glass and FTO coated glass substrates by simple chemical spray-pyrolysis technique. It is an important material for solar energy conversion through the both photovoltaics and photocatalysis. The effect of substrate temperatures on the physico-chemical properties of the CZTS films is studied. The XRD study shows the formation of single phase CZTS with kesterite structure. FE-SEM analysis reveals nano flakes architecture with pin-hole and crake free surface with more adherent. The film deposited at optimized substrate temperature exhibits optical band gap energy of 1.90 eV, which lies in the visible region of the solar spectrum and useful for photocatalysis application. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of the large surface area (10 × 10 cm2) deposited CZTS thin film photocatalysts were evaluated for the degradation of sugarcane factory wastewater under visible light irradiation. The results show that the CZTS thin film photocatalyst exhibited about 90% degradation of sugar cane factory wastewater. The mineralization of sugarcane factory wastewater is studied by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) values.

  3. Surfactant Assisted Stabilization of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized by a Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mendoza-Cachú

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of carbon nanotubes has been an interesting issue from a composites materials point of view. A nanotubes agglomeration has to be avoided to achieve a homogeneous dispersion in a composite matrix. In this research, we report on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes using a variant of the chemical vapor deposition technique known as spray pyrolysis method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies showed that the synthesized products had an aligned structure with low purity degree, high content of catalyst particles, and a smaller amount of amorphous carbon. A secondary method was applied, which involves an acidic treatment that dissolves contaminant particles to enhance the purity of the nanotubes. Microstructural analysis, which includes XRD and SEM, indicates an effective reduction of impurities. Dispersion of the nanotubes was assessed using different surfactants, such as sodium dodecyl-sulfate (SDS and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. Finally, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis, and SEM techniques confirm that better results were obtained with EDTA. For EDTA and SDS surfactants, low concentrations of 0.3 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL were most efficient, respectively.

  4. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emission characteristics of kerosene-air spray combustion with plasma assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A plasma assisted combustion system for combustion of kerosene-air mixtures was developed to study emission levels of O2, CO2, CO, and NOx. The emission measurement was conducted by Testo 350-Pro Flue Gas Analyzer. The effect of duty ratio, feedstock gas flow rate and applied voltage on emission performance has been analyzed. The results show that O2 and CO emissions reduce with an increase of applied voltage, while CO2 and NOx emissions increase. Besides, when duty ratio or feedstock gas flow rate decreases, the same emission results would appear. The emission spectrum of the air plasma of plasma assisted combustion actuator was also registered to analyze the kinetic enhancement effect of plasma, and the generation of ozone was believed to be the main factor that plasma makes a difference in our experiment. These results are valuable for the future optimization of kerosene-fueled aircraft engine when using plasma assisted combustion devices to exert emission control.

  6. Supercritical CO2-Assisted Spray Drying of Strawberry-Like Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanocomposites in Chitosan Powders for Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to develop new systems that can deliver anticancer drugs into the site of action when initiating a treatment. Recently, the use of nanotechnology and particle engineering has enabled the development of new drug delivery platforms for pulmonary delivery. In this work, POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites and ibuprofen (IBP were encapsulated into a chitosan matrix using Supercritical Assisted Spray Drying (SASD. The dry powder formulations showed adequate morphology and aerodynamic performances (fine particle fraction 48%–55% and aerodynamic diameter of 2.6–2.8 µm for deep lung deposition through the pulmonary route. Moreover, the release kinetics of IBP was also investigated showing a faster release of the drug at pH 6.8, the pH of lung cancer. POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites proved to have suitable sizes for cellular internalization and their fluorescent capabilities enable their future use in in vitro cell based assays. As a proof-of-concept, the reported results show that these nano-in-micro formulations could be potential drug vehicles for pulmonary administration.

  7. Transparent nanostructured Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by ultrasonic assisted spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Ghasemian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Homayoun Keihan, Amir

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass substrate through ultrasonic-assisted spray pyrolysis technique and were used in the visible light photocatalytic degradation of MB dye. The resulting thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. Based on Raman spectroscopy results, both of the TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 films have anatase crystal structure, however, because of the insertion of Fe in the structure of TiO2 some point defects and oxygen vacancies are formed in the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film. Presence of Fe in the structure of TiO2 decreases the band gap energy of TiO2 and also reduces the electron–hole recombination rate. Decreasing of the electron–hole recombination rate and band gap energy result in the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film.

  8. Growth and Properties of Cl- Incorporated ZnO Nanofilms Grown by Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingfang; Wang, Aiji; Kong, Lingrui; Li, Yongliang; Wang, Yinshu

    2016-04-01

    Pure and Cl- incorporated ZnO nanofilms were grown by the ultrasonic spray-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The properties of the nanofilms were investigated. The effects of growth temperature and Cl- concentration on the crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanofilms were studied. Temperature plays an important role in the growth mode and morphology of the pure nanofilms. Preferential growth along the c-axis occurs only at modulating temperature. Lower temperature suppresses the preferential growth, and higher temperature suppresses the growth of the nanofilms. The morphologies of the nanofilms change from lamellar and spherical structures into hexagonal platelets, then into separated nanoparticles with an increase in the temperature. Incorporating Cl- results in the lattice contracting gradually along with c-axis. Grains composing the nanofilms refine, and the optical gap broadens with increasing of Cl- concentration in growth precursor. Incorporating Cl- could reduce oxygen vacancies and passivate the non-irradiated centers, thus enhancing the UV emission and suppressing the visible emission of ZnO nanofilms.

  9. Development and Application Prospects of Pneumatic Electrostatic Sprayer in Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Qi, Li-jun; Jia, Shou-xing; Zheng, Xuan; Meng, Xiang-jin; Tang, Zhi-hui; Shen, Cong-ju

    2012-01-01

    We firstly introduce existing situations of development of electrostatic spraying technology both at home and abroad. On the basis of such problems as serious drift, loss and deterioration of environment during orchard spraying in Xinjiang, we design and develop a new electrostatic sprayer which can effectively reduce the pesticide, improve the adhesion rate of pesticide in the target, and reduce pollution on human body and environment. Using electrostatic induction principle, this electrosta...

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid structure for undercooled Zr-Nb alloys assisted with electrostatic levitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. J.; Hu, L.; Wang, L.; Wei, B.

    2018-06-01

    The liquid structures of undercooled Zr90Nb10, Zr70Nb30 and Zr50Nb50 alloys were studied by molecular dynamics simulation combined with electrostatic levitation experiments. The densities of three alloys were measured by electrostatic levitation to modify the Zr-Nb potential functions by adjusting parameters in potential functions. In simulation, the atomic packing in Zr-Nb alloys was more ordered at lower temperatures. The Voronoi tessellation analyses indicated Nb-centered clusters were easier to form than Zr-centered clusters although the Nb content was less than 50%. The partial pair distribution functions showed that the interactions among Zr atoms are quite different to that among Nb atoms.

  11. Characterization of sprayed CuInS2 films by XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Yeup; Kim, JunHo

    2010-01-01

    We studied CuInS 2 (CIS) film growth using two deposition methods, which were high electrostatic field assisted ultrasonic spray (HEFAUS) deposition and sulfurization of Cu-In metallic film. The sprayed-films were grown with chalcopyrite ordering and Cu-Au ordering mixed. In order to obtain higher quality CIS films, post-sulfurization was carried out for sprayed-films. The post-sulfurization induced improvement of crystallinity and enhancement of chalcopyrite ordering. However, it was observed that Cu-Au ordering still coexisted in the CIS film after post-sulfurization. With the same sulfurization condition, sulfurization was done to transform Cu-In metallic film into CIS film. The sulfurized metallic film was turned out to be formed as CIS film with higher crystallinity and better chalcopyrite ordering than sulfurized sprayed-films. All fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis measurements.

  12. The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-assisted sprayer on spray deposition in tendone trained vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs, maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer were replicated during two phenological stages: i the end of flowering; and ii berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.

  13. Homogeneous and label-free electrochemiluminescence aptasensor based on the difference of electrostatic interaction and exonuclease-assisted target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiancong; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Qingxiang; Luo, Fang; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Huanghao

    2018-05-15

    The difference of electrostatic interaction between free Ru(phen) 3 2+ and Ru(phen) 3 2+ embedded in double strand DNA (dsDNA) to the negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode has been applied to develop a homogeneous and label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for the first time. Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been chosen as the model target. The OTA aptamer is first hybridized with its complementary single strand DNA (ssDNA) to form dsDNA and then interacted with Ru(phen) 3 2+ via the grooves binding mode to form dsDNA-Ru(phen) 3 2+ complex, which remains negatively charged feature as well as low diffusion capacity to the negatively charged ITO electrode surface owing to the electrostatic repulsion. Meanwhile, the intercalated Ru(phen) 3 2+ in the grooves of dsDNA works as an ECL signal reporter instead of the labor-intensive labeling steps and can generate much more ECL signal than that from the labeling probe. In the presence of target, the aptamer prefers to form an aptamer-target complex in lieu of dsDNA, which induces the releasing of Ru(phen) 3 2+ from the dsDNA-Ru(phen) 3 2+ complex into the solution. With the assistance of RecJ f exonuclease (a ssDNA specific exonuclease), the released ssDNA and the aptamer in the target-complex were digested into mononucleotides. In the meantime, the target can be also liberated from OTA-aptamer complex and induce target cycling and large amount of free Ru(phen) 3 2+ present in the solution. Since Ru(phen) 3 2+ contains positive charges, which can diffuses easily to the ITO electrode surface because of electrostatic attraction, causing an obviously enhanced ECL signal detected. Under the optimal conditions, the enhanced ECL of the system has a linear relationship with the OTA concentration in the range of 0.01-1.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 2 pg/mL. This innovative system not only expands the immobilization-free sensors in the electrochemiluminescent fields, but also can be developed for the

  14. Stochastic model of the near-to-injector spray formation assisted by a high-speed coaxial gas jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS-Ecole Centrale de Lyon-INSA Lyon-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France); Jouanguy, J [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, Ecole Centrale de Lille, Blvd Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chtab-Desportes, A [CD-adapco, 31 rue Delizy 93698 Pantin Cedex (France)], E-mail: mikhael.gorokhovski@ec-lyon.fr

    2009-06-01

    The stochastic model of spray formation in the vicinity of the air-blast atomizer has been described and assessed by comparison with measurements. In this model, the 3D configuration of a continuous liquid core is simulated by spatial trajectories of specifically introduced stochastic particles. The stochastic process is based on the assumption that due to a high Weber number, the exiting continuous liquid jet is depleted in the framework of statistical universalities of a cascade fragmentation under scaling symmetry. The parameters of the stochastic process have been determined according to observations from Lasheras's, Hopfinger's and Villermaux's scientific groups. The spray formation model, based on the computation of spatial distribution of the probability of finding the non-fragmented liquid jet in the near-to-injector region, is combined with the large-eddy simulation (LES) in the coaxial gas jet. Comparison with measurements reported in the literature for different values of the gas-to-liquid dynamic pressure ratio showed that the model predicts correctly the distribution of liquid in the close-to-injector region, the mean length of the liquid core, the spray angle and the typical size of droplets in the far field of spray.

  15. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  16. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  17. CFD simulation of pesticide spray from air-assisted sprayers in an apple orchard: tree deposition and off-target losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of a pesticide spraying system is to provide adequate coverage on intended canopies with a minimum amount of spray materials and off-target waste. Better spray coverage requires an understanding of the fate and transport of spray droplets carried by turbulent airflows in orchards. ...

  18. Air-assisted boom sprayer and spray deposition on bean plants Assistência de ar em barra de pulverização e a deposição da calda em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Bauer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of safe pesticide application techniques with low volume rates, frequency and spray drift, along with the need to obtain better control level of crop pest control levels, justify the air-assistance in boom sprayers. The aim of this research was to evaluate the spray deposition on bean plants with different nozzles and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers. A completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper oxide as a tracer (50% metalic copper for deposit evaluation. The artificial targets were fixed on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, at the top and lower third of the same plants under the spray boom. After application, targets were washed individually with an extracting solution of nitric acid (1.0 mol L-1. The tracer deposition on the artificial targets was quantified by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. The effects of air-assisted spray were not significant in relation to spray deposition 48 days after emergence of the bean plants.A possibilidade do desenvolvimento de técnicas de aplicação de produtos fitossanitários mais seguras, com menores volumes de calda, número de aplicações e deriva, aliados à necessidade de se obter melhores níveis de controle dos agentes nocivos às plantas cultivadas, justificam o uso da assistência de ar junto à barra de pulverização. Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição da pulverização na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, em presença e ausência da assistência de ar junto à barra de pulverização, com diferentes pontas de pulverização e volumes de calda, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se como traçador o óxido cuproso. Alvos artificiais (papel filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nos terços superior e inferior de plantas, selecionadas ao acaso, distribuídas perpendicularmente ao deslocamento do pulverizador. Ap

  19. Multipolar electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Hughes, Timothy J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-06-14

    Atomistic simulation of chemical systems is currently limited by the elementary description of electrostatics that atomic point-charges offer. Unfortunately, a model of one point-charge for each atom fails to capture the anisotropic nature of electronic features such as lone pairs or π-systems. Higher order electrostatic terms, such as those offered by a multipole moment expansion, naturally recover these important electronic features. The question remains as to why such a description has not yet been widely adopted by popular molecular mechanics force fields. There are two widely-held misconceptions about the more rigorous formalism of multipolar electrostatics: (1) Accuracy: the implementation of multipole moments, compared to point-charges, offers little to no advantage in terms of an accurate representation of a system's energetics, structure and dynamics. (2) Efficiency: atomistic simulation using multipole moments is computationally prohibitive compared to simulation using point-charges. Whilst the second of these may have found some basis when computational power was a limiting factor, the first has no theoretical grounding. In the current work, we disprove the two statements above and systematically demonstrate that multipole moments are not discredited by either. We hope that this perspective will help in catalysing the transition to more realistic electrostatic modelling, to be adopted by popular molecular simulation software.

  20. Electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbon fuels and bio-alcohols for engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agathou, Maria S.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Butanol e-spray phenomenology and structure was studied and compared to ethanol and heptane. ► An unsteady behavior that resulted in lack of monodispersity was observed for all cases. ► Sprays emanated from oscillating menisci, which is incompatible with steady cone-jet operation. ► Droplet Weber numbers were measured to be substantial, pointing to secondary droplet break-up. ► Coulombic fission was investigated, but the droplets were charged well below the Rayleigh limit. - Abstract: Electrostatically assisted sprays of butanol were established and compared with the ones of fuels of automotive interest, namely ethanol and heptane. First, electrospray phenomenology was investigated through high-speed visualization for a variety of conditions. Then, spray structure was studied through droplet size and velocity measurements, using Phase Doppler Anemometry, for a wide range of flow rates and applied voltages. Particular emphasis was placed on the determination of the dependence of droplet size and velocity on mass flow rate and applied electric field. Visualization and measurements of droplet size and speed revealed an unstable and polydisperse electrospray behavior for most conditions. Several factors were identified as responsible for this unstable behavior and were investigated experimentally for the butanol case. These included: oscillations of e-spray menisci, droplet disruption due to Coulombic fission and secondary droplet break-up because of high Weber numbers.

  1. Photocatalytic Graphene-TiO2 Thin Films Fabricated by Low-Temperature Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Spin and Spray Coating in a Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we communicate a facile and low temperature synthesis process for the fabrication of graphene-TiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films. A sol-gel chemical route is used to synthesize TiO2 from the precursor solutions and spin and spray coating are used to deposit the films. Excitation of the wet films during the casting process by ultrasonic vibration favorably influences both the sol-gel route and the deposition process, through the following mechanisms. The ultrasound energy imparted to the wet film breaks down the physical bonds of the gel phase. As a result, only a low-temperature post annealing process is required to eliminate the residues to complete the conversion of precursors to TiO2. In addition, ultrasonic vibration creates a nanoscale agitating motion or microstreaming in the liquid film that facilitates mixing of TiO2 and graphene nanosheets. The films made based on the above-mentioned ultrasonic vibration-assisted method and annealed at 150 °C contain both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2, which is the most favorable configuration for photocatalytic applications. The photoinduced and photocatalytic experiments demonstrate effective photocurrent generation and elimination of pollutants by graphene-TiO2 composite thin films fabricated via scalable spray coating and mild temperature processing, the results of which are comparable with those made using lab-scale and energy-intensive processes.

  2. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  3. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  4. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  5. Assistência de ar e volumes de aplicação na deposição de calda e no controle do arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L. Air assistance and volume of application in spray deposition and in red rice control (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo L. S. Vigano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora e de três volumes de pulverização na dessecação e deposição da calda em arroz vermelho, sob cultivo de nabo forrageiro, em áreas de recuperação de várzeas, utilizando o herbicida paraquat e o corante Azul Brilhante, respectivamente. Os volumes de pulverização foram 100; 200 e 300 L ha-1 da solução aquosa, contendo corante alimentício (1.500 mg L-1. Com ou sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, foram utilizadas pontas de pulverização de jato plano tipo AXI 110015 à pressão de 117,3 kPa, AXI 11002 e AXI 11003 a 276 kPa. A avaliação da deposição da pulverização deu-se em folhas de plantas de arroz vermelho. Os maiores volumes (200 e 300 L ha-1 pulverizados com a assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora proporcionaram maiores depósitos do corante em relação ao volume de 100 L ha-1. Não foram constatadas diferenças na deposição do corante para os volumes pulverizados, sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, tampouco entre os volumes de 200 e 300 L ha-1 com a assistência de ar junto à barra. As maiores percentagens de controle do arroz vermelho foram obtidas com a assistência de ar junto à barra, independentemente do volume pulverizado, equivalendo-se ao controle obtido com 300 L ha-1, sem o uso dessa tecnologia.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of air-assistance on spraying at three volumes in spray deposition and control of red rice under fodder radish cultivation. To evaluate the control of this weed and spray deposition were used paraquat herbicide and a Brilliant Blue dye, respectively. The three spraying volumes were 100, 200 and 300 L ha-1, using a tracer dye at 1,500 mg L-1. Both solutions and volumes were sprayed with flat fan nozzles AXI 110015 at 117.3 kPa, AXI 11002 and AXI 11003 at 276 kPa, respectively, with and without air-assistance on the boom. The evaluation of deposition

  6. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  7. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 14-23 ...

  8. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  9. PREFACE: Electrostatics 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, James

    2015-10-01

    conference committee took the decision to transcribe the questions and answers to leave a lasting record of the conversations that took place after each oral presentation and they are included in the printed proceedings. I am very grateful to Keith Davies and the conference committee, and Joanne Hemstock and other IOP staff, who provided advice and assistance throughout the whole process. A peer reviewed proceedings is not possible without willing expert reviewers who are able to provide reviews on abstracts and submitted papers. I am grateful to all who undertook reviews throughout the process. I hope to see many of this year's delegates in four years time for Electrostatics 2019.

  10. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrostatics in Chemistry. 3. Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre and Pravin K Bhadane. 1 1. Basic Principles, Resona- nce, Vol.4, No.2, 11-19, 1999. 2. Electrostatic Potentials of. Atoms, Ions and Molecules,. Resonance, Vol.4, No.5, 40-51,. 1999. Topographical features of the ...

  11. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  12. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  13. Deposition mechanism and microstructure of laser-assisted cold-sprayed (LACS) Al-12 wt.%Si coatings: effects of laser power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olakanmi, EO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available at the substrate and build up a coating. To circumvent the processing problems associated with cold-spray (CS) deposition of low-temperature, corrosion-resistant Al-12 wt.%Si coatings, a preliminary investigation detailing the effect of laser power on its LACS...

  14. Embedding beyond electrostatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic...... repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics....... This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods....

  15. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  16. Edutainment Science: Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Electrostatics should find a special place in all primary school science curricula. It is a great learning area that reinforces the basics that underpin electricity and atomic structure. Furthermore, it has many well documented hands-on activities. Unfortunately, the "traditional" electrostatics equipment such as PVC rods, woollen cloths, rabbit…

  17. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture shows such an electrostatic septum in its tank. See 7501120X, 7501199 and 7501201 for more detailed pictures.

  18. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  19. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics and applications of the electrostatic potential of many-electron atoms, ions and molecules are discussed. Electrostatic Potential of Atoms and Singly. Charged ..... [6] R K Pathak and S R Gadre,J. Chat. Phys., 93, 1770, 1990. [7] S R Gadre, S A Kalkarni and I H Shrivastava,J. Chern. Phys., 96,52;3,. 1992. ~ .1.

  20. Electrostatic Detumble of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrostatic Tractor Technology research explores the harmony of physics and engineering to develop and test electrostatic actuation methods for touchless detumble...

  1. Improved performance of low cost CuInS2 superstrate-type solar cells using Zinc assisted spray pyrolysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshme Khavar, Amir Hossein; Mahjoub, Ali Reza; Taghavinia, Nima

    2017-12-01

    Superstrate configuration CuInS2 (CIS) solar cells are fabricated using a spray pyrolysis method. We avoided selenization process, cyanide etching and CdS buffer layer, to keep the process ‘green’. CIS layers are formed by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor ink containing metal chloride salts and thiourea at 350 °C. We investigated the effect of intentional Zn doping on structural, morphological and photovoltaic response of the fabricated CIS films by dissolving ZnCl2 in aqueous precursor solution. At a zinc doping level ranging between 0.25 and 1.00 mol%, Zn doping is found to improve the CIS crystal growth and surface morphology of CIS films. Compared with the performance of the non-doped CIS cell, the Zn-doped CIS solar cell displayed a remarkable efficiency enhancement of 58-97% and the maximum enhancement was obtained at a Zn content of 0.5 mol%. The device structure consists of    and show promising PCE of 4.29 % without any anti-reflection coating. Over the course of 300 d under ambient condition, the fabricated device showed only 1% loss in efficiency.

  2. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  3. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental concepts of electrostatics as applied to atoms and molecules. The electric ... chemistry, the chemistry of the covalent bond, deals with the structures ..... the position of an asteroid named Ceres ... World Scientific. Singapore, 1992.

  4. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  5. Electrostatic Levitator Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  6. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  7. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  8. Laser-assisted selective fusing of thermal sprayed Ni-based self-fluxing alloys by using high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eun-Joon; Kim, Min-Su; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Park, Changkyoo; Suh, Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Fusing treatment of Ni-based self-fluxing alloys (Metco-16C and 1276F) was performed using high-power diode lasers to control the temperature of the substrate's surface in real time. The effects of the fusing treatment temperature on the microstructural change and hardness distribution were also investigated. For Metco-16C and 1276F, the macrostructural inhomogeneity (voids) within the thermal sprayed layer decreased considerably as the fusing temperature increased. For both self-fluxing alloys, the optimal temperature for fusing was approximately 1423 K (for Metco-16C) and 1373 K (for 1276F), both of which are within the solid state temperature range; these temperatures maximize the alloy hardness together with the macrostructural homogeneity. In this temperature range, the microstructure consists of a lamellar-structured matrix phase with fine (diode laser system.

  9. Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1979-01-01

    By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath

  10. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  11. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.; Agrawal, R.; Kim, T. K.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Yu, Y.; Beidaghi, M.; Penmatsa, V.; Wang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A

  12. Depósito e perdas de calda em sistema de pulverização com turboatomizador em videira Deposition and spray losses in an air-assisted sprayer system in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Balan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte dos viticultores da região Norte do Paraná pratica a condução da videira em caramanchão, com mais de 50 aplicações fitossanitárias em um único ciclo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar essas aplicações com turboatomizador assistido de ar no sistema de pulverização, por meio do depósito de calda nas folhas e perdas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando-se de cinco condições de aplicação, variando-se tamanho de gotas e volume de aplicação, com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados. A avaliação do sistema foi feita com a aplicação de uma calda de cloreto de potássio (5%, sendo o depósito nas folhas medido pela condutividade elétrica, e as perdas, pela comparação entre volumes aplicado e recuperado nas folhas. Para todas as condições, as perdas foram superiores a 48%. Os maiores volumes aplicados apresentaram as maiores deposições, e gotas maiores apresentaram maior depósito e mesma perda em relação a gotas menores. Os menores volumes não diferiram com relação à deposição, destacando-se as condições gotas maiores a volume baixo e a testemunha utilizada pelo viticultor, que apresentaram as menores perdas. Os resultados demonstram que o turboatomizador é uma importante ferramenta para maximizar as operações de pulverização em uva, e as alterações na configuração das pontas de pulverização devem ser mais estudadas.Winegrowers in the north of Paraná State carry on grapevines in arbour and pesticide applications could overcome more than fifty times in a cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the features of the air assisted sprayer application system by spray volume deposition and losses. Five treatments and four randomized blocks were used. The treatments varied the droplet size and application volume. The evaluation of the system was done with a 5% spray solution containing KCl being the leaves spray deposit measured through electric conductivity and the losses by the

  13. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  15. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  16. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  17. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  18. Advances in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in the design and performance of electrostatic accelerators since 1969 are reviewed with special emphasis on the ''forefront'' accelerators that are currently leading in voltage capability. A comparison of the acceleration tube design offered by the National Electrostatics Corporation and the High Voltage Engineering Corporation is also made. Other methods of increasing heavy ion energy by means of dual foil stripping are discussed as well as the performance of a newly developed sputter ion source for the production of negative heavy ions with reliability and flexibility that greatly exceeds all other present systems. Finally, new developments in terms of both booster systems and very high voltage electrostatic accelerators (25 to 60 MV) are discussed. (U.S.)

  19. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaogan [Berkeley, CA

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  20. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  1. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Areas, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 an 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, provide a vertical electric field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. Here we see one of the electrostatic septa being assembled by Faustin Emery (left) and Jacques Soubeyran (right), in the clean room of building 867. See also 7501199, 7501201, 7801286 and further explanations there.

  2. Comparison and technical evaluation of electrostatic, micronair and tractor-mounted lance sprayers in order to control (Carpocasa pomonella L in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Amirshaghaghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The efficiency and cost effectiveness of orchard pest management programs are influenced by the skills of managers and sprayer operators who evaluate orchard conditions and alter machine settings and operating techniques to optimize performance of sprayers. A combination of operational skill, equipment performance, timing and chemical selection is necessary for optimal results. Research and development of electrostatics, air-assisted, low-volume spraying and other technologies for agriculture and horticulture was studied by biological and agricultural engineering in order to decrease of pesticide consumption. The main objective of charged liquid or powder form of the pesticide spread is increasing the percentage of poison meeting on plant surfaces. The first sprayer with rotary plate became available in 1970. The amount of solution was less and had uniform spray droplets. Apple orchards in West Azerbaijan province, Iran, are sprayed mainly with tractor-mounted lance sprayers but there is large national, regional and farm to farm variation in spray volumes applied with such sprayers. Traditionally, high spray volumes (> 2000 l.ha-1 were used in many places. Reduction in spray volume has been driven largely by the need to improve spraying equipment. West Azerbaijan province has 117000 hectare fruit orchards and 1.2 million ton fruit production that the most of them are apple and grape. However, it is necessary for reduction of pesticide application in order to produce economic and safe fruits. Materials and Methods In the present study the tractor-mounted lance sprayer in control of apple pest (Carpocasa pomonella L was evaluated and compared with electrostatic and Micronair sprayers. This research was implemented in an apple orchard (Golden Delicious variety with row spacing of 66 meter. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Statistical analysis was performed using MS

  3. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  4. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Basic Principles. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 8-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  6. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight sections 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. This picture is a detail of 7501199, and shows the suspension of the wires. 7801286 shows a septum in its tank. See also 7501120X.

  7. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  8. Nanostructured thin film La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-δ} synthesized via salt-assisted spray pyrolysis for micro-SOFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benel, Cahit; Darbandi, Azad J. [Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials/Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Evans, Anna; Toelke, Rene [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Hahn, Horst [Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials/Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are anticipated for battery replacement due to their increased energy capacity for applications such as portable electronic devices, mobile phones and laptops. In this work, nanocrystalline La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-δ} (LSC) powder with ultrafine microstructure and high specific surface area was synthesized via salt-assisted spray pyrolysis method. XRD results show the formation of a nanocrystalline single phase perovskite structure. Agglomerate-free LSC nanoparticles were stabilized in water-based dispersion without the need of ultrasonic energy application. Nanoparticulate cathode thin films of LSC with thickness between 150 and 500 nm were prepared via single step spin coating on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. Gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) film was applied to YSZ substrate to avoid the chemical reaction between cathode and electrolyte. The performance of the thin film cathodes was evaluated by high temperature impedance spectroscopy on symmetrical samples.

  9. Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) Fusion Confinement Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.; Yang, Yang; Thomas, Robert

    2004-11-01

    The Electrostatic-Dipole (ED) concept significantly differs from a "pure" dipole confinement device [1] in that the charged particles are preferentially confined to the high-pressure region interior of the dipole coil by the assistance of a surrounding spherical electrostatic grid. In present ED experiments, a current carrying coil is embedded inside the grid of an IEC such as to produce a magnetic dipole field. Charged particles are injected axisymmetrically from an ion gun (or duo-plasmatron) into the center of the ED confinement grid/dipole ring where they oscillate along the magnetic field lines and pass the peak field region at the center of the dipole region. As particles begin accelerating away from the center region towards the outer electrostatic grid region, they encounter a strong electrostatic potential (order of 10's of kilovolts) retarding force. The particles then decelerate, reverse direction and re-enter the dipole field region where again magnetic confinement dominates. This process continues, emulating a complex harmonic oscillator motion. The resulting pressure profile averaged over the field curvature offers good plasma stability in the ED configuration. The basic concept and results from preliminary experiments will be described. [1] M.E. Mauel, et al. "Dipole Equilibrium and Stability," 18th IAEA Conference of Plasma Phys. and Control. Nuclear Fusion, Varenna, Italy 2000, IAEA-F1-CN-70/TH

  10. TIARA electrostatic accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Uno, Sadanori; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Nakajima, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    1996-07-01

    In order to promote the Advanced Radiation Technology Project, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute constructed TIARA facility composed of four ion accelerators at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment for the period from 1988 to 1993. A 3MV tandem accelerator and an AVF cycrotron were completed in 1991 as the first phase of the construction, and a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter were completed in 1993 as the second phase. Three electrostatic accelerators, the tandem, the single-ended and the implanter, were installed in the Multiple-beam facility of TIARA and have been operated for various experiments with using single, dual and triple beams without any serious trouble. This report describes the constructive works, machine performances, control systems, safety systems and accessory equipments of the electrostatic accelerators. (author)

  11. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  12. Method of electrostatic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )

  13. Electrostatic curtain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents the results of experiments using electrostatic curtains (ESCS) as a transuranic (TRU) contamination control technique. The TRU contaminants included small (micrometer to sub micrometer) particles of plutonium and americium compounds associated with defense-related waste. Three series of experiments were conducted. The first was with uncontaminated Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil, the second used contaminated soil containing plutonium-239 (from a mixture of Rocky Flats Plant contaminated soil and INEL uncontaminated soil), and the third was uncontaminated INEL soil spiked with plutonium-239. All experiments with contaminated soil were conducted inside a glove box containing a dust generator, low volume cascade impactor (LVCI), electrostatic separator, and electrostatic materials. The data for these experiments consisted of the mass of dust collected on the various material coupons, plates, and filters; radiochemical analysis of selected samples; and photographs, as well as computer printouts giving particle size distributions and dimensions from the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results were found: (a) plutonium content (pCi/g) was found to increase with smaller soil particle sizes and (b) the electrostatic field had a stronger influence on smaller particle sizes compared to larger particle sizes. The SEM analysis indicated that the particle size of the tracer Pu239 used in the spiked soil experiments was below the detectable size limit (0.5 μm) of the SEM and, thus, may not be representative of plutonium particles found in defense-related waste. The use of radiochemical analysis indicated that plutonium could be found on separator plates of both polarities, as well as passing through the electric field and collecting on LVCI filters

  14. Electrostatic septum, SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    To minimize losses during slow extraction towards N- and W-Area, electrostatic septa in long straight section 2 and 6 precede the magnetic septa. The 2 electrode plates, visible at the entrance to the septum, establish a vertical electrical field to remove the ions created by the circulating beam in the residual gas. See 7801286 for such a septum in its tank, and 7501201 for a detailed view of the wire suspension. See also 7501120X.

  15. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and

  16. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  17. Electrostatic accelerator dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.

    1989-05-01

    High voltage insulation problems in electrostatic accelerators are discussed. The aim of the analysis is to broaden the knowledge, highlight the characteristics of insulation technology and design strategies to improve use. The basic geometry of the insulation in accelerators is considered. A detailed description of each of the insulation regions is provided. The gas gap insulation of the terminal voltage is found to be sensitive to regions of high electric stress. In order to obtain satisfactory performance from solid support insulation, the attention is focused on the electric stress value and distribution. Potential subjects for discussion and further investigations are given

  18. Electrostatically Driven Nanoballoon Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Yan, Aiming; Coh, Sinisa; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Dunn, Gabriel; Wågberg, Thomas; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Zettl, Alex

    2016-11-09

    We demonstrate an inflatable nanoballoon actuator based on geometrical transitions between the inflated (cylindrical) and collapsed (flattened) forms of a carbon nanotube. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments employing a nanoelectromechanical manipulator show that a collapsed carbon nanotube can be reinflated by electrically charging the nanotube, thus realizing an electrostatically driven nanoballoon actuator. We find that the tube actuator can be reliably cycled with only modest control voltages (few volts) with no apparent wear or fatigue. A complementary theoretical analysis identifies critical parameters for nanotube nanoballoon actuation.

  19. Quantitative spray analysis of diesel fuel and its emulsions using digital image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ahmad Muneer El-Deen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation of spray atomization of different liquids has been carried out. An air-assist atomizer operating at low injection pressures valued (4 and 6 bar has been used to generate sprays of (diesel fuel, 5, 10, and 15% water-emulsified-diesel, respectively. A Photron-SA4 high speed camera has been used for spray imaging at 2000 fps. 20 time intervals (from 5 to 100 ms with 5 ms time difference are selected for analysis and comparison. Spray macroscopic characteristics (spray penetration, dispersion, cone angle, axial and dispersion velocities have been extracted by a proposed technique based on image processing using Matlab, where the maximum and minimum (horizontal and vertical boundaries of the spray are detected, from which the macroscopic spray characteristics are evaluated. The maximum error of this technique is (1.5% for diesel spray and a little bit higher for its emulsions.

  20. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  1. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  2. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  3. A novel electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Minkang; Wang, Liqian; Lin, Zhigui

    2013-01-01

    ESP (Electrostatic Precipitation) has been widely used in the mining, building materials, metallurgy and power industries. Dust particles or other harmful particles from the airstream can be precipitated by ESP with great collecting efficiency. Because of its' large size, high cost and energy consumption, the scope of application of ESP has been limited to a certain extent. By means of the theory of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, a corona assembly with a self-cleaning function and a threshold voltage automatic tracking technology has been developed and used in ESP. It is indicated that compared with conventional ESP, the electric field length has been reduced to 1/10 of the original, the current density on the collecting electrode increased 3-5 times at the maximum, the approach speed of dust particles in the electric field towards the collecting electrode is 4 times that in conventional ESP and the electric field wind speed may be enhanced by 2-3 times the original. Under the premise of ESP having a high efficiency of dust removal, equipment volume may be actually reduced to 1/5 to 1/10 of the original volume and energy consumption may be reduced by more than 50%.

  4. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  5. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  6. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Electrostatic purification of uranium mine stope atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.; Phyper, J.D.; Lowe, L.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitators have been and are currently being used to reduce levels of radioactive aerosols in uranium mine stope atmospheres. Historically, while the electrostatic precipitators have been reported to be successful in reducing levels of radioactive aerosols many practical problems have been encountered with their use in the underground mine environment. Electrical short circuiting appears to have been the major problem with the use of precipitators in humid underground environments. On the basis of literature reviewed for this study it seems that the problems encountered in the past can be overcome. The most likely use of a precipitator in an underground uranium mine is to treat some or all of the air immediately upstream of a work station. The possible locations and uses of a precipitator would vary from work station to work station and from mine to mine. The desirability and cost of using elctrostatic precipitators to purify the air entering a work station are application specific. SENES Consultants therefore is not recommending for or against the use of electrostatic precipitators in underground uranium mines. The information provided in this report can be used however to assist in such determinations. 72 refs

  8. Electrostatic energy of KHF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van; Bruinink, J.; Bottelberghs, P.H.

    1972-01-01

    Electrostatic lattice energies are calculated in KHF2. Fractional charges occurring in the complex anions are treated with a general procedure and the results are compared to a specialized approach reported earlier. Interstitial potentials are calculated to obtain the electrostatic field through

  9. Electrostatic ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)

  10. Irradiation and electrostatic separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for collecting pollutants in which a passageway is formed to define a path for industrial gases passing therethrough is described. A plurality of isotope sources extend along at least a portion of the path followed by the industrial gases to provide a continuing irradiation zone for pollutants in the gases. Collecting electrode plates are associated with such an irradiation zone to efficiently collect particulates as a result of an electrostatic field established between such plates, particularly very small particulates. The series of isotope sources are extended for a length sufficient to attain material improvement in the efficiency of collecting the pollutants. Such an effective length is established along a substantially unidirectional path of the gases, or preferably a reversing path in a folded conduit assembly to attain further efficiency by allowing more compact apparatus structures

  11. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  12. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  13. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  14. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  15. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  16. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  17. Commissioning of laser assisted cold spraying technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available engineering is one application under which metal coatings can undergo corrosion and wear. The results are not desirable given the amount of toxicity associated with them. In tissue engineering, stainless steel, cobalt and alloys, as well as titanium and its...%Si on stainless steel substrate. Laser power has a significant impact on the adhesion properties of power particles on metals, as well as the coating thickness, porosity and cracks. Therefore it may be inferred, realising overlaying results, that our LACS...

  18. Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.S.; Horgan, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film

  19. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  20. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S. V.; Kiss, I.; Berta, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  2. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  3. Computational Methods for Biomolecular Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Olsen, Brett; Baker, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of intermolecular interactions is essential for insight into how cells develop, operate, communicate and control their activities. Such interactions include several components: contributions from linear, angular, and torsional forces in covalent bonds, van der Waals forces, as well as electrostatics. Among the various components of molecular interactions, electrostatics are of special importance because of their long range and their influence on polar or charged molecules, including water, aqueous ions, and amino or nucleic acids, which are some of the primary components of living systems. Electrostatics, therefore, play important roles in determining the structure, motion and function of a wide range of biological molecules. This chapter presents a brief overview of electrostatic interactions in cellular systems with a particular focus on how computational tools can be used to investigate these types of interactions. PMID:17964951

  4. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  5. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  6. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  7. Electrostatic charges generated on aerosolisation of dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanyang

    2001-01-01

    In responding to the international community's agreement of phasing out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants by the year 2000, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) has been chosen to replace CFCs. Intensive investigations related to the new propellant products have been carried out. Aerosol electrostatics is one of the topics investigated. To understand and subsequently control the charging processes is the motive of the research reported here. To help elucidate the complex charging process occurring naturally during atomization of liquids from pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDIs), it has been broken down into a sequence of related, simpler sub processes-drop charging, streaming current charging (coarse spray), splashing charging and fine spray charging. Our initial studies are of single drops forming at and breaking away from the tips of capillary tubes. The drop forming processes are so slow that any hydrodynamic effect can be dismissed. Then the charge on the drop is measured. It is found that the charge on water drops is always negative (∼ 10 -14 C) at field-free condition and the magnitude of the charge increases as the drop size increases and the surrounding tube diameter decreases. With salt solutions, the charge on drops is negative at dilute solutions, decreases in magnitude as the concentration of electrolytes increases and finally reverses the sign of charge at approximately 1 M - drop charge becomes positive. All these experimental results can be explained in terms of contact potential between liquid and the inner wall of the capillary, which sets up an electric field between the pendant drop and the surrounding tube. Then computational simulation work is carried out and the data are compared with experimental results. It is found that the computer simulation data are in accord with experimental observations. This is a potential method to measure absolute potential difference between a liquid and a solid. Secondly, the hydrodynamic processes are investigated

  8. Effect of electrostatic charge in plastic spacers on the lung delivery of HFA-salbutamol in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, J; Bisgaard, H; Lipworth, B J

    1999-01-01

    delivered a significantly (Pplastic spacers reduces lung dose in children by more than two-fold. This is clinically significant and the use of potentially electrostatically charged......AIMS: The effect of the electrostatic charge in plastic spacers in vivo on drug delivery to the lung of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) salbutamol spray was studied in children. METHODS: Five children, aged 7-12 years, were included in a 3-way crossover randomised single-blind trial. Salbutamol HFA spray...... was delivered on 3 different study days from plastic spacers with mouthpiece. Pre-treatment of the spacers differed between study days: (a) Non-electrostatic 350 ml Babyhaler (coated with benzalkonium chloride) (b) New 350 ml Babyhaler (rinsed in water), and (c) New 145 ml AeroChamber (rinsed in water). Plasma...

  9. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  10. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  11. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  12. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  13. Extraction of uranium with TBP in an electrostatic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbasi, M.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the utilization of electrostatic energy for solvent extraction of metallic species has been made. Drops were formed at a single nozzle and charged electrically by applying a high d.c. voltage to the nozzle which was arranged to form part of a parallel disc electrode system. After the drops left this electrode zone they travelled through a metallic pipe the purpose of which was to screen the drops from the external electrostatic forces. The liquid system employed in the present work was aqueous uranyl nitrate solution as a dispersed phase and organic tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-diluent as a continuous phase. Uncharged drops were studied in the presence and absence of nitric acid salting agent and in addition both discrete and spray regimes were examined with charged drops. Size, velocity, oscillation motion, charge leakage, actual potential gradient and mass transfer coefficients (reaction rate constants) were studied. A cine camera was used to study the velocity and oscillatory motion of the charged drops moving in the continuous phase in the presence and absence of an electric field. The results of this work suggest that both hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces are responsible for the liquid-liquid extraction rate increase. (author)

  14. Spray deposition inside multiple-row nursery trees with a laser-guided sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple-row container-grown trees require specially designed sprayers to achieve efficient spray delivery quality. A five-port air-assisted sprayer with both automatic and manual control modes was developed to discharge adequate spray deposition inside multiple-row tree plants. The sprayer resulted...

  15. Efeito da velocidade do ar em barra de pulverização na deposição de produtos fitossanitários em feijoeiro Efect of the air speed in air-assisted sprayer on bean crop pesticide spray deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da variação da velocidade do ar em barra de pulverização na deposição da calda na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, realizou-se o experimento em 9 e 10 de outubro de 2000, no Centro de Pesquisas Agronômicas - Cyanamid, em Iracemápolis (SP, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, aos 48 dias após a emergência (DAE. Para isso, convencionou-se que a rotação máxima do ventilador, medida com o auxílio de fototacômetro, possibilitou a obtenção da velocidade máxima do ar na barra de pulverização e, a partir daí, níveis de 50% e 75% da velocidade máxima do ar. Alvos artificiais foram fixados na superfície adaxial e na abaxial de folíolos posicionados, nos terços superior e inferior das plantas selecionadas, ao acaso, e distribuídas perpendicularmente ao deslocamento do pulverizador. O óxido cuproso (50% de cobre metálico foi o traçador utilizado em pulverização e a determinação quantitativa dos depósitos feita com o uso da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Os resultados sugerem que a variação da velocidade do ar na barra pulverizadora não influenciou sobre os níveis de depósitos no feijoeiro, aos 48 DAE, nas condições do presente trabalho.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of air speed in air-assisted sprayer on bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris spray deposition. The experiment was carried out at 48 days after crop emergence and the experimental design was randomized. The maximum air speed in spray boom was obtained with the maximum of the fan rotation by a phototachometer. The middle and third air speed were obtained with lower fan rotation. The tracer used in the spray solution was copper oxid (50% of the metalic copper. It was measured by atomic spectrophotometry absorption equipment. The targets were fixed on the under and upper-side of the leaves, in the top and lower third of the same plant under the spray boom. The effects of variation

  16. The morphology of electrostatic tripolar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, L.

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic tripolar regions in plasmas develop a skewness of their own electric potential waveform as a peculiar morphological property, which distinguishes them from symmetric electrostatic solitary waves. Within the collision-less, kinetic treatment developed here, this property holds if the velocity distributions of electrons and ions are singular in value, irrespective of their smoothness at the region's boundary and of the smoothness of the potential waveform and of the electron and ion density distributions. These singularities are integrable, and are of the logarithmic and jump type: the former occur at isolated points in phase space; the latter occur on the left branch of the electron separatrix and on the left branch of the ion sub-separatrix. The distributions are non-negative if, at its local extrema, the potential waveform is skewed to the left, in agreement with observations, and if the skewness is smaller than a given bound: a sufficient condition for such skewness to be small about the minimum of the potential waveform is that a sufficiently fast electron beam exists on the high-potential boundary of the tripolar region. In those special cases in which the particle distributions are continuous in value, the above mentioned singularities affect their space and velocity derivatives. These results could be extracted from very general considerations on the degree of smoothness of the spatial distribution of the electric potential and on the non-negativity of the electron and ion distributions, without the assistance of any specific models

  17. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  18. Surface electrostatics: theory and computations

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, G.

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this work is to study the electrostatic response of materials accounting for boundary surfaces with their own (electrostatic) constitutive behaviour. The electric response of materials with (electrostatic) energetic boundary surfaces (surfaces that possess material properties and constitutive structures different from those of the bulk) is formulated in a consistent manner using a variational framework. The forces and moments that appear due to bulk and surface electric fields are also expressed in a consistent manner. The theory is accompanied by numerical examples on porous materials using the finite-element method, where the influence of the surface electric permittivity on the electric displacement, the polarization stress and the Maxwell stress is examined.

  19. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  20. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  1. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  2. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  3. To spray or not to spray? Understanding participation in an indoor residual spray campaign in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin M; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Arriola, Vanessa D; Rivera-Lanas, Daniel; Rodriguez, Geoffrey H; Toledo Vizcarra, Amparo M; Mollesaca Riveros, Lina M; Levy, Michael Z; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-01-01

    Current low participation rates in vector control programmes in Arequipa, Peru complicate the control of Chagas disease. Using focus groups (n = 17 participants) and semi-structured interviews (n = 71) conducted in March and May 2013, respectively, we examined barriers to and motivators of household participation in an indoor residual spray (IRS) campaign that had taken place one year prior in Arequipa. The most common reported barriers to participation were inconvenient spray times due to work obligations, not considering the campaign to be necessary, concerns about secondary health impacts (e.g. allergic reactions to insecticides), and difficulties preparing the home for spraying (e.g. moving heavy furniture). There was also a low perception of risk for contracting Chagas disease that might affect participation. The main motivator to participate was to ensure personal health and well-being. Future IRS campaigns should incorporate more flexible hours, including weekends; provide appropriate educational messages to counter concerns about secondary health effects; incorporate peer educators to increase perceived risk to Chagas in community; obtain support from community members and leaders to build community trust and support for the campaign; and assist individuals in preparing their homes. Enhancing community trust in both the need for the campaign and its operations is key.

  4. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  5. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  6. Continuous electrodeionization through electrostatic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermentzis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    We report a new continuous electrodeionization cell with electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments or electrochemical Faraday cages formed by porous electronically and ionically conductive media, instead of permselective ion exchange membranes. Due to local elimination of the applied electric field within the compartments, they electrostatically retain the incoming ions and act as 'electrostatic ion pumps' or 'ion traps' and therefore concentrate compartments. The porous media are chemically and thermally stable. Electrodeionization or electrodialysis cells containing such concentrate compartments in place of ion exchange membranes can be used to regenerate ion exchange resins and produce deionized water, to purify industrial effluents and desalinate brackish or seawater. The cells can work by polarity reversal without any negative impact to the deionization process. Because the electronically and ionically active media constituting the electrostatically shielded concentrate compartments are not permselective and coions are not repelled but can be swept by the migrating counterions, the cells are not affected by the known membrane associated limitations, such as concentration polarization or scaling and show an increased current efficiency

  7. Linac boosters for electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY

    1990-01-01

    A survey of linacs which are used as boosters to electrostatic accelerators is presented. Machines both operating and under construction, copper and superconducting, are reviewed. The review includes data on the accelerating structures, performance, rf and control, beam optics, budget, vacuum and cryogenics. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  10. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  11. Electrostatics, structure prediction, and the energy landscapes for protein folding and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Yeh; Zheng, Weihua; Balamurugan, D; Schafer, Nicholas P; Kim, Bobby L; Cheung, Margaret S; Wolynes, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    While being long in range and therefore weakly specific, electrostatic interactions are able to modulate the stability and folding landscapes of some proteins. The relevance of electrostatic forces for steering the docking of proteins to each other is widely acknowledged, however, the role of electrostatics in establishing specifically funneled landscapes and their relevance for protein structure prediction are still not clear. By introducing Debye-Hückel potentials that mimic long-range electrostatic forces into the Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure, and Energy Model (AWSEM), a transferable protein model capable of predicting tertiary structures, we assess the effects of electrostatics on the landscapes of thirteen monomeric proteins and four dimers. For the monomers, we find that adding electrostatic interactions does not improve structure prediction. Simulations of ribosomal protein S6 show, however, that folding stability depends monotonically on electrostatic strength. The trend in predicted melting temperatures of the S6 variants agrees with experimental observations. Electrostatic effects can play a range of roles in binding. The binding of the protein complex KIX-pKID is largely assisted by electrostatic interactions, which provide direct charge-charge stabilization of the native state and contribute to the funneling of the binding landscape. In contrast, for several other proteins, including the DNA-binding protein FIS, electrostatics causes frustration in the DNA-binding region, which favors its binding with DNA but not with its protein partner. This study highlights the importance of long-range electrostatics in functional responses to problems where proteins interact with their charged partners, such as DNA, RNA, as well as membranes. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  12. Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Kumon, Michiko; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-06-01

    Liquid droplets can be spontaneously charged in the absence of applied electric fields by spraying. It has been shown by computational simulation that charges may influence particle deposition in the airways. The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied. A modified electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to characterize the aerosol charges generated from jet nebulized commercial products. The charge and size measurements were conducted at 50% RH and 22 degrees C with a modified ELPI. Ventolin, Bricanyl, and Atrovent were nebulized using PARI LC Plus jet nebulizers coupled to a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. The aerosols were sampled in 30-sec durations. The drug deposits on the impactor stages were assayed chemically using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The charges of nebulized deionized water, isotonic saline, and the three commercial products diluted with saline were also measured to analyze the contributions of the major nebule ingredients on charging. No mass assays were performed on these runs. All three commercial nebules generated net negative charges. The magnitude of the charges reduced over the period of nebulization. Ventolin and Bricanyl yielded similar charge profiles. Highly variable charges were produced from deionized water. On the other hand, nebulized saline reproducibly generated net positive charges. Diluted commercial nebules showed charge polarity inversion. The charge profiles of diluted salbutamol and terbutaline solutions resembled those of saline, while the charges from diluted ipratropium solutions fluctuated near neutrality. The charge profiles were shown to be influenced by the concentration and physicochemical properties of the drugs, as well as the history of nebulization. The drugs may have unique isoelectric concentrations in saline at which the nebulized droplets would carry near-zero charges. According to results from

  13. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  15. Combined aerodynamic and electrostatic atomization of dielectric liquid jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmatzis, Agissilaos; Ergene, Egemen L.; Shrimpton, John S.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.; Mashayek, Farzad; Huo, Ming

    2012-07-01

    The electrical and atomization performance of a plane-plane charge injection atomizer using a dielectric liquid, and operating at pump pressures ranging from 15 to 35 bar corresponding to injection velocities of up to 50 m/s, is explored via low current electrical measurements, spray imaging and phase Doppler anemometry. The work is aimed at understanding the contribution of electrostatic charging relevant to typical higher pressure fuel injection systems such as those employed in the aeronautical, automotive and marine sectors. Results show that mean-specific charge increases with injection velocity significantly. The effect of electrostatic charge is advantageous at the 15-35 bar range, and an arithmetic mean diameter D 10 as low as 0.2 d is achievable in the spray core and lower still in the periphery where d is the orifice diameter. Using the data available from this higher pressure system and from previous high Reynolds number systems (Shrimpton and Yule Exp Fluids 26:460-469, 1999), the promotion of primary atomization has been analysed by examining the effect that charge has on liquid jet surface and liquid jet bulk instability. The results suggest that for the low charge density Q v ~ 2 C/m3 cases under consideration here, a significant increase in primary atomization is observed due to a combination of electrical and aerodynamic forces acting on the jet surface, attributed to the significantly higher jet Weber number ( We j) when compared to low injection pressure cases. Analysis of Sauter mean diameter results shows that for jets with elevated specific charge density of the order Q v ~ 6 C/m3, the jet creates droplets that a conventional turbulent jet would, but with a significantly lower power requirement. This suggests that `turbulent' primary atomization, the turbulence being induced by electrical forces, may be achieved under injection pressures that would produce laminar jets.

  16. Regimes of spray formation in gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, D.; Kulkarni, V. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2011-09-15

    Spray formation in ambient atmosphere from gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers is described by carrying out experiments in a spray test facility. The atomizer discharges a circular air jet and an axisymmetric swirling water sheet from its coaxially arranged inner and outer orifices. A high-speed digital imaging system along with a backlight illumination arrangement is employed to record the details of liquid sheet breakup and spray development. Spray regimes exhibiting different sheet breakup mechanisms are identified and their characteristic features presented. The identified spray regimes are wave-assisted sheet breakup, perforated sheet breakup, segmented sheet breakup, and pulsation spray regime. In the regime of wave-assisted sheet breakup, the sheet breakup shows features similar to the breakup of two-dimensional planar air-blasted liquid sheets. At high air-to-liquid momentum ratios, the interaction process between the axisymmetric swirling liquid sheet and the circular air jet develops spray processes which are more specific to the atomizer studied here. The spray exhibits a periodic ejection of liquid masses whose features are dominantly controlled by the central air jet. (orig.)

  17. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L; Bowles, N E; Urbak, E [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Keane, D; Sawyer, E C, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [RAL Space, R25, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  18. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  19. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  20. Frontier applications of electrostatic accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yu-Gang; Fan, Tie-Shuan; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Chen, Jia-Er

    2013-10-01

    Electrostatic accelerator is a powerful tool in many research fields, such as nuclear physics, radiation biology, material science, archaeology and earth sciences. Two electrostatic accelerators, one is the single stage Van de Graaff with terminal voltage of 4.5 MV and another one is the EN tandem with terminal voltage of 6 MV, were installed in 1980s and had been put into operation since the early 1990s at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics. Many applications have been carried out since then. These two accelerators are described and summaries of the most important applications on neutron physics and technology, radiation biology and material science, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are presented.

  1. Tandem electrostatic accelerators for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) into a viable therapeutic modality will depend, in part, on the availability of suitable neutron sources compatible with installation in a hospital environment. Low-energy accelerator-based intense neutron sources, using electrostatic or radio frequency quadrupole proton accelerators have been suggested for this purpose and are underdevelopment at several laboratories. New advances in tandem electrostatic accelerator technology now allow acceleration of the multi-milliampere proton beams required to produce therapeutic neutron fluxes for BNCT. The relatively compact size, low weight and high power efficiency of these machines make them particularly attractive for installation in a clinical or research facility. The authors will describe the limitations on ion beam current and available neutron flux from tandem accelerators relative to the requirements for BNCT research and therapy. Preliminary designs and shielding requirements for a tandern accelerator-based BNCT research facility will also be presented

  2. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  3. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  4. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  5. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  6. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  7. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lošdorfer Božič, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martín, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-07

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.

  8. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  9. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  10. CFD Analysis of Fuel Atomization, Secondary Droplet Breakup and Spray Dispersion in the Premix Duct of a LPP Combustor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmehl, R.; Maier, G.; Wittig, S.

    2000-01-01

    The two phase flow in the premix duct of a LPP combustor is computed using a Lagrangian droplet tracking method. To reproduce the characteristic spray structure of an air-assisted pressure-swirl atomizer, a sheet spray model is de-rived from measured sheet parameters and combined with an advanced

  11. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  12. Reduction of airborne radioactive dust by means of a charged water spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigu, J; Grenier, M G

    1989-07-01

    An electrostatic precipitator based on charged water spray technology has been used in an underground uranium mine to control long-lived radioactive dust and short-lived aerosol concentration in a mine gallery where dust from a rock breaking/ore transportation operation was discharged. Two main sampling stations were established: one upstream of the dust precipitator and one downstream. In addition, dust samplers were placed at different locations between the dust discharge and the end of the mine gallery. Long-lived radioactive dust was measured using cascade impactors and nylon cyclone dust samplers, and measurement of the radioactivity on the samples was carried out by conventional methods. Radon and thoron progeny were estimated using standard techniques. Experiments were conducted under a variety of airflow conditions. A maximum radioactive dust reduction of about 40% (approximately 20% caused by gravitational settling) at a ventilation rate of 0.61 m3/sec was obtained as a result of the combined action of water scrubbing and electrostatic precipitation by the charged water spray electrostatic precipitator. This represents the optimum efficiency attained within the range of ventilation rates investigated. The dust reduction efficiency of the charged water spray decreased with increasing ventilation rate, i.e., decreasing air residence time, and hence, reduced dust cloud/charged water droplets mixing time.

  13. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  14. Reintroducing electrostatics into macromolecular crystallographic refinement: application to neutron crystallography and DNA hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Timothy D; Schnieders, Michael J; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S; Brunger, Axel T

    2011-04-13

    Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints, and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here, we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a protein crystal structure were refined against joint neutron/X-ray diffraction data sets using force fields without electrostatics or with electrostatics. Hydrogen-bond orientation/geometry favors the inclusion of electrostatics. Refinement of Z-DNA with electrostatics leads to a hypothesis for the entropic stabilization of Z-DNA that may partly explain the thermodynamics of converting the B form of DNA to its Z form. Thus, inclusion of electrostatics assists joint neutron/X-ray refinements, especially for placing and orienting hydrogen atoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagendorfer, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Hagendorfer@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Lorenz, Christiane, E-mail: Christiane.Lorenz@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: Ralf.Kaegi@eawag.ch; Sinnet, Brian, E-mail: Brian.Sinnet@eawag.c [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Switzerland); Gehrig, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Gehrig@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland); Goetz, Natalie V., E-mail: Natalie.vonGoetz@chem.ethz.ch; Scheringer, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Scheringer@chem.ethz.c [ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Ludwig, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Ludwig@psi.c [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institue (Switzerland); Ulrich, Andrea, E-mail: Andrea.Ulrich@empa.c [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  16. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  17. Reduction of SO{sub 2} Emissions in Coal Power Plants by means of Spray-Drying RESOX Research Project; Acondicionamiento de Gases de Combustion para la Reduccion de Emisiones de Particulas en Centrales Termicas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In this experimental study, two important matters concerning the spray-drying technology for the desulphurisation of combustion gases, from pulverized coal boilers, have been analyzed: (1) the behaviour of the spray-dryer absorber under different operating conditions and (2) the behaviour of an electrostatic precipitator that operates downstream form a spray-dryer. The results of this project are of great interest for evaluating the application of this semi-dry desulphurisation technology in existing power plants that already have electrostatic precipitators. Additionally, the conclusions drawn are useful for establishing the optimum design and operating conditions for an integrated SD-ESP flue gas treatment facility. More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm``3/h spray-drying desulphurisation pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, density of the slurry and unit load changes on both spray dryer behaviour and treated flue gas properties have been analyzed. In two additional specific tests, the effect of injecting calcium chloride and of preparing the slurry with seawater has also been studied. The impact of spray-dryer desulphurization on the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitators ha been evaluated comparing experimental data (efficiency, emission level, electrical consumption) for the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitator, obtained in two different experimental conditions: with and without desulphurization. Additionally, the possibility of reducing the power consumption of the precipitator by means of intermittent energization has been analyzed. (Author)

  18. Reduction of SO{sub 2} Emissions in coal power plants by means of spray-drying RESOX; Reduccion de Emisiones de SO{sub 2} en Centrales Termicas de Carbon Mediante Spary Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In this experimental study, two important matters concerning the spray-drying technology for the desulphurisation of combustion gases, from pulverized coal boilers, have been analyzed: (1) the behaviour of the spray-dryer absorber under different operating conditions and (2) the behaviour of an electrostatic precipitator that operates downstream from a spray-dryer. The results of this project are of great interest for evaluating the application of this semi-dry desulphurisation technology in existing power plants that already have electrostatic precipitators. Additionally, the conclusions drawn are useful for establishing the optimum design and operating conditions for an integrated SD-ESP flue gas treatment facility. More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm``3/h spray-drying desulphurisation pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/s ratio, approach to saturation temperature, density of the slurry and unit load changes on both spray dryer behaviour and treated flue gas properties have been analyzed. In two additional specific tests, the effect of injecting calcium chloride and of preparing the slurry with seawater has also been studied. The impact of spray-dryer desulphurization on the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitators has been evaluated comparing experimental data (Efficiency, emission level, electrical consumption) for the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitator, obtained in two different experimental conditions: with and without desulphurization. Additionally, the possibility of reducing the power consumption of the precipitator by means of intermittent energization has been analyzed. (Author)

  19. Electrostatics effects in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2013-06-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate the role of physiochemical properties and operational conditions in determining the electrostatic interactions between two species on a surface under typical industrial conditions. The variables considered for the study were particle type, particle size and shape, loading mass, surface type, angle of inclination of chute, nature and concentration of additive. Triboelectrification of simple and binary mixtures in a simple hopper and chute geometry was observed to be strongly linked to work function and moisture content of the powdered material.

  20. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, J.A.; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-01-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY’s existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  1. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  2. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  3. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  4. Preconceptual design for the electrostatic enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design (design criteria and assumptions) for electrostatic enclosures to be used during buried transuranic waste recovery operations. These electrostatic enclosures (along with the application of dust control products) will provide an in-depth contamination control strategy. As part of this preconceptual design, options for electrostatic curtain design are given including both hardwall and fabric enclosures. Ventilation systems, doors, air locks, electrostatic curtains, and supporting systems also are discussed. In addition to the conceptual design, engineering scale tests are proposed to be run at the Test Reactor Area. The planned engineering scale tests will give final material specifications for full-scale retrieval demonstrations

  5. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R

    2013-02-01

    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  6. Industrial Electrostatic-Gecko Gripper, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the Electrostatic Gecko Gripper? (ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping...

  7. Industrial Electrostatic-Gecko Gripper, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Perception Robotics is developing an innovative product, the "Electrostatic Gecko Gripper" (ESG Gripper), for the industrial automation market. This unique gripping...

  8. Optics elements for modeling electrostatic lenses and accelerator components: III. Electrostatic deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.A.; Gillespie, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-beam optics models for simulating electrostatic prisms (deflectors) of different geometries have been developed for the envelope (matrix) computer code TRACE 3-D as a part of the development of a suite of electrostatic beamline element models which includes lenses, acceleration columns, quadrupoles and prisms. The models for electrostatic prisms are described in this paper. The electrostatic prism model options allow the first-order modeling of cylindrical, spherical and toroidal electrostatic deflectors. The application of these models in the development of ion-beam transport systems is illustrated through the modeling of a spherical electrostatic analyzer as a component of the new low-energy beamline at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Although initial tests following installation of the new beamline showed that the new spherical electrostatic analyzer was not behaving as predicted by these first-order models, operational conditions were found under which the analyzer now works properly as a double-focusing spherical electrostatic prism

  9. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  10. Highly Tunable Electrostatic Nanomechanical Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed Naveed Riaz

    2017-11-24

    There has been significant interest towards highly tunable resonators for on-demand frequency selection in modern communication systems. Here, we report highly tunable electrostatically actuated silicon-based nanomechanical resonators. In-plane doubly-clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches due to residual stresses, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining. The resonators are designed such that the effect of mid-plane stretching dominates the softening effect of the electrostatic force. This is achieved by controlling the gap-to-thickness ratio and by exploiting the initial curvature of the structure from fabrication. We demonstrate considerable increase in the resonance frequency of nanoresonators with the dc bias voltages up to 108% for 180 nm thick structures with a transduction gap of 1 $mu$m separating them from the driving/sensing electrodes. The experimental results are found in good agreement with those of a nonlinear analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. As a potential application, we demonstrate a tunable narrow band-pass filter using two electrically coupled nanomechanical arch resonators with varied dc bias voltages.

  11. Highly Tunable Electrostatic Nanomechanical Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed Naveed Riaz; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant interest towards highly tunable resonators for on-demand frequency selection in modern communication systems. Here, we report highly tunable electrostatically actuated silicon-based nanomechanical resonators. In-plane doubly-clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches due to residual stresses, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining. The resonators are designed such that the effect of mid-plane stretching dominates the softening effect of the electrostatic force. This is achieved by controlling the gap-to-thickness ratio and by exploiting the initial curvature of the structure from fabrication. We demonstrate considerable increase in the resonance frequency of nanoresonators with the dc bias voltages up to 108% for 180 nm thick structures with a transduction gap of 1 $mu$m separating them from the driving/sensing electrodes. The experimental results are found in good agreement with those of a nonlinear analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. As a potential application, we demonstrate a tunable narrow band-pass filter using two electrically coupled nanomechanical arch resonators with varied dc bias voltages.

  12. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  13. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor); Cassanto, John M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microencapsulation and electrostatic processing (MEP) device is provided for forming microcapsules. In one embodiment, the device comprises a chamber having a filter which separates a first region in the chamber from a second region in the chamber. An aqueous solution is introduced into the first region through an inlet port, and a hydrocarbon/ polymer solution is introduced into the second region through another inlet port. The filter acts to stabilize the interface and suppress mixing between the two immiscible solutions as they are being introduced into their respective regions. After the solutions have been introduced and have become quiescent, the interface is gently separated from the filter. At this point, spontaneous formation of microcapsules at the interface may begin to occur, or some fluid motion may be provided to induce microcapsule formation. In any case, the fluid shear force at the interface is limited to less than 100 dynes/sq cm. This low-shear approach to microcapsule formation yields microcapsules with good sphericity and desirable size distribution. The MEP device is also capable of downstream processing of microcapsules, including rinsing, re-suspension in tertiary fluids, electrostatic deposition of ancillary coatings, and free-fluid electrophoretic separation of charged microcapsules.

  14. Electrostatic discharge concepts and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovina, Dan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Many objects -like a human body, plastic wrap, or a rolling cart -that are electrically neutral, overall, can gain a net electrostatic charge by means of one of three methods: induction, physical transfer, or triboelectric charging (separation of conductive surfaces). The result is a voltage difference between the charged object and other objects, creating a situation where current flow is likely if two objects come into contact or close proximity. This current flow is known as electrostatic discharge, or ESD. The energy and voltage of the discharge can be influenced by factors such as the temperature and humidity in the room, the types of materials or flooring involved, or the clothing and footwear a person uses. Given the possible ranges of the current and voltage characteristic of an ESD pulse, it is important to consider the safety risks associated with detonator handling, assembly and disassembly, transportation and maintenance. For main charge detonators, these safety risks include high explosive violent reactions (HEVR) as well as inadvertent nuclear detonations (lND).

  15. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  16. Numerical solution of electrostatic problems of the accelerator project VICKSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzki, U.

    1975-03-01

    In this work, the numerical solution to a few of the electrostatic problems is dealt with which have occured within the framework of the heavy ion accelerator project VICKSI. By means of these selected examples, the versatile applicability of the numerical method is to be demonstrated, and simultaneously assistance is given for the solution of similar problems. The numerical process for solving ion-optics problems consists generally of two steps. In the first step, the potential distribution for a given boundary value problem is iteratively calculated for the Laplace equation, and then the image characteristics of the electostatic lense are investigated using the Raytrace method. (orig./LH) [de

  17. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  18. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  19. Impact of Electrostatics on Processing and Product Performance of Pharmaceutical Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Liew, Celine Valeria; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of pharmaceutical solids involves different unit operations and processing steps such as powder blending, fluidization, sieving, powder coating, pneumatic conveying and spray drying. During these operations, particles come in contact with other particles, different metallic, glass or polymer surfaces and can become electrically charged. Electrostatic charging often gives a negative connotation as it creates sticking, jamming, segregation or other issues during tablet manufacturing, capsule filling, film packaging and other pharmaceutical operations. A thorough and fundamental appreciation of the current knowledge of mechanisms and the potential outcomes is essential in order to minimize potential risks resulting from this phenomenon. The intent of this review is to discuss the electrostatic properties of pharmaceutical powders, equipment surfaces and devices affecting pharmaceutical processing and product performance. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the electrostatic charging are described and factors affecting electrostatic charging have been reviewed in detail. Feasibility of different methods used in the laboratory and pharmaceutical industry to measure charge propensity and decay has been summarized. Different computational and experimental methods studied have proven that the particle charging is a very complex phenomenon and control of particle charging is extremely important to achieve reliable manufacturing and reproducible product performance.

  20. Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,…

  1. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  2. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  3. Take-Home Electrostatics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-10-01

    Important concepts in electrostatics can be taught using apparatus that students can find or build at home. A TV or monitor screens serves as the source of a strong electric field (10,000 V/m). It can be used to charge a capacitor made from foil-covered cardboard plates supported by the bottom of a plastic pop bottle. A foil ball suspended between the plates transfers charges in a version of Franklin's experiment. An electric dipole compass,made of carnauba wax polarized in the electric field of the TV, can be used to map the fringing field of the capacitor. Discharge of charged foil-covered balls produces ``static'' that can be detected with an AM radio. *supported in part by NSF CCD grant DUE-9555215

  4. Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for forming spherical multilamellar microcapsules having alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic liquid layers, surrounded by flexible, semi-permeable hydrophobic or hydrophilic outer membranes which can be tailored specifically to control the diffusion rate. The methods of the invention rely on low shear mixing and liquid-liquid diffusion process and are particularly well suited for forming microcapsules containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. These methods can be carried out in the absence of gravity and do not rely on density-driven phase separation, mechanical mixing or solvent evaporation phases. The methods include the process of forming, washing and filtering microcapsules. In addition, the methods contemplate coating microcapsules with ancillary coatings using an electrostatic field and free fluid electrophoresis of the microcapsules. The microcapsules produced by such methods are particularly useful in the delivery of pharmaceutical compositions.

  5. Electrostatic effect for the collisionless tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.

    1987-01-01

    Electron dynamics has not been self-consistently considered in collisionless tearing mode theories to date because of the mathematical complexity of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We have found using computer simulations that electrostatic fields play an important role in the tearing mode. Vlasov theory, including the electrostatic field, is investigated for topologies with both antiparallel and nonantiparallel magnetic field lines. The electrostatic field influences the resonant current in the neutral sheet which is a non-MHD effect, and modifies the linear growth rate. At the magnetopause, where the field lines are not antiparallel, the electrostatic effect acts to raise the linear growth rate of the tearing mode. On the other hand, in the magnetotail, where magnetic field lines are antiparallel, the electrostatic effect reduces the tearing mode growth rate. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  6. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  7. A Study of the Effect of the Fringe Fields on the Electrostatic Force in Vertical Comb Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Gallagher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The equation that describes the relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting electrostatic force within comb drives is often used to assist in choosing the dimensions for their design. This paper re-examines how some of these dimensions—particularly the cross-sectional dimensions of the comb teeth—affect this relationship in vertical comb drives. The electrostatic forces in several vertical comb drives fabricated for this study were measured and compared to predictions made with four different mathematical models in order to explore the amount of complexity required within a model to accurately predict the electrostatic forces in the comb drives.

  8. Spray pesticide applications in Mediterranean citrus orchards: Canopy deposition and off-target losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared. Applications were performed with a conventional air-assisted sprayer, with a spray volume of around 3000lha -1 in a Navel orange orchard. Brilliant Sulfoflavine (BSF) was used as a tracer. Results showed that only around 46% of the applied spray was deposited on the target trees and around 4% of the spray was deposited on adjacent trees from adjoining rows independently of the nozzle type. Applications with standard nozzles produced more potential airborne spray drift (23%) than those with the drift reducing nozzles (17%) but fewer direct losses to the ground (22% vs. 27%). Indirect losses (sedimenting spray drift) to the ground of adjacent paths were around 7-9% in both cases. The important data set of spray distribution in the different compartments around sprayed orchard (air, ground, vegetation) generated in this work is highly useful as input source of exposure to take into account for the risk assessment in Mediterranean citrus scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  10. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  11. Using complexation for the microencapsulation of nisin in biopolymer matrices by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amara, Chedia; Kim, Lanhee; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal; Gharsallaoui, Adem

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of complexation to encapsulate nisin (5g/L concentration) using spray-drying technique and to evaluate how complexation with pectin or alginate (2g/L concentration) can preserve nisin structure and antimicrobial activity. Spray-drying of nisin-low methoxyl pectin or nisin-alginate electrostatic complexes has led to the microencapsulation of the peptide in different networks that were highly influenced by the polysaccharide type. Turbidity and particle size measurements indicated that while spray-drying promoted the aggregation of nisin-pectin complexes, it favored the dissociation of nisin-alginate aggregates to form individual complexes. Structural changes of nisin induced by complexation with pectin or alginate and spray-drying were studied by using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that complexation with pectin or alginate preserved nisin structure as well as its antimicrobial activity during spray-drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined aerodynamic and electrostatic atomization of dielectric liquid jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourmatzis, Agissilaos [University of Sydney, Clean Combustion Research Group, Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ergene, Egemen L.; Mashayek, Farzad [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom); Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.; Huo, Ming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The electrical and atomization performance of a plane-plane charge injection atomizer using a dielectric liquid, and operating at pump pressures ranging from 15 to 35 bar corresponding to injection velocities of up to 50 m/s, is explored via low current electrical measurements, spray imaging and phase Doppler anemometry. The work is aimed at understanding the contribution of electrostatic charging relevant to typical higher pressure fuel injection systems such as those employed in the aeronautical, automotive and marine sectors. Results show that mean-specific charge increases with injection velocity significantly. The effect of electrostatic charge is advantageous at the 15-35 bar range, and an arithmetic mean diameter D{sub 10} as low as 0.2d is achievable in the spray core and lower still in the periphery where d is the orifice diameter. Using the data available from this higher pressure system and from previous high Reynolds number systems (Shrimpton and Yule Exp Fluids 26:460-469, 1999), the promotion of primary atomization has been analysed by examining the effect that charge has on liquid jet surface and liquid jet bulk instability. The results suggest that for the low charge density Q{sub v}{proportional_to} 2 C/m{sup 3} cases under consideration here, a significant increase in primary atomization is observed due to a combination of electrical and aerodynamic forces acting on the jet surface, attributed to the significantly higher jet Weber number (We{sub j}) when compared to low injection pressure cases. Analysis of Sauter mean diameter results shows that for jets with elevated specific charge density of the order Q{sub v}{proportional_to} 6 C/m{sup 3}, the jet creates droplets that a conventional turbulent jet would, but with a significantly lower power requirement. This suggests that 'turbulent' primary atomization, the turbulence being induced by electrical forces, may be achieved under injection pressures that would produce laminar jets

  13. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  14. Geometry-Dependent Electrostatics near Contact Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Long-ranged electrostatic interactions in electrolytes modify contact angles on charged substrates in a scale and geometry-dependent manner. For angles measured at scales smaller than the typical Debye screening length, the wetting geometry near the contact line must be explicitly considered. Using variational and asymptotic methods, we derive new transcendental equations for the contact angle as functions of the electrostatic potential only at the three phase contact line. Analytic expressions are found in certain limits and compared with predictions for contact angles measured with lower resolution. An estimate for electrostatic contributions to line tension is also given

  15. Specific Electrostatic Molecular Recognition in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Hoeck, Casper; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    The identification of pairs of small peptides that recognize each other in water exclusively through electrostatic interactions is reported. The target peptide and a structure-biased combinatorial ligand library consisting of ≈78 125 compounds were synthesized on different sized beads. Peptide......-bead binding assay and by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies revealed a putative mode of interaction for this unusual electrostatic binding event. High binding specificity occurred through a combination of topological matching and electrostatic and hydrogen-bond complementarities. From MD...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  17. Introduction to numerical electrostatics using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Dworsky, Lawrence N

    2014-01-01

    The first of its kind uniquely devoted to the field of computational electrostatics, this book dives headfirst into the actual problems that engineers are expected to solve using method of moment (MoM), finite difference, and finite element techniques. Readers are guided step by step through specific problems and challenges, covering all aspects of electrostatics with an emphasis on numerical procedures. Focusing on practical examples, mathematical equations, and common issues with algorithms, this is an ideal text for students in engineering, physics, and electrostatics-and working engineers

  18. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  19. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  20. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  1. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  2. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  3. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  4. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  5. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  6. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  7. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using

  9. The Electrostatic Actuated Next Generation Microshutter Arrays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The field of view required for future missions is much larger than James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We need to use electrostatic actuation to replace magnetic...

  10. Electrostatic correlations: from plasma to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Yan

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic correlations play an important role in physics, chemistry and biology. In plasmas they result in thermodynamic instability similar to the liquid-gas phase transition of simple molecular fluids. For charged colloidal suspensions the electrostatic correlations are responsible for screening and colloidal charge renormalization. In aqueous solutions containing multivalent counterions they can lead to charge inversion and flocculation. In biological systems the correlations account for the organization of cytoskeleton and the compaction of genetic material. In spite of their ubiquity, the true importance of electrostatic correlations has come to be fully appreciated only quite recently. In this paper, we will review the thermodynamic consequences of electrostatic correlations in a variety of systems ranging from classical plasmas to molecular biology

  11. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  12. The Electrocardiogram as an Example of Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Russell K.

    1973-01-01

    Develops a simplified electrostatic model of the heart with conduction within the torso neglected to relate electrocardiogram patterns to the charge distribution within the myocardium. Suggests its application to explanation of Coulomb's law in general physics. (CC)

  13. Highly Tunable Electrothermally and Electrostatically Actuated Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Alcheikh, Nouha; Ramini, Abdallah; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    methods, we demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally by passing a dc current through it, and electrostatically by applying a dc polarization voltage between the microbeam

  14. Electrostatically actuated torsional resonant sensors and switches

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments in accordance of a torsional resonant sensor disclosure is configured to actuate a beam structure using electrostatic actuation with an AC harmonic load (e.g., AC and DC voltage sources) that is activated upon detecting a particular

  15. Quasi-electrostatic waves in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.C.; Goswami, K.S.; Misra, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Low frequency quasi-electrostatic waves in cold dusty plasma are investigated taking account of liberation and absorption of electrons and ions by the dust and their momentum transfer mechanism. (author)

  16. Review on the Modeling of Electrostatic MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chun Chuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic-driven microelectromechanical systems devices, in most cases, consist of couplings of such energy domains as electromechanics, optical electricity, thermoelectricity, and electromagnetism. Their nonlinear working state makes their analysis complex and complicated. This article introduces the physical model of pull-in voltage, dynamic characteristic analysis, air damping effect, reliability, numerical modeling method, and application of electrostatic-driven MEMS devices.

  17. Nonlinear Electrostatic Wave Equations for Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K.B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed.......The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed....

  18. A Direct Driver for Electrostatic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes a power stage suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer under biasing. Measurement results of a ±400 V prototype amplifier are shown. THD below 1% is reported....

  19. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  20. High-energy capacitance electrostatic micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2003-03-01

    The design and parameters of a new electrostatic micromotor with high energy output are described. The motor is created by means of microelectronic technology. Its operation is based on the electromechanic energy conversion during the electrostatic rolling of the metallic films (petals) on the ferroelectric film surface. The mathematical simulation of the main characteristics of the rolling process is carried out. The experimentally measured parameters of the petal step micromotors are shown. The motor operation and its efficiency are investigated.

  1. Energy Balance in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotorev, Max S.; McDonald, Kirk T.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of an electrostatic accelerator is that when a charge e escapes from a conducting plane that supports a uniform electric field of strength E_0, then the charge gains energy e E_0 d as it moves distance d from the plane. Where does this energy come from? We that the mechanical energy gain of the electron is balanced by the decrease in the electrostatic field energy of the system.

  2. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electrodes and Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic assembly methods have been used to generate a range of new materials systems of interest for electrochemical energy and storage applications. Over the past several years, it has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes, metals, metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, and biotemplated materials systems can be incorporated into ultrathin films to generate supercapacitors and battery electrodes that illustrate significant energy density and power. The unique ability to control the incorporation of such a broad range of materials at the nanometer length scale allows tailoring of the final properties of these unique composite systems, as well as the capability of creating complex micron-scale to nanoporous morphologies based on the scale of the nanomaterial that is absorbed within the structure, or the conditions of self-assembly. Recently we have expanded these capabilities to achieve new electrodes that are templated atop electrospun polmer fiber scaffolds, in which the polymer can be selectively removed to achieve highly porous materials. Spray-layer-by-layer and filtration methods of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers enable the generation of electrode systems with unusually high surface. Incorporation of psuedocapacitive nanoparticles can enhance capacitive properties, and other catalytic or metallic nanoparticles can be implemented to enhance electrochemical or catalytic function.

  3. Optics Elements for Modeling Electrostatic Lenses and Accelerator Components: III. Electrostatic Deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.A.; Gillespie, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ion-beam optics models for simulating electrostatic prisms (deflectors) of different geometries have been developed for the computer code TRACE 3-D. TRACE 3-D is an envelope (matrix) code, which includes a linear space charge model, that was originally developed to model bunched beams in magnetic transport systems and radiofrequency (RF) accelerators. Several new optical models for a number of electrostatic lenses and accelerator columns have been developed recently that allow the code to be used for modeling beamlines and accelerators with electrostatic components. The new models include a number of options for: (1) Einzel lenses, (2) accelerator columns, (3) electrostatic prisms, and (4) electrostatic quadrupoles. A prescription for setting up the initial beam appropriate to modeling 2-D (continuous) beams has also been developed. The models for electrostatic prisms are described in this paper. The electrostatic prism model options allow the modeling of cylindrical, spherical, and toroidal electrostatic deflectors. The application of these models in the development of ion-beam transport systems is illustrated through the modeling of a spherical electrostatic analyzer as a component of the new low energy beamline at CAMS

  4. Cost-effective electrostatic-sprayed SrAl2O4: Eu 2 phosphor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nambu University, 864-1 Wolgye-dong, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-824, Korea; Department of Electronic and Photonic Engineering, Honam University, 59-1 Seobong-dong, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-714, Korea; Department of Photonic Engineering, Chosun ...

  5. AFM fluid delivery/liquid extraction surface sampling/electrostatic spray cantilever probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-23

    An electrospray system comprises a liquid extraction surface sampling probe. The probe comprises a probe body having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet, and having a liquid extraction tip. A solvent delivery conduit is provided for receiving solvent liquid from the liquid inlet and delivering the solvent liquid to the liquid extraction tip. An open liquid extraction channel extends across an exterior surface of the probe body from the liquid extraction tip to the liquid outlet. An electrospray emitter tip is in liquid communication with the liquid outlet of the liquid extraction surface sampling probe. A system for analyzing samples, a liquid junction surface sampling system, and a method of analyzing samples are also disclosed.

  6. Generation of 1:1 Carbamazepine:Nicotinamide cocrystals by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shashank P; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigates the potential of spray drying as a technique for generation of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Carbamazepine-Nicotinamide cocrystal (CNC) was chosen as model cocrystal system for this study. Firstly, CNC was generated using liquid assisted grinding and used for generation of phase solubility diagram (PSD) and ternary phase diagram (TPD). Both PSD and TPD were carefully evaluated for phase behavior of CNC when equilibrated with solvent. The undersaturated region with respect to CNC, as depicted by TPD, was selected as target region to initiate cocrystallization experiments. Various points in this region, representative of different compositions of Carbamazepine, Nicotinamide and CNC, were selected and spray drying was carried out. The spray dried product was characterized for solid state properties and was compared with CNC generated by liquid assisted grinding. Spray drying successfully generated CNC of similar quality as those generated by liquid assisted grinding. Moreover, there was no significant impact of process variables on formation of CNC. Spray drying, owing to its simplicity and industrial scalability, can be a promising method for large scale cocrystal generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of electrostatic charge in plastic spacers on the lung delivery of HFA-salbutamol in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, J; Bisgaard, H; Lipworth, B J

    1999-01-01

    was delivered on 3 different study days from plastic spacers with mouthpiece. Pre-treatment of the spacers differed between study days: (a) Non-electrostatic 350 ml Babyhaler (coated with benzalkonium chloride) (b) New 350 ml Babyhaler (rinsed in water), and (c) New 145 ml AeroChamber (rinsed in water). Plasma......AIMS: The effect of the electrostatic charge in plastic spacers in vivo on drug delivery to the lung of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) salbutamol spray was studied in children. METHODS: Five children, aged 7-12 years, were included in a 3-way crossover randomised single-blind trial. Salbutamol HFA spray...... salbutamol was measured before and 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after inhalation of four single puffs of 100 microg salbutamol. Cmax and Cav (5-20min) were calculated as a reflection of lung dose. RESULTS: For Cmax: (A) Non-electrostatic Babyhaler 4.3 ng ml(-1) (B) New Babyhaler 1.9 ng ml(-1) (C) New AeroChamber 1...

  8. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  9. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  10. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  11. Spray deposition of steam treated and functionalized single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xin; Chu, Bryan T T; Johnston, Colin; Sykes, John M; Grant, Patrick S; Ballesteros, Belen; Wang Weiliang

    2009-01-01

    Steam purified, carboxylic and ester functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films with homogeneous distribution and flexible control of thickness and area were fabricated on polymeric and metallic substrates using a modified spray deposition technique. By employing a pre-sprayed polyelectrolyte, the adhesion of the carbon nanotube (CNT) films to the substrates was significantly enhanced by electrostatic interaction. Carboxylic and ester functionalization improved electrochemical performance when immersed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and the specific capacitance reached 155 and 77 F g -1 for carboxylic functionalized SWNT and MWNT films respectively. Compared with existing techniques such as hot pressing, vacuum filtration and dip coating, the ambient pressure spray deposition technique is suggested as particularly well suited for preparing CNT films at large scale for applications including providing electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors and paper batteries.

  12. PCE: web tools to compute protein continuum electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Maria A.; Tufféry, Pierre; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2005-01-01

    PCE (protein continuum electrostatics) is an online service for protein electrostatic computations presently based on the MEAD (macroscopic electrostatics with atomic detail) package initially developed by D. Bashford [(2004) Front Biosci., 9, 1082–1099]. This computer method uses a macroscopic electrostatic model for the calculation of protein electrostatic properties, such as pKa values of titratable groups and electrostatic potentials. The MEAD package generates electrostatic energies via finite difference solution to the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Users submit a PDB file and PCE returns potentials and pKa values as well as color (static or animated) figures displaying electrostatic potentials mapped on the molecular surface. This service is intended to facilitate electrostatics analyses of proteins and thereby broaden the accessibility to continuum electrostatics to the biological community. PCE can be accessed at . PMID:15980492

  13. The first step in layer-by-layer deposition: Electrostatics and/or non-electrostatics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Deschênes, L.

    2011-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the properties and prerequisites of adsorbed polyelectrolytes that have to function as substrates for further layer-by-layer deposition. The central theme is discriminating between the roles of electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions. In order to

  14. Electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities associated with electrostatic shocks: Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (∼3000 km s -1 ) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under counterstreaming condition, with highly oblique wave vectors as was shown previously. The electrostatic potential generated by the electrostatic ion-ion instability propagating obliquely to the shock surface becomes comparable with the shock potential and finally the shock structure is destroyed. It is also shown that in front of the shock the beam-Weibel instability gradually grows as well, consequently suggesting that the magnetic field generated by the beam-Weibel instability becomes important in long-term evolution of the shock and the Weibel-mediated shock forms long after the electrostatic shock vanished. It is also observed that the secondary electrostatic shock forms in the reflected ions in front of the primary electrostatic shock.

  15. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  16. Field distribution in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chang Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The field distribution in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler corresponds to the special solution of a Laplace equation in a cylindrical coordinate system with a boundary value problem of sinusoidal ripples. This paper is devoted to the physical and mathematical treatment for an analytical solution of the field distribution in the coaxial electrostatic wiggler. The explicit expression of the solution indicates that the field distribution in the coaxial electrostatic wiggler varies according to a periodic function in the longitudinal direction, and is related to the first and second kinds of modified Bessel functions in the radial direction, respectively. Comparison shows excellent agreement between the analytical formula and the computer simulation technology (CST results. The physical application of the considered system and its analytical solution are discussed.

  17. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  18. Acoustic effects of single electrostatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzech, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharges, depending on their character, can emit different types of energy, resulting in different effects. Single electrostatic discharges besides generation of electromagnetic pulses are also the source of N acoustic waves. Their specified parameters depending on amount of discharging charge enable determination of value of released charge in a function of acoustic descriptor (e.g. acoustic pressure). Presented approach is the basics of acoustic method for measurement of single electrostatic discharges, enabling direct and contactless measurement of value of charge released during ESD. Method for measurement of acoustic effect of impact of a single electrostatic discharge on the environment in a form of pressure shock wave and examples of acoustic descriptors in a form of equation Q=f(p a ) are described. The properties of measuring system as well as the results of regression static analyses used to determine the described relationships are analysed in details. (paper)

  19. Electrostatic micromotor based on ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2004-11-01

    A new electrostatic micromotor is described that utilizes the electromechanical energy conversion principle earlier described by the authors. The electromechanical energy conversion is based on reversible electrostatic rolling of thin metallic films (petals) on a ferroelectric surface. The motor's active media are layers of ferroelectric ceramics (about 100 µm in thickness). The characteristics of the electrostatic rolling of the petals on different ceramic surfaces are studied, as well as the dynamic characteristics of the micromotors. It is shown that the use of antiferroelectric material allows one to reach a specific energy capacitance comparable to that of the micromotors based on ferroelectric films and to achieve a specific power of 30-300 µW mm-2.

  20. Electrostatic Deposition of Large-Surface Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Trudeau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method for electrostatic deposition of graphene over a large area using controlled electrostatic exfoliation from a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG block. Deposition over 130 × 130 µm2 with 96% coverage is achieved, which contrasts with sporadic micro-scale depositions of graphene with little control from previous works on electrostatic deposition. The deposition results are studied by Raman micro-spectroscopy and hyperspectral analysis using large fields of view to allow for the characterization of the whole deposition area. Results confirm that laser pre-patterning of the HOPG block prior to cleaving generates anchor points favoring a more homogeneous and defect-free HOPG surface, yielding larger and more uniform graphene depositions. We also demonstrate that a second patterning of the HOPG block just before exfoliation can yield features with precisely controlled geometries.

  1. Spray-coated ligand-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Murthy, Swathi; Kofod, Guggi

    We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user- and environ......We have fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films from spray-coating ligand-free nanoparticle inks. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [1], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that user......- and environmentally-friendly alkali metal chloride salts can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. The homogeneous distribution of alkali metals in the ink allows uniform grain growth within the deposited absorber layer as a result of liquid phase assisted sintering. We find that particularly beneficial...... as an unquantifiable amount of ZnS. A Sono-tek spray-coating system is used which utilizes ultrasonic atomization. We investigate the effect of different binders, ink concentration, and spray-coating conditions, i.e. spray power, flow rate from syringe pump, distance between spray nozzle and the substrate, and time...

  2. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  3. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings * biomedical * electronics * energy generation * functional coatings * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  4. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  5. Eficiência de vestimentas hidrorrepelentes novas na proteção do tratorista em pulverizações de agrotóxicos em goiaba com o turbopulverizador Efficiency of new clothes waterrepelent in the protection of the tractor-driver in pesticide spraying in guava orchards with the air-assisted sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bellini Tácio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram: quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias potenciais proporcionadas ao tratorista em pulverizações de agrotóxicos, na cultura de goiaba, com o turbopulverizador; avaliar a eficiência de duas vestimentas de proteção individual; avaliar a segurança e classificar estas condições de trabalho em seguras ou inseguras para cada agrotóxico considerado. A exposição dérmica potencial proporcionada ao tratorista pela condição de trabalho foi de 3.807,3 mL de calda/7h. A eficiência do conjunto de proteção individual Agro Light foi de 96,7 %, e a do Azeredo, 96,2 %. A exposição dérmica potencial nas regiões do corpo mais expostas do tratorista à pulverização, em ordem decrescente, foram os pés, os braços, as coxas+pernas-frente e o tronco-atrás. A exposição dérmica não-controlada pelos conjuntos de proteção individual foi igualmente distribuída em todas as regiões do corpo do tratorista devido aos controles das exposições dérmicas que proporcionaram às regiões mais expostas do corpo. Foram classificadas como seguras as pulverizações de três dos 17 agrotóxicos considerados e sete com o uso das vestimentas de proteção individual. As demais foram classificadas como inseguras.The objectives were to quantify potential dermal and respiratory exposure of the tractor-driver during spraying in guava orchards with the air-assisted sprayer, to evaluate the efficiency of two types of personal protective equipment (PPE, and to classify these working conditions as safe or unsafe for each pesticide studied. The potential dermal exposure of the tractor driver was 3,807.349 mL of spray/6h. The efficiency in the control of dermal exposure was 96.7% for the Agro Light set and 96.2% for the Azeredo set. The feet, arms, thighs front legs and back trunk were the areas most exposed in the absence of protective measures, while exposure was generalized over the body when the PPE was used. The

  6. Electrostatic dry powder prepregging of carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throne, James L.; Sohn, Min-Seok

    1990-01-01

    Ultrafine, 5-10 micron polymer-matrix resin powders are directly applied to carbon fiber tows by passing then in an air or nitrogen stream through an electrostatic potential; the particles thus charged will strongly adhere to grounded carbon fibers, and can be subsequently fused to the fiber in a continuously-fed radiant oven. This electrostatic technique derived significant end-use mechanical property advantages from the obviation of solvents, binders, and other adulterants. Additional matrix resins used to produce prepregs to date have been PMR-15, Torlon 40000, and LaRC TPI.

  7. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  8. Design of an electrostatic magnetic quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of electrostatic acceleration system, electrostatic magnetic quadrupole (ESMQ) acceleration system, is proposed for efficient acceleration of negative ion beams. In this system, permanent magnets are buried in the acceleration electrodes so as to produce a quadrupole magnetic field in the electrode aperture region. Envelope simulation indicates that the quadrupole field can deflect electrons stripped from the negative ions. Beam envelope simulations for deuterium ions and electrons have been carried out using the beam envelope code TRACE. Electrons are largely divergent and most appear likely to hit downstream electrodes. Furthermore, maximum beam divergence of the deuterium ions is reduced to the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnetic field

  9. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity

  10. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: microstructure and in vitro behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolelli, Giovanni; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella; Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer; Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27-37μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%-70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO2 bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates. © 2013.

  11. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon

    2017-12-01

    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  12. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  13. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  14. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  15. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  16. Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Shun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

  17. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  18. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Absorption of airborne molecular iodine by water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.F.; Wichner, R.P.; Baumgarten, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model, I2WASH, which accounts for the effect of hydrolysis reactions between molecular iodine and water, has been developed to predict the rate of removal of gaseous molecular iodine by water sprays. It has been shown that the hydrolysis reactions can affect the concentration driving force of mass transfer for molecular iodine absorption. Thus, factors that affect the hydrolysis kinetics, such as spray solution pH, iodine concentration, and temperature, should be considered in the design of a well-based absorption model. The described model also includes the effects of spray drop-size distribution, convective heat transfer, droplet evaporation or water condensation, decay heating, and ventilation air flow through the containment. The model was originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1985 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Sequence Analysis program and has been improved to assist in a comprehensive probability risk assessment of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Results obtained using the model are compared with those of the Containment Systems Experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) in 1970. An improvement over the earlier model is indicated at room temperatures, but accuracy decreases as the temperature rises. The decreased agreement at high temperature is partially due to an incomplete knowledge of the temperature effects on iodine hydrolysis reactions. The results of the I2WASH model for a postulated catastrophic accident at SRP show that ∼85% of the molecular iodine will be captured by the sprays at a buffered pH of 10.0, and ∼52% will be captured at a buffered pH of 7.0. The model is believed to be a significant improvement over (and more realistic than) other models

  20. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: Microstructure and in vitro behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolelli, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.bolelli@unimore.it [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, MO (Italy); Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, MO (Italy); Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer [Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites (IMTCCC), Universität Stuttgart, Allmandring 7b, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27–37 μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%–70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO{sub 2} bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (< 24%) and high (70%) crystallinity was ≈ 3.5 GPa and ≈ 4.5 GPa respectively. The distributions of hardness values, all characterised by Weibull modulus in the 5–7 range, were narrower than that of conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈ 3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14 days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates. - Highlights: • Thin, dense HA layers were originated by HVSFS deposition of molten agglomerates of ≈ 1 μm. • Tensile adhesion strength of HVSFS HA onto Ti well above the threshold of ISO 13779-2 • Crystallinity (10–70%) is determined by system temperature during deposition. • Crystallinity controls the reactivity during immersion in simulated body fluid. • SAOS-2 osteoblast-like cells adhered well and

  1. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  2. Efficient optimization of electrostatic interactions between biomolecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, J. P.; Altman, M. D.; White, J. K.; Tidor, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; MIT

    2007-01-01

    We present a PDE-constrained approach to optimizing the electrostatic interactions between two biomolecules. These interactions play important roles in the determination of binding affinity and specificity, and are therefore of significant interest when designing a ligand molecule to bind tightly to a receptor. Using a popular continuum model and physically reasonable assumptions, the electrostatic component of the binding free energy is a convex, quadratic function of the ligand charge distribution. Traditional optimization methods require exhaustive pre-computation, and the expense has precluded a full exploration of the promise of electrostatic optimization in biomolecule analysis and design. In this paper we describe an approach in which the electrostatic simulations and optimization problem are solved simultaneously; unlike many PDE- constrained optimization frameworks, the proposed method does not incorporate the PDE as a set of equality constraints. This co-optimization approach can be used by itself to solve unconstrained problems or those with linear equality constraints, or in conjunction with primal-dual interior point methods to solve problems with inequality constraints. Model problems demonstrate that the co-optimization method is computationally efficient and can be used to solve realistic problems.

  3. Collapse of Electrostatic Waves in Magnetoplasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Yu, M. Y.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    The two-fluid model is employed to investigate the collapse of electrostatic waves in magnetized plasmas. It is found that nonlinear interaction of ion cyclotron, upper-, and lower-hybrid waves with adiabatic particle motion along the external magnetic field can cause wave-field collapse....

  4. Dynamical Aspects of Electrostatic Double Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadu, M.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic double layers have been proposed as an acceleration mechanism in solar flares and other astrophysical objects. They have been extensively studied in the laboratory and by means of computer simulations. The theory of steady-state double layers implies several existence criteria...

  5. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  6. Electrostatics of a Family of Conducting Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2009-01-01

    An exact solution is found for the electrostatic potential of a family of conducting charged toroids. The toroids are characterized by two lengths "a" and "b", with "a" greater than or equal to "2b". They are closed, with no hole in the "doughnut". The results are obtained by considering the potential of two equal charges, displaced from the…

  7. The Electrostatic Environments of Mars: Atmospheric Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Hogue, Michael D.; Phillips, James, III; Cox, Rachel E.

    2016-01-01

    The electrostatic environment on Mars is controlled by its ever present atmospheric dust. Dust devils and dust storms tribocharge this dust. Theoretical studies predict that lightning and/or glow discharges should be present on Mars, but none have been directly observed. Experiments are planned to shed light on this issue.

  8. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  9. The electrostatic interaction between interfacial colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    The electrostatic interaction between charged, colloidal particles trapped at an air-water interface is considered using linearised Poisson-Boltzmann results for point particles. In addition to the expected screened-Coulomb contribution, which decays exponentially, an algebraic dipole-dipole interaction occurs that may account for long-range interactions in interfacial colloidal systems.

  10. Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. I.

    1982-01-01

    Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

  11. Electrostatic MEMS devices with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L; Auciello, Orlando H; Sumant, Anirudha V; Mancini, Derrick C; Gudeman, Chris; Sampath, Suresh; Carlilse, John A; Carpick, Robert W; Hwang, James

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides for an electrostatic microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprising a dielectric layer separating a first conductor and a second conductor. The first conductor is moveable towards the second conductor, when a voltage is applied to the MEMS device. The dielectric layer recovers from dielectric charging failure almost immediately upon removal of the voltage from the MEMS device.

  12. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...

  13. Fabrication and characterization of an electrostatic contraction beams micromotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Fujita, H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication and experimental characterization of an electrostatic contraction beams motor that exhibits both reliable operation and high performance haracteristics. This electrostatic linear stepper micromotor is fabricated in a single polysilicon layer combining vertical trench

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Under Large Electrostatic Force

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction

  15. A Novel Electrostatic/Microstructured Adhesive with Dust Mitigation Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will develop a novel electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive that will demonstrate an order-of-magnitude improvement of electrostatic adhesion pressure coupled...

  16. Charging and absorption characteristics of small particulates under alternative and electrostatic voltages in an electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue-Dong; Xu He; Wang Xin

    2014-01-01

    The charge quantity of small particulates such as PM2.5 plays a key role in the collection efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under a single electrostatic voltage, it is difficult to charge and absorb small particulates. A new method of superimposing an alternative voltage on the electrostatic voltage is provided in this paper. Characteristics of small particulates are analyzed under alternative and electrostatic voltages. It is demonstrated that an alternative voltage can significantly improve the collection efficiency in three aspects: preventing anti-corona, increasing the charge quantity of small particulates, and increasing the median particulate size by electric agglomeration. In addition, practical usage with the superposition of alternative voltage is provided, and the results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  17. A Study of Electrostatic Charge on Insulating Film by Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikunaga, K; Toosaka, K; Kamohara, T; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic charge properties on polypropylene film have been characterized by atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements have been carried out after the polypropylene film was electrified by contact and separation process in an atmosphere of controlled humidity. The negative and positive charge in concave surface has been observed. The correlation between concave surface and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charges could be caused by localized contact. On the other hand, positive charge on a flat surface has been observed. The absence of a relationship between surface profile and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charge should be caused by discharge during the separation process. The spatial migration of other positive charges through surface roughness has been observed. The results suggest that there could be some electron traps on the surface roughness and some potentials on the polypropylene film.

  18. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  19. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Electrostatics 2011 was held in the city of Bangor which is located in North West Wales in an area of outstanding natural beauty close to the Snowdonia mountain range and bordering the Irish Sea. The history of the area goes back into the mists of times, but a continuous technological thread can be traced from the stone- and bronze-age craftsmen, who inhabited the area several thousand years ago, via the civil engineering and fortifications of the Romans and Edward I of England, through Marconi's long-wave trans-Atlantic transmitter near Caernarfon to the conference host. The School of Electronic Engineering at Bangor University has contributed much to the discipline of Electrostatics not only in teaching and research but also in supporting industry. It was a great pleasure for me, therefore, to have the pleasure of welcoming the world's experts in Electrostatics to Bangor in April 2011. In my preface to the Proceedings of Electrostatics 1999, I reported that almost 90 papers were presented. Interestingly, a similar number were presented in 2011 testifying to the importance and endurance of the subject. The all-embracing nature of electrostatics is captured in the pictorial depiction used for the conference logo: a hand-held plasma ball with its close link to gaseous discharges and the superimposed Antarctic aurora highlighting the featured conference themes of atmospheric, planetary and environmental electrostatics. Leading these themes were three invited contributions, the first by Giles Harrison who delivered the Bill Bright Memorial Lecture 'Fair weather atmospheric electricity', Carlos Calle on 'The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon' and Istvan Berta on 'Lightning protection - challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century'. Leading other key sessions were invited papers by Atsushi Ohsawa on 'Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry' and Antonio

  20. Macroscale and Nanoscale Morphology Evolution during in Situ Spray Coating of Titania Films for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Caller-Guzman, Herbert A; Körstgens, Volker; Rui, Yichuan; Yao, Yuan; Saxena, Nitin; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2017-12-20

    Mesoporous titania is a cheap and widely used material for photovoltaic applications. To enable a large-scale fabrication and a controllable pore size, we combined a block copolymer-assisted sol-gel route with spray coating to fabricate titania films, in which the block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) is used as a structure-directing template. Both the macroscale and nanoscale are studied. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the spray deposition processes are simulated on a macroscale, which shows a good agreement with the large-scale morphology of the spray-coated films obtained in practice. On the nanoscale, the structure evolution of the titania films is probed with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the spray process. The changes of the PS domain size depend not only on micellization but also on solvent evaporation during the spray coating. Perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) solar cells (PSCs) based on sprayed titania film are fabricated, which showcases the suitability of spray-deposited titania films for PSCs.

  1. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  2. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  3. Summary of the Blackmo 88 spray experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Miller; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus; D. E. Anderson; K. Mierzejewski

    1991-01-01

    The Blackmo 88 spray trial experiment was conducted for two primary purposes: To quantify the effects of local micrometeorological processes, in and near the canopy, on the deposition patterns of aerially applied BT in a mature oak forest; To generate a data set containing simultaneous measurements of spray deposition and detailed micrometeorology, in a canopy of known...

  4. SIMION, Electrostatic Lens Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, David A.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SIMION is an electrostatic lens analysis and design program. In SIMION an electrostatic lens is defined as a two-dimensional electrostatic potential array containing both electrode and non-electrode points. The potential array is refined using over-relaxation methods allowing voltage contours and ion trajectories to be computed and plotted. Planar and cylindrical symmetry assumptions allow the two-dimensional fields to support three-dimensional ion trajectory calculations. In addition, the user has the option of writing simple programs which can among other actions control field scale factors, dynamically adjust electrodes, and define explicit three-dimensional field functions (e.g. a quadrupole) used in lieu of array fields in specified portions of the potential array. Magnetic fields can be specified for computing ion trajectories in many electrostatic and magnetic field environments. An interactive graphics interface that uses a high resolution color display and mouse allows the user to view electrodes, trajectories, and contours on the screen prior to plotting, and a memory zoom feature permits expansion of selected areas in the current view. The mouse can be operated to edit the potential array, initialize voltage gradients, or resize the potential array. 2 - Method of solution: SIMION is designed to model the electrostatic fields and forces created by a collection of shaped electrodes given certain symmetry assumptions. The electrostatic fields are modeled as boundary value problem solutions of a Laplace elliptical partial differential equation. A finite difference technique called dynamically self-adjusting over-relaxation is applied to the two-dimensional potential array of points representing electrode and non-electrode regions to obtain a best estimate of the voltages for those points within the array that depict non-electrode regions. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used for numerical integration of

  5. Yukawa multipole electrostatics and nontrivial coupling between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellander, Roland; Ramirez, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    An exact treatment of screened electrostatics in electrolyte solutions is presented. In electrolytes the anisotropy of the exponentially decaying electrostatic potential from a molecule extends to the far field region. The full directional dependence of the electrostatic potential from a charged or uncharged molecule remains in the longest range tail (i.e. from all multipole moments). In particular, the range of the potential from an ion and that from an electroneutral polar particle is generally exactly the same. This is in contrast to the case in vacuum or pure polar liquids, where the potential from a single charge is longer ranged than that from a dipole, which is, itself, longer ranged than the one from a quadrupole etc. The orientational dependence of the exponentially screened electrostatic interaction between two molecules in electrolytes is therefore rather complex even at long distances. These facts are formalized in Yukawa multipole expansions of the electrostatic potential and the pair interaction free energy based on the Yukawa function family exp(-κr)/r m , where r is the distance, κ is a decay parameter and m is a positive integer. The expansion is formally exact for electrolytes with molecular solvent and in the primitive model, provided the non-Coulombic interactions between the particles are sufficiently short ranged. The results can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Differences and similarities to the ordinary multipole expansion of electrostatics are pointed out. On the other hand, when the non-Coulombic interactions between the constituent particles of the electrolyte solution contain a dispersion 1/r 6 potential, the electrostatic potential from a molecule decays like a power law for long distances rather than as a Yukawa function. This is due to nontrivial coupling between the electrostatic and dispersion interactions. There remains an exponentially decaying component in the electrostatic potential, but it becomes

  6. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  7. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  8. A study on erosive wear behavior of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-CoCr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Lalit; Arora, Navneet [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2013-05-15

    WC-CoCr cermet coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The coatings were developed with two different thermal spray powders: one has WC grains of conventional micron size and the other is composed of nanosized (near-nanostructured) grains. HVOF spraying was assisted with in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurement system to control the process parameters that have resulted in quality coatings. Cavitation erosion testing was performed using a vibratory test apparatus based on ASTM standard G32-98. Surface morphology of powders and coatings was examined using the FESEM images, and phase identification was performed by XRD analysis. The erosion behavior of coatings and mechanism of material removal was discussed by examining the microstructure images of worn-out surfaces. WC-CoCr cermet coating deposited with nanosized WC grains exhibited higher cavitation erosion resistance as compared to conventional coating.

  9. Application of electrostatic prevention technology on polyethylene silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong; Liu, Quanzhen; Tan, Fenggui; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The main reasons of static electric explosion accidents in polyolefin plant silos were analyzed in this paper, and the study finds that the reasons include control failure of flammable gas content in the feed, high electrification caused by the wind supply, and frequent electrostatic discharge in silos. The electrostatic-reducing technologies of polyolefin powder were introduced, and its application performance in polyolefin plant silos was also clarified. In addition, the methods including FDCS and DGES for evaluation of electrostatic explosion in polyolefin plant silo were proposed. In the end, the risk of electrostatic explosion in PE plant blended silo was evaluated before and after application of electrostatic reducing technology.

  10. Proton emission with a screened electrostatic barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaca, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, Bucharest (Romania); Budaca, A.I. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-08-15

    Half-lives of proton emission for Z ≥ 51 nuclei are calculated within a simple analytical model based on the WKB approximation for the barrier penetration probability which includes the centrifugal and overlapping effects besides the electrostatic repulsion. The model has a single free parameter associated to a Hulthen potential which emulates a Coulomb electrostatic interaction only at short distance. The agreement with experimental data is very good for most of the considered nuclei. Theoretical predictions are made for few cases with uncertain emitting state configuration or incomplete decay information. The model's assignment of the proton orbital momentum is in agreement with the differentiation of the experimental data by orbital momentum values realized with a newly introduced correlation formula. (orig.)

  11. Electrostatically telescoping nanotube nonvolatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Jiang Qing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonvolatile memory based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serving as the key building blocks for molecular-scale computers and investigate the dynamic operations of a double-walled CNT memory element by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The localized potential energy wells achieved from both the interwall van der Waals energy and CNT-metal binding energy make the bistability of the CNT positions and the electrostatic attractive forces induced by the voltage differences lead to the reversibility of this CNT memory. The material for the electrodes should be carefully chosen to achieve the nonvolatility of this memory. The kinetic energy of the CNT shuttle experiences several rebounds induced by the collisions of the CNT onto the metal electrodes, and this is critically important to the performance of such an electrostatically telescoping CNT memory because the collision time is sufficiently long to cause a delay of the state transition

  12. Interaction dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Krasovsky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of nonlinear electrostatic pulses associated with electron phase density holes moving in a collisionless plasma is studied. An elementary event of the interaction is analyzed on the basis of the energy balance in the system consisting of two electrostatic solitary waves. It is established that an intrinsic property of the system is a specific irreversibility caused by a nonadiabatic modification of the internal structure of the holes and their effective heating in the process of the interaction. This dynamical irreversibility is closely connected with phase mixing of the trapped electrons comprising the holes and oscillating in the varying self-consistent potential wells. As a consequence of the irreversibility, the "collisions" of the solitary waves should be treated as "inelastic" ones. This explains the general tendency to the merging of the phase density holes frequently observed in numerical simulation and to corresponding coupling of the solitary waves.

  13. Theory and uses of electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descolas, M

    1974-01-01

    Factors influencing the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, and the principal uses of this type of dust separator are reviewed. The counter-ionization caused by very high resistivity of the dust can be avoided theoretically by increasing the temperature. The resistance of the settled dust layer is determined not only by the inherent resistivity of the dust but also that of impurities adsorbed by the dust particles, such as water vapor and sulfur dioxide, which tend to decrease the resistance. The maximum possible current intensity decreases with increasing temperature. The current intensity decreases with increasing dust concentration in the waste gas. Electrostatic dust precipitators are successfully used in thermal power plants, waste incinerators, open-hearth furnaces, and oxygen converters. In the pulp industry, they are used to recover sodium sulfate and carbonate between the soda lye boiler and the economizer.

  14. Electrostatic Dust Detector with Improved Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.P.; Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to measure the inventory of dust particles and to remove dust if it approaches safety limits will be required in next-step tokamaks such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces, biased to 30 or 50 V, has been developed for the detection of dust on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Gaining operational experience of dust detection on surfaces in tokamaks is important, however the level of dust generated in contemporary short-pulse tokamaks is comparatively low and high sensitivity is necessary to measure dust on a shot-by-shot basis. We report on modifications in the detection electronics that have increased the sensitivity of the electrostatic dust detector by a factor of up to 120, - a level suitable for measurements on contemporary tokamaks.

  15. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  16. Contemporary NMR Studies of Protein Electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Mathias A S; Mulder, Frans A A

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatics play an important role in many aspects of protein chemistry. However, the accurate determination of side chain proton affinity in proteins by experiment and theory remains challenging. In recent years the field of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has advanced the way that protonation states are measured, allowing researchers to examine electrostatic interactions at an unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. Experiments are now in place that follow pH-dependent (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts as spatially close as possible to the sites of protonation, allowing all titratable amino acid side chains to be probed sequence specifically. The strong and telling response of carefully selected reporter nuclei allows individual titration events to be monitored. At the same time, improved frameworks allow researchers to model multiple coupled protonation equilibria and to identify the underlying pH-dependent contributions to the chemical shifts.

  17. Teaching Electrostatics and Entropy in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Mark

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology courses is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. I will present material developed to teach electrostatic screening in solutions and the function of nerve cells where entropic effects act to counterbalance electrostatic attraction. These ideas are taught in an introductory, calculus-based physics course to biomedical engineers using SCALEUP pedagogy. Results of student mastering of complex problems that cross disciplinary boundaries between biology and physics, as well as the challenges that they face in learning this material will be presented.

  18. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  19. Numerical simulation of electrostatic waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erz, U.

    1981-08-01

    In this paper the propagation of electrostatic waves in plasmas and the non-linear interactions, which occur in the case of large wave amplitudes, are studied using a new numerical method for plasma simulation. This mathematical description is based on the Vlasov-model. Changes in the distribution-function are taken into account and thus plasma kinetic effects can be treated. (orig./HT) [de

  20. SUBMICRON PARTICLES EMISSION CONTROL BY ELECTROSTATIC AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krupa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a device for more effective treatment of flue gases from submicron particles emitted by power plants burning bituminous coal and by this way the reduction of environment pollution. Electrostatic processes were employed to this goal, as the most effective solution. The solutions hitherto applied in electrostatic precipitation techniques were designed for large particles, typically with sizes> 5 µm, which are easily removed by the action of electrostatic force on the electrically charged particles. In submicron size range (0.1-1 µm the collection efficiency of an ESP is minimal, because of the low value of electric charge on such particles. In order to avoid problems with the removal of submicron particles of fly ash from the flue gases electrostatic agglomeration has been used. In this process, by applying an alternating electric field, larger charged particles (> 1 µm oscillate, and the particles "collect" smaller uncharged particles. In the developed agglomerator with alternating electric field, the charging of particles and the coagulation takes place in one stage that greatly simplified the construction of the device, compared to other solutions. The scope of this study included measurements of fractional collection efficiency of particles in the system comprising of agglomerator and ESP for PM1 and PM2.5 ranges, in device made in pilot scale. The collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 90% and PM1 slightly dropped below 90%. The mass collection efficiency for PM2.5 was greater than 95%. The agglomerator stage increases the collection efficiency for PM1 at a level of 5-10%.

  1. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  2. Electrostatic Properties of Particles for Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) aredevices used to deliver therapeutic agents to the lungs. Typically, inhaled activepharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are electrically resistive materials and are prone toaccumulating electrostatic charge. The build-up of charge on inhaled therapeutics hastraditionally been viewed as a nuisance as it may result in problems such as weighingerrors, agglomeration, adhesion to surfaces and poor flow. Energetic processing st...

  3. 4kV Electrostatic Accelerator Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.; Montanno, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    We design and construct a small one meter linear electron accelerator. It can reach energy up to 4KeV. As a first step we put it in work via electrostatic voltage difference and verifying the acceleration of the electrons with an electrometer. Our plans in the future refer to construct another accelerator of bigger energy and type, for instance, a linear one with resounding cavities. (Author)

  4. Electrostatically actuated torsional resonant sensors and switches

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments in accordance of a torsional resonant sensor disclosure is configured to actuate a beam structure using electrostatic actuation with an AC harmonic load (e.g., AC and DC voltage sources) that is activated upon detecting a particular agent having a mass above a predefined level. In various embodiments, the beam structure may be different types of resonant structures that is at least partially coated or layered with a selective material.

  5. Low-Shear Microencapsulation and Electrostatic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A report presents additional information on the topic of a microencapsulation electrostatic processing system. Information in the report includes micrographs of some microcapsules, a set of diagrams that schematically depict the steps of an encapsulation process, and brief descriptions of (1) alternative versions of the present encapsulation processes, (2) advantages of the present microencapsulation processes over prior microencapsulation processes, and (3) unique and advantageous features of microcapsules produced by the present processes.

  6. Fabrication of a New Electrostatic Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Takashi; Kondoh, Kazuya; Kumagae, Michihiro; Kawata, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Masaaki; Murata, Kenji; Yoshitake, Masaaki

    2000-12-01

    We propose a new electrostatic linear actuator with a large stroke and a new process for fabricating the actuator. A moving slider with many teeth on both sides is suspended above lower electrodes on a substrate by two bearings. A photoresist is used as a sacrificial layer. Both the slider and the bearings are fabricated by Ni electroplating. The bearings are fabricated by the self-alignment technique. Bearings with 0.6 μm clearance can be easily fabricated. All processes are performed at low temperatures up to 110°C. It is confirmed that the slider can be moved mechanically, and also can be moved by about 10 μm when a voltage pulse of 50 V is applied between the slider and the lower electrodes when the slider is upside down. However, the slider cannot move continuously because of friction. We also calculate the electrostatic force acting on one slider tooth. The simulation result shows that the reduction of the electrostatic force to the vertical direction is very important for mechanical movement of the actuator.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-05-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using a multi- mode Galarkin Reduced Order Model (ROM). We investigate the static response of the arch experimentally where we show several jumps due to the snap-through instability. Experimentally, a case study of in-plane silicon micromachined arch is studied and its mechanical behavior is measured using optical techniques. We develop an algorithm to extract various parameters that are needed to model the arch, such as the induced axial force, the modulus of elasticity, and the initially induced initial rise. After that, we excite the arch by a DC electrostatic force superimposed to an AC harmonic load. A softening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the first resonance frequency due to the quadratic nonlinearity coming from the arch geometry and the electrostatic force. Also, a hardening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the third (second symmetric) resonance frequency due to the cubic nonlinearity coming from mid-plane stretching. Then, we excite the arch by an electric load of two AC frequency components, where we report a combination resonance of the summed type. Agreement is reported among the theoretical and experimental work.

  8. Biomolecular electrostatics and solvation: a computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pengyu; Chun, Jaehun; Thomas, Dennis G; Schnieders, Michael J; Marucho, Marcelo; Zhang, Jiajing; Baker, Nathan A

    2012-11-01

    An understanding of molecular interactions is essential for insight into biological systems at the molecular scale. Among the various components of molecular interactions, electrostatics are of special importance because of their long-range nature and their influence on polar or charged molecules, including water, aqueous ions, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and membrane lipids. In particular, robust models of electrostatic interactions are essential for understanding the solvation properties of biomolecules and the effects of solvation upon biomolecular folding, binding, enzyme catalysis, and dynamics. Electrostatics, therefore, are of central importance to understanding biomolecular structure and modeling interactions within and among biological molecules. This review discusses the solvation of biomolecules with a computational biophysics view toward describing the phenomenon. While our main focus lies on the computational aspect of the models, we provide an overview of the basic elements of biomolecular solvation (e.g. solvent structure, polarization, ion binding, and non-polar behavior) in order to provide a background to understand the different types of solvation models.

  9. Assessment of the influence factors on nasal spray droplet velocity using phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2011-03-01

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box-Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actuation parameters and formulation properties on nasal spray droplet velocity using a set of placebo formulations. The DOE study shows that all four input factors (stroke length, actuation velocity, concentration of the gelling agent, and concentration of the surfactant) have significant influence on droplet velocity. An optimized quadratic model generated from the DOE results describes the inherent relationships between the input factors and droplet velocity thus providing a better understanding of the input factor influences. Overall, PDA provides a new in vitro characterization method for the evaluation of inhalation drugs through assessment of spray velocity and may assist in product development to meet drug delivery equivalency requirements. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  10. Characterization of silica and titania nanoparticles synthesized in a spray flame reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cignoli, F.; Maffi, S.; Bellomunno, C.; De Iuliis, S.; Zizak, G. [CNR-IENI, Milano (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Nanostructured materials represent nowadays a wide and largely unexplored field of potential applications. This is a research topic in high and rapid development, both at a basic level and under the point of view of potential practical applications, leaving large space for a thorough scientific analysis, which requires a significant amount of time for ultimate conclusions. This paper dealt with the preliminary work performed in the field of frame spray pyrolysis synthesis for nanoparticles, using an external mixing gas assisted nozzle. An experimental apparatus was designed, realized, and characterized for the synthesis of nanoparticles by the flame spray pyrolysis method. The presentation discussed the advantages of the flame spray pyrolysis technique and the experimental set-up including an image of the water spray and discussion of phase doppler anemometry and visualizations to investigate the flow field and the dimensional distribution of the droplets generated by the atomizer. The presentation also discussed the selection of precursor and dispersion fuel for nanoparticles synthesis through flame spray pyrolysis and transmission electron microscopy for dimensional analysis of nanoparticles. It was concluded that the apparatus demonstrated good stability and reproducibility of the reaction flame and, therefore, of the material produced. figs.

  11. Development of coaxial speaker-like non-contact electrostatic sensor for aviation engine exhaust electrostatic character research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Zhaoheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic sensor is the most important equipment in aero-engine exhaust electrostatic character research. By comparing a variety of sensor test programs, the coaxial speaker-like noncontact electrostatic sensor program is proposed. Numerical simulation analysis indicates the electric field distribution of electrostatic sensor, the influence principle of gap width, outer diameter, center diameter, angle and other factors on the sensor capacitance values which identify the key indicators of electrostatic sensor. The experiment test shows that the simulation analysis is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Electrostatics of spherical metallic particles in cylinder electrostatic separators/sizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongzhou; Li Jia; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of spherical metallic particles in electrostatic separators/sizers (ESSs). A computational algorithm is employed to depict the cylinder-type electrode arrangements applied in some electrostatic processes generating non-uniform electric fields. The ESS consists of a pair of conducting cylinders. The upper cylinder is energized by HVdc, while the lower one is grounded and mounted horizontally on a revolvable axis. The aim of this paper is to present a new electrode configuration and demonstrate the usefulness of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the particle's motion. A computer program was employed for analysing the behavior of spherical particles in a two-dimensional electrode arrangement that models the actual electric field configuration of cylinder-type electrostatic separators/sizers. The analysis is needed for the development of any new application of this cylinder-type electrode arrangement as an electrostatic separation method. The results reveal that the particle's motion depends on its radius and density and amplitude of the applied voltage. The actual granular mixtures with different specific mass and radius could be separated applying this cylinder-type electrostatic separation method; the lift voltage is an important parameter for separation. With a program for two-dimensional analysis of the electric field, the computational procedure presented in this paper could be employed for any particle shapes

  13. Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio Luis N. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IN, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Durao, Diamantino G. [Universidade Lusiada, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling. (orig.)

  14. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  15. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  16. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  17. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  20. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  1. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  2. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  3. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  4. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  5. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  6. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  7. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  8. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  10. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  11. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  12. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  14. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  15. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  16. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  17. The electrostatic cylindrical sheath in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Sun Xiaoxia; Bai Dongxue

    2004-01-01

    The electrostatic sheath with a cylindrical geometry in an ion-electron plasma is investigated. Assuming a Boltzmann response to electrons and cold ions with bulk flow, it is shown that the radius of the cylindrical geometry do not affect the sheath potential significantly. The authors also found that the sheath potential profile is steeper in the cylindrical sheath compared to the slab sheath. The distinct feature of the cylindrical sheath is that the ion density distribution is not monotonous. The sheath region can be divided into three regions, two ascendant regions and one descendant region. (author)

  18. Charging device for an electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovar, L.I.; Khurgin, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to electrostatic accelerators operating in compressed gases and charged by a charge-carrying belt transport device with driving and driven shafts. The aim of the invention is the increase of service life of the device by decreasing deflection of the charge-carrying belt in high-voltage conductor operation at high voltages. Increase of survice life of the device is provided due to the fact that the belt as a whole is more stable and it runs true without slacking shielding rods

  19. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  20. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  1. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  2. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  3. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  4. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  5. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  6. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  7. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  8. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  9. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  10. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  12. Orbital dynamics in a storage ring with electrostatic bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    A storage ring where electrostatic fields contribute to the bending and focusing of the orbital motion has some novel features because, unlike a magnetostatic field, an electrostatic field can change the kinetic energy of the particles. I present analytical formulas to calculate the linear focusing gradient, dispersion, momentum compaction and natural chromaticity for a storage ring with a radial electrostatic field. I solve the formulas explicitly for a weak focusing model.

  13. Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...

  14. The effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x powder characteristics on thick coatings prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiopoulos, E.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2000-01-01

    The development of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x plasma sprayed coatings on metal substrates can be very useful for applications such as targets for thin-film deposition techniques (sputtering, laser ablation, ion assisted deposition) or magnetic shielding, due to the brittle nature of bulk superconductors. The plasma spraying technique is very flexible and can be used for manufacturing components with a large variety of geometries. This technique requires the use of powders with good rheological characteristics. In this study, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x powders were produced by using the conventional solid-state reaction route and also by spray drying a solution of nitrate precursors. Both powders, as well as mixtures of them, were plasma sprayed to develop coatings on stainless-steel substrates, with the aim of studying the effect of the feedstock powder characteristics on the coating properties. It was found that by optimizing the plasma spraying conditions, good quality coatings could be obtained. However, the powder morphology and homogeneity significantly affect the coating quality. More homogeneous powders lead to better results, the spray-dried powder being the best because of its enhanced rheological properties and good morphology. (author)

  15. Electrostatic chuck consisting of polymeric electrostatic inductive fibers for handling of objects with rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhelika, Radon; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio; Takarada, Wataru; Kikutani, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck (ESC) is a type of reversible dry adhesive which clamps objects by means of electrostatic force. Currently an ESC is used only for objects having flat surfaces because the attractive force is reduced for rough surfaces. An ESC that can handle objects with rough surfaces will expand its applications to MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) or optical parts handling. An ESC consisting of compliant electrostatic inductive fibers which conform to the profile of the surface has been proposed for such use. This paper aims at furthering previous research by observing the attractive force/pressure generated, both theoretically and experimentally, through step-by-step fabrication and analysis. Additionally, how the proposed fiber ESC behaves toward rough surfaces is also observed. The attractive force/pressure of the fiber ESC is theoretically investigated using a robust mechano-electrostatic model. Subsequently, a prototype of the fiber ESC consisting of ten fibers arranged at an angle is employed to experimentally observe its attractive force/pressure for objects with rough surfaces. The attractive force of the surface which is modeled as a sinusoidal wave with various amplitudes is observed, through which the feasibility of a fiber ESC is justified. (paper)

  16. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  17. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-14

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  18. Investigating ESD sensitivity in electrostatic SiGe MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangameswaran, Sandeep; De Coster, Jeroen; Linten, Dimitri; Scholz, Mirko; Thijs, Steven; Groeseneken, Guido; De Wolf, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of electrostatically actuated SiGe microelectromechanical systems to electrostatic discharge events has been investigated in this paper. Torsional micromirrors and RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators have been used as two case studies to perform this study. On-wafer electrostatic discharge (ESD) measurement methods, such as the human body model (HBM) and machine model (MM), are discussed. The impact of HBM ESD zap tests on the functionality and behavior of MEMS is explained and the ESD failure levels of MEMS have been verified by failure analysis. It is demonstrated that electrostatic MEMS devices have a high sensitivity to ESD and that it is essential to protect them.

  19. Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko(1984. Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced . This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.

  20. Highly Tunable Electrothermally and Electrostatically Actuated Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-03-30

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically for the first time, a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator actuated electrothermally and electrostatically. Using both actuation methods, we demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally by passing a dc current through it, and electrostatically by applying a dc polarization voltage between the microbeam and the stationary electrode. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Adding a dc bias changes the qualitative nature of the tunability both before and after buckling, which adds another independent way of tuning. This reduces the dip before buckling, and can eliminate it if desired, and further increases the fundamental frequency after buckling. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared with the experimental data and simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. [2015-0341

  1. Microscopic models for bridging electrostatics and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Mascheretti, P.

    2007-03-01

    A teaching sequence based on the use of microscopic models to link electrostatic phenomena with direct currents is presented. The sequence, devised for high school students, was designed after initial work carried out with student teachers attending a school of specialization for teaching physics at high school, at the University of Pavia. The results obtained with them are briefly presented, because they directed our steps for the development of the teaching sequence. For both the design of the experiments and their interpretation, we drew inspiration from the original works of Alessandro Volta; in addition, a structural model based on the particular role of electrons as elementary charges both in electrostatic phenomena and in currents was proposed. The teaching sequence starts from experiments on charging objects by rubbing and by induction, and engages students in constructing microscopic models to interpret their observations. By using these models and by closely examining the ideas of tension and capacitance, the students acknowledge that a charging (or discharging) process is due to the motion of electrons that, albeit for short time intervals, represent a current. Finally, they are made to see that the same happens in transients of direct current circuits.

  2. Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Michał; Dannert, Mirjam; Mett, Felix; Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang; Nackenhorst, Udo

    2017-09-01

    Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko (1984). Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced). This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.

  3. Electrostatic ion thrusters - towards predictive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalentev, O.; Matyash, K.; Duras, J.; Lueskow, K.F.; Schneider, R. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 (Germany); Koch, N. [Technische Hochschule Nuernberg Georg Simon Ohm, Kesslerplatz 12, D-90489 Nuernberg (Germany); Schirra, M. [Thales Electronic Systems GmbH, Soeflinger Strasse 100, D-89077 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The development of electrostatic ion thrusters so far has mainly been based on empirical and qualitative know-how, and on evolutionary iteration steps. This resulted in considerable effort regarding prototype design, construction and testing and therefore in significant development and qualification costs and high time demands. For future developments it is anticipated to implement simulation tools which allow for quantitative prediction of ion thruster performance, long-term behavior and space craft interaction prior to hardware design and construction. Based on integrated numerical models combining self-consistent kinetic plasma models with plasma-wall interaction modules a new quality in the description of electrostatic thrusters can be reached. These open the perspective for predictive modeling in this field. This paper reviews the application of a set of predictive numerical modeling tools on an ion thruster model of the HEMP-T (High Efficiency Multi-stage Plasma Thruster) type patented by Thales Electron Devices GmbH. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  5. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, G.C.; Klein, J.F.; Lander, R.D.; Thompson, H.C.; Trapani, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  6. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  8. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  9. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  10. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  11. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  12. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  13. Spray layer-by-layer films based on phospholipid vesicles aiming sensing application via e-tongue system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.H.B.; Volpati, D.; Cabrera, F.C.; Trombini, V.L.; Riul, A.; Constantino, C.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique via spraying (spray-LbL) has been applied as new and alternative methodology to fabricate ultrathin films due to its versatility in relation to the conventional dipping-LbL method, mainly in terms of faster layer deposition and larger coated area. In this work, the possibility of immobilizing vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) phospholipid onto alternating layers of the polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) using the spray-LbL method was investigated, being the results compared to the conventional dipping-LbL method. The growth of (PAH/DPPG) n spray-LbL films was systematically monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, revealing a linear increase of the absorbance vs deposited layers. In relation to a possible electrostatic interaction between the groups PO 4 − (DPPG) and NH 3 + (PAH), it was observed through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy that the spectrum recorded for the spray-LbL film is basically a simple superposition of the FTIR spectra from PAH and DPPG casting films. The latter indicates a weak interaction between both materials, differently of the trend observed for (PAH/DPPG) n grown via dipping-LbL method. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of spray-LbL films showed evidences that the DPPG vesicles present in the aqueous dispersion are not destroyed when submitted to pressure conditions during the spray deposition. However, comparing to dipping-LbL, the DPPG vesicles do not cover completely the PAH layer for the spray-LbL film, which was further confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. Moreover, the AFM analysis showed that the spray-LbL deposition led to thicker PAH/DPPG bilayers in average than via dipping-LbL for the same concentrations of PAH solution and DPPG dispersion, which is consistent with QCM and UV–vis absorption results. PAH/DPPG films deposited by

  14. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  15. Mesoporous high surface area Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Mats; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous gadolinium doped cerium dioxide with high surface area was produced by spray drying using Pluronic 123 as surfactant. The powder, when calcined at 400 °C, had a BET surface area of 136 m2 g−1 and was polycrystalline as confirmed by XRD and TEM. XEDS confirmed Ce, Gd and O, as the only......, corresponding to the crystallite size calculated from XRD data. The similar size range of the mesopores and the observed crystallite size indicates that the porosity is partly formed from intergranular mesoporosity. Using the spray drying method of a surfactant assisted liquid precursor solution it can...

  16. Summary of the second international conference on electrostatic accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of the history of electrostatic accelerator technology, including a technology assessment of acceleration tubes, vacuum systems, voltage gradients, charging systems, and ion sources. Improvements in the performance of electrostatic accelerators during the last four years and of those currently under construction are discussed. The improved performance has greatly expanded the heavy ion research capabilities of the entire research community

  17. A Bridge between Two Important Problems in Optics and Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, R.; Pozzi, G.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how the same physically appealing method can be applied to find analytic solutions for two difficult and apparently unrelated problems in optics and electrostatics. They are: (i) the diffraction of a plane wave at a perfectly conducting thin half-plane and (ii) the electrostatic field associated with a parallel array of stripes held at…

  18. Bidirectional electrostatic linear shuffle motor with two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fujita, H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    We report on an electrostatic linear inchworm micromotor with two translational degrees-of-freedom. The motor employs built-in mechanical leverage to convert normal deflection of a flexible cross-plate into a small in-plane step and four electrostatic clamps to enable bidirectional inchworm motion

  19. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  20. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  1. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  2. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  3. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  4. Electrostatic and magnetic fields in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellal, Ahmed; Redouani, Ilham; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2015-08-01

    We compute the transmission probability through rectangular potential barriers and p-n junctions in the presence of a magnetic and electric fields in bilayer graphene taking into account contributions from the full four bands of the energy spectrum. For energy E higher than the interlayer coupling γ1 (E >γ1) two propagation modes are available for transport giving rise to four possible ways for transmission and reflection coefficients. However, when the energy is less than the height of the barrier the Dirac fermions exhibit transmission resonances and only one mode of propagation is available for transport. We study the effect of the interlayer electrostatic potential denoted by δ and variations of different barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probability.

  5. Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Karl D

    2008-01-01

    Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings

  6. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  7. Obtaining the electrostatic screening from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaviv, N.J.; Shaviv, G.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the electrostatic screening effect from first principles and show the basic properties of the screening process. We in particular show that under the conditions prevailing in the Sun the number of particles in the Debye sphere is of the order of unity. Consequently; fluctuations play a dominant role in the screening process. The fluctuations lead to an effective time dependent potential. Particles with low kinetic energy lose on the average energy to the plasma and vice versa with high energy particles. We derive general conditions on the screening energy and show under what conditions the Salpeter approximation is obtained. The connection between the screening and relaxation processes in the plasma is exposed

  8. Electrostatically confined quantum rings in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenia, M; Pereira, J M; Peeters, F M; Farias, G A

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new system where electron and hole states are electrostatically confined into a quantum ring in bilayer graphene. These structures can be created by tuning the gap of the graphene bilayer using nanostructured gates or by position-dependent doping. The energy levels have a magnetic field (B(0)) dependence that is strikingly distinct from that of usual semiconductor quantum rings. In particular, the eigenvalues are not invariant under a B(0) --> -B(0) transformation and, for a fixed total angular momentum index m, their field dependence is not parabolic, but displays two minima separated by a saddle point. The spectra also display several anticrossings, which arise due to the overlap of gate-confined and magnetically confined states.

  9. DNA under Force: Mechanics, Electrostatics, and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the basic intra- and inter-molecular forces of DNA has helped us to better understand and further predict the behavior of DNA. Single molecule technique elucidates the mechanics of DNA under applied external forces, sometimes under extreme forces. On the other hand, ensemble studies of DNA molecular force allow us to extend our understanding of DNA molecules under other forces such as electrostatic and hydration forces. Using a variety of techniques, we can have a comprehensive understanding of DNA molecular forces, which is crucial in unraveling the complex DNA functions in living cells as well as in designing a system that utilizes the unique properties of DNA in nanotechnology.

  10. Electrostatic attraction between overall neutral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Ram M; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales. In particular, the attraction is stronger and occurs at smaller separations for surface patches of larger size and charge density. In this large patch limit, we find that the attraction-repulsion crossover separation is inversely proportional to the square of the patch-charge density and to the Debye screening length.

  11. Invited review article: the electrostatic plasma lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey

    2013-02-01

    The fundamental principles, experimental results, and potential applications of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating high-current, energetic, heavy ion beams are reviewed. First described almost 50 years ago, this optical beam device provides space charge neutralization of the ion beam within the lens volume, and thus provides an effective and unique tool for focusing high current beams where a high degree of neutralization is essential to prevent beam blow-up. Short and long lenses have been explored, and a lens in which the magnetic field is provided by rare-earth permanent magnets has been demonstrated. Applications include the use of this kind of optical tool for laboratory ion beam manipulation, high dose ion implantation, heavy ion accelerator injection, in heavy ion fusion, and other high technology.

  12. A new electrostatic accelerator: the vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The 35 MV electrostatic accelerator described in the present document operates according to Van de Graaff tandem type accelerator principles. This new accelerator has appreciable advantages over the classical machines built up to today: 1) reduced radial dimensions, and in consequence, a lower overall cast for identical or even lower limiting electric field values; 2) a significantly reduced stored electrical energy distributed in a homogeneous and better controlled way over the interelectrode space; 3) the use of discrete electrodes rather than classical intermediate screens enabling the advantages of direct electrical vision between the vessel and the high-tension electrode (voltage measurements and regulation by the Corona effect) to be retained. The reduced surface area of these electrodes improving both their characteristics when a voltage is applied and the mechanical behavior of the system; 4) a ''light'' internal structure enabling a horizontal machine to be envisaged [fr

  13. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  14. Electrostatic Manipulation of Graphene On Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiedt, Carlos; Rubio-Verdu, Carmen; Saenz-Arce, Giovanni; Martinez-Asencio, Jesús; Milan, David C.; Moaied, Mohamed; Palacios, Juan J.; Caturla, Maria Jose

    2015-03-01

    Here we report the use of a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) under ambient and vacuum conditions to study the controlled exfoliation of the last layer of a graphite surface when an electrostatic force is applied from a STM tip. In this work we have focused on the study of two parameters: the applied voltage needed to compensate the graphite interlayer attractive force and the one needed to break atomic bonds to produce folded structures. Additionally, we have studied the influence of edge structure in the breaking geometry. Independently of the edge orientation the graphite layer is found to tear through the zig-zag direction and the lifled layer shows a zig-zag folding direction. Molecular Dinamics simulations and DFT calculations have been performed to understand our results, showing a strong correlation with the experiments. Comunidad Valenciana through Prometeo project.

  15. Characterization of the Electrostatic Environment of Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyah, Jamila; Mantion, Pascal; Herlem, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to update knowledge in characterization of the electrostatic environment of launchers in order to be able to propose reductions of design constraints.The first part of this study showed that flashover discharges are the most energetic discharges likely to occur on a launcher. They are mostly due to accumulations of charges by triboelectricity on the external surface of the launcher while flying through clouds containing a lot of small solid particles.Actually flashover discharges are mitigated by limiting the surface's resistance of dielectric materials such as thermal protection set on the external skin of the launcher, thanks to antistatic paints that avoid significant accumulations of charges.But this specified limitation leads to a lot of non- conformances during production phases and, as a result, this leads to additional costs and delays in launches campaigns. That is why on-ground tests have been defined in order to assess the accessibility of a relaxation of those specifications, which would reduce non-conformances.On-ground tests have been carried out, in the second part, on samples of thermal protections covered with antistatic paints with different degraded values of surface resistance. These tests aimed at checking in which conditions a surface discharge can occur in order to deduce a relationship between characteristics of the samples (surface resistance, half-discharge time) and the occurrence of a surface discharge, at ambient pressure and at low pressure.In the third part, in-flight experiments have been defined in order to confirm some hypotheses considered in the study and to assess some parameters in a more accurate way like the incoming charges density per surface unit or the voltage between stages when they get separated, in order to assess more accurately whether the unwinding equalization wire dedicated to maintain the electrostatic balance between stages is necessary or not.

  16. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, Norman [Irvine, CA; Binderbauer, Michl [Irvine, CA; Qerushi, Artan [Irvine, CA; Tahsiri, Hooshang [Irvine, CA

    2008-10-21

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  17. Electrostatic tuning of permeation and selectivity in aquaporin water channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens O Stibius; Tajkhorshid, E.; Schulten, K.

    2003-01-01

    Water permeation and electrostatic interactions between water and channel are investigated in the Escherichia coli glycerol uptake facilitator GlpF, a member of the aquaporin water channel family, by molecular dynamics simulations. A tetrameric model of the channel embedded in a 16:0/ 18:1c9...... with the protein electrostatic fields enforce a bipolar water configuration inside the channel with dipole inversion at the NPA motifs. At the NPA motifs water-protein electrostatic interactions facilitate this inversion. Furthermore, water-water electrostatic interactions are in all regions inside the channel...... stronger than water-protein interactions, except near a conserved, positively charged Arg residue. We find that variations of the protein electrostatic field through the channel, owing to preserved structural features, completely explain the bipolar orientation of water. This orientation persists despite...

  18. Orientation of KRb molecules in a switched electrostatic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yun-Xia; Xu Shu-Wu; Yang Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the orientation of the cold KRb molecules induced in a switched electrostatic field by numerically solving the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The results show that the periodic field-free molecular orientation can be realized for the KRb molecules by rapidly switching off the electrostatic field. Meanwhile, by varying the switching times of the electrostatic field, the adiabatic and nonadiabatic interactions of the molecules with the applied field can be realized. Moreover, the influences of the electrostatic field strength and the rotational temperature to the degree of the molecular orientation are studied. The investigations show that increasing the electrostatic field will increase the degree of the molecular orientation, both in the constant-field regime and in the field-free regime, while the increasing of the rotational temperature of the cold molecules will greatly decrease the degree of the molecular orientation. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  20. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  1. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  2. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  3. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  4. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  5. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  6. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  7. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  8. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  9. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  10. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0095 Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Final Report 11/26/2016...DATES COVERED (From - To)  20 Mar 2013 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT...NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4024 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Yukiharu Uraoka 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.   WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  11. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, M.; Jordanov, M.; Denev, J.; Markov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

  12. Plasma-sprayed tantalum/alumina cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.M.

    1977-12-01

    Cermets of tantalum and alumina were fabricated by plasma spraying, with the amount of alumina varied from 0 to 65 percent (by volume). Each of four compositions was then measured for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, strength and strain to failure decreased with increasing alumina content: 62 MPa for 100 percent Ta to 19 MPa for 35 v percent Ta. A maximum of 0.1 percent strain was observed for the sprayed 100 percent Ta specimens. The coefficient of thermal expansion measured for the pure Ta was 6.2 (10 -6 )/K

  13. A comparison of different spray chemical vapour deposition methods for the production of undoped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Jerome; Bouteville, Anne; Hamilton, Jeff; Pemble, Martyn E.; Povey, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Two different methods of spray chemical vapour deposition have been used to grow ZnO thin films on glass substrates from zinc acetate solution over the temperature range 400 o C to 550 o C. The first of these is named InfraRed Assisted Spray Chemical Vapour Deposition (IRAS-CVD). This method uses intense IR radiation to heat not only the substrate but also the gaseous species entering the reactor. The second method is a more conventional approach known simply as ultrasonic spray CVD, which utilises IR lamps to heat the substrate only. By way of comparing these two approaches we present data obtained from contact angle measurements, crystallinity and mean crystallite size, photoluminescence, electrical and optical properties. Additionally we have examined the role of annealing within the IRAS-CVD reactor environment.

  14. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  15. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  16. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  17. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  19. Numerical Modeling of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekdemir, C.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study is presented on the modeling of fuel sprays in diesel engines. The objective of this study is in the first place to accurately and efficiently model non-reacting diesel spray formation, and secondly to include ignition and combustion. For that an efficient 1D Euler-Euler spray model [21] is

  20. Percolation via Combined Electrostatic and Chemical Doping in Complex Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Walter, Jeff; Leighton, C.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2017-03-01

    Stimulated by experimental advances in electrolyte gating methods, we investigate theoretically percolation in thin films of inhomogeneous complex oxides, such as La1 -xSrxCoO3 (LSCO), induced by a combination of bulk chemical and surface electrostatic doping. Using numerical and analytical methods, we identify two mechanisms that describe how bulk dopants reduce the amount of electrostatic surface charge required to reach percolation: (i) bulk-assisted surface percolation and (ii) surface-assisted bulk percolation. We show that the critical surface charge strongly depends on the film thickness when the film is close to the chemical percolation threshold. In particular, thin films can be driven across the percolation transition by modest surface charge densities. If percolation is associated with the onset of ferromagnetism, as in LSCO, we further demonstrate that the presence of critical magnetic clusters extending from the film surface into the bulk results in considerable enhancement of the saturation magnetization, with pronounced experimental consequences. These results should significantly guide experimental work seeking to verify gate-induced percolation transitions in such materials.