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Sample records for electrospray ionisation desi

  1. Confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in injection sites using imaging desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, de E.; Hooijerink, H.; Sterk, S.S.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) was applied for the confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in an injection site of bovine muscle. The spatial resolution of the DESI-MSn was demonstrated by scanning hormone

  2. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  3. Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) Analysis of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents: Rapid Acquisition of Time-Aligned Parallel (TAP) Fragmentation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Résumé …..... On a appliqué la méthode désorption - ionisation par électronébulisation - spectrométrie de masse (DESI-SM) pour l’analyse...2010-047, R & D pour la défense Canada – Suffield; Juin 2010. Introduction : On a appliqué la méthode désorption – ionisation par...132, 868-875. DRDC Suffield TM 2010-047 29 [26] Williams, J.P. and Scrivens, J.H. (2008). Coupling desorption electrospray ionisation with

  4. The use of dicationic ion-pairing compounds to enhance the ambient detection of surface lipids in positive ionization mode using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wei; Mitchell, Daniel; Licence, Peter; Barrett, David A

    2014-03-30

    Lipids are typically analysed in negative ionisation mode in desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), which can result in reduced sensitivity. In this study we examine the use of dicationic compounds as reactive DESI-MS agents to detect a range of lipid standards from the surface in positive ionisation mode. Nine dicationic compounds were tested for their ability to detect seven representative lipid species (palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, phosphatidic acid (34:1), phosphoethanolamine (34:2), phosphatidylglycerol (34:1), phosphatidylserine (36:1), and phosphoinositol (34:2)) with a 2D DESI source on hydrophobic surfaces. Two different solvent systems (methanol/chloroform (1:1) and methanol) were tested with each dicationic compound, with the DESI-MS analysis performed in the positive ionisation mode. Most of the dications tested were able to form stable ion-pairs with the negatively charged lipid species when analysed from the surface with DESI-MS, and were detected readily in positive ionisation electrospray mode as singly charged species. The optimal solvent system was found to be methanol. The dicationic compound [C6(C1Pyrr)2][Br]2 was found to enhance the detection of palmitoleic acid (638%), linoleic acid (304%) and phosphoethanolamine (269%) compared with the negative ionisation mode. We demonstrate the first successful application of dicationic compounds in DESI-MS for the ambient surface detection of model lipids in positive electrospray ionisation mode. Dicationic compounds could potentially be used as reactive DESI-MS agents to improve the ambient detection of a number of negatively charged analytes. © 2014 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attract...

  6. Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, CS; Lam, CWK; Chan, MHM; Cheung, RCK; Law, LK; Lit, LCW; Ng, KF; Suen, MWM; Tai, HL

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service. PMID:18568044

  7. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise AB...

  8. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  9. Characterisation of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Chemical analysis for the characterisation of micro-organisms is rapidly evolving, after the recent advent of new ionisation methods in mass spectrometry (MS): electrospray (ES) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI). These methods allow quick characterisation of micro-organisms,

  10. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Direct analysis of pharmaceutical formulations from non-bonded reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plates by desorption electrospray ionisation ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Emma L; Reynolds, James C; Bristow, Anthony W T; Wilson, Ian D; Creaser, Colin S

    2009-09-01

    The direct analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and active ingredients from non-bonded reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) plates by desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) combined with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is reported. The analysis of formulations containing analgesic (paracetamol), decongestant (ephedrine), opiate (codeine) and stimulant (caffeine) active pharmaceutical ingredients is described, with and without chromatographic development to separate the active ingredients from the excipient formulation. Selectivity was enhanced by combining ion mobility and mass spectrometry to characterise the desorbed gas-phase analyte ions on the basis of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and gas-phase ion mobility (drift time). The solvent composition of the DESI spray using a step gradient was varied to optimise the desorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients from the RP-TLC plates. The combined RP-TLC/DESI-IM-MS approach has potential as a rapid and selective technique for pharmaceutical analysis by orthogonal gas-phase electrophoretic and mass-to-charge separation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  13. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-17

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  14. Direct Visualization of Neurotransmitters in Rat Brain Slices by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI - MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anna Maria A. P.; Vendramini, Pedro H.; Galaverna, Renan; Schwab, Nicolas V.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Augusti, Rodinei; Castilho, Roger F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2016-12-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials. The amino acids γ-aminobutyric (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, serine, as well as acetylcholine, dopamine, and choline were successfully imaged using a commercial DESI source coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The spatial distribution of the analyzed compounds in different brain regions was determined. We conclude that the ambient matrix-free DESI-MSI is suitable for neurotransmitter imaging and could be applied in studies that involve evaluation of imbalances in neurotransmitters levels.

  15. Using aromatic polyamines with high proton affinity as "proton sponge" dopants for electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Marisa A; Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Proton sponges are polyamines with high proton affinity that enable gentle deprotonation of even mildly acidic compounds. In this study, the concept of proton sponges as signal enhancing dopants for electrospray ionisation is presented for the first time. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) and 1,8-bis(tetramethylguanidino)naphthalene (TMGN) were chosen as dopants, using methanol and acetonitrile/methanol as solvents. Individual standard compounds, compound mixtures and a diesel fuel as a complex sample matrix were investigated. Both proton sponges enhanced signal intensities in electrospray ionisation negative mode, but TMGN decomposed rapidly in methanolic solution. Significantly higher signals were only achieved using the acetonitrile/methanol mixture. On average a more than 10-fold higher signal intensity was measured with 10-3 mol l-1 DMAN concentration. A stronger signal increase of alcohol functionalities was observed compared to acid functionalities. All compound classes which were detected in the diesel fuel (CH- and CHOx-class) received roughly 100-fold higher signal intensities when using DMAN as a dopant. Furthermore, the number of detected compounds as well as the double bond equivalent of the detected compounds increased. The compound class distribution shifted when adding DMAN and the formerly dominant CHO2-, CHO3-, and CHO4- classes received similar relative intensities as formerly less accessible classes. The findings depict DMAN as a promising additive for electrospray ionisation negative analysis of at least mildly acidic compounds, even within complex sample material.

  16. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Almeida Gonçalves, Letícia; E Silva, Elienai Cândida; Janfelt, Christian

    2017-09-06

    Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attractive due to its simplicity and high selectivity compared to traditional histochemical techniques. To apply DESI-MSI to visualise the alkaloid distribution on the leaf surface of Psychotria prunifolia and Palicourea coriacea and to compare the distributions with HPLC-MS and histochemical analyses. Based upon previous structure elucidation studies, four alkaloids targeted in this study were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry by direct infusion of plant extracts, and their distributions were imaged by DESI-MSI via tissue imprints on a porous Teflon surface. Relative quantitation of the four alkaloids was obtained by HPLC-MS/MS analysis performed using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Alkaloids showed distinct distributions on the leaf surfaces. Prunifoleine was mainly present in the midrib, while 10-hydroxyisodeppeaninol was concentrated close to the petiole; a uniform distribution of 10-hydroxyantirhine was observed in the whole leaf of Psychotria prunifolia. The imprinted image from the Palicourea coriacea leaf also showed a homogeneous distribution of calycanthine throughout the leaf surface. Different distributions were found for three alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia, and the distributions found by MSI were in complete accordance with HPLC-MS analysis and histochemical results. The DESI-MSI technique was therefore demonstrated to provide reliable information about the spatial distribution of metabolites in plants. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Characterisation of tryptic peptides of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase by high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Mark E. [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dickson, Phillip W. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dunkley, Peter R. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Nagy-Felsobuki, Ellak I. von [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)]. E-mail: ellak@newcastle.edu.au

    2005-03-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is involved in the biosynthesis of catecholamines and is activated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated TH was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS). Two mass scanning methods were used to detect tryptic cleavage products of TH. In the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+), the peptides that contain the phosphorylation sites of TH were identified. In the alternative method, a phosphopeptide was detected in the negative electrospray ionisation mode (ESI-) using single ion monitoring in combination with a sequential ESI+ switching experiment. A raised baseline interfered with detection of hydrophilic peptides in ESI-, with the signal-to-noise ratio indicating that the method was operating near the limit of detection for a conventional electrospray source. The switching method improved the certainty of identification of phosphopeptides.

  18. Analysis of triacetone triperoxide complexes with alkali metal ions by electrospray and extractive electrospray ionisation combined with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alex R; Edgar, Mark; Chatzigeorgiou, Maria; Reynolds, James C; Kelly, Paul F; Creaser, Colin S

    2015-01-01

    The complexation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with a range of alkali metals has been studied by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry yield [M+Cat](+) ions for all of the alkali metals. The formation of [2TATP+Li+LiX](+) (X = Br, Cl) sandwich complexes was also observed. Collision cross- sections for the lithium-containing complexes of TATP were measured by travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry, and compared well with computationally determined structures. Extractive electrospray ionisation (EESI) using a lithium doped electrospray is demonstrated for the detection of TATP vapours desorbed from a metal surface. The limit of detection for EESI was shown to be 20 ng using the [TATP+Li](+) ion.

  19. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of potato glycoalkaloids using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Morino, Keiko; Miyazawa, Haruna; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantifying two toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber tissue was developed using HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS. Potato samples were extracted with 5% aqueous acetic acid, and the extracts were subjected directly to HPLC-ESI/MS after filtration. By determining the intensities of the protonated molecules of alpha-solanine (m/z 868) and alpha-chaconine (m/z 852) using selected ion monitoring (positive ion mode), a sensitive assay was attained with detection limits of 38 and 14 ppb for the two glycoalkaloids, respectively. The high sensitivity and selectivity of MS detection effectively reduced the time of analysis thus enabling a high throughput assay of glycoalkaloids in potato tubers.

  1. High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul

    2014-09-07

    The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin.

  2. Artificially-aged cachaça samples characterised by direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patterson P; Resende, Ana M M; Augusti, Daniella V; Badotti, Fernanda; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei

    2014-01-15

    Direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode [ESI(-)-MS] was employed to evaluate the authenticity of aged cachaças, a traditional and valuable Brazilian alcoholic beverage prepared from the distillation of brewed sugarcane juice and aged in barrels made of common woods. Counterfeit samples were prepared by adding dyes, sawdust or essences to a freshly-distiled, much less valuable sample (white cachaça) to simulate the 1-2years long natural ageing in wooden barrels. A simple visual inspection revealed remarkable differences between the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples (aged in oak or amburana casks) and the artificially-aged counterfeit samples. A set of diagnostic ions were detectable in the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples aged in oak (m/z 197, 241, 301 and 307) and amburana (m/z 271 and 377/379). This fast and direct methodology seems useful as a routine procedure to monitor this highly profitable and common counterfeit practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimisation of secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) for the trace determination of gas-phase volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Leonard A; Stone, Victoria N; Croasdell, Laura A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Thomas, C L Paul

    2010-02-01

    An electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Varian 1200 L) was modified to accept nitrogen samples containing low concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Six candidate probe compounds, methyl decanoate, octan-3-one, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 1,4-diaminobutane, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and 2,3-butanediol, at concentrations below 50 ppb(v) were generated with permeation tubes in a test atmosphere generator. The concept of using a set of molecular probes to evaluate gas-phase electrospray ionisation of volatile analytes was assessed and the feasibility of adopting a unified ionisation approach for gas and liquid contamination of exobiotic environments established. 450 experiments were run in a five-replicate, fifteen-level, three-factor, central-composite-design with exponential dilution for each of the six probe compounds studied. The three factors studied were ionisation voltage, drying-gas flow and nebulising-gas flow. Parametric modelling by regression analysis enabled the differences in the ionisation behaviours of the probe compounds to be described by the optimisation models. Regression coefficients were in the range 0.91 to 0.99, indicating satisfactory levels of precision in the optimisation models. A wide range in ionisation efficiency was observed, with different optimised conditions required for the probe compounds. It was evident that no one factor appeared to dominate the response and the different factors produced different effects on the responses for the different molecules. 1,4-Butanediamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate required significantly lower ionisation voltages (1.2 kV) than the other four, which achieved optimised sensitivity towards the maximum voltage used in this design (5 to 6 kV). Drying-gas flow rates were found to be more important than nebulising-gas flow rates. However, variations in the constant term B(0) in the optimisation models indicated that other factors, not included in this study, were also likely

  4. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    150 200 m/z 85 99 117 140 183 CH3 P O O F CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 MS/MS of 183 CE = 5V MH+ Soman (GD) - C6H12 [C6H13]+ Figure 2: DESI-MS/MS chromatogram for m...CE = 4V MH+ - C6H12 PinMPA Figure 10: DESI-MS/MS chromatogram for m/z 181 obtained during replicate analyses of a fused silica tip dipped into a 1 mg

  5. High‐resolution mass spectrometric analysis of myo‐inositol hexakisphosphate using electrospray ionisation Orbitrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Catherine A.; Arthur, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo‐inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high‐resolution mass spectrometry (ESI‐HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in‐source and via collision‐induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. Methods The negative ion mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of IP6, and the lower inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), using an ESI‐Orbitrap mass spectrometer is described. The purity of the compounds was investigated using anion‐exchange chromatography. Results IP6 is highly anionic, forming multiply charged ions and sodium adduct ions, which readily undergo dissociation in the ESI source. MS/MS analysis of the phytic acid [M−2H]2− ion and fragment ions and comparison with the full MS of the IP5 reference standard, and the MS/MS spectrum of the pentakisphosphate [M−2H]2− ion, confirm the fragmentation pattern of inositol phosphates in ESI. Further evidence for dissociation in the ion source is shown by the effect of increasing the source voltage on the mass spectrum of phytic acid. Conclusions The ESI‐HRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESI‐HRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). PMID:28696018

  6. Quick elucidation of cyclodepsipeptide sequence from sacoglossan Elysia grandifolia using electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilvi, Supriya; Devi, Prabha; Majik, Mahesh S

    2017-06-01

    Butanol fraction of sacoglossan Elysia grandifolia was investigated for identifying peptides using electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Without prior isolation, the structural determination is achieved on the basis of mass fragmentation pattern and comparison with the previously established data. The ESI-MS of the fraction in the positive ion mode gave clusters of singly and doubly charged molecular ion peaks. The ESI-MS spectrum showed peaks for the presence of the peptides kahalalides F, G, R and S reported earlier. In addition, it also showed molecular ion peaks at m/z 1557.8 [M+H]+ and doubly charged ions at m/z 779.4 [M+2H]2+, 790.4 [M+Na]2+ and 796.4 [M+K]2+. The MS/MS at m/z 779.4 [M+2H]+2 at collision energy 40 V obtained series of b and y fragment ions. The MS/MS spectrum showed identical fragment ion y6 at m/z 643 which revealed that cyclic part is identical with kahalalide F, R and S. Careful examination of the fragment ions b1 to b7 with their corresponding y fragment ions y12 to y6, respectively and by comparison of MS/MS pattern of kahalalide S, established that proline can be replaced by tyrosine amino acid residue. The mass difference between b4 ( m/z 511) and b5 ( m/z 674) is equal to 163 which is equivalent to mass residue of tyrosine. Their y fragment ions also quickly helped in fixing the puzzle. This resulted in the identification of the peptide sequence cyclo-[Val-(5-MeHex-Val-Thr-Val-Val-Tyr-Lys-Ile)Thr-Ile-Val-Phe-Dhb)] for the new cyclodepsipeptide, kahalalide Z3. Thus, ESI-MS/MS has set a trend in quick identification of new marine molecules.

  7. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate using electrospray ionisation Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Catherine A; Arthur, Christopher J; Evershed, Richard P

    2017-10-30

    The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in-source and via collision-induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. The negative ion mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of IP6, and the lower inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), using an ESI-Orbitrap mass spectrometer is described. The purity of the compounds was investigated using anion-exchange chromatography. IP6 is highly anionic, forming multiply charged ions and sodium adduct ions, which readily undergo dissociation in the ESI source. MS/MS analysis of the phytic acid [M-2H]2- ion and fragment ions and comparison with the full MS of the IP5 reference standard, and the MS/MS spectrum of the pentakisphosphate [M-2H]2- ion, confirm the fragmentation pattern of inositol phosphates in ESI. Further evidence for dissociation in the ion source is shown by the effect of increasing the source voltage on the mass spectrum of phytic acid. The ESI-HRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESI-HRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). © 2017 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array – electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Wanrooij, J.; van Bommel, M.; Quye, A.

    2017-01-01

    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI–MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different

  9. Characterisation of nicotine and related compounds using electrospray ionisation with ion trap mass spectrometry and with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and their detection by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Thomas J; Ramachandran, V N; McGuigan, Alex; Hopps, Jason; Smyth, W Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) has been used to study the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and nine of its related compounds. From this study certain characteristic fragmentations are apparent with generally the pyrrolidine or piperidine ring being subject to chemical modifications. The structures of the product ions proposed for the ESI-MS(n) study have been supported by results from electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). Compounds with pyrrolidine and piperidine rings that possess an unsubstituted N atom have been shown to lose NH(3) at the MS(2) stage. Those compounds with N-methyl groups lose CH(3)NH(2) at the MS(2) stage. The loss of NH(3) or CH(3)NH(2) leaves the corresponding rings opened and this is followed by ring closure at the pyridine-2 carbon atom. Mono-N-oxides fragment in a similar way but the di-N-oxide can also fragment by cleavage of the bond between the pyridine and pyrrolidine rings. Cotinine also can undergo cleavage of this bond between the rings. This data therefore provides useful information on how substituents and the nature of the non-pyridine ring can affect the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and its related compounds. This information can be used in the characterisation of these compounds by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) which results in the separation of nicotine and its related compounds with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 15 to 105 ng/mL. The use of LC/ESI-MS to study nicotine-containing samples resulted in the simultaneous and unambiguous identification of seven of the compounds discussed in this paper: cotinine identified at retention time 12.5 min (with its [M+H](+) ion at m/z 177), nornicotine 16.0 min (m/z 149), anatabine 18.0 min (m/z 161), myosmine 18.5 min (m/z 147), anabasine 20.4 min (m/z 163), nicotine 22.2 min (m/z 163), and nicotyrine 31.4 min (m/z 159). For quality control of nicotine

  10. Matrix effect in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine with desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) and desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suni, Niina M.; Lindfors, Pia; Laine, Olli [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Ostman, Pekka; Ojanperae, Ilkka [Hjelt Institute, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 40, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kotiaho, Tapio [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kauppila, Tiina J. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland); Kostiainen, Risto, E-mail: risto.kostiainen@helsinki.fi [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} DAPPI-MS and DESI-MSI in the analysis of drugs of abuse from urine. {yields} DAPPI-MS has better urine matrix tolerance over DESI-MS. {yields} Urine matrix can affect the ionization mechanism in DAPPI. {yields} DAPPI-MS/MS can be used for screening of drugs from urine after sample pretreatment. - Abstract: We have studied the matrix effect within direct analysis of benzodiazepines and opioids from urine with desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The urine matrix was found to affect the ionization mechanism of the opioids in DAPPI-MS favoring proton transfer over charge exchange reaction. The sensitivity for the drugs in solvent matrix was at the same level with DESI-MS and DAPPI-MS (LODs 0.05-6 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) but the decrease in sensitivity due to the urine matrix was higher with DESI (typically 20-160-fold) than with DAPPI (typically 2-15-fold) indicating better matrix tolerance of DAPPI over DESI. Also in MS/MS mode, DAPPI provided better sensitivity than DESI for the drugs in urine. The feasibility of DAPPI-MS/MS was then studied in screening the same drugs from five authentic, forensic post mortem urine samples. A reference measurement with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (including pretreatment) revealed 16 findings from the samples, whereas with DAPPI-MS/MS after sample pretreatment, 15 findings were made. Sample pretreatment was found necessary, since only eight findings were made from the same samples untreated.

  11. Spatially resolved investigation of systemic and contact pesticides in plant material by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Brunn, Hubertus E; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of pesticides both on the surface of leaves and in cross sections of plant stem and leaves was investigated using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with a spatial resolution of 50-100 μm. Two commercially available insecticide sprays containing different contact pesticides were applied onto leaves of Cotoneaster horizontalis, and the distributions of all active ingredients were directly analyzed. The first spray contained pyrethrins and rapeseed oil, both known as natural insecticides. Each component showed an inhomogeneous spreading throughout the leaf, based on substance polarity and solubility. The second spray contained the synthetic insecticides imidacloprid and methiocarb. Imidacloprid accumulated on the border of the leaf, while methiocarb was distributed more homogenously. In order to investigate the incorporation of a systemically acting pesticide into Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, a commercially available insecticide tablet containing dimethoate was spiked to the soil of the plant. Cross sections of the stem and leaf were obtained 25 and 60 days after application. Dimethoate was mainly detected in the transport system of the plant after 25 days, while it was found to be homogenously distributed in a leaf section after 60 days.

  12. The use of recently described ionisation techniques for the rapid analysis of some common drugs and samples of biological origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan P; Patel, Vibhuti J; Holland, Richard; Scrivens, James H

    2006-01-01

    Three ionisation techniques that require no sample preparation or extraction prior to mass analysis have been used for the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical tablets and ointments. These methods were (i) the novel direct analysis in real time (DART), (ii) desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI), and (iii) desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (DAPCI). The performance of the three techniques was investigated for a number of common drugs. Significant differences between these approaches were observed. For compounds of moderate to low polarity DAPCI produced more effective ionisation. Accurate DESI and DAPCI tandem mass spectra were obtained and these greatly enhance the selectivity and information content of the experiment. The detection from human skin of the active ingredients from ointments is reported together with the detection of ibuprofen metabolites in human urine. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Online antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry for chemical fingerprinting of Indian polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Shahid M; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC-DAD-DPPH method was developed for evaluating the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of ethylacetate extracts of different polyherbal formulations (draksarista, draksava, lohasava and arvindasava) by using RP-18e column. The ethylacetate extract from polyherbal, 'draksarista' exhibited maximum free radical scavenging activity (99.9 ± 0.38%) followed by draksava (99.8 ± 0.34%), lohasava (98.5 ± 0.30%) and arvindasava (42.3 ± 0.34%) at 100 μg mL(-1). Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study chemical composition of the ethylacetate extracts of formulations. The characteristic electrospray mass ionisation reveals the dominance of polyphenols and their glycosides in the four polyherbal formulations.

  14. The characterisation of shellac resin by flow injection and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Diego; Dyer, Joanne; Bonaduce, Ilaria

    2017-11-01

    A strategy based on electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode coupled with quadrupole-time of flight (Q-ToF) detection techniques was adopted to characterise some samples of shellac resin. Flow injection analysis (FIA) was used to investigate the distribution of the components of the resin. Eight groups of compounds with increasing masses were detected and assigned to free acids, esters and polyesters with up to eight units. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) enabled the compounds to be chromatographically separated. Accurate molecular masses and tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra interpretation were used to characterise the different compounds, assigning and/or suggesting molecular structures. In some cases, highly detailed information about the ester linkages was provided by the MS/MS spectra, enabling the different isomers to be distinguished. Oxidation products were also identified in the samples and differences were observed in terms of hydrolysis and oxidation. In addition to providing the first characterisation of shellac by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF and an atlas of MS/MS spectra of shellac components, this work demonstrates the suitability of the proposed strategy for characterising the resin, and provides the identification of previously unknown degradation products and minor components. This represents a significant step forward in the chemical knowledge of this material.

  15. Identification of synthetic dyes in early colour photographs using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montes, Ana Ma; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Desmazières, Bernard; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2013-09-30

    Capillary electrophoresis with photodiode array detection (CE-PDA) and with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) was used for the separation and the identification of 23 synthetic organic dyes, among those used in early 20th century colour photographs such as autochromes. Both cationic and anionic dyes could be separated within 15min using a single CE-PDA method. The method was used as the basis to develop a CE-ESI-MS methodology through the optimisation of the relevant ESI and MS parameters. Sheath liquid composition, nebulising gas pressure, drying gas flow rate and drying gas temperature were found to influence the sensitivity of the detection. These parameters were optimised in positive and negative ion modes for cationic dyes and anionic dyes, respectively. The two analyses could be carried out successively on a single sample. In view of the application to cultural heritage objects, the CE-ESI-MS analytical procedure was applied to identify the dyes in a Filmcolor artefact, late version of the autochrome. The results complemented and enhanced current knowledge as four cationic dyes and three anionic dyes were identified. Four additional dyes are proposed as possibly present as traces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutral and acidic products derived from hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of arabinotriose assessed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; da Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2014-04-01

    The oxidation of α-(1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose (Ara3), an oligosaccharide structurally related to side chains of coffee arabinogalactans, was studied in reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated under conditions of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)/H2O2). The acidic and neutral oxidation products were separated by ligand exchange/size-exclusion chromatography, subsequently identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and structurally characterised by tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). In acidic fraction were identified several oxidation products containing an acidic residue at the corresponding reducing end of Ara3, namely arabinonic acid, and erythronic, glyceric and glycolic acids formed by oxidative scission of the furanose ring. In neutral fractions were identified derivatives containing keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy moieties, as well as derivatives resulting from the ring scission at the reducing end of Ara3. In both acidic and neutral fractions, beyond the trisaccharide derivatives, the corresponding di- and monosaccharide derivatives were identified indicating the occurrence of oxidative depolymerisation. The structural characterisation of these oxidation products by ESI-MS/MS allowed the differentiation of isobaric and isomeric species of acidic and neutral character. The species identified in this study may help in detection of roasting products associated with the free radical-mediated oxidation of coffee arabinogalactans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determination of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in food by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, J; Riediker, S; Varga, N; Stadler, R H

    2000-05-05

    A confirmatory method for the determination of trace levels of chlormequat in a variety of different food matrices was developed. It entails a single clean-up step over a solid-phase cation exchange resin and subsequent liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry using a stable isotopically labelled internal standard. Mass spectral acquisition was done in selected reaction monitoring mode, selecting the transitions from both the 35Cl and the 37Cl isotope of chlormequat. Recoveries after extraction and clean-up, determined with radio-labelled chlormequat and averaged over the spiking range (16-65 microg kg(-1)) in four different commodities, were within 88-96%, with a coefficient of variation better than 8%. The method can be applied to pears, pear juice concentrates, fruit purées, and cereal products, with typical limits of detection for chlormequat estimated at 2-5 microg kg(-1). A survey of different food commodities revealed that chlormequat was detectable--albeit at very low levels--in many of the food samples analysed, with the highest concentration recorded in pears purchased in Switzerland and of South African origin (5.5 mg kg(-1)). Measurements were also conducted on two LC-MS instruments and demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the method and its applicability to instruments of different ion source design.

  18. Comparison of electrospray ionisation, atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and atmospheric pressure photoionisation for the identification of metabolites from labile artemisinin-based anti-malarial drugs using a QTRAP® mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Stefan; Njoroge, Mathew; Chigorimbo-Murefu, Nyaradzo; Chibale, Kelly

    2012-10-30

    Artemisinin-based drugs and their metabolites are prone to in-source fragmentation under atmospheric pressure ionisation mass spectrometry (API-MS) conditions. To facilitate correct and efficient identification of all possible drug metabolites using full scan MS analyzer methods, stable [M + NH(4) ](+) ions should be produced in the MS source. Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS system, electrospray ionisation (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) methods were developed for the detection of [M + NH(4) ](+) ions of the test compounds dihydroartemisinin, artemisinin, artemether and artesunic acid. The optimised methods employed ammonium formate buffered HPLC mobile phase in combination with moderate source temperatures (100-200 °C) and showed satisfactorily reduced in-source fragmentation. With a full scan MS analyser method for the detection of the in vitro metabolites of the test compounds, the respective performance of the ESI and APCI methods was found to be comparable. ESI generally resulted in less in-source fragmentation. Incorrect assignment of metabolites resulted from strong in-source fragmentation of artemether using the APPI method. The most number of metabolites could be detected using ESI in combination with a selective MS analyser method. ESI and APCI full scan methods proved to be capable of detecting any drug metabolites present in reasonable concentrations, and are useful when employed in addition to selective scan methods that target low level expected metabolites. APPI can be a valuable alternative for detecting expected metabolites due to good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Analysis of Metabolic Changes in Plant Pathosystems by Imprint Imaging DESI-MS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo J; Hamid, Tanam S; Bayfield, Mark A; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-01-01

    .... The fluctuations of glycoalkaloids present in sprouted potatoes infected by the phytopathogen Pythium ultimum were monitored by imprint imaging desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS...

  20. Rapid characterisation and identification of compounds in Saposhnikoviae Radix by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luxiao; Chen, Xiangyang; Su, Lei; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-18

    Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR), the dried root of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (Umbelliferae), is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, a rapid and accurate method was firstly, developed for the qualitative analysis of SR by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 45 compounds were identified or tentatively characterised, including 13 chromones, 28 coumarins and four others. Among them, 16 compounds were identified from SR for the first time. In addition, six chromones reference standards, including two isolated compounds of 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol and norcimifugin from the extraction of SR, were used to study the fragmentation pathways of chromones. The developed method was effective for characterising the compounds of SR, and the results of the study enriched the understanding of the chemical connotation.

  1. Analysis of peptides and protein digests by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry using neutral pH elution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Chowdhury, Jamil; Alam, Asif; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-05-04

    In this study, the advantages of carrying out the analysis of peptides and tryptic digests of proteins under gradient elution conditions at pH 6.5 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and in-line electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are documented. For these RP separations, a double endcapped, bidentate anchored n-octadecyl wide pore silica adsorbent was employed in a capillary column format. Compared to the corresponding analysis of the same peptides and protein tryptic digests using low pH elution conditions for their RP-HPLC separation, this alternative approach provides improved selectivity and more efficient separation of these analytes, thus allowing a more sensitive identification of proteins at different abundance levels, i.e. more tryptic peptides from the same protein could be confidently identified, enabling higher sequence coverage of the protein to be obtained. This approach was further evaluated with very complex tryptic digests derived from a human plasma protein sample using an online two-dimensional (2D) strong cation-exchange (SCX)-RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Again, at pH 6.5, with mobile phases of different compositions, improved chromatographic selectivities were obtained, concomitant with more sensitive on-line electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) analysis. As a consequence, more plasma proteins could be confidently identified, highlighting the potential of these RP-HPLC methods with elution at pH 6.5 to extend further the scope of proteomic investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of N-glycans from Ebola virus glycoproteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight and negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Gayle; Harvey, David J.; Stroeher, Ute; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Royle, Louise; Dwek, Raymond A.; Rudd, Pauline M.

    2012-01-01

    The larger fragment of the transmembrane glycoprotein (GP1) and the soluble glycoprotein (sGP) of Ebola virus were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and the secreted products were purified from the supernatant for carbohydrate analysis. The N-glycans were released with PNGase F from within sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. Identification of the glycans was made with normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry, negative ion electrospray ionisation fragmentation mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestion. Most glycans were complex bi-, tri-and tetra-antennary compounds with reduced amounts of galactose. No bisected compounds were detected. Triantennary glycans were branched on the 6-antenna; fucose was attached to the core GlcNAc residue. Sialylated glycans were present on sGP but were largely absent from GP1, the larger fragment of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Consistent with this was the generally higher level of processing of carbohydrates found on sGP as evidenced by a higher percentage of galactose and lower levels of high-mannose glycans than were found on GP1. These results confirm and expand previous findings on partial characterisation of the Ebola virus transmembrane glycoprotein. They represent the first detailed data on carbohydrate structures of the Ebola virus sGP. PMID:20131323

  3. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Potentilla fulgens roots by NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation with time-of-flight MS, electrospray ionisation MS/MS and HPLC/UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alka; Radhika, Manukonda; Chatterjee, Anupam; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens is a commonly used folk medicine by natives of northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan and is rich in polyphenolic and triterpene constituents. To identify chemomarkers in the roots of P. fulgens by an interplay of (13)C-NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation with time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) MS, electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS/MS and HPLC/UV. The (13)C-NMR spectrum of crude methanolic extract was recorded in deuterated dimethyl sulphoxide. For MALDI/TOF/MS analysis, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was used as the matrix. For determination of chemical constituents, two independent simple isocratic HPLC/UV methods for monomeric/oligomeric flavanols and triterpene acids were developed and validated. The (13)C-NMR spectrum of the methanolic extract indicated the presence of B-type oligomeric polyphenolics containing mainly epicatechin/catechin (epicat/cat) and epiafzelechin/afzelechin (epiafz/afz) as the monomeric units. Several isobaric monomeric and oligomeric flavanols and triterpenoids were tentatively identified by MALDI/TOF/MS and ESI/MS/MS. Fourteen compounds (four monomeric and five dimeric flavanols and five triterpene acids) were isolated using repeated column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, and were quantitated using HPLC/UV. It is evident from these analyses that roots of P. fulgens contain flavans, including oligomeric flavanols, as major constituents followed by triterpene acids. The methods described can be applied to other Potentilla species to identify their constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Accounting for matrix effects of pesticide residue liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric determination by treatment of background mass spectra with chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruve, Anneli; Herodes, Koit; Leito, Ivo

    2011-05-15

    Matrix effect (ME) - ionisation suppression or enhancement - in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) is caused by matrix components co-eluting with the analytes. ME has a complex and not fully understood nature. ME is also highly variable from sample to sample making it difficult to compensate for. In this work it was studied whether the background ion signals in scanned mass spectra of the LC effluent at the retention time of the analyte offer some insight into the presence and extent of matrix effect. Matrix effects for six pesticides - thiabendazole, carbendazime, methomyl, aldicarb, imazalil and methiocarb - in garlic and onion samples used in the study varied from 1% (suppression 99%) to 127% (enhancement 27%) depending on the pesticide and sample. Also standards in solvent and solvent blanks were included in the study. The ions most strongly varying from sample to sample - and therefore best describing the changes in sample composition and ME - were selected for quantification according to principal component analysis (PCA) for all six pesticides under study. These ions were used to account for ME via partial least-squares (PLS) regression. The calibration set was constructed from 19 samples and standards and the obtained calibration function was validated with seven samples and standards. The average errors from the test set were from 0.05 to 0.27 mg/kg for carbendazim and imazalil, respectively (the respective average pesticide concentrations were 0.22 and 0.88 mg/kg). The PLS results were significantly more accurate compared to the conventional solvent calibration resulting in average errors from 0.07 to 0.69 mg/kg for carbendazime and methiocarb, respectively. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array - electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wanrooij, Jantien; van Bommel, Maarten; Quye, Anita

    2017-01-06

    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different extraction methods, respectively involving dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-oxalic acid, DMSO and hydrochloric acid, are unprecedentedly applied together to achieve an in-depth understanding of the chemical composition of these dyes. The first LC-PDA-MS database of the chemical composition of common dyes in ancient China has been established. The phenomena of esterification and isomerisation of the dye constituents of gallnut, gardenia and saffron, and the dye composition of acorn cup dyed silk are clarified for the first time. 6-Hydroxyrubiadin and its glycosides are first reported on a dyed sample with Rubia cordifolia from China. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS with a C18 BEH shield column shows significant advantages in the separation and identification of similar dye constituents, particularly in the cases of analysing pagoda bud and turmeric dyed sample extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids in Coffea arabica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Marta; Ferreira, João P; Queiroz, Vagner T; Vilas-Boas, Luís; Silva, Maria C; Almeida, Maria H; Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Bronze, Maria R

    2014-02-01

    Plants have developed an efficient system of recognition that induces a complex network of signalling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in case of a pathogenic infection. The use of specific and sensitive methods is mandatory for the analysis of compounds in these complex samples. In this study a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of SA, JA and ABA in Coffea arabica (L.) leaves in order to understand the role of these phytohormones in the signalling network involved in the coffee defence response against Hemileia vastatrix. The results showed that the method was specific, linear (r ≥ 0.99) in the range 0.125-1.00 µg mL⁻¹ for JA and ABA and 0.125-5.00 µg mL⁻¹ for SA, and precise (relative standard deviation ≤11%), and the limit of detection (0.010 µg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was adequate for quantifying these phytohormones in this type of matrix. In comparison with healthy leaves, those infected with H. vastatrix (resistance reaction) displayed an increase in SA level 24 h after inoculation, suggesting the involvement of an SA-dependent pathway in coffee resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Fractionation and analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides by zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Bobko, Ewelina; Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K; Maciejewska, Anna; Jachymek, Wojciech; Lugowski, Czeslaw; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2016-06-02

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a main surface antigen and virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria. Regardless of the source of LPS, this molecule, isolated from the smooth forms of bacteria, is characterised by a general structural layout encompassing three regions: (i) an O-specific polysaccharide (O-PS) - a polymer of repeating oligosaccharide units, (ii) core oligosaccharide (OS), and (iii) the lipid A anchoring LPS in the outer membrane of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Structural analysis usually requires degradation of LPS and further efficient separation of various poly- and oligosaccharide glycoforms. The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was shown as an efficient technique for separation of labelled or native neutral and acidic glycans, glycopeptides, sialylated glycans, glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides. Herein we adopted ZIC(®) (zwitterionic stationary phase covalently attached to porous silica)-HILIC technology in combination with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry to separate different LPS-derived oligosaccharides. As a result three effective procedures have been developed: (i) to separate different core oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli R1 LOS, (ii) to separate RU-[Hep]-Kdo oligosaccharides from core OS glycoforms of Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 LPS, and (iii) to separate Hep and Kdo-containing mono, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides of H. alvei PCM 1200 LPS. Moreover, some of developed analytical procedures were scaled to semi-preparative protocols and used to obtain highly-purified fractions of the interest in larger quantities required for future evaluation, analysis, and biological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg-1. The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg-1 respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg-1), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg-1), a tarragon (3300 µg kg-1) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg-1). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  10. Analysis of sialyl oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry with differentiation of alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 sialyl linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Geoffrey Ge; Melton, Laurence D

    2005-06-10

    A method for analysing sialyl oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) is described. Under positive ionisation mode, mass spectra of alpha2-3 and alpha2-6 linkages were different, and the former produced a prominent B2 (or B3 in disialyl lactose) mass fragment. This fragment was absent from mass spectra with alpha2-6 linkages. Two sialyl oligosaccharides, which have not been reported previously, were tentatively identified. One comprises a N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), two hexoses (Hex), and one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc) residue ((Neu5Ac)1 (Hex)2 (HexNAc)1), and the other comprises one Neu5Ac and one Hex residue ((Neu5Ac)1(Hex)1).

  11. The detection of iron protoporphyrin (heme b) in phytoplankton and marine particulate material by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry - comparison with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Martha

    2014-09-02

    A mass spectrometric (MS) method for the identification of iron protoporphyrin (IX) (FePTP, heme b) in marine particulate material and phytoplankton is described. Electrospray ionisation of FePTP produced the molecular Fe(III)PTP(+) ion (m/z=616) or the pseudomolecular [Fe(II)PTP + H](+) ion (m/z=617), depending on the oxidation state of the central iron ion. Collision induced dissociation (CID) in the ion trap mass spectrometer resulted in a single detected product ion (m/z=557) indicative of loss of ethanoic acid from a carboxylic acid side chain. Widening the isolation width to 616±3 resulted in production of a mass spectrum demonstrating the distinctive isotopic ratio of the iron containing fragment, further increasing the specificity of the analysis. Selective reactant monitoring (SRM) of the fragment ion (m/z=557) was applied to the detection of FePTP after chromatography of ammoniacal OGP extracts of marine samples. The detection limit for FePTP analysed by SRM after chromatography was 1.2±0.5fmol. For phytoplankton samples, reasonably good agreement was achieved between results obtained with SRM and those obtained by monitoring absorbance at λ=400nm using a diode array detector (DAD). Use of SRM for analysis of particulate material obtained from the high latitude North Atlantic allowed for the analysis of FePTP in the presence of a co-eluting compound that interfered with detection by DAD. Simultaneous collection of mass spectra from m/z=300 to 1500 resulted in identification of the pseudomolecular ion for the interfering compound. The CID fragmentation pattern and UV-visible mass spectra indicated that the interfering compound was a previously unidentified chlorin type compound. Comparison of FePTP determined by SRM and DAD on samples where this compound could not be detected showed that results collected using the two methods correlated. The use of both MS and DAD results in a powerful tool for quantifying this important biogenic component of the

  12. The detection of iron protoporphyrin (heme b) in phytoplankton and marine particulate material by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry – comparison with diode array detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, Martha, E-mail: m.gledhill@geomar.de

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of heme b in biological material. • Optimal conditions involved selective reactant monitoring of the heme b product ion. • The isotopic signature for this iron tetrapyrrole further improved selectivity. • Mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry were compared for heme b analysis. • Combining techniques made a powerful tool for analysis of heme in marine microbes. - Abstract: A mass spectrometric (MS) method for the identification of iron protoporphyrin (IX) (FePTP, heme b) in marine particulate material and phytoplankton is described. Electrospray ionisation of FePTP produced the molecular Fe(III)PTP{sup +} ion (m/z = 616) or the pseudomolecular [Fe(II)PTP + H]{sup +} ion (m/z = 617), depending on the oxidation state of the central iron ion. Collision induced dissociation (CID) in the ion trap mass spectrometer resulted in a single detected product ion (m/z = 557) indicative of loss of ethanoic acid from a carboxylic acid side chain. Widening the isolation width to 616 ± 3 resulted in production of a mass spectrum demonstrating the distinctive isotopic ratio of the iron containing fragment, further increasing the specificity of the analysis. Selective reactant monitoring (SRM) of the fragment ion (m/z = 557) was applied to the detection of FePTP after chromatography of ammoniacal OGP extracts of marine samples. The detection limit for FePTP analysed by SRM after chromatography was 1.2 ± 0.5 fmol. For phytoplankton samples, reasonably good agreement was achieved between results obtained with SRM and those obtained by monitoring absorbance at λ = 400 nm using a diode array detector (DAD). Use of SRM for analysis of particulate material obtained from the high latitude North Atlantic allowed for the analysis of FePTP in the presence of a co-eluting compound that interfered with detection by DAD. Simultaneous collection of mass spectra from m/z = 300 to 1500 resulted in identification of the

  13. Concentration dependent Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS ) studies on (E,E)-1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]- piperidine (Piperine) and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Ravi K; Sharma, Neha; Koul, Jawahar L; Verma, Mahendra K

    2013-01-01

    Studies on piperine ((M 1 )) and its synthetic analogues (M 2-18 ) by positive electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry were carried out in the flow injection mode of analysis in methanol. The MS experiments on these compounds at concentration 5 ng/μL or above yielded dimeric ionic species [2 M + Na](+) which revealed that piperine and its analogues exhibit clustering of ions when the solutions of these compounds at concentrations 5 ng/μL or above were allowed to move through the electrospray interface of the mass spectrometer. The same clustering of the ions was not observed when the solutions of the same compounds at concentrations below 5 ng/μL were used for similar studies. The formation of the clusters was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) studies wherein the fragmentation of dimeric ionic species [2 M + Na](+) led to the formation of sodium adducted monomeric ionic species [M + Na](+). The MS measurements of these compounds by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) were on expected lines as there was no clustering of the ions in case of APCI-MS measurements.

  14. Remote mass spectrometric sampling of electrospray- and desorption electrospray-generated ions using an air ejector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R Brent; Bereman, Michael S; Muddiman, David C; Hawkridge, Adam M

    2007-10-01

    A commercial air ejector was coupled to an electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ) to transport remotely generated ions from both electrospray (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. We demonstrate the remote analysis of a series of analyte ions that range from small molecules and polymers to polypeptides using the AE-LTQ interface. The details of the ESI-AE-LTQ and DESI-AE-LTQ experimental configurations are described and preliminary mass spectrometric data are presented.

  15. DESY greets CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Helmut Dosch, Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors, continues the series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer wrote a message in DESY inForm. Helmut Dosch took over from Albrecht Wagner in March 2009. You may think that the connections between CERN and DESY are obvious – particle physics labs with record-breaking accelerators and users from all around the world trying to solve mankind’s great mysteries. We even exchanged a few Directors. But did you know that there are similarities that are much closer to home – for example that both labs have names for their staff in the host language that are untranslatable into English? You are CERNoises and CERNois, we are DESYanerinnen and DESYaner. And in the end it’s the people it all comes down to. We at DESY admire the resourcefulness, enthusiasm, dedication and perseverance with which you at CERN have designed, built, started ...

  16. Determination and separation of bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and structural isomers of parabens in human urine with conventional high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myridakis, Antonis; Balaska, Eirini; Gkaitatzi, Christina; Kouvarakis, Antonis; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2015-03-01

    Phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and parabens (PBs), organic chemicals widely used in everyday products, are considered to be endocrine disruptors. We propose a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of seven phthalate metabolites, six PBs and BPA in human urine. All three categories of the above endocrine disruptors were simultaneously extracted from 1 mL of human urine using solid phase extraction. In addition, with a conventional reversed phase LC column, we achieved for the first time the separation of three pairs of structural isomers, namely iso-/n-butyl paraben, propyl paraben and monobutyl phthalate. LC-MS/MS was operated and tested in both electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). ESI was selected for the analysis due to its superior stability and repeatability. The method limit of detection (mLOD), achieved for a single set of high-performance LC conditions, ranged from 0.01 to 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites, from 0.06 to 0.24 ng/mL for PBs and was 2.01 ng/mL for BPA. Derivatisation of BPA with dansyl chloride lowered its mLOD to 0.007 ng/mL. Blank contamination was non-detectable. The present method was successfully applied for the analysis of the above-mentioned compounds in 80 male human urine samples.

  17. Evidence for site-specific intra-ionic hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the low-energy collision-induced dissociation product ion spectra of protonated small molecules generated by electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Stephen W; Wright, Patricia; Wells, Neil J; Langley, G John

    2010-04-01

    The experimental investigation of site-specific intra-ionic hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange in the low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) product ion spectra of protonated small molecules generated by electrospray ionisation (ESI) is presented. The observation of intra-ionic H/D exchange in such ions under low-energy CID conditions has hitherto been rarely reported. The data suggest that the intra-ionic H/D exchange takes place in a site-specific manner between the ionising deuteron, localised at either a tertiary amine or a tertiary amine-N-oxide, and a gamma-hydrogen relative to the nitrogen atom. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements showed that no H/D exchange takes place in solution, indicating that the reaction occurs in the gas phase. The compounds analysed in this study suggested that electron-withdrawing groups bonded to the carbon atom bearing the gamma-hydrogen can preclude exchange. The effect of the electron-withdrawing group appears dependent upon its electronegativity, with lower chi value groups still allowing exchange to take place. However, the limited dataset available in this study prevented robust conclusions being drawn regarding the effect of the electron-withdrawing group. The observation of site-specific intra-ionic H/D exchange has application in the area of structural elucidation, where it could be used to introduce an isotopic label into the carbon skeleton of a molecule containing specific structural features. This could increase the throughput, and minimise the cost, of such studies due to the obviation of the need to produce a deuterium-labelled analogue by synthetic means. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at

  19. Dr. John Marburger visits DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Dr. John Marburger, Director of the United States Office of Science and Technology Policy, visited the research center DESY in Hamburg. The American physicist wanted to inform himself about the status of the TESLA X-ray laser and the TESLA linear collider as well as the international collaboration at DESY (1/2 page).

  20. The use of enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for studying the spectra of unusual substrates of mushroom tyrosinase by direct surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-09-30

    Tyrosinase-coupled magnetic particles (EMPs) were used to demonstrate that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors are oxidised by tyrosinase only in the presence of the enzyme's classic substrate. This shows the potential for the application of EMPs as a non-organic matrix for monitoring enzymatic conversion of a novel substrate family directly on-the-spot, principally due to minimal enzyme requirement per analysis. Tyrosinase was covalently coupled to core-shell-type silica-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) that were applied as non-organic SALDI matrix suitable for studying low-mass compounds using a classic matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Because of the dual function of the EMPs - enzyme host and non-organic matrix - we describe this ionisation method as Enzyme-coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted LDI-MS (ENALDI-MS). Supplementary studies of the enzymatic conversion of glabridin and 3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (DHPA) were conducted by high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS). The initial experiment involving EMPs as non-organic matrix (ENALDI-MS) showed enzymatic conversion of glabridin, a strong tyrosinase inhibitor, only in the presence of L-Tyr, the classic tyrosinase substrate. These findings were evaluated by ESI-QqTOF-MS proving that glabridin and DHPA are converted into the corresponding quinones by tyrosinase only in the presence of the auxiliary monophenol or o-diphenol substrates (L-Tyr and catechin, respectively) capable of regenerating the active site of tyrosinase. EMPs were shown to be useful as a non-organic matrix to monitor enzymatic conversion of the novel tyrosinase substrate family directly on-the-spot with a minimal enzyme consumption (6.5 pmol/spot). Results obtained by ENALDI-MS were fully confirmed by ESI-QqTOF-MS demonstrating that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors may be oxidised

  1. DESY. Scientific annual report 2009; DESY. Wissenschaftlicher Jahresbericht 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Research with HERA and LHC, developments for the ILC, elementary-particle theory, astroparticle physics, the DESY Grid center, the ALPS experiment for the search for very light unknown particles decaying into {gamma}{gamma}, the OLYMPUS experiment, experiments with synchrotron radiation at DORIS III and PETRA III, developments of FLASH and the European XFEL, the DESY accelerators, national and international collaboration, electronics development, speeches and publications. (HSI)

  2. Two-dimensional HPLC coupled to ICP-MS and electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS for investigating the bioavailability in vitro of arsenic species from edible seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, Maria del Carmen; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Taebunpakul, Sutthinun [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, Department of Materials, London (United Kingdom); National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), Pathumthani (Thailand); Stokes, Emma; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Edible seaweed consumption is a route of exposure to arsenic. However, little attention has been paid to estimate the bioaccessibility and/or bioavailability of arsenosugars in edible seaweed and their possible degradation products during gastrointestinal digestion. This work presents first use of combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) with two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by anion exchange) to compare the qualitative and quantitative arsenosugars speciation of different edible seaweed with that of their bioavailable fraction as obtained using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion procedure. Optimal extraction conditions for As species from four seaweed namely kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce were selected as a compromise between As extraction efficiency and preservation of compound identity. For most investigated samples, the use of ammonium acetate buffer as extractant and 1 h sonication in a water bath followed by HPLC-ICP-MS resulted in 40-61% of the total As to be found in the buffered aqueous extract, of which 86-110% was present as arsenosugars (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar and sulfonate sugar for wakame and kombu and glycerol sugar and phosphate sugar for nori). The exception was sea lettuce, for which the arsenosugar fraction (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar) only comprised 44% of the total extracted As. Interestingly, the ratio of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid to arsenosugars in sea lettuce extracts seemed higher than that for the rest of investigated samples. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, approximately 11-16% of the total As in the solid sample was found in the dialyzates with arsenosugars comprising 93-120% and 41% of the dialyzable As fraction for kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce, respectively. Moreover, the relative As species distribution in seaweed-buffered extracts and dialyzates was found to be very similar

  3. Coupling of ultrafast LC with mass spectrometry by DESI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Chen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Recently we reported a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface to combine liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) using a new LC eluent splitting strategy through a tiny orifice on LC capillary tube [J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25, 286 (2014)]. The interface introduces negligible dead volume and back pressure, thereby allowing "near real-time" MS detection, fast LC elution, and online MS-directed purification. This study further evaluates the LC/DESI-MS performance with focus of using ultra-fast LC. Using a monolithic C18 column, metabolites in urine can be separated within 1.6 min and can be online collected for subsequent structure elucidation (e.g., by NMR, UV, IR) in a recovery yield up to 99%. Using a spray solvent with alkaline pH, negative ions could be directly generated for acidic analytes (e.g., ibuprofen) in acidic LC eluent by DESI, offering a novel protocol to realize "wrong-way around" ionization for LC/MS analysis. In addition, DESI-MS is found to be compatible with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the first time.

  4. DESY. Scientific annual report 2003; DESY. Wissenschaftlicher Jahresbericht 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the following the main progresses at DESY in the fields accelerator development, elementary-particle physics, research with photons and particle astrophysics, as well as the accelerator development are briefly presented. More detailed descriptions of the events and important developments of the year 2003 are found in the following chapters of the present annual report. [German] Im Folgenden werden die wesentlichen Fortschritte bei DESY auf den Gebieten Beschleunigerentwicklung, Elementarteilchenphysik, Forschung mit Photonen und Astroteilchenphysik sowie der Beschleunigerentwicklung kurz dargestellt. Detailliertere Ausfuehrungen der Ereignisse und wichtige Entwicklungen des Jahres 2003 finden sich in den folgenden Kapiteln des vorliegenden Jahresberichts. (orig.)

  5. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  6. Faster, More Reproducible DESI-MS for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Wu, Vincen; Jones, Emrys A.; Pringle, Steven D.; Karancsi, Tamas; Dannhorn, Andreas; Veselkov, Kirill; McKenzie, James S.; Takats, Zoltan

    2017-10-01

    A new, more robust sprayer for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is presented. The main source of variability in DESI is thought to be the uncontrolled variability of various geometric parameters of the sprayer, primarily the position of the solvent capillary, or more specifically, its positioning within the gas capillary or nozzle. If the solvent capillary is off-center, the sprayer becomes asymmetrical, making the geometry difficult to control and compromising reproducibility. If the stiffness, tip quality, and positioning of the capillary are improved, sprayer reproducibility can be improved by an order of magnitude. The quality of the improved sprayer and its potential for high spatial resolution imaging are demonstrated on human colorectal tissue samples by acquisition of images at pixel sizes of 100, 50, and 20 μm, which corresponds to a lateral resolution of 40-60 μm, similar to the best values published in the literature. The high sensitivity of the sprayer also allows combination with a fast scanning quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This provides up to 30 times faster DESI acquisition, reducing the overall acquisition time for a 10 mm × 10 mm rat brain sample to approximately 1 h. Although some spectral information is lost with increasing analysis speed, the resulting data can still be used to classify tissue types on the basis of a previously constructed model. This is particularly interesting for clinical applications, where fast, reliable diagnosis is required. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. DESI MS based screening method for phthalates in consumer goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sabine; Wagner, Sebastian; Gerbig, Stefanie; Wächter, Herbert; Sielaff, Detlef; Bohn, Dieter; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-05-21

    Phthalates are used as plasticizes in many everyday items, but some of them are known as hormone disruptors, being especially harmful during childhood. The European Union therefore restricted their application in children's toys and certain food packaging to 0.1%w. Due to the ever increasing number of plastic-containing consumer goods, rapid screening methods are needed to ensure and improve consumer safety in the future. In this study we evaluated the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid quantitative screening of phthalates in toys. DESI allowed for direct surface sampling of the toys under atmospheric conditions with minimal sample preparation, while the high performance mass spectrometer used provided a high sensitivity and reliable identification via accurate mass measurements, high mass resolving power and MS/MS capabilities. External calibration curves for six banned phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP) were obtained from matrix-matched reference materials. Coefficients of determination were greater than 0.985, LOQs ranged from 0.02%w (DIDP) to 2.26%w (DINP) and the relative standard deviation of the calibration curve slope was less than 7.8% for intraday and 11.4% for interday comparison. The phthalate contents of eleven authentic samples were determined in a proof-of-concept approach using DESI MS and results were compared to those from confirmatory methods. The phthalate content was correctly assigned with relative deviations ranging from -20% to +10% for the majority of samples. Given further optimization and automation, DESI MS is likely to become a useful tool for rapid and accurate phthalate screening in the future.

  8. Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by complexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-03-07

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is used for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of trace amounts of the notorious explosive TATP present on ambient surfaces by alkali metal complexation in a simple spray technique.

  9. CERN and DESY react to Nature editorial

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    In response to the editorial which appeared in the 20 December 2001 issue of Nature (No. 414, p. 829), CERN's Director-General and the spokesperson of DESY have issued the following replies, which have been published in the latest issue of Nature (No. 415, p. 472). Luciano Maiani's response   Spokesperson of DESY, Petra Folkerts' response

  10. A comparative study of primary secondary amino (PSA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as QuEChERS absorbents for the rapid determination of diazepam and its major metabolites in fish samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Huan; Wu, Lidong

    2016-01-30

    A simple and fast modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method is presented for the determination of diazepam and its three major metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam (benzodiazepines) in fish samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. Muscle tissues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned with primary secondary amino (PSA) adsorbents. The cleanup effect of PSA was compared with that of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in term of extraction efficiency. The better results were obtained when PSA was used. The chromatography separation was achieved within 5.0 min on a C18 column. The limit of detection was 0.5 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification was 2.5 µg kg(-1). Average recoveries of diazepam and its main metabolites were in the range of 88.5-110.1%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 10.0%. The proposed method for fish samples gives good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H

    2014-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport of lidoca......Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport...... of lidocaine into the deeper skin layers is demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, metabolism of lidocaine to 3-OH-lidocaine was observed in subcutaneous tissue as well as in lobules of white adipose tissue surrounding the hair follicles. These results suggest that it is advantageous to use full...

  12. Surface effects and electrochemical cell capacitance in desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volný, Michael; Venter, Andre; Smith, Scott A; Pazzi, Marco; Cooks, R Graham

    2008-04-01

    Time resolved measurements show that during a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) experiment, the current initially rises sharply, followed by an exponential decrease to a relatively steady current. When the high voltage on the spray emitter is switched off, the current drops to negative values, suggesting that the direction of current flow in the equivalent DESI circuit is reversed. These data demonstrate that the DESI source behaves as a dc capacitor and that the addition of a surface between the sprayer and the counter electrode in DESI introduces a new electrically active element into the system. The charging and discharging behavior was observed using different surfaces and it could be seen both by making current measurements on a plate at the entrance to the mass spectrometer as well as by measuring ion current in the linear ion trap within the vacuum system of the mass spectrometer. The magnitude of the steady state current obtained without analyte present on the surface is different for different surface materials, and different capacitor time constants of the equivalent RC circuits were calculated for different DESI surfaces. The PTFE surface has by far the greatest time constant and is also able to produce the highest DESI currents. Surface properties play a crucial role in charge transfer during DESI in addition to the effects of the chemical properties of the analyte. It is suggested that surface energy (wettability) is an important factor controlling droplet behavior on the surface. The experimental data are correlated with critical surface tension values of different materials. It is proposed, based on the results presented, that super-hydrophobic materials with extremely high contact angles have the potential to be excellent DESI substrates. It is also demonstrated, using the example of the neurotransmitter dopamine, that the surface charge that develops during a DESI-MS experiment can cause electrochemical oxidation of the analyte.

  13. The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design

    OpenAIRE

    DESI Collaboration; Aghamousa, Amir; Aguilar, Jessica; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectropic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution $R= \\lambda/\\Delta...

  14. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  15. Direct extraction of urinary analytes from undeveloped reversed-phase thin layer chromatography plates using a solvent gradient combined with on-line electrospray ionisation ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenport, Neil A; Reynolds, James C; Weston, Daniel J; Wilson, Ian D; Creaser, Colin S

    2012-08-07

    The direct extraction of urinary analytes deposited on reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) plates is demonstrated using a solvent gradient extraction procedure without prior chromatographic development. The surface sample probe TLC-MS interface used for the gradient extraction is compared to direct loop injection into the electrospray ion source for biofluid profiling. The gradient elution is shown to enhance ion intensities, as urinary salts are eluted in aqueous formic acid in the early part of the gradient reducing ion suppression. The retention of urinary components on the C18 RP-TLC plate was confirmed by monitoring analyte responses with, and without, an aqueous wash phase prior to the solvent gradient extraction. The use of gradient elution allows fractionation of the complex biological matrix as a result of differential retention of urine components on the undeveloped RP-TLC plate. The direct gradient analysis of TLC plates has also been combined with ion mobility-mass spectrometry to further resolve the complex urinary profile and identify co-eluting compounds.

  16. Positron impact ionisation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kara, V

    1999-01-01

    impact ionisation of H. The total ionisation cross section (sigma sub T sup +), including contributions from both direct ionisation and Ps formation, was measured by extracting ions randomly. The Ps formation cross section (sigma sub P sub s) of H was then determined from these measurements by subtraction of sigma sub i sup + data. Two recent theoretical calculations, generally considered to be the most reliable thus far, are found to be in agreement with the results for sigma sub P sub s over the entire energy range investigated. The present measurements also differentiate between two prior conflicting measurements of sigma sub P sub s , thus providing a degree of consensus amongst experimental data. In this work, a magnetically confined e beam was crossed with a gas jet to study ionisation of Ne, Kr and Xe atoms. Ions produced in the overlap of the beams were detected in coincidence with the scattered projectile, so as to discriminate against ionisation events involving positronium (Ps) formation. The singl...

  17. DESY compact 2010. Highlights and annual report; DESY kompakt 2010. Highlights und Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-02

    The following topics are dealt with: DESY, DORIS, the synchrotron radiation source PETRA III, the FLASH free-electron laser, the European XFEL, new concepts for free-electron lasers, special electron sources, the relativistic electron gun REGAE for atomic explorations, research with photons at FLASH, DORIS III, and PETRA III, the center for free-electron laser science CFEL, nano- and material sciences, molecular biology, HERA, Helmholt-alliance, LHC experiments, R and D activities for the ILC, elementary-particle theory, astroparticle physics, the DESY-GRID center, the ALPS and OLYMPUS experiments, cooperation with the Hambuge University, technology transfer, cooperation with industry. (HSI)

  18. Shotgun Approach for Quantitative Imaging of Phospholipids Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Laskin, Julia

    2014-02-04

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been extensively used for determining spatial distributions of molecules in biological samples, and there is increasing interest in using MSI for quantification. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, or nano-DESI, is an ambient MSI technique where a solvent is used for localized extraction of molecules followed by nanoelectrospray ionization. Doping the nano-DESI solvent with carefully selected standards enables online quantification during MSI experiments. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate this quantification approach can be extended to provide shotgun-like quantification of phospholipids in thin brain tissue sections. Specifically, two phosphatidylcholine (PC) standards were added to the nano-DESI solvent for simultaneous imaging and quantification of 22 PC species observed in nano-DESI MSI. Furthermore, by combining the quantitative data obtained in the individual pixels, we demonstrate quantification of these PC species in seven different regions of a rat brain tissue section.

  19. Screening ionisation and chromatography conditions for quantitative LC/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillén, Henrik; Magnell, Niklas

    2009-11-01

    To develop an optimal quantitative LC/MS method with high sensitivity, high selectivity and robustness in a limited time period can be very challenging, especially for methods in which many analytes are to be quantified. In this study the relevant options are reviewed and a simple screening strategy of mass spectrometric and chromatographic conditions is presented. The strategy is divided into two stages, mass spectrometric ionisation screening and reversed phase LC column screening. The objective of the first stage is to find out how sensitivity is affected by ionisation technique, ionisation polarity and buffer. The compounds are dissolved in different buffers covering a broad pH range. Thereafter they are injected using flow injection analysis without LC column, evaluating both electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In the second stage the buffers yielding the best sensitivity and selectivity in the ionisation screening stage are used as mobile phase buffers to LC column screening with different stationary phases applying a shallow gradient. The aim is to find the combinations of column(s) and buffer(s) that give symmetric peaks, adequate retention and selectivity. Finally the retention is adjusted using isocratic or gradient elution. The strategy provides a simple and practical experimental design that allows fast screening a large range of ionisation and chromatographic conditions especially for multiple compounds. The examples included in this study demonstrate that optimal buffer, ionisation technique, ionisation polarity and column cannot be predicted from compound properties such as structure and pK(a).

  20. Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... differences between dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), starch and total phenolic compounds (TPC) content of ... small seeds with an angular shape, dark color and called desi, the other .... Chemical composition of kabuli and desi types of chickpea on dry matter basis (%). Constituents.

  1. Electro Polishing of Niobium Cavities at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Matheisen, A; Morales, H; Petersen, B; Schmoekel, M; Steinhau-Kühl, N

    2004-01-01

    At DESY a facility for electro polishing (EP) of the super conducting (s.c.) TESLA/TTF cavities have been built and is operational since summer 2003. The EP infrastructure is capable to handle single-cell structures and the standard TESLA/ TTF nine-cell cavities. Several electro polishing processes have been made since and acceleration voltage up to 40 MV/m have been reached in nine cell structures. We report on measurements and experiences gained since 2003 as well as on handling procedures developed for the preparation of electro polished resonators. Specific data like heat production, variation of current density and bath aging will be presented. Another important point for reproducible results is the quality control of the electro polishing process. First quality control steps to be implanted in the EP procedure for large-scale production will be described.

  2. Analysis of Metabolic Changes in Plant Pathosystems by Imprint Imaging DESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo J.; Hamid, Tanam S.; Bayfield, Mark A.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2015-04-01

    The response of plants to microbial pathogens is based on the production of secondary metabolites. The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their understanding a challenging task for metabolomic studies requiring powerful analytical approaches. In this paper, the ability of ambient mass spectrometry to provide a snapshot of plant metabolic response to pathogen invasion was tested. The fluctuations of glycoalkaloids present in sprouted potatoes infected by the phytopathogen Pythium ultimum were monitored by imprint imaging desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). After 8 d from the inoculation, a decrease of the relative abundance of potato glycoalkaloids α-solanine ( m/z 706) and α-chaconine ( m/z 722) was observed, whereas the relative intensity of solanidine ( m/z 398), solasodenone ( m/z 412), solanaviol ( m/z 430), solasodiene ( m/z 396), solaspiralidine ( m/z 428), γ-solanine/γ-chaconine ( m/z 560) , β-solanine ( m/z 706), and β-chaconine ( m/z 722) increased. The progression of the disease, expressed by the development of brown necrotic lesions on the potato, led to the further decrease of all the glycoalkaloid metabolites. Therefore, the applicability of imprint imaging DESI-MS in studying the plant metabolic changes in a simple pathosystem was demonstrated with minimal sample preparation.

  3. Data Processing for the Space-Based Desis Hyperspectral Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, E.; Avbelj, J.; Alonso, K.; Bachmann, M.; Cerra, D.; Eckardt, A.; Gerasch, B.; Graham, L.; Günther, B.; Heiden, U.; Kerr, G.; Knodt, U.; Krutz, D.; Krawcyk, H.; Makarau, A.; Miller, R.; Müller, R.; Perkins, R.; Walter, I.

    2017-05-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) have established a collaboration to develop and operate a new space-based hyperspectral sensor, the DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS). DESIS will provide spacebased hyperspectral data in the VNIR with high spectral resolution and near-global coverage. While TBE provides the platform and infrastructure for operation of the DESIS instrument on the International Space Station, DLR is responsible for providing the instrument and the processing software. The DESIS instrument is equipped with novel characteristics for an imaging spectrometer such high spectral resolution (2.55 nm), a mirror pointing unit or a CMOS sensor operated in rolling shutter mode. We present here an overview of the DESIS instrument and its processing chain, emphasizing the effect of the novel characteristics of DESIS in the data processing and final data products. Furthermore, we analyse in more detail the effect of the rolling shutter on the DESIS data and possible mitigation/correction strategies.

  4. Ionisation in the absence of high voltage using supercritical fluid chromatography: a possible route to increased signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, Mohini A; Boughtflower, Robert; Caldwell, Jeff; Hitzel, Laure; Holyoak, Clare; Lane, Stephen J; Oakley, Paul; Pullen, Frank S; Richardson, Stefan; Langley, G John

    2008-11-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is fast becoming a technique of choice for the analysis of a wide range of compounds and has been found to be complementary to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The combination of SFC and mass spectrometry (MS) affords a very useful tool in the separation and analysis of compounds. In this study the ionisation of samples in the absence of an applied electrospray voltage has been observed when using SFC/MS, with some compounds showing increased sensitivity when all ionisation source high voltage (HV) is removed. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of ionisation, a series of test compounds were analysed using standard electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) source configurations and also different API source designs. In both cases, data were acquired with the applied high voltage on (normal conditions) or with the high voltage off, i.e. no voltage spray (novo-spray). The standards were analysed with a range of pressure and modifier percentage conditions. To understand the nature of the ionisation process observed, this was compared with three established liquid-to-gas ionisation mechanisms. These were thermospray (TSP), charge residue model (CRM) of ESI and sonic spray ionisation (SSI). Experiments were undertaken in an attempt to explain this ionisation phenomenon and quantify any observed change in sensitivity. The most important point to note is that enhanced ionisation was observed under novo-spray conditions in a SFC/MS configuration, which in certain cases provides a lowering in the overall limit of detection (LOD).

  5. Study of Electrochemical Reactions Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengyuan; Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Laskin, Julia; Dewald, Howard D.; Chen, Hao

    2012-07-03

    The combination of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool for studying mechanisms of redox reactions, identification of products and intermediates, and online derivatization/recognition of analytes. This work reports a new coupling interface for EC/MS by employing nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), a recently developed ambient ionization method. We demonstrate online coupling of nano-DESI-MS with a traditional electrochemical flow cell, in which the electrolyzed solution emanating from the cell is ionized by nano-DESI for MS analysis. Furthermore, we show first coupling of nano-DESI-MS with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode enabling chemical analysis of electrolyzed samples directly from electrode surfaces. Because of its inherent sensitivity, nano-DESI enables chemical analysis of small volumes and concentrations of sample solution. Specifically, good-quality signal of dopamine and its oxidized form, dopamine ortho-quinone, was obtained using 10 μL of 1 μM solution of dopamine on the IDA. Oxidation of dopamine, reduction of benzodiazepines, and electrochemical derivatization of thiol groups were used to demonstrate the performance of the technique. Our results show the potential of nano-DESI as a novel interface for electrochemical mass spectrometry research.

  6. DESY in 2012: A year of light and dust

    CERN Multimedia

    Frank Lehner

    2011-01-01

    While 2011 will go down in history as the construction year at DESY, there might even be more of it in 2012. The construction activities will spread across the entire DESY campus and will go from mere digging in the dirt to high-tech installations.   Location of the DORIS III and PETRA III storage rings, the two free-electron laser FLASH, and the planned position of the European XFEL accelerator tunnel. Copyright: DESY 2010. The 2-kilometre-long accelerator tunnel of the European XFEL and the injector building on the DESY campus are ready, and will be technically equipped and prepared for the accelerator installation. The first accelerator modules will not be put in place before 2013, but a new module test hall will soon become operational and is expecting its first pre-series cavities and modules. FLASH II is another impressive construction site on the DESY premises. The area around FLASH, the free-electron laser for so...

  7. DESY in 2012: A year of light and dust

    CERN Multimedia

    Frank Lehner

    2012-01-01

    While 2011 will go down in history as the construction year at DESY, there might even be more of it in 2012. The construction activities will spread across the entire DESY campus and will go from mere digging in the dirt to high-tech installations.   Location of the DORIS III and PETRA III storage rings, the two free-electron laser FLASH, and the planned position of the European XFEL accelerator tunnel. Copyright: DESY 2010. The 2-kilometre-long accelerator tunnel of the European XFEL and the injector building on the DESY campus are ready, and will be technically equipped and prepared for the accelerator installation. The first accelerator modules will not be put in place before 2013, but a new module test hall will soon become operational and is expecting its first pre-series cavities and modules. FLASH II is another impressive construction site on the DESY premises. The area around FLASH, the free-electron laser for so...

  8. Rapid analysis of acetone in human plasma by derivatization desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangming; Chen, Bo; Liu, Guozhu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2010-09-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) is rapidly becoming a powerful analysis tool for a wide variety of samples in the open air. By combining DESI MS and derivatization, acetone in human blood samples, one of the diabetes mellitus (DM) biomarkers, was rapidly analyzed. Prior to DESI, the plasma sample was first exposed to hydroxylamine hydrochloride and acetone in plasma was derived into fixed oxime. The reactive products were validated by DESI/MS/MS. Quantification was performed in the positive-ion electrospray ionization mode by monitoring of the product ions at m/z 74 for acetone oxime and m/z 116 for 4-methyl-2-pentanone oxime as the internal standard. The limit of detection was of the order of magnitude of 0.10 ppbv and the linear range comprised two decades of concentration, covering the relevant concentration range of acetone in plasma samples. The method has achieved fast, high-throughput analysis of acetone in human plasma with little beforehand preparation and an experiment time of only a few seconds.

  9. Bouw van een eigen ontwerp electrospray ionisatiebron voor een quadrupool massa-spectrometer en enkele toepassingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers EAIM; Jong APJM de

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the manufacturing, the working and results of preliminary applications of a home-built electrospray ionisation source. The source was constructed for a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (MS) (Finnigan 4000). The elements of the source and interface are: a micro needle at high

  10. Ammonium Bicarbonate Addition Improves the Detection of Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Elahe; Venter, Andre R.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of protein by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is considered impractical due to a mass-dependent loss in sensitivity with increase in protein molecular weights. With the addition of ammonium bicarbonate to the DESI-MS analysis the sensitivity towards proteins by DESI was improved. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) improvement for a variety of proteins increased between 2- to 3-fold relative to solvent systems containing formic acid and more than seven times relative to aqueous methanol spray solvents. Three methods for ammonium bicarbonate addition during DESI-MS were investigated. The additive delivered improvements in S/N whether it was mixed with the analyte prior to sample deposition, applied over pre-prepared samples, or simply added to the desorption spray solvent. The improvement correlated well with protein pI but not with protein size. Other ammonium or bicarbonate salts did not produce similar improvements in S/N, nor was this improvement in S/N observed for ESI of the same samples. As was previously described for ESI, DESI also caused extensive protein unfolding upon the addition of ammonium bicarbonate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Novel Aspects of the DESI Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufore, Lucas; Honscheid, Klaus; Elliott, Ann; Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe. It will obtain optical spectra for tens of millions of galaxies and quasars, constructing a 3-dimensional map spanning the nearby universe to 10 billion light years. The survey will be conducted on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory starting in 2018. In order to achieve these scientific goals the DESI collaboration is building a high throughput spectrograph capable of observing thousands of spectra simultaneously. In this presentation we discuss the DESI instrument control and data acquisition system that is currently being developed to operate the 5,000 fiber positioners in the focal plane, the 10 spectrographs each with three CDD cameras and every other aspect of the instrument. Special emphasis will be given to novel aspects of the design including the use of inexpensive Linux-based microcontrollers such as the Raspberry PI to control a number of DESI hardware components.

  12. Electron ionisation of sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James D; Parkes, Michael A; Price, Stephen D

    2013-05-14

    Relative precursor-specific partial ionisation cross sections for the fragment ions formed following electron ionisation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been measured for the first time, from 30 to 200 eV, using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with two-dimensional ion coincidence detection. These data quantify the yields of O(2+), O(+), SO(2+), S(+), O2(+), and SO(+) ions, relative to the formation of SO2(+), via single, double, and triple electron ionisation of SO2. Formation of O(2+), following electron-SO2 collisions, has been quantified for the first time. The data allow a first experimental estimate of the triple ionisation potential of SO2 (69.0 ± 3.6 eV), an energy in good agreement with a value derived in this study via computational chemistry. The triple ion combination S(+) + O(+) + O(+) is clearly detected following electron collisions with SO2 at electron energies markedly below the vertical energy for forming SO2(3 +). This observation is accounted for by the operation of a stepwise pathway to the formation of S(+) + 2O(+) which does not involve the formation of a molecular trication.

  13. Turning the Ship: The Transformation of DESY, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Hallonsten, Olof; Heinecke, Steffi

    2017-09-01

    This article chronicles the most recent history of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) located in Hamburg, Germany, with particular emphasis on how this national laboratory founded for accelerator-based particle physics shifted its research program toward multi-disciplinary photon science. Synchrotron radiation became DESY's central experimental research program through a series of changes in its organizational, scientific, and infrastructural setup and the science policy context. Furthermore, the turn toward photon science is part of a broader transformation in the late twentieth century in which nuclear and particle physics, once the dominating fields in national and international science budgets, gave way to increasing investment in the materials sciences and life sciences. Synchrotron radiation research took a lead position on the experimental side of these growing fields and became a new form of big science, generously funded by governments and with user communities expanding across both academia and industry.

  14. Turning the Ship: The Transformation of DESY, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Hallonsten, Olof; Heinecke, Steffi

    2017-12-01

    This article chronicles the most recent history of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) located in Hamburg, Germany, with particular emphasis on how this national laboratory founded for accelerator-based particle physics shifted its research program toward multi-disciplinary photon science. Synchrotron radiation became DESY's central experimental research program through a series of changes in its organizational, scientific, and infrastructural setup and the science policy context. Furthermore, the turn toward photon science is part of a broader transformation in the late twentieth century in which nuclear and particle physics, once the dominating fields in national and international science budgets, gave way to increasing investment in the materials sciences and life sciences. Synchrotron radiation research took a lead position on the experimental side of these growing fields and became a new form of big science, generously funded by governments and with user communities expanding across both academia and industry.

  15. Determination of the brominated flame retardant, hexabroomcyclodocane in sediments and biota by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, S.; Bersuder, P.; Allchin, C.R.; Zegers, B.; Boon, J.P.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    A method involving reversed-phase, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for separation, detection and quantitation of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To address the lack of environmental

  16. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, Tiina J; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto

    2015-06-23

    Steroids have important roles in the progress of pregnancy, and their study in maternal urine is a non-invasive method to monitor the steroid metabolome and its possible abnormalities. However, the current screening techniques of choice, namely immunoassays and gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, do not offer means for the rapid and non-targeted multi-analyte studies of large sample sets. In this study, we explore the feasibility of two ambient mass spectrometry methods in steroid fingerprinting. Urine samples from pregnant women were screened by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The urine samples were processed by solid phase extraction for the DESI measurements and by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid-extraction for DAPPI. Consequently, steroid glucuronides and sulfates were detected by negative ion mode DESI-HRMS, and free steroids by positive ion mode DAPPI-HRMS. In DESI, signals of eleven steroid metabolite ions were found to increase as the pregnancy proceeded, and in DAPPI ten steroid ions showed at least an order of magnitude increase during pregnancy. In DESI, the increase was seen for ions corresponding to C18 and C21 steroid glucuronides, while DAPPI detected increased excretion of C19 and C21 steroids. Thus both techniques show promise for the steroid marker screening in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of a seeding option for the VUV free electron laser at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2000-01-01

    In order to get fully coherent radiation from the Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifier starting from the shot noise, it is foreseen to implement a seeding option into the VUV FEL being under construction at DESY (DESY print TESLA-FEL 95-03, Hamburg, DESY, 1995, Seeding option for the VUV free electron laser at DESY: joint DESY and GKSS proposal; Available at DESY upon request only). It consists of an additional undulator, a bypass for electrons and an X-ray monochromator. This paper presents the results of optimization of the seeding option for the VUV FEL providing maximal spectral brightness at minimal shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations. Calculations are performed with three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation code FAST (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 429 (1999) 233).

  18. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  19. Nucleation in an ultra low ionisation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    In this work we have studied aerosol formation at ultra-low ionisation levels, using the existing deep underground science facility at Boulby mine, UK. At 1100 m depth, with a corresponding factor 106 reduction in cosmic ray muon flux, the Boulby facility is an ideal place to study the role of ions...... in aerosol nucleation. By exposing a controlled volume of air to varying levels of ionising radiation, and with the minimum ionisation level vastly reduced compared to normal surface laboratory conditions, we have provided both a validation of earlier studies of ion-induced nucleation and extended...... the measurements to ionisation levels approximately 3 order of magnitudes lower than any earlier study. Getting this close to zero ionisation allows us to distinguish between the neutral and charged contribution better than previously. The effect is explored over a range of sulphuric acid concentrations....

  20. Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-08-21

    Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced through ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA). Previous studies showed that LSOA constituents are multifunctional compounds containing aldehyde and ketone groups. In this study, we used the selectivity of the Girard T (GT) reagent towards carbonyl compounds to examine the utility of reactive nano-DESI for the analysis of complex organic mixtures. In these experiments, 1-100 {micro}M GT solution was used as a working solvent for reactive nano-DESI analysis. Abundant products of a single addition of GT to LSOA constituents were observed at GT concentrations in excess of 10 {micro}M. We found that LSOA compounds with 18-20 carbon atoms (dimers) and 27-30 carbon atoms (trimers) react with GT through a simple addition reaction resulting in formation of the carbinolamine derivative. In contrast, reactions of GT with monomeric species result in formation of both the carbinolamine and the hydrazone derivatives. In addition, several monomers did not react with GT on the timescale of our experiment. These molecules were characterized by relatively high values of the double bond equivalent (DBE) and low oxygen content. Furthermore, because addition of a charged GT tag to a neutral molecule eliminates the discrimination against the low proton affinity compounds in the ionization process, reactive nano-DESI analysis enables quantification of individual compounds in the complex mixture. For example, we were able to estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the LSOA mixture. Specifically, we found that the most abundant LSOA dimer was detected at ca. 0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was just around 11 pg. Our results indicate that reactive nano-DESI is a valuable approach for examining the presence of specific functional groups and

  1. Open day an enormous success more than 15 000 visitors came to DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "More than 15 000 visitors seized the opportunity to look behind the scenes at the Helmholtz research center DESY. Around 600 DESY employees were in action to present "their" research center, answer questions and care for the welfare of their guests" (1 page).

  2. ProtoDESI: First On-Sky Technology Demonstration for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrelius, Parker; Abareshi, Behzad; Allen, Lori; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Besuner, Robert; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Butler, Karen; Cardiel, Laia; Dey, Arjun; Duan, Yutong; Elliott, Ann; Emmet, William; Gershkovich, Irena; Honscheid, Klaus; Illa, Jose M.; Jimenez, Jorge; Joyce, Richard; Karcher, Armin; Kent, Stephen; Lambert, Andrew; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Manser, Christopher; Marshall, Robert; Martini, Paul; Paat, Anthony; Probst, Ronald; Rabinowitz, David; Reil, Kevin; Robertson, Amy; Rockosi, Connie; Schlegel, David; Schubnell, Michael; Serrano, Santiago; Silber, Joseph; Soto, Christian; Sprayberry, David; Summers, David; Tarlé, Greg; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the universe using the baryon acoustic oscillations technique. The spectra of 35 million galaxies and quasars over 14,000 square degrees will be measured during a 5-year survey. A new prime focus corrector for the Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory will deliver light to 5,000 individually targeted fiber-fed robotic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broadband multi-object spectrographs. We describe the ProtoDESI experiment, that was installed and commissioned on the 4-m Mayall telescope from 2016 August 14 to September 30. ProtoDESI was an on-sky technology demonstration with the goal to reduce technical risks associated with aligning optical fibers with targets using robotic fiber positioners and maintaining the stability required to operate DESI. The ProtoDESI prime focus instrument, consisting of three fiber positioners, illuminated fiducials, and a guide camera, was installed behind the existing Mosaic corrector on the Mayall telescope. A fiber view camera was mounted in the Cassegrain cage of the telescope and provided feedback metrology for positioning the fibers. ProtoDESI also provided a platform for early integration of hardware with the DESI Instrument Control System that controls the subsystems, provides communication with the Telescope Control System, and collects instrument telemetry data. Lacking a spectrograph, ProtoDESI monitored the output of the fibers using a fiber photometry camera mounted on the prime focus instrument. ProtoDESI was successful in acquiring targets with the robotically positioned fibers and demonstrated that the DESI guiding requirements can be met.

  3. Integration of Grid and Local Batch Resources at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christoph; Finnern, Thomas; Gellrich, Andreas; Hartmann, Thomas; Kemp, Yves; Lewendel, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    As one of the largest resource centres DESY has to support differing work flows of users from various scientific backgrounds. Users can be for one HEP experiments in WLCG or Belle II as well as local HEP users but also physicists from other fields as photon science or accelerator development. By abandoning specific worker node setups in favour of generic flat nodes with middleware resources provided via CVMFS, we gain flexibility to subsume different use cases in a homogeneous environment. Grid jobs and the local batch system are managed in a HTCondor based setup, accepting pilot, user and containerized jobs. The unified setup allows dynamic re-assignment of resources between the different use cases. Monitoring is implemented on global batch system metrics as well as on a per job level utilizing corresponding cgroup information.

  4. Interspecific variation in localization of hypericins and phloroglucinols in the genus Hypericum as revealed by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Kimáková, Katarína; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of secondary metabolites in different plant tissues. This study is focused on localization of major secondary compounds in the leaves of 17 different in vitro cultured Hypericum species classified in 11 sections. Generally, all identified naphtodianthrones, protohypericin, hypericin, protopseudohypericin......Plants of the genus Hypericum are widely known for their therapeutic properties. The most biologically active compounds of this genus are naphtodianthrones and phloroglucinols. Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging allows visualization and localization...

  5. Constant-Distance Mode Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Samples with Complex Topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son N.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Laskin, Julia

    2017-01-17

    A new approach for constant distance mode mass spectrometry imaging of biological samples using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI MSI) was developed by integrating a shear-force probe with nano-DESI probe. The technical concept and basic instrumental setup as well as general operation of the system are described. Mechanical dampening of resonant oscillations due to the presence of shear forces between the probe and the sample surface enables constant-distance imaging mode via a computer controlled closed feedback loop. The capability of simultaneous chemical and topographic imaging of complex biological samples is demonstrated using living Bacillus Subtilis ATCC 49760 colonies on agar plates. The constant-distance mode nano-DESI MSI enabled imaging of many metabolites including non-ribosomal peptides (surfactin, plipastatin and iturin) and iron-bound heme on the surface of living bacterial colonies ranging in diameter from 10 mm to 13 mm with height variations of up to 0.8 mm above the agar plate. Co-registration of ion images to topographic images provided higher-contrast images. Constant-mode nano-DESI MSI is ideally suited for imaging biological samples of complex topography in their native state.

  6. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, M; Brown, C D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the

  8. A discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation and the critical issue of mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples’ lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted by mobile phones is presented.

  9. A Discussion about Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation and the Critical Issue of Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples' lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted…

  10. Summary and Conclusions of the First DESY Test Beam User Workshop arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Bandiera, Laura; Behnke, Ties; Dannheim, Dominik; Diener, Ralf; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Gerbershagen, Andreas; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kaminski, Jochen; Kroll, Jiri; Martinengo, Paolo; Meyners, Norbert; Müntz, Christian; Poley, Luise; Schwenker, Benjamin; Stanitzki, Marcel

    On October 5/6, 2017, DESY hosted the first DESY Test Beam User Workshop [1] which took place in Hamburg. Fifty participants from different user communities, ranging from LHC (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb) to FAIR (CBM, PANDA), DUNE, Belle-II, future linear colliders (ILC, CLIC) and generic detector R&D presented their experiences with the DESY II Test Beam Facility, their concrete plans for the upcoming years and a first estimate of their needs for beam time in the long-term future beyond 2025. A special focus was also on additional improvements to the facility beyond its current capabilities.

  11. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  12. Metabolite signal identification in accurate mass metabolomics data with MZedDB, an interactive m/z annotation tool utilising predicted ionisation behaviour 'rules'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John; Enot, David P; Parker, David; Beckmann, Manfred; Snowdon, Stuart; Lin, Wanchang; Zubair, Hassan

    2009-07-21

    Metabolomics experiments using Mass Spectrometry (MS) technology measure the mass to charge ratio (m/z) and intensity of ionised molecules in crude extracts of complex biological samples to generate high dimensional metabolite 'fingerprint' or metabolite 'profile' data. High resolution MS instruments perform routinely with a mass accuracy of ionised. In reality the annotation process is confounded by the fact that many ionisation products will be not only molecular isotopes but also salt/solvent adducts and neutral loss fragments of original metabolites. This report describes an annotation strategy that will allow searching based on all potential ionisation products predicted to form during electrospray ionisation (ESI). Metabolite 'structures' harvested from publicly accessible databases were converted into a common format to generate a comprehensive archive in MZedDB. 'Rules' were derived from chemical information that allowed MZedDB to generate a list of adducts and neutral loss fragments putatively able to form for each structure and calculate, on the fly, the exact molecular weight of every potential ionisation product to provide targets for annotation searches based on accurate mass. We demonstrate that data matrices representing populations of ionisation products generated from different biological matrices contain a large proportion (sometimes > 50%) of molecular isotopes, salt adducts and neutral loss fragments. Correlation analysis of ESI-MS data features confirmed the predicted relationships of m/z signals. An integrated isotope enumerator in MZedDB allowed verification of exact isotopic pattern distributions to corroborate experimental data. We conclude that although ultra-high accurate mass instruments provide major insight into the chemical diversity of biological extracts, the facile annotation of a large proportion of signals is not possible by simple, automated query of current databases using computed molecular formulae. Parameterising MZedDB to

  13. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    OpenAIRE

    DESI Collaboration; Aghamousa, Amir; Aguilar, Jessica; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will...

  14. Detection and imaging of thermochromic ink compounds in erasable pens using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Amin; Prova, Shamina S; Bagga, Aafreen K; Yan Chi Ting, Michelle; Brar, Gurnoor; Ifa, Demian R

    2017-06-30

    Thermochromic ink pens are widely accessible worldwide and have gained popularity among the general public. These pens are very useful to undo mistakes while writing important documents or exams. They are also, however, misused in committing crimes such as counterfeiting checks or wills. Thus, the forensics community is in need of techniques that will allow these forgeries to be detected rapidly, reliably and conveniently. Thermochromic ink compounds were investigated using Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) coupled with an LTQ mass spectrometer and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis was conducted using Electrospray Ionization (ESI) coupled with an Orbitrap LTQ mass spectrometer performing Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) for identification of ink traces. Chemical marker ions characteristic of the state of ink (visible or invisible) were identified and mapped in ink traces by the use of DESI-MS imaging. These ions can be employed by forensic experts as fingerprint markers in forged documents. The marker ions were also characterised by conducting tandem mass spectrometry using paper spray in an Orbitrap LTQ mass spectrometer. Specific chemical components yielding ions of m/z 400, 405, 615 and 786 were distinguished as only being apparent in the invisible and reappeared state of the ink. The absence of these compounds in the original state of the ink enabled their recognition as useful chemical determinants in detecting forgery. DESI-MSI was thus shown to be a very useful, convenient and reliable technique for detecting forgery in paper documents due to its fast and reproducible mode of analysis, with no sample preparation and minimal damage to the document under investigation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    criminal prosecution or to insure the safety of consumer products. Future Plans: The reported methodologies will be a valuable addition to the in...canadienne d’inspection des aliments , ThermoFisher et National Research Council a 6t6 financde pour Ia mise au point et l𔄀valuation de la spectrom...consommation, qu’un agent de guerre chimique a 6t utilis6. Plans futurs : Les mdthodologies documentdes seront un ajout important aux m~thodes intemnes

  16. Revealing the structural detail of individual polymers using a combination of electrospray deposition and UHV-STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jethwa, Siddharth; Madsen, Mikael; Knudsen, Jakob Back

    2017-01-01

    A phenylene vinylene polymer derivative is deposited onto a Au(111) surface under Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) conditions using electrospray ionisation deposition and characterised using Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). High resolution STM images reveal the polymer structure on the monomeric scale......, allowing the identification of regioisomerism, the intricate isomerisations of the polymer side-chains, as well as the larger-scale topologies of the polymer strands....

  17. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.A.; Aplin, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kgm−3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neu...

  18. Ionising radiation exposure in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleveld H; LSO

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch population is exposed to ionising radiation from various sources, both natural and man-made. This is a review of the radiation exposure for members of the public from all sources for the year 2000. The average annual effective dose per capita is estimated at 2.5 mSv, which is almost the

  19. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for C60 fullerene analysis: optimisation and comparison of three ionisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Huhtala, Sami; Sillanpää, Markus; Sainio, Pirjo

    2012-06-01

    The increasing use and production of nanomaterials have led to growing concern over the release of new pollutants to the environment. Fullerenes have been a subject of intense research, both because of their unique chemistry and because of technological applications. The development of analytical methods to quantify the fullerenes in complex sample matrices is a crucial step in the study of their occurrence and exposure, and thus in risk assessment. This paper reports the development and optimisation of a method combining liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-ITMS) for analysis of the fullerene C(60). Under the optimised chromatogram conditions, a C(18) analytical column had good selectivity for fullerenes C(60) and C(70), with retention times of 3.0 and 4.1 min, respectively. Mass spectrometric detection was tested and optimised using three common ionisation techniques-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), atmospheric-pressure photoionisation (APPI), and electrospray ionisation (ESI). The molecular ion was most abundant for C (60) (-) (m/z=720) in APCI and APPI, whereas adduct ions were formed with the molecular ion in ESI. Finally, the performance of the three ionisation techniques examined was compared by use of five validation criteria. The instrument detection limit (8 ng mL(-1)), quantification limit (27 ng mL(-1)), detection sensitivity (90.2 ng mL(-1)), linear range (8-1,000 ng mL(-1)), and repeatability (15 %) of APPI make it the most promising ionisation technique for fullerene C(60) analysis.

  20. Determination of D/L-amino acids by zero needle voltage electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten B.; Aaslo, Per; Egsgaard, Helge

    2008-01-01

    a mechanism related to sonic spray ionization. The utility of the zero needle voltage ESI was illustrated by determining the age of a human tooth by the aspartic acid epimerization method. The procedure involved separating the D- and L-aspartic acid of a tooth extract on a chiral HPLC column and detection...

  1. Tools to discover anionic and nonionic polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    such as [M−H+solvent]− and [(M−H)(M−H+Na)n]− were used to confirm the identity of the precursor ions. In relation to quantification of PFASs, we discuss how their surfactancy influence the ESI processes, challenge their handling in solution and choices of precursor-to-product ions for MSMS of e.......g., structural PFAS isomers. The method has been used to discover PFASs in industrial blends and in extracts from food contact materials....

  2. Data preservation for the HERA experiments at DESY using dCache technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücker, Dirk; Schwank, Karsten; Fuhrmann, Patrick; Lewendel, Birgit; South, David M.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the status of the data preservation project at DESY for the HERA experiments and present the latest design of the storage which is a central element for bit- preservation. The HEP experiments based at the HERA accelerator at DESY collected large and unique datasets during the period from 1992 to 2007. As part of the ongoing DPHEP data preservation efforts at DESY, these datasets must be transferred into storage systems that keep the data available for ongoing studies and guarantee safe long term access. To achieve a high level of reliability, we use the dCache distributed storage solution and make use of its replication capabilities and tape interfaces. We also investigate a recently introduced Small File Service that allows for the fully automatic creation of tape friendly container files.

  3. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Towards High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled to Shear Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son N.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.; Ansong, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2017-07-01

    Constant mode ambient mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of tissue sections with high lateral resolution of better than 10 μm was performed by combining shear force microscopy with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI). Shear force microscopy enabled precise control of the distance between the sample and nano-DESI probe during MSI experiments and provided information on sample topography. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed using lung and brain tissue sections representing spongy and dense tissues, respectively. Topography images obtained using shear force microscopy were comparable to the results obtained using contact profilometry over the same region of the tissue section. Variations in tissue height were found to be dependent on the tissue type and were in the range of 0-5 μm for lung tissue and 0-3 μm for brain tissue sections. Ion images of phospholipids obtained in this study are in good agreement with literature data. Normalization of nano-DESI MSI images to the signal of the internal standard added to the extraction solvent allowed us to construct high-resolution ion images free of matrix effects. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for the screening of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seró, Raquel; Núñez, Oscar; Bosch, Jaume; Grases, José M; Rodríguez, Pilar; Moyano, Encarnacion; Galceran, Martia Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) screening method was developed for fast identification of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs. The reliable detection was performed working at high resolution (70,000 full width half maximum, FWHM) using an orbitrap mass analyzer. Among the optimized DESI parameters, the solvent (acetonitrile/water, 80:20, v/v) and the sample substrate (poly-tetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) were critical to obtain the best sensitivity. To analyze the solid feed samples, different approaches were tested and a simple solid-liquid extraction and the direct analysis of an aliquot (2 μL) of the extract after letting it dry on the PTFE printed spot provided the best results. The identification of the veterinary drugs (target and non-target) in the cross-contaminated feedstuffs based on the accurate mass measurement and the isotopic pattern fit was performed automatically using a custom-made database. The positive cross-contaminated feed samples were quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results obtained demonstrate that DESI-HRMS can be proposed as a fast and suitable screening method to identify positive cross-contaminated feedstuffs reducing the number of samples to be subsequently quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS, thus improving the productivity in quality control laboratories.

  6. Food ionisation. Realities and perspectives; L'ionisation alimentaire. Realites et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G

    1994-06-01

    The ionisation of food is a treatment using a certain type of energy. the radiations used in the industrial treatments are limited to three sources. The gamma radiations, the x radiations and the electrons beams emitted with accelerators. The physical treatments by ionizing radiations have for aim to cleanse and to increase the conservation time of food. Now, the applications in agriculture and food industry, are still marginal. The industrial using ionisation are these ones that did not find any alternative decontamination method. The barriers are more scientific or technical or economical than a question of regulation or behaviour. (N.C.)

  7. Rapid screening of clenbuterol in urine samples by desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziqing; Zhang, Sichun; Zhao, Mengxia; Yang, Chengdui; Chen, Depu; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-06-01

    Rapid screening of clenbuterol in urine was performed by combining desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Optimization experiments were carried out including the selection of substrates, spray solutions, nebulizing gas pressures, high-voltage power supplies and flow rates of spray solution. The limit of detection (LOD), defined as the lowest quantity that can be detected, was 5.0 pg for the pure compound. Using DESI coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE), the linear response range was from 10 to 400 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.993) and the concentration LOD for urine sample was 2.0 ng/mL. The analysis for one spiked urine sample was achieved within 4 min. In addition to the fast analysis speed, MS/MS provided structural information for the confirmation of clenbuterol. Urine samples from different people were investigated and the recoveries were within 100 +/- 20%. The developed method can potentially be used for screening of clenbuterol in doping control.

  8. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Heath, Brandi S.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-10-02

    An automated platform has been developed for acquisition and visualization of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI). The new system enables robust operation of the nano-DESI imaging source over many hours. This is achieved by controlling the distance between the sample and the probe by mounting the sample holder onto an automated XYZ stage and defining the tilt of the sample plane. This approach is useful for imaging of relatively flat samples such as thin tissue sections. Custom software called MSI QuickView was developed for visualization of large data sets generated in imaging experiments. MSI QuickView enables fast visualization of the imaging data during data acquisition and detailed processing after the entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MS/MS experiments enabled identification of lipids and metabolites in the tissue section. In addition, high dynamic range and sensitivity of the technique allowed us to generate ion images of low-abundance isobaric lipids. High-spatial resolution image acquired over a small region of the tissue section revealed the spatial distribution of an abundant brain metabolite, creatine, in the white and gray matter that is consistent with the literature data obtained using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  9. High-Speed Tandem Mass Spectrometric in Situ Imaging by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua TL; Carson, James P.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis (m/m=17,500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of more than 300 molecules from 92 selected m/z windows (± 1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 um. Uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pre-treatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 um/s while acquiring higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ~6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated using high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned based on accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isobaric sodium and potassium adducts of phospholipids. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  10. Application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging in breast cancer margin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, David; Caragacianu, Diana; Liu, Xiaohui; Norton, Isaiah; Thompson, Christopher J; Richardson, Andrea L; Golshan, Mehra; Easterling, Michael L; Santagata, Sandro; Dillon, Deborah A; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Agar, Nathalie Y R

    2014-10-21

    Distinguishing tumor from normal glandular breast tissue is an important step in breast-conserving surgery. Because this distinction can be challenging in the operative setting, up to 40% of patients require an additional operation when traditional approaches are used. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study to determine the feasibility of using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) for identifying and differentiating tumor from normal breast tissue. We show that tumor margins can be identified using the spatial distributions and varying intensities of different lipids. Several fatty acids, including oleic acid, were more abundant in the cancerous tissue than in normal tissues. The cancer margins delineated by the molecular images from DESI-MSI were consistent with those margins obtained from histological staining. Our findings prove the feasibility of classifying cancerous and normal breast tissues using ambient ionization MSI. The results suggest that an MS-based method could be developed for the rapid intraoperative detection of residual cancer tissue during breast-conserving surgery.

  11. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie

    2017-11-01

    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  12. Direct analysis of Salvia divinorum leaves for salvinorin A by thin layer chromatography and desorption electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-05-15

    Salvia divinorum is widely cultivated in the US, Mexico, Central and South America and Europe and is consumed for its ability to produce hallucinogenic effects similar to those of other scheduled hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD. Salvinorin A (SA), a kappa opiod receptor agonist and psychoactive constituent, is found primarily in the leaves and to a lesser extent in the stems of the plant. Herein, the analysis of intact S. divinorum leaves for SA and of acetone extracts separated using thin layer chromatography (TLC) is demonstrated using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. The detection of SA using DESI in the positive ion mode is characterized by several ions associated with the compound - [M+H](+), [M+NH(4)](+), [M+Na](+), [2M+NH(4)](+), and [2M+Na](+). Confirmation of the identity of these ions is provided through exact mass measurements using a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. The presence of SA in the leaves was confirmed by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) of the [M+H](+) ion using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Direct analysis of the leaves revealed several species of salvinorin in addition to SA as confirmed by MS(n), including salvinorin B, C, D/E, and divinatorin B. Further, the results from DESI imaging of a TLC separation of a commercial leaf extract and an acetone extract of S. divinorum leaves were in concordance with the TLC/DESI-MS results of an authentic salvinorin A standard. The present study provides an example of both the direct analysis of intact plant materials for screening illicit substances and the coupling of TLC and DESI-MS as a simple method for the examination of natural products. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles of Celecoxib, dispersed in a matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), were prepared by electrospraying using different solvent mixtures to investigate the influence upon particle formation and the resulting particle characteristics. Mixtures consisting of a good solvent, ace...

  14. Students' Conceptions of Ionisation Energy: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.; Liu, Xiufeng; Coll, Richard K.; Lorenzo, Mercedes; Li, Jia; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that A-level students in the UK and Singapore have difficulty learning the topic of ionisation energy. A two-tier multiple-choice instrument developed in Singapore in an earlier study, the Ionisation Energy Diagnostic Instrument, was administered to A-level students in the UK, advanced placement high school students…

  15. Stray light assessment and mitigation for the DESI front-end optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy N.; Lampton, Michael; Besuner, Robert W.; Sholl, Michael J.; Liang, Ming; Ellis, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe, using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique and the growth of structure using redshift-space distortions (RSD). The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 square degrees will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We will describe modeling and mitigation of stray light within the front end of DESI, consisting of the Mayall telescope and the corrector assembly. This includes the creation of a stray light model, quantitative analysis of the unwanted light at the corrector focal surface, identification of the main scattering sources, and a description of mitigation strategies to remove the sources.

  16. The European X-ray Free Electron Laser Project at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On February 5, 2003, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research decided that the X-ray free-electron laser XFEL, proposed by the International TESLA Collaboration, should be realized as a European project and located at DESY/Hamburg. The ministry also announced that in view of the locational advantage, Germany is prepared to cover half of the investment and personnel costs for the XFEL. In the course of the last year work has concentrated on the following areas: setting up of an organizational structure at DESY for the preparation of the project, discussions with potential European partners on several levels, selection of a new site for the XFEL facility and the preparation of the 'plan approval procedure'. The present status of the technical layout of the Linear Accelerator, the SASE Undulator and Photon Beamlines and the experiment stations will be presented.

  17. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamousa, Amir; et al.

    2016-10-31

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxies with a median $z\\approx 0.2$. In total, more than 30 million galaxy and quasar redshifts will be obtained to measure the BAO feature and determine the matter power spectrum, including redshift space distortions.

  18. Differential response of kabuli and desi chickpea genotypes toward inoculation with PGPR in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Asma; Mirza, Muhammad S.; Shah, Tariq M.; Malik, Kauser A.; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is among top three chickpea producing countries but the crop is usually grown on marginal lands without irrigation and fertilizer application which significantly hampers its yield. Soil fertility and inoculation with beneficial rhizobacteria play a key role in nodulation and yield of legumes. Four kabuli and six desi chickpea genotypes were, therefore, evaluated for inoculation response with IAA-producing Ochrobactrum ciceri Ca-34T and nitrogen fixing Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL-1148 in single and co-inoculation in two soils. The soil type 1 was previously unplanted marginal soil having low organic matter, P and N contents compared to soil type 2 which was a fertile routinely legume-cultivated soil. The effect of soil fertility status was pronounced and fertile soil on average, produced 31% more nodules, 62% more biomass and 111% grain yield than marginal soil. Inoculation either with O. ciceri alone or its co-inoculation with M. ciceri produced on average higher nodules (42%), biomass (31%), grains yield (64%) and harvest index (72%) in both chickpea genotypes over non-inoculated controls in both soils. Soil 1 showed maximum relative effectiveness of Ca-34T inoculation for kabuli genotypes while soil 2 showed for desi genotypes except B8/02. Desi genotype B8/02 in soil type 1 and Pb-2008 in soil type 2 showed significant yield increase as compared to respective un-inoculated controls. Across bacterial inoculation treatments, grain yield was positively correlated to growth and yield contributing parameters (r = 0.294* to 0.838*** for desi and r = 0.388* to 0.857** for kabuli). PCA and CAT-PCA analyses clearly showed a site-specific response of genotype x bacterial inoculation. Furthermore, the inoculated bacterial strains were able to persist in the rhizosphere showing colonization on root and within nodules. Present study shows that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation should be integrated with national chickpea breading program in

  19. Electrospray Collection of Airborne Contaminants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In stark contrast to current stagnation-based methods for capturing airborne particulates and biological aerosols, our demonstrated, cost-effective electrospray...

  20. Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi North Central Nigeria. H Mohammad, J T Iortile, J E Ekediwe, L Alumuku, E A Okon, D M Chia, E Ejeh, F U Ugbo ...

  1. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment...... and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC–(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50–130%) and precisions (2–23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six...... NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg−1, though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg−1). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results...

  2. Electrospray deposition from fountain pen AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time electrospraying from fountain pen probes. By using electrospray contactless deposition in an AFM setup becomes possible. Experiments on a dedicated setup were carried out as first step towards this goal. Spraying from 8 and 2 µm apertures was observed. For

  3. Desi Films: Articulating Images of South Asian Identity in a Global Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although India itself has been an important source of information about the Indian identity for Western audiences, a specialized genre of desi media have also garnered more recognition in recent years. Desi films—movies created by and/or for South Asian immigrants—are capable of reaching large numbers of people regardless of their educational level, economic status, or linguistic proficiency. Most are produced in English or with English subtitles and are easily accessible in most areas, either in theatres, video rental stores, libraries, or via Internet movie sites. This paper examines Indian diasporic films as a vehicle for cultural articulation and debate. First, it provides a theoretical foundation of hegemony and resistance with regard to notions of ethnicity and immigrants’ articulations of identity in interstitial zones. Second, it discusses sources of hegemony from Indian and Western media. Third, it explores the creation of a hybrid identity as reflected in Indian diasporic films, pointing out some of the themes and conventions of this emerging genre.

  4. A chromosomal genomics approach to assess and validate the desi and kabuli draft chickpea genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruperao, Pradeep; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Azam, Sarwar; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Hayashi, Satomi; Cížková, Jana; Saxena, Rachit K; Simková, Hana; Song, Chi; Vrána, Jan; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Visendi, Paul; Gaur, Pooran M; Millán, Teresa; Singh, Karam B; Taran, Bunyamin; Wang, Jun; Batley, Jacqueline; Doležel, Jaroslav; Varshney, Rajeev K; Edwards, David

    2014-08-01

    With the expansion of next-generation sequencing technology and advanced bioinformatics, there has been a rapid growth of genome sequencing projects. However, while this technology enables the rapid and cost-effective assembly of draft genomes, the quality of these assemblies usually falls short of gold standard genome assemblies produced using the more traditional BAC by BAC and Sanger sequencing approaches. Assembly validation is often performed by the physical anchoring of genetically mapped markers, but this is prone to errors and the resolution is usually low, especially towards centromeric regions where recombination is limited. New approaches are required to validate reference genome assemblies. The ability to isolate individual chromosomes combined with next-generation sequencing permits the validation of genome assemblies at the chromosome level. We demonstrate this approach by the assessment of the recently published chickpea kabuli and desi genomes. While previous genetic analysis suggests that these genomes should be very similar, a comparison of their chromosome sizes and published assemblies highlights significant differences. Our chromosomal genomics analysis highlights short defined regions that appear to have been misassembled in the kabuli genome and identifies large-scale misassembly in the draft desi genome. The integration of chromosomal genomics tools within genome sequencing projects has the potential to significantly improve the construction and validation of genome assemblies. The approach could be applied both for new genome assemblies as well as published assemblies, and complements currently applied genome assembly strategies. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of salinity on growth and yield of Desi and Kabuli chickpea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yousef; Heidari, Gholamreza; Esmailpoor, Behrooz

    2008-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of different level of Na salinity (0, 3, 6 and 9 dS m(-1)) on growth, yield and yield component of Kabuli (Hashem and Jam) and Desi (Kaka and Pirooz) chickpea cultivars a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in Research Greenhouse of Mokrian Agricultural Extension Center near Mahabad, Iran at 2006. Seeds of four chickpea cultivars were grown under 0, 3, 6 and 9 dS m(-1) levels of salinity until maturity. Salinity reduced the plant growth, flower, pod and seed number and seed weight. As increase in salinity, the undesirable effect of Na+ was more pronounced and reached the highest value at 9 dS m(-1) in all cultivars. Four chickpea cultivar have different responses to salinity and the Kabuli cultivars seemed to have a greater capacity for salt tolerance compared to Desi cultivars. Hahshem cultivar has the highest salinity tolerance among all cultivars.

  6. Resonant multiphoton ionisation probe of the photodissociation dynamics of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam D; Watts, Hannah M; Jager, Edward; Horke, Daniel A; Springate, Emma; Alexander, Oliver; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T; Minns, Russell S

    2016-10-12

    The dissociation dynamics of the Ã-state of ammonia have been studied using a resonant multiphoton ionisation probe in a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment. The use of a resonant intermediate in the multiphoton ionisation process changes the ionisation propensity, allowing access to different ion states when compared with equivalent single photon ionisation experiments. Ionisation through the E' 1A1' Rydberg intermediate means we maintain overlap with the ion state for an extended period, allowing us to monitor the excited state population for several hundred femtoseconds. The vibrational states in the photoelectron spectrum show two distinct timescales, 200 fs and 320 fs, that we assign to the non-adiabatic and adiabatic dissociation processes respectively. The different timescales derive from differences in the wavepacket trajectories for the two dissociation pathways that resonantly excite different vibrational states in the intermediate Rydberg state. The timescales are similar to those obtained from time resolved ion kinetic energy release measurements, suggesting we can measure the different trajectories taken out to the region of conical intersection.

  7. The RF System for the International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ronald, K.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Moss, A.; Grant, A.; White, C.; Griffiths, S.; Stanley, T.; Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, S.; Moretti, A.; Pasquinelli, R.; Peterson, D.; Schultz, R.; Volk, J.; Popovic, M.; Torun, Y.; Hanlet, P.; Alsari, S.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Hunt, C.; Summers, D.; Luo, T.; Smith, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ionisation cooling to reduce the phase space footprint of a charged particle beam, principally to allow the subsequent acceleration of muons for next generation colliders and/or neutrino factories. The experiment (and indeed any subsequent accelerator cooling channel based on the same principles) poses certain unusual requirements on its RF system, whilst the precision measurement of the ionisation cooling process demands special diagnostics. This paper shall outline the key features of the RF system, including the low level RF control, the power amplifier chain, distribution network, cavities, tuners and couplers, many parts of which are required to operate in a high magnetic field environment. The RF diagnostics which, in conjunction with the other MICE diagnostics, shall allow detailed knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the acceleration field during the transit of each individual muon will also ...

  8. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation disinfection of filter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation as a disinfection method for filter materials contaminated by microorganisms, and to assess how air relative humidity (RH), time and microbe type influence the effectiveness of this disinfection. In the quantitative analysis of a used car air filter, bacterial contamination equalled 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2, fungal contamination was 3.8 x 10(6) cfu/cm2, and the isolated microorganisms were Aspergillus niger, Bacillus megaterium, Cladosporium herbarum, Cryptococcus laurenti, Micrococcus sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Staphylococcus cohnii. In the model experiment, three isolates (C. herbarum, R. glutinis, S. cohnii) and 3 ATCC species (A. niger, E. coli, S. aureus) were used for photocatalytic ionisation disinfection. The conditions of effective photocatalytic ionisation disinfection (R > or = 99.9%) were established as 2-3 h at RH = 77% (bacteria) and 6-24 h at RH = 53% (fungi). RH has an influence on the effectiveness of the photocatalytic disinfection process; the highest effectiveness was obtained for bacteria at RH = 77%, with results 5% higher than for RH = 49%. The studies show that the sensitivity of microorganisms to photocatalytic ionisation disinfection is ordered as follows: Gram-positive bacteria (S. cohnii, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), yeasts (R. glutinis), and moulds (C. herbarum, A. niger). Of all the mathematical models used for the description of death dynamics after photocatalytic ionisation disinfection, the Chick-Watson model is the most useful, but for more resistant microorganisms, the delayed Chick-Watson model is highly recommended. It therefore seems, that the presented disinfection method of photocatalytic ionisation can be successfully used to clean filtration materials.

  9. [Bipolar ionisation of indoor air through ion generators mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, A A; Spichkin, G L; Denisikhina, D M; Burtsev, S I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies and digital modelling of artificial indoor air ionisation through bipolar ionisers mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning proved possible creation of continuous even bipolar ion background in indoor air, similar to the natural one.

  10. In situ trace detection of peroxide explosives by desorption electrospray ionization and desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Hernandez-Soto, Heriberto; Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham

    2008-03-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is used for the rapid (process triggered by an unusual homolytic cleavage of the peroxide bond, forming a distonic ion. This is followed by elimination of a fragment of 30 mass units, shown to be the expected neutral molecule, formaldehyde, in the case of HMTD, but shown by isotopic labeling experiments to be ethane in the cases of TATP and TrATrP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the suggested fragmentation mechanisms for the complexes. Binding energies of Na+ of 40.2 and 33.1 kcal/mol were calculated for TATP-Na(+) and HMTD-Na(+) complexes, suggesting a strong interaction between the peroxide groups and the sodium ion. Increased selectivity is obtained either by MS/MS or by doping the spray solvent with additives that produce the lithium and potassium complexes of TATP, HMTD, and TrATrP. Addition of dopants into the solvent spray increased the signal intensity by an order of magnitude. When pure alcohol or aqueous hydrogen peroxide was used as the spray solvent, the (HMTD + Na)+ complex was able to bind a molecule of alcohol (methanol or ethanol) or hydrogen peroxide, providing additional characteristic ions to increase the selectivity of analysis. DESI also allowed the rapid detection of peroxide explosives in complex matrixes such as diesel fuel and lubricants using single or multiple cation additives (Na(+), K(+), and Li(+), and NH4(+)) in the spray solvent. Low-nanogram detection limits were achieved for HMTD, TrATrP, and TATP in these complex matrixes. The DESI response was linear over 3 orders of magnitude for HMTD and TATP on paper surfaces (1-5000 ng), and quantification of both peroxide explosives from paper gave precisions (RSD) of less than 3%. The use of pure water and compressed air as the DESI spray solution and nebulizing gas, respectively, showed similar ionization efficiencies to those obtained using methanol/water mixtures and nitrogen gas (the typical choices). An

  11. Laser-modified electron scattering from a slowly ionising atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordilino, E.; Mittleman, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    When an electron scatters from an atom in the presence of a laser field which is resonant with an atomic transition, off-shell effects enter into the cross section. These only become significant at higher laser intensities where the atom may also be ionised by the laser. Cross-sections are obtained for electron-atom scattering in which these off-shell effects appear and in which the slow ionisation of the atom by the laser is included. Experiments are suggested in which simplifications can occur and which still retain these 'exotic' effects.

  12. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  13. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Dhaygude

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015. After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. Results: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all

  14. Binary-Encounter-Bethe ionisation cross sections for simulation of DNA damage by the direct effect of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, I; Cucinotta, F A

    2015-09-01

    DNA damage is of crucial importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation. To refine existing DNA damage models, an approach using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) cross sections was developed. The differential cross sections for ionisation of the molecular orbitals of the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates are calculated using the electron binding energy, the mean kinetic energy and the occupancy number of each orbital as parameters. The resulting cross section has an analytic form which is quite convenient to use for Monte-Carlo codes that randomly sample the energy loss occurring during an ionisation event. We also describe an algorithm to simulate the interactions of electrons with DNA in the radiation transport code RITRACKS using the integrated BEB cross section for the bases, sugar and phosphates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Von schnellen Teilchen und hellem Licht 50 Jahre Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrmann, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Das 1959 in Hamburg als Zentrum für Elementarteilchenforschung gegründete "Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY" gelangte durch Pionierleistungen in der Entwicklung von Hochenergie-Beschleunigern und Speicherringen zu weltweiter Anerkennung. Seiner internationalen Nutzergemeinde sind eine Reihe wichtiger Entdeckungen über die Materiebausteine Quarks und Gluonen und die Kräfte, welche die Welt im Innersten zusammenhalten, zu verdanken. Zusätzlich wurde die Synchrotronstrahlung für breite Anwendungsgebiete erschlossen und ihre Nutzung systematisch ausgebaut mit Ergebnissen, die gleichrangig neben denen in der Teilchenforschung stehen. Dieses Buch behandelt die Entwicklung des Forschungszentrums von den Anfängen bis in das Jahr 2003, in dem mit dem Beschluss zum Bau des Europäischen Röntgenlasers in Hamburg eine Änderung der Schwerpunktsetzung in der Beschleunigerentwicklung erfolgte, die seitdem auf neuartige Photonenquellen gerichtet ist. Die wichtigsten nachfolgenden Ereignisse werden ebenfalls kurz...

  16. Mitigating the impact of the DESI fiber assignment on galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Angela; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Cahn, Robert N.; White, Martin J.; Samushia, Lado

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple strategy to mitigate the impact of an incomplete spectroscopic redshift galaxy sample as a result of fiber assignment and survey tiling. The method has been designed for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) galaxy survey but may have applications beyond this. We propose a modification to the usual correlation function that nulls the almost purely angular modes affected by survey incompleteness due to fiber assignment. Predictions of this modified statistic can be calculated given a model of the two point correlation function. The new statistic can be computed with a slight modification to the data catalogues input to the standard correlation function code and does not incur any additional computational time. Finally we show that the spherically averaged baryon acoustic oscillation signal is not biased by the new statistic.

  17. Risques spécifiques du CERN : rayonnements ionisants

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1991-01-01

    Précautions - Instructions - Dosimètres - Différentes zones - Accès règlementés - Dangers particuliers - Panneaux d'information - Stockage de matériaux - Règles de transport - Rayonnements ionisants - Lasers.

  18. Connecting stars and ionised gas with integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Emsellem, Eric; Shapiro, Kristen L.; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using integral-field spectroscopy, the SAURON survey has shown that early-type galaxies, once thought to be essentially devoid of gas, commonly show ionised gas emission. This emission is found with a rich variety of distributions and kinematics, ranging from very uniform disks or rings, and

  19. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bohin, Maxime C; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-01-15

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method. The glyceollins I-III and glyceollidins I-II, belonging to the isoflavonoid subclass of the pterocarpans, were tentatively assigned. The formation of these prenylated pterocarpans was accompanied by that of other prenylated isoflavonoids of the subclasses of the isoflavones and the coumestans. It was estimated that approx. 40% of the total isoflavonoid content in Rhizopus-challenged soya bean seedlings were prenylated pterocarpans, whereas 7% comprised prenylated isoflavones and prenylated coumestans. The site of prenylation (A-ring or B-ring) of the prenylated isoflavones was tentatively annotated using positive-ion mode MS by comparing the (1,3) A(+) retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragments of prenylated and non-prenylated isoflavones. Furthermore, the fragmentation pathways of the five pterocarpans in negative-ion (NI) mode were proposed, which involved the cleavage of the C-ring and/or D-ring. The absence of the ring-closed prenyl (pyran or furan) gave exclusively -H(2) O(x,y) RDA fragments, whereas its presence gave predominantly the common RDA fragments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Characterisation of botulinum toxins type A and B, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Wils, E.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method earlier developed for the mass spectrometric (MS) identification of tetanus toxin (TTx) was applied to botulinum toxins type A and B (BTxA and BTxB). Botulinum toxins are extremely neurotoxic bacterial toxins, likely to be used as biological warfare agent. Biologically active BTxA and BTxB

  1. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry based method for the determination of estradiol benzoate in hair of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyerink, H.; Lommen, A.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography (LC)-based method with mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination of estradiol benzoate residues in hair of cattle. First hair samples were pulverized with a ball mill followed by treatment with the reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine

  2. Coincidence angular correlation in electron impact single or double ionisation of atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, E M Staicu [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Naja, A [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ren, X G [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Nekkab, M [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria); Catoire, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mezdari, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lahmam-Bennani, A [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Madison, D [Department of Physics, University of Missoun-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Chuluunbaatar, O [Joint Institute for Nuclear research, Dubna, Moscow region 141980 (Russian Federation); Joulakian, B [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions (FR 2843), Institut de Physique, 1 rue Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-11-15

    Experimental results obtained with our multi parameter multi-coincidence spectrometer are presented for the (e,3e) double ionisation of Ar and (e,2e) single ionisation of small molecules. The (e,3e) measurements are discussed in terms of competition between the two double ionisation processes present under the chosen kinematics, and qualitative conclusions are given. The results for the ionisation of H{sub 2} and the outer orbital of N{sub 2} are compared with the predictions of the most elaborate available theoretical models for description of the molecular ionisation process. Overall reasonable agreement is observed and tentative interpretations for the discrepancies are discussed.

  3. Production and properties of electrosprayed sericin nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeri, Najmeh; Tavanai, Hossein; Moradi, Ali Reza

    2012-06-01

    Sericin is a proteinous substrate that envelops fibroin (silk) fiber, and its recovery provides significant economical and social benefits. Sericin is an antibacterial agent that resists oxidation and absorbs moisture and UV light. In powder form, sericin has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics and drug delivery. Asides from other techniques of producing powder, such as precipitation and spray drying, electrospraying can yield solid nanoparticles, particularly in the submicron range. Here, we report the production of sericin nanopowder by electrospraying. Sericin sponge was recovered from Bombyx mori cocoons through a high-temperature, high-pressure process, followed by centrifugation and freeze drying of the sericin solution. The electrospraying solution was prepared by dissolving the sericin sponge in dimethyl sulfoxide. We demonstrate that electrospraying is capable of producing sericin nanopowder with an average particle size of 25 nm, which is by far smaller than the particles produced by other techniques. The electrosprayed sericin nanopowder consists of small crystallites and exhibits a high moisture absorbance.

  4. Controlled Electrospray Generation of Nonspherical Alginate Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S H

    2017-12-11

    Electrospraying is a technique used to generate microparticles in a high throughput manner. For biomedical applications, a biocompatible electrosprayed material is often desirable. Using polymers, such as alginate hydrogels, makes it possible to create biocompatible and biodegradable microparticles that can be used for cell encapsulation, to be employed as drug carriers, and for use in 3D cell culturing. Evidence in the literature suggests that the morphology of the biocompatible microparticles is relevant in controlling the dynamics of the microparticles in drug delivery and 3D cell culturing applications. Yet, most electrospray-based techniques only form spherical microparticles, and there is currently no widely adopted technique for producing nonspherical microparticles at a high throughput. Here, we demonstrate the generation of nonspherical biocompatible alginate microparticles by electrospraying, and control the shape of the microparticles by varying experimental parameters such as chemical concentration and the distance between the electrospray tip and the particle-solidification bath. Importantly, we show that these changes to the experimental setup enable the synthesis of different shaped particles, and the systematic change in parameters, such as chemical concentration, result in monotonic changes to the particle aspect ratio. We expect that these results will find utility in many biomedical applications that require biocompatible microparticles of specific shapes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Production and properties of electrosprayed sericin nanopowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Hazeri, Hossein Tavanai and Ali Reza Moradi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is a proteinous substrate that envelops fibroin (silk fiber, and its recovery provides significant economical and social benefits. Sericin is an antibacterial agent that resists oxidation and absorbs moisture and UV light. In powder form, sericin has a wide range of applications in food, cosmetics and drug delivery. Asides from other techniques of producing powder, such as precipitation and spray drying, electrospraying can yield solid nanoparticles, particularly in the submicron range. Here, we report the production of sericin nanopowder by electrospraying. Sericin sponge was recovered from Bombyx mori cocoons through a high-temperature, high-pressure process, followed by centrifugation and freeze drying of the sericin solution. The electrospraying solution was prepared by dissolving the sericin sponge in dimethyl sulfoxide. We demonstrate that electrospraying is capable of producing sericin nanopowder with an average particle size of 25 nm, which is by far smaller than the particles produced by other techniques. The electrosprayed sericin nanopowder consists of small crystallites and exhibits a high moisture absorbance.

  6. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  7. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling. Ionisation of the analyte molecules does not occur in the plasma itself but is induced by interaction with nascent ionic fragments, electrons and/or far ultraviolet photons in the plasma vicinity. At each individual air-spark an audible shockwave is formed, providing new reactive species, which expands concentrically and, thus, prevents direct contact of the analyte with the hot region inside the plasma itself. As a consequence the interaction volume between plasma and analyte does not exceed the threshold temperature for thermal dissociation or fragmentation. Experimentally this indirect ionisation scheme is demonstrated to be widely unspecific to the chemical nature of the analyte and to hardly result in any fragmentation of the studied molecules. A vast ensemble of different test analytes including polar and non-polar hydrocarbons, sugars, low mass active ingredients of pharmaceuticals as well as natural biomolecules in food samples directly out of their complex matrices could be shown to yield easily accessible yet meaningful spectra. Since the plasma medium is humid air, the chemical reaction mechanism of the ionisation is likely to be similar to other ambient ionisation techniques. Wir stellen hier eine neue Ionisationsmethode für die Umgebungsionisation (ambient ionisation) vor. Sowohl die

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SALTS UPON THE IONISATION OF EGG ALBUMIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, S. P. L.; Linderstrøm-Lang, K.; Lund, Ellen

    1927-01-01

    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulæ and

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SALTS UPON THE IONISATION OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, S P; Linderstrøm-Lang, K; Lund, E

    1927-03-07

    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulae and

  10. Cryo-sectioning of mice for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging - a simplified approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okutan, Seda; Hansen, Harald S; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for whole-body imaging of drugs and metabolites in mice with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI). Unlike most previous approaches to whole-body imaging which are based on cryo-sectioning using a cryo-macrotome, the presented approach...... bodyweight which is comparable to the normal prescribed human dose. The simultaneous imaging of endogenous and exogenous compounds facilitates registration of the drug images to certain organs in the body by colored-overlay of the two types of images. The method represents a relatively low-cost approach...... to simple, sensitive and highly selective whole-body imaging in drug distribution and metabolism studies....

  11. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in partially ionised gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, M. E.; Jiang, W.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection has been explored for decades as a way to convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy and heat and to accelerate particles in environments as different as the solar surface, planetary magnetospheres, the solar wind, accretion disks, laboratory plasmas. When studying reconnection via simulations, it is usually assumed that the plasma is fully ionised, as it is indeed the case in many of the above-mentioned cases. There are, however, exceptions, the most notable being the lower solar atmosphere. Small ionisation fractions are registered also in the warm neutral interstellar medium, in dense interstellar clouds, in protostellar and protoplanetary accreditation disks, in tokamak edge plasmas and in ad-hoc laboratory experiments [1]. We study here how magnetic reconnection is modified by the presence of a neutral background, i.e. when the majority of the gas is not ionised. The ionised plasma is simulated with the fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code iPic3D [2]. Collisions with the neutral background are introduced via a Monte Carlo plug-in. The standard Monte Carlo procedure [3] is employed to account for elastic, excitation and ionization electron-neutral collisions, as well as for elastic scattering and charge exchange ion-neutral collisions. Collisions with the background introduce resistivity in an otherwise collisionless plasma and modifications of the particle distribution functions: particles (and ions at a faster rate) tend to thermalise to the background. To pinpoint the consequences of this, we compare reconnection simulations with and without background. References [1] E E Lawrence et al. Physical review letters, 110(1):015001, 2013. [2] S Markidis et al. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80(7):1509-1519, 2010. [3] K Nanbu. IEEE Transactions on plasma science, 28(3):971-990, 2000.

  12. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.

    2013-01-01

    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively s...

  13. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  14. Impact ionisation measurement and modelling of long wavelength avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, J S

    2003-01-01

    Impact ionisation coefficients are measured in In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As and excess noise characteristics are measured in sub-micron ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As. Photomultiplication measurements performed on a series of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As p-i-n diodes are reported. Taking careful account of factors which could give rise to erroneous results at low fields, ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As ionisation coefficients are deduced at room temperature as a function of electric field. The results confirm the low field ionisation behaviour of alpha and the conventional field dependence of beta. Excess avalanche noise factors of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As p-i-n diodes, with i-region thicknesses ranging from 1.0 mu m to 0.1 mu m, are reported. The results indicate effective beta/alpha values lying between 0.15 and 0.23, comparable with or lower than the values reported in ...

  15. On-Line Spectral Monitoring of the VUV FEL Beam at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Poletto, Luca

    2004-01-01

    A grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer has been designed. The optical design is based on a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration in which one of the optical elements is a spherical mirror and the other is a spherical grating [1]. This configuration gives high spectral and spatial resolution even for a large field-of-view. The grating is a variable-line-spaced one, in which the groove spacing changes along the surface following a polynomial law in order to obtain a flat-field focal surface nearly parallel to the grating normal. The detector can be both an EUV-enhanced CCD and a MCP-based detector. The spectrometer was tested in the 5-45 nm spectral region with spectra emitted both by a laser-produced-plasma and by a hollow-cathode lamp. Spectral resolution of about 2000 was measured at 20 nm, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Spatial resolution better than 0.1 mm over 2 mm field-of-view has been measured. At present, the instrument is installed at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) on the TESLA-Test-Facil...

  16. Transatlantic transport of Fermilab 3.9 GHz cryomodule for TTF/FLASH to DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.W.; Vocean, V.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    In an exchange of technology agreement, Fermilab built and will deliver a 3.9 GHz (3rd harmonic) cryomodule to DESY to be installed in the TTF/FLASH beamline. This cryomodule delivery will involve a combination of flatbed air ride truck and commercial aircraft transport to Hamburg Germany. A description of the isolation and damping systems that maintain alignment during transport and protect fragile components is provided. Initially, transport and corresponding alignment stability studies were performed in order to assess the risk associated with transatlantic travel of a fully assembled cryomodule. Shock loads were applied to the cryomodule by using a coldmass mockup to prevent subjecting actual critical components (such as the cavities and input couplers) to excessive forces. Accumulative and peak shock loads were applied through over-the-road testing and using a pendulum hammer apparatus, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies were implemented to define location of instrumentation for transport studies and provide modal frequencies and shapes. Shock and vibration measurement results of transport studies and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  17. Studies on a VUV free electron laser at the TESLA Test Facility at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossbach, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) currently under construction at DESY is a test-bed for acceleration sections of a high-gradient, high efficiency superconducting linear collider. Due to ist unrivaled ability to sustain high beam quality during acceleration, a superconducting rf linac is considered the optimum choice to drive a Free Electron Laser (FEL). We aim at a photon wavelength of {lambda} = 6 manometer utilizing the TTF after is has been extended to 1 GeV beam energy. Due to lack of mirrors and seed-lasers in this wavelength regime, a single pass FEL and Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE) is considered. A first test is foreseen at a larger photon wavelength. The overall design as well as both electron and photon beam properties will be discussed. To reach the desired photon wavelength, the main components that have to be added to the TTF are: (a) a low emittance rf gun including space charge compensation (b) a two stage bunch compressor increasing the peak bunch current from 100 A up to 2500 A (c) four more accelerating modules to achieve 1 GeV beam energy (d) a 25 m long undulator (period length 27 mm, peak field 0.5 T) The average brillance will be larger than 1-10{sup 22}photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%. Each 800 {mu}s long pulse will contain up to 7200 equidistant bunches. The repetition frequency of the linac is 10 Hz.

  18. Effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuvir Ranjan

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in Pig Breeding Farm, Ranchi Veterinary College, Ranchi and different villages on crossbred and desi preweaned piglets. The piglets were divided into three treatment groups as T 1 (control, T2 (injected iron dextran @ 1 ml (50mg I/M twice at 3rd and 14th days of age and T3 (injected iron dextran @ 2 ml 2 3 (100mg I/M once at 3rd day of age. Results: The average body weight of crossbred piglets in farm condition of T1 , T2 and T3 groups at weaning (8 week were 7.162±0.365, 9.985±0.281 and 9.572±0.295 kg, respectively. The piglets of T2 group showed better performance over T3 and T1 groups in farm and village conditions on crossbred and desi piglets. Conclusion: On the basis of present findings it may be concluded that irondextran (50mg/ ml injection should be given to all piglets @ 1 ml I/M during preweaning period at 3rd and 14th day of age for better growth of piglets. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 599-602

  19. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, radical scavenging activity (RSA, and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG and normal ghee (NG were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g. The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee.

  20. Liquid chromatography with complementary electrospray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection of ferrocene-labelled peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomke, Susanne; Pfeifer, Thorben; Meermann, Björn; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe

    2010-08-01

    Succinimidylferrocenyl propionate (SFP) is introduced as labelling agent for amino functions in peptides and proteins. The resulting derivatives are characterised by considerably lower polarity compared with the native analytes and can thus be well separated by means of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The reaction products are characterised by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A further advantage of the method is a simple and straightforward derivatisation protocol. Different basic and acidic model proteins as lysozyme, beta-lactoglobulin A and insulin were derivatised using SFP. Furthermore, the first dual-labelling strategy of thiol and amino groups with ferrocene-based reagents is presented. Whereas the amino groups were derivatised with SFP, the thiol groups were functionalised by reaction with ferrocenecarboxylic acid(2-maleimidoyl)ethylamide. Again, LC/ESI-MS is a suitable tool to characterise the modified peptides and proteins.

  1. Applicability of generic assays based on liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry to study in vitro metabolism of 55 structurally diverse compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Rousu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS with generic gradient elution for a large number of chemically different compounds is a common approach in drug development, used to acquire a large amount of data in a short time frame for drug candidates. The analysis with non-optimised parameters however may lead to a poor method performance for many compounds, and contains a risk of losing important information. Here, generic electrospray-time-of-flight (ESI-TOF MS methods in various pH conditions were tested for 55 chemically diverse compounds (10 acids, 25 bases, 17 neutrals and 3 amphoterics, aiming to find best analytical conditions for each compound, for studies of in vitro metabolic properties in liver preparations. The effect of eluent pH and elution gradient strength on chromatographic performance and electrospray MS ionisation efficiency were examined for each compound. The data are evaluated how well the best generic approach could cover the analysis of test compounds and how many compounds would still need completely different analytical conditions after that. Aqueous mobile phase consisting of 0.05% acetic acid and 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.4 showed the best general suitability for the analyses, showing adequate performance for metabolite profiling for 41 out of 55 compounds either in positive or negative ion mode. In positive ion mode, the main limitation of performance in various pH conditions was generally not the lack of ionisation, but rather the poor chromatographic performance (inadequate retention or poor peak shape, suggesting that more emphasis should be put in finding conditions providing best chromatographic performance, rather than highest ionisation properties. However, a single generic approach for a large number of different compounds is not likely to produce good results for all compounds. Preferably, at least two or three different conditions are needed for the coverage of a larger number of structurally diverse

  2. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: r.sakhorn@gmail.com [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ackermann, W. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Asova, G.; Baehr, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Gjonaj, E. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Grabosch, H.J.; Hakobyan, L.; Haenel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lederer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Mahgoub, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Michelato, P.; Monaco, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate Milano (Italy); Nozdrin, M.; O' Shea, B.; Otevrel, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2012-04-11

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs{sub 2}Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89{+-}0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  3. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M.; Ackermann, W.; Asova, G.; Bähr, J.; Gjonaj, E.; Grabosch, H. J.; Hakobyan, L.; Hänel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G.; Lederer, S.; Mahgoub, M.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.; Nozdrin, M.; O'Shea, B.; Otevrel, M.; Petrosyan, B.; Richter, D.; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Sertore, D.; Schreiber, S.; Schnepp, S.; Shapovalov, A.; Spesyvtsev, R.; Staykov, L.; Vashchenko, G.; Weiland, T.; Will, I.

    2012-04-01

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs2Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89±0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SALTS ON THE IONISATION OF GELATIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1930-01-01

    The effect of the addition of sodium chloride to gelatin solutions is shown from the Donnan relationship to increase the ionisation of the gelatin, the increase produced in acid solutions reaching a maximum at about 1/1000 molar salt concentration. This effect is attributed to the formation of complex ions. From the similar action of calcium and copper chlorides the effective combining power of gelatin for complex positive ion formation is deduced. The bearing of complex ion formation on the zwitter-ionic structure and solubility phenomena of proteins is pointed out. PMID:19872582

  5. Threshold law for positron-atom impact ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, A.

    1982-01-01

    The threshold law for ionisation of atoms by positron impact is adduced in analogy with our approach to the electron-atom ionization. It is concluded the Coulomb-dipole region of the potential gives the essential part of the interaction in both cases and leads to the same kind of result: a modulated linear law. An additional process which enters positron ionization is positronium formation in the continuum, but that will not dominate the threshold yield. The result is in sharp contrast to the positron threshold law as recently derived by Klar on the basis of a Wannier-type analysis.

  6. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, J Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2013-07-07

    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively simple, well-resolved structure in fs laser photoelectron spectra of fullerenes. We focus on the application of velocity map imaging combined with fs laser photoionisation to study angular-resolved photoelectron emission.

  7. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, D D

    2013-01-01

    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  8. Synthesis of yttria powders by electrospray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulison, A.J.; Flagan, R.C. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Electrospray atomization of high-concentration ([approximately]400 g/L) chemical precursor solutions was applied to the synthesis of yttria powders. Conditions were found which led to high-quality powders, composed of dense, spheroidal, submicrometer, and nanocrystalline oxide particles. The precursor solutions were hydrated yttrium nitrates dissolved in n-propyl alcohol at concentrations ranging from 44.1 to 455 g/L. Electrospray atomization produced submicrometer precursor droplets which were dispersed in air and carried through an electric furnace for thermal decomposition at 500 C for several seconds residence time. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicated the expected cubic phase. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the particle structure varied with solution composition, ranging from hollow, inflated spheres for 6-hydrated nitrates to dense spheroids for 5-hydrated nitrates. The use of 6-hydrated nitrates in the solutions appeared to form particle surfaces which were impermeable to alcohol vapor evolved during thermal decomposition, leading to hollow, inflated spheres.

  9. Depth-Resolved Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry in Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    photograph of the tip of nano-DESI sensor. Right: A photograph of the nano- DESI sensor with connectors Stepper motor Mass Spectrometry Stepper ...Electrode holder Connected to A stepper motor 4 References Babauta, J.T., Beyenal, H., 2014. Local Current Variation by Depth in Geobacter... motor controller Bulk solution Biofilm solvent 30 µm Nano-DESI sensor solvent MS ~ 30 µm Solvent in Tip of the capillary Operating in the lab To MS

  10. Controlling ionisation and fragmentation processes in CO2 via inelastic electron recollisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frasinski L. J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The angular dependence of nonsequential double ionisation and dissociation induced by laser driven inelastic electron rescattering was investigated experimentally in aligned CO2. A clear dependence on the recollision angle was found demonstrating quantum control of ionisation and dissociation processes in the strong field regime.

  11. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Mauracher, Andreas; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We report electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron oxide molecules, FexOx and FexOx+1 with x = 1, 2, 3, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV, obtained with the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) methods. The maxima of the EICSs range from 3.10 to 9 . 96 × 10-16 cm2 located at 59-72 eV and 5.06 to 14.32 × 10-16 cm2 located at 85-108 eV for the DM and BEB approaches, respectively. The orbital and kinetic energies required for the BEB method are obtained by employing effective core potentials for the inner core electrons in the quantum chemical calculations. The BEB cross sections are 1.4-1.7 times larger than the DM cross sections which can be related to the decreasing population of the Fe 4s orbitals upon addition of oxygen atoms, together with the different methodological foundations of the two methods. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted excellently to a simple analytical expression used in modelling and simulation codes employed in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80308-2.

  12. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    excellent working conditions. We would like to thank Martina Mende for all her work in helping to organize this conference. Details of the conference can be found under: https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=8107

  13. Recent Developments in Control Software for Optical Synchronization Applications at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prędki, Paweł; Kozak, Tomasz; Szewiński, Jarosław; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Proper operation of FELs such as the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH)and the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), which is currently under construction in Hamburg at DESY, requires many specific subsystems to be synchronized with a precision exceeding 10 femtoseconds. Those components are often separated by several hundred meters at FLASH or even kilometers in case of the European XFEL. Such distances mean that it is extremely difficult to use only conventional RF signal distribution in coaxial cables for synchronization because of high losses and excessive phase drifts, while electromagnetic interference is also an issue. Therefore, a laser-based synchronization scheme can be employed in parallel. In this case, the synchronization signals are transmitted via length-stabilized optical fibers. Such an architecture is currently being used at FLASH and will also be the main means of synchronization at the European XFEL. The hardware for such a synchronization system consists of many optical elements such as commercial lasers and self-built free-space and fiber optic setups. However, a significant part of it is also the electronics responsible for control, diagnostics and signal processing as well as high-level servers and front-end software running on those devices. Currently, the VME standard is used throughout FLASH as the basis for the control system digital hardware. For the European XFEL, however, an architecture with a high level of reliability and availability is required as well as one with higher data acquisition and processing rates. Because of that, the Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (μTCA) had been chosen. It is a fairly new standard, provides significantly better performance and employs modern technological solutions making it more suitable for modern accelerator applications than the older VME architecture. The paper presents the latest improvements in the control software for the optical synchronization system based on the

  14. Transferring calibration coefficients from ionisation chambers used for diagnostic radiology to transmission chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the response of a double volume transmission ionisation chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, was compared to that of a commercial transmission chamber. Both ionisation chambers were tested in different X-ray beam qualities using secondary standard ionisation chambers as reference dosimeters. These standard ionisation chambers were a parallel-plate and a cylindrical ionisation chambers, used for diagnostic radiology and mammography beam qualities, respectively. The response of both transmission chambers was compared to that of the secondary standard chambers to obtain coefficients of equivalence. These coefficients allow the transmission chambers to be used as reference equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipin, I; Gur, I; Amitai, Y; Amirav, I; Godfrey, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 12 asthmatic children were twice challenged by exercise in random order. During one test positively ionised air (5-10 X 10(5) ions/cm) was breathed. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise induced asthma was significantly aggravated by exposure to positively ionised air, the postexercise fall in FEV1 (delta FEV1) being 24.7% (SEM and 5.3%) and 35.3% (5%) after the control and ionised air tests respectively (p less than 0.04). It is concluded that positive ionisation aggravates the bronchial response to exercise. PMID:6474386

  16. Study and application of a controlled-potential electrochemistry-electrospray emitter for electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J; Granger, Michael C

    2005-07-15

    This paper discusses continued studies and new analytical applications of a recently developed three-electrode controlled-potential electrochemical cell incorporated into an electrospray ion source (Van Berkel, G. J.; Asano, K. G.; Granger, M. C. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 1493-1499.). This cell contains a porous flow-through working electrode (i.e., the emitter electrode) with high surface area and auxiliary electrodes with small total surface area that are incorporated into the emitter electrode circuit to control the electrochemical reactions of analytes in the electrospray emitter. The current at the working and auxiliary electrodes, and current at the grounding points upstream and downstream of the emitter in the electrospray circuit, were recorded in this study, along with the respective mass spectra of model compound reserpine, under various operating conditions to better understand the electrochemical and electrospray operation of this emitter cell. In addition to the ability to control analyte oxidation in positive ion mode (or reduction in negative ion mode) in the electrospray emitter, this emitter cell system was shown to provide the ability to efficiently reduce analytes in positive ion mode and oxidize analytes in negative ion mode. This was demonstrated by the reduction of methylene blue in positive ion mode and oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in negative ion mode. Also, the ability to control electrochemical reactions via potential control was used to selectively ionize (oxidize) analytes with different standard electrochemical potentials within mixtures to different charge states to overcome overlapping molecular ion isotopic clusters. The analytical benefit of this ability was illustrated using a mixture of nickel and cobalt octaethylporphyrin.

  17. Ionisation Chamber for Measurement of Pulsed Photon Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, D

    2017-04-28

    The use of pulsed photon radiation in medical, industrial and security sectors has vastly increased during the recent years. The length of pulse from different X-ray flash generators that are commonly used as either portable, battery-operated or fixed systems can be as low as a few femtoseconds. However, the majority of radiation protection instruments, especially various active electronic dosemeters, have limitations when operated in pulsed fields. This study presents measurements that were performed using the dose-integration mode of the RI-02 and Ram Ion survey metres, which are based on ventilated ionisation chamber, when exposed to different pulsed X-ray sources. An intercomparison between the results that were obtained with the survey metres and those that were obtained with thermoluminescence dosemeter, reference passive dosemeter, show good agreement (deviation lies within 10%). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dissociative ionisation of adamantane: a combined theoretical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candian, Alessandra; Bouwman, Jordy; Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Tielens, Alexander G G M

    2017-11-20

    Diamond nanoparticles, or nanodiamonds, are intriguing carbon-based materials which, maybe surprisingly, are the most abundant constituent of presolar grains. While the spectroscopic properties of even quite large diamondoids have already been explored, little is known about their unimolecular fragmentation processes. In this paper we characterise the dissociative ionisation of adamantane (C10H16) - the smallest member of the diamondoid family - utilising imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We have found adamantane to dissociatively photoionise via several parallel channels of which H, C3H7 and C4H8 losses are the most important ones. Calculations confirm the existence of a rate-limiting transition state for the multiple C-loss channels, which is located at 10.55 eV with respect to neutral adamantane. In addition, we found dissociation channels leading to small cationic hydrocarbons, which may be relevant in the interstellar medium.

  19. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  20. RF System for the MICE Demonstration of Ionisation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K.; et al.

    2017-04-01

    Muon accelerators offer an attractive option for a range of future particle physics experiments. They can enable high energy (TeV+) high energy lepton colliders whilst mitigating the difficulty of synchrotron losses, and can provide intense beams of neutrinos for fundamental physics experiments investigating the physics of flavor. The method of production of muon beams results in high beam emittance which must be reduced for efficient acceleration. Conventional emittance control schemes take too long, given the very short (2.2 microsecond) rest lifetime of the muon. Ionisation cooling offers a much faster approach to reducing particle emittance, and the international MICE collaboration aims to demonstrate this technique for the first time. This paper will present the MICE RF system and its role in the context of the overall experiment.

  1. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Q-balls with ATLAS. A dedicated trigger was developed and deployed for proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. It uses the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The high threshold (HT) readout capability of the TRT is used to distinguish HIPs from other background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electromagnetic calorimeters and is thereby capable of probing a larger range of HIP masses and charges. A description of the algorithm for this newly developed trigger is presented, along with a comparitive study of its performance during the 2012 data-taking period with respect to previous efforts.

  2. Ionising sources in the coma of 67P probed by Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritier, Kevin; Galand, Marina; Henri, Pierre; Eriksson, Anders; Odelstad, Elias; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beth, Arnaud; Broiles, Thomas; Burch, Jim; Carr, Christopher; Cupido, Emanuele; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Nilsson, Hans; Richter, Ingo; Rubin, Martin; Vallieres, Xavier; Vigren, Erik

    2017-04-01

    An ionospheric model has been developed in order to quantify the ion number density in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The model is driven by Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA)/Cometary Pressure Sensor (COPS) neutral density and assumes isentropic expansion for the neutral density profile. The two ionisation sources considered are photo-ionisation by solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and electron-impact ionisation. The EUV radiation is estimated from fluxes measured by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/ Solar EUV Experiment (SEE), taking into account the phase shift and the heliocentric distance ratio; between Earth and comet 67P. The electron-impact ionisation production rates are derived from Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC)-Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) integrated electron fluxes and corrected for the S/C potential from RPC/LAngmuir Probe (LAP) measurements. Our results are compared with in situ measurements of the plasma density from RPC-Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) and RPC-LAP. There is a good agreement between the modelled and RPC observed electron densities. The ionospheric model enables to distinguish the relative contributions of the different sources to the total cometary plasma. At high heliocentric distances, electron-impact ionisation becomes the dominant ionisation source and is enhanced over the winter hemisphere. As the solar activity has decreased since the beginning of the mission in 2014, the relative importance of photo-ionisation has decreased as well. However, at low heliocentric distances, photo-ionisation seems to be the most dominant ionising source, in particular through the perihelion period in summer 2015.

  3. Electrospray deposition from AFM probes with nanoscale apertures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition utilizes a high electric field to extract liquid droplets from a capillary nozzle. In this contribution we demonstrate non-contact droplet deposition by electrospray from atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes with a fully integrated microfluidic system, so called FluidFM

  4. Photo-ionisation mass spectrometry as detection method for gas chromatography. Optical selectivity and multidimensional comprehensive separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Welthagen, Werner; Gröger, Thomas

    2008-03-14

    Mass spectrometry (MS) with soft ionisation techniques (i.e. ionisation without fragmentation of the analyte molecules) for gaseous samples exhibits interesting analytical properties for direct analysis applications (i.e. direct inlet mass spectrometric on-line monitoring) as well as mass spectrometric detection method for gas chromatography (GC-MS). Commonly either chemical ionisation (CI) or field ionisation (FI) is applied as soft ionisation technology for GC-MS. An interesting alternative to the CI and FI technologies methods are photo-ionisation (PI) methods. PI overcomes some of the limitations of CI and FI and furthermore add some unique analytical properties. The resonance enhanced multi-photon ionisation (REMPI) method uses intense UV-laser pulses (wavelength range approximately 350-193 nm) for highly selective, sensitive and soft ionisation of predominately aromatic compounds. The single photon ionisation (SPI) method utilises VUV light (from lamps or laser sources, wavelengths range approximately 150-110 nm) can be used for a universal soft ionisation of organic molecules. In this article the historical development as well as the current status and concepts of gas chromatography hyphenated to photo-ionisation mass spectrometry are reviewed.

  5. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. METHODS: We...... used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. RESULTS: For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95...... regions. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation....

  6. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H

    2017-05-04

    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  7. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  8. 3D-printed polylactic acid supports for enhanced ionization efficiency in desorption electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of liquid and gel samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elviri, Lisa; Foresti, Ruben; Bianchera, Annalisa; Silvestri, Marco; Bettini, Ruggero

    2016-08-01

    The potential of 3D printing technology was here exploited to prepare tailored polylactic acid (PLA) supports for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) experiments. PLA rough solid supports presenting wells of different shape (i.e. cylindrical, cubic and hemispherical cavities) were designed to accommodate samples of different physical state. The potentials of such supports in terms of sample loading capacity, sensitivity, signal stability were tested by analysing a peptide (i.e. insulin) and an aminoglycoside antibiotic (i.e. gentamicin sulphate) from solution and a chitosan-based gel. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by using a traditional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) support and discussed. By using PLA support on the flat side, signal intensity improved almost twice with respect to PTFE support, whereas with spherical wells a five times improved signal sensitivity and good stability (RSD<6%) were obtained for the analysis of two model molecules. Limits of detection were in the 3-10nM range and linearity was demonstrated for both analytes in the 0.05-0.5μM range for semi-quantitative or quantitative purposes. The use of a well and the set-up of optimal source parameters allowed the analysis of samples in a gel state with good precision (RSD<10%) and accuracy (86±6-102±9%), otherwise difficult to analyse on a flat smooth surface. These findings are of great interest and stimulus to exploit the advantages of 3D printing technology for the development of devices for a DESI source, presenting different shapes or configuration as a function of the sample types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of fermented bamboo shoot on the quality and shelf life of nuggets prepared from desi spent hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Das

    Full Text Available Aim: An investigation was carried out to prepare nuggets from the relatively tough and fibrous meat of desi spent hen using fermented bamboo shoot as a phytopreservative in order to enhance the physico-chemical, microbiological and keeping quality of the nuggets. Materials and Methods: Lean meat of desi spent hen was minced and blended along with other non-meat ingredients and fermented bamboo shoot @10%. The emulsion was filled in metallic moulds and steam cooked and cut into pieces. Ready-toeat nuggets thus prepared were packed in sterilized LDPE zip bags and stored at 4±1°C up-to 15 days for quality evaluation. Emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, a and proximate composition were studied on the day of preparation, while estimation of pH, TBA values, microbial load and sensory evaluation were carried out at 5 days interval and up-to 15th day of storage. Results: The emulsion stability (%, cooking yield (%, moisture (%, crude protein (% and total ash (% of FBS treated nuggets differed significantly (p<0.01 from the control products. Storage studies revealed significantly lower (p<0.01 pH, TBA value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and counts for yeast and moulds in FBS treated nuggets in comparison to control products. Both control and treated nuggets exhibited gradual loss of panel ratings during the storage period (4±1°C for 15 days, however, nuggets containing fermented bamboo shoot revealed significantly higher (p<0.01 mean sensory scores in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Nuggets with better physico-chemical and shelf life can be prepared with incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot @10% (w/w to the nugget emulsion. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 419-423

  10. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lipids and Metabolites in Tissues by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; yang, Pengxiang; Prieto, Mari; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of tissue sections is a new frontier in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Here we report on fast 3D imaging of lipids and metabolites associated with mouse uterine decidual cells and embryo at the implantation site on day 6 of pregnancy. 2D imaging of 16-20 serial tissue sections deposited on the same glass slide was performed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) – an ambient ionization technique that enables sensitive localized analysis of analytes on surfaces without special sample pre-treatment. In this proof-of-principle study, nano-DESI was coupled to a high-resolution Q-Exactive instrument operated at high repetition rate of >5 Hz with moderate mass resolution of 35,000 (m/Δm at m/z 200), which enabled acquisition of the entire 3D image with a spatial resolution of ~150 μm in less than 4.5 hours. The results demonstrate localization of acetylcholine in the primary decidual zone (PDZ) of the implantation site throughout the depth of the tissue examined, indicating an important role of this signaling molecule in decidualization. Choline and phosphocholine – metabolites associated with cell growth – are enhanced in the PDZ and abundant in other cellular regions of the implantation site. Very different 3D distributions were obtained for fatty acids (FA), oleic acid and linoleic acid (FA 18:1 and FA 18:2), differing only by one double bond. Localization of FA 18:2 in the PDZ indicates its important role in decidualization while FA 18:1 is distributed more evenly throughout the tissue. In contrast, several lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) observed in this study show donut-like distributions with localization around the PDZ. Complementary distributions with minimal overlap were observed for LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2 while the 3D image of the potential precursor phosphatidylcholine (PC 36:2) showed a significant overlap with both LPC 18:0 and FA 18:2.

  11. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  12. Topologically frustrated ionisation in a water-ammonia ice mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Mafety, A; Queyroux, J A; Wilson, C W; Zhang, H; Béneut, K; Le Marchand, G; Baptiste, B; Dumas, P; Garbarino, G; Finocchi, F; Loveday, J S; Pietrucci, F; Saitta, A M; Datchi, F; Ninet, S

    2017-10-20

    Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7.4 GPa at 300 K) are sufficient to transform ammonia monohydrate from a prototypical hydrogen-bonded crystal into a form where the standard molecular forms of water and ammonia coexist with their ionic counterparts, hydroxide (OH-) and ammonium [Formula: see text] ions. Using ab initio atomistic simulations, we explain this surprising coexistence of neutral/charged species as resulting from a topological frustration between local homonuclear and long-ranged heteronuclear ionisation mechanisms.

  13. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Qballs with the ATLAS trigger system. With proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass enegy of 8 TeV, the trigger was designed to have unique properties as a tracker for HIPs. It uses only the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The unique high threshold readout capability of the TRT is used at the location where HIPs in the detector are looked for. In particular the number and the fraction of TRT high threshold hits is used to distinguish HIPs from background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electro-magnetic calorimeters as a seed unlike previously used trigger algorithms for such searches. Thus the new trigger is capable of probing a large range of HIP masses and charges. We will give a description of the algorithms for this newly developed trigger for HIP searches...

  14. Molecular DNA-based detection of ionising radiation in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakalar, Ergün

    2017-05-01

    Ionising radiation induces molecular alterations, such as formation of ions, free radicals, and new stable molecules, and cleavage of the chemical bonds of the molecules present in food. Irradiation-treated meat should be labelled to control the process and to ensure free consumer choice. Therefore, sensitive analytical methods are required to detect the irradiation dose. Meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.063, 3.64, 8.82 and 17.42 kGy in an industrial 60 Co gamma cell. Primers were designed to amplify 998, 498 and 250-base pair (bp) regions of the 18S rRNA gene of nuclear DNA from the irradiated samples. A new DNA-based method was developed to quantify the radiation exposed to the unstored meat and the meat stored at -20 °C for 3 and 6 months. The method was able to detect meat samples stored and unstored with dose limits of 1.063 and 3.64 kGy, respectively. The level of irradiation can be detected using primer pairs that target particularly different-sized sequences for DNA amplification by PCR. This method can be widely used for the analysis of not only meat samples, but also all biological materials containing DNA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  16. Establishing a method for the design and maintenance of emergency evacuation plans based on the computer aided facility management (CAFM) at DESY; Entwicklung und Einfuehrung eines Verfahrens zur Erstellung und Pflege von Flucht- und Rettungsplaenen auf Grundlage des computergestuetzten Facility Managements (CAFM) am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eucker, S.

    2005-12-15

    The present thesis describes a procedure for the design and maintenance of evacuation and rescue plans in a CAMF environment at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY). The procedure is developed as business-process model and vizualized by the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The design of the evacuation and rescue plans and the technical design with a CAD software are presented. The introduction of the procedure pursues by the exemplary providing of a building with evacuation and rescue plans, Additionally safety informations of the evacuation and rescue plans are provided via the DESY Intranet. The termination of this thesis is the summarizing of the results and the experiences of the project as well as an outlook about future developments at DESY.

  17. Electrospray as a Tool for Drug Micro- and Nanoparticle Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Dhamankar, H.; Bromberg, L.; Rutledge, G.C.; Hatton, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) microparticles of different sizes and shapes, including spheres, q-tips, elongated spheres, and tear-shaped particles, were formed by electrospraying solutions of different CBZ concentrations. The particle characteristics were determined by the interplay between jet formation,

  18. Four Thruster Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Cubesat Board Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cubesat Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) system module prototype will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate that a four MEP thruster system can...

  19. Response Surface Modelling of Electrosprayed Polyacrylonitrile Nanoparticle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Khademolqorani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospraying (electrohydrodynamic spraying is a method of liquid atomization by electrical forces. Spraying solutions or suspensions allow production of fine particles, down to nanometer size. These particles are interesting for a wide variety of applications, thanks to their unprecedented chemical and physical behaviour in comparison to their bulk form. Knowledge of the particle size in powders is important in many studies employing nanoparticles. In this paper, the effect of some process parameters on the size of electrosprayed polyacrylonitrile particles is presented in the form of response surface model. The model is achieved by employing a factorial design to evaluate the influence of parameters on the polyacrylonitrile nanoparticle size and response surface methodology. Four electrospraying parameters, namely, applied voltage, electrospraying solution concentration, flow rate, and syringe needle diameter were considered.

  20. Units for ionisation chamber measurements of {beta} and {gamma} activity; Ensemble de mesure d'activite {beta} et {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J.J.; Roquefort, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this paper two methods for ionisation chamber measurements of {beta} and {gamma} activity are discussed. Two ionisation chambers associated with continuous current amplifiers are described: - the first, type C {beta} {gamma} 1, is intended chiefly for measuring the specific activity of {beta}-emitting solutions and the dose rate on the surface of radioactive application systems, - the second, type CCP{gamma} 1, known as a well chamber, serves mainly for measuring the activity of {gamma}-emitting sources or solutions. (author) [French] Dans cet article, nous etudions 2 methodes de mesure d'activite {beta} et {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Nous decrirons deux chambres d'ionisation associees a des amplificateurs a courant continu: - l'une, type C {beta} {gamma} 1, permet principalement la mesure de l'activite specifique des solutions emettrices {beta}, et la mesure de dose a la surface d'applicateurs radioactifs; - l'autre, type CCP{gamma} 1, dite chambre a puits, permet principalement la mesure de l'activite de sources ou solutions emettrices {gamma}. (auteur)

  1. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  2. Flow Interface for Charge Reduced Electrospray of Nanoparticle Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Adou, Kouame; Johnston, Murray V.

    2009-01-01

    A charge reduction (CR) interface for electrospray ionization was characterized that permits simultaneous analysis of nanoparticle solutions by multiple detection methods. In the direct infusion configuration, a constant flow of analyte solution undergoes electrospray ionization (ESI). The charged aerosol is sampled directly into the atmospheric pressure inlet of a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF) and to a CR device followed by a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and cond...

  3. The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee Open Meeting 10 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Full text: The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee (IRAC) held its first open meeting on 10 October 2001 in response to a request from the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) that all its advisory committees should follow the Commission's example and hold such meetings. Some of the other advisory committees have already held open meetings and others are planning to do so shortly. The aim of the meeting was to enable members of the public to meet IRAC members and to find out more about the Committee - how it worked and the type of issues it dealt with. The first two sessions were devoted to short presentations describing IRAC's work and influences, now and in the future, on radiation protection generally. The third session was a discussion forum. The agenda for the meeting and the presentations are posted on the web at: www.hse.gov.uk/foi/iracopen.htm. Each session of presentations was followed by questions of clarification and the third session of the meeting comprised an open forum. Many of the questions raised were not directly relevant to IRAC but, nevertheless, members provided brief responses and referred questions on to others as appropriate. One question had been notified in advance, asking whether members of IRAC agreed that it is now (regrettably) reasonably foreseeable that a loss of containment of radioactive material may occur at a nuclear facility as a result of impact by an aeroplane or by other hostile acts, and that this should be made clear in published guidance on REPPIR. This question was not within IRAC's remit. The Chairman of the Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee offered to take the question to the Committee's next meeting. Issues discussed included: Concerns that exposure to ionising radiation at low levels is more dangerous than is currently reflected in risk estimates. The European Parliament has adopted a resolution calling on the main international bodies, including the International Commission on Radiological

  4. Excitation and Ionisation dynamics in high-frequency plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, D.

    2008-07-01

    Non-thermal low temperature plasmas are widely used for technological applications. Increased demands on plasma technology have resulted in the development of various discharge concepts based on different power coupling mechanisms. Despite this, power dissipation mechanisms in these discharges are not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are low pressure radio-frequency (rf) discharges. The limited understanding of these discharges is predominantly due to the complexity of the underlying mechanisms and difficult diagnostic access to important parameters. Optical measurements are a powerful diagnostic tool offering high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) provides non-intrusive access, to the physics of the plasma, with comparatively simple experimental requirements. Improved advances in technology and modern diagnostics now allow deeper insight into fundamental mechanisms. In low pressure rf discharges insight into the electron dynamics within the rf cycle can yield vital information. This requires high temporal resolution on a nano-second time scale. The optical emission from rf discharges exhibits temporal variations within the rf cycle. These variations are particularly strong, in for example capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), but also easily observable in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), and can be exploited for insight into power dissipation. Interesting kinetic and non-linear coupling effects are revealed in capacitive systems. The electron dynamics exhibits a complex spatio-temporal structure. Excitation and ionisation, and, therefore, plasma sustainment is dominated through directed energetic electrons created through the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. In the relatively simple case of an asymmetric capacitively coupled rf plasma the complexity of the power dissipation is exposed and various mode transitions can be clearly observed and investigated. At higher pressure secondary electrons dominate the

  5. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of metalloporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, V E; Limbach, P A

    1998-03-01

    The magnesium, nickel, copper, zinc and vanadium metalloporphyrins from octaethylporphyrin, etioporphyrin I and tetraphenylporphyrin were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ion abundance of each of the porphyrins present in binary mixtures was monitored as a function of the porphyrin concentration and is dependent on the metalloporphyrin oxidation potential. It was found that, for binary mixtures of metalloporphyrins whose oxidation potentials differ by less than 0.1 V, the resulting ion abundance of each species is directly proportional to the concentration of each analyte in the mixture. For binary mixtures whose oxidation potentials differ by more than 0.1 V, relative abundances of the radical cations of each metalloporphyrin are determined by the oxidation potential and concentration of each metalloporphyrin with the analyte of lowest oxidation potential being ionized preferentially. The ability to ionize selectively one porphyrin over another in a binary mixture offers the potential to use ESI-MS for the qualitative analysis of porphyrins present in complex mixtures.

  6. Ionisation D'atomes Par un Laser Carbon Dioxide Intense Par L'effet Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei

    Cette these decrit des experiences d'ionisation d'atomes (Xe et K) par un laser CO_2 intense. Des spectrometres de masse et d'energie electronique ont ete developpes pour mesurer le nombre d'ions crees et l'energie des electrons acceleres par le gradient spatial du champ laser. Des details sur ces mesures sont fournis et justifies. On a mesure des energies d'electrons jusqu'a 1000eV, a une intensite de 10^{14} W/cm^2. Les mesures experimentales sont comparees avec deux types de theorie, qui decrivent le processus d'ionisation dans deux limites: l'interaction entre electron et noyau est beaucoup plus forte que celle entre electron et champ laser (processus multiphotonique), ou l'inverse (effect tunnel). Les resultats montrent que la courbe du nombre d'ions crees en fonction de l'intensite n'est pas tres sensible aux details du processus d'ionsisation. Par contre les spectres d'energie des electrons dependent fortement du processus d'ionisation, et on peut en deduire le taux d'ionisation. On trouve que la theorie multiphotonique ne fournit pas une explication satisfaisante aux resultats experimentaux, mais que la theorie de l'effet tunnel s'ajuste bien si on suppose que le seuil d'ionisation peut etre deplace legerement par le champ laser. Le deplacement necessaire du seuil est estime dans cette these, mais une explication theorique reste a trouver.

  7. Bayesian analysis of nanodosimetric ionisation distributions due to alpha particles and protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Colautti, P; Grosswendt, B

    2011-02-01

    Track-nanodosimetry has the objective to investigate the stochastic aspect of ionisation events in particle tracks, by evaluating the probability distribution of the number of ionisations produced in a nanometric target volume positioned at distance d from a particle track. Such kind of measurements makes use of electron (or ion) gas detectors with detecting efficiencies non-uniformly distributed inside the target volume. This fact makes the reconstruction of true ionisation distributions, which correspond to an ideal efficiency of 100%, non-trivial. Bayesian unfolding has been applied to ionisation distributions produced by 5.4 MeV alpha particles and 20 MeV protons in cylindrical volumes of propane of 20 nm equivalent size, positioned at different impact parameters with respect to the primary beam. It will be shown that a Bayesian analysis performed by subdividing the target volume in sub-regions of different detection efficiencies is able to provide a good reconstruction of the true nanodosimetric ionisation distributions.

  8. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-15

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  9. EFFECT OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DESI, FAYOUMI AND COMMERCIAL WHITE LEGHORN CHICKEN EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Khan and R. Sardar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sixty layers (50 weeks of age each of native Desi, Fayoumi and commercial White Leghorn (Nick Chick were kept in wire cages following completely randomized design for 8 weeks during summer season (June and July. The birds of each type were divided into two groups i.e. with and without supplementation of vitamin C with three replicates assigned to each layer group (10 birds in each replicate. The vitamin C (C-vit fort was added at the rate of 5 ml/5 liter in drinking water throughout the experimental period in respective layer group. The results indicated that the mean egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness improved (P<0.05 with supplementation of vitamin C in all layers. The average feed consumption of three types of layers was also improved (P<0.05 with supplementation of vitamin C. The blood picture showed that the concentration of ascorbic acid was higher (P<0.05 in groups supplemented with vitamin C. However, the concentrations of blood enzymes (ALP, SGPT and SGOT were lowered (P<0.01 with vitamin C supplementation in all types of layers. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that vitamin C supplementation was effective in improving performance of layers under heat stress conditions.

  10. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  11. Effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise and inhaled histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, I; Amirav, I; Shochina, M; Amitai, I; Bar-Yishay, E; Godfrey, S

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 11 asthmatic children were challenged twice by exercise and 10 were challenged twice by histamine inhalation. The children breathed negatively ionised air (4 X 10(5) - 10 X 10(5) ions/cm3) or control room air in random order in a double-blind fashion. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and the exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise-induced asthma was significantly attenuated by exposure to negatively ionised air, the mean postexercise fall in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being 29% (SE 5%) of the initial value after the control and 21% (3%) after the ionised air test (p less than 0.02). Ten of the 11 subjects developed less exercise-induced asthma while breathing ionised air. Although the median dose of histamine (cumulative breath units) which caused a constant fall in FEV1 for each individual was higher with the ionised air challenge than with the control challenge the difference was not significant. Five of the 10 subjects were less sensitive to histamine and the other five more sensitive when breathing ionised air. It is concluded that negative ionisation of inspired air can modulate the bronchial response to exercise but the effect on the response to histamine is much more variable. PMID:6351332

  12. Processing of pharmaceutical materials by electrospraying under reduced pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maija; Murtomaa, Matti; Roine, Jorma; Sandler, Niklas; Salonen, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    Electrospraying was used in drug particle production. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities to produce drug particles with desired pharmaceutical properties by electrospraying. In particular, the effect of drying pressure on particle properties was studied. A poorly water soluble model drug (budesonide) was dissolved in chloroform, and the solution was atomized by electrospraying. Following this, the charged droplets were neutralized and dried in a drying chamber. The pressure in the drying chamber was varied. The dried particles were collected and analyzed. The pressure reduction had a slight impact on particle size distribution. The particles produced in reduced pressure turned out to be notably more porous than the particles produced in atmospheric pressure. The pressure reduction also affects the degree of crystallinity of the product. The dissolution of the particles produced in reduced pressures was faster to a certain extent than that of the particles produced in atmospheric pressure. A setup for electrospraying materials in a reduced pressure was presented. The pressure reduction had a notable impact on particle morphology. The possibilities to tailor the particle properties during electrospraying were studied.

  13. Encapsulating darunavir nanocrystals within Eudragit L100 using coaxial electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Nhat; Clasen, Christian; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Electrospraying is renowned for its simplicity and versatility, and which can effectively produce particles with well-controlled size, size distribution, particle shape, morphology and microstructure at the nano/microscale. In this study, coaxial electrospraying was used to investigate its feasibility for preparing nanoparticles made up of nanocrystals encapsulated within a polymer shell. Firstly, aqueous nanosuspensions of darunavir were prepared by wet media milling. Then the nanosuspension and solutions of an enteric polymer, Eudragit L100, were used as the inner/core liquid and outer/shell liquid in a coaxial electrospraying setup, respectively. As long as a sufficiently high voltage was applied, a stable Taylor cone-jet mode was obtained to produce very fine core-shell structure nanoparticles with high darunavir encapsulation efficiency of approximately 90%. The influence of the starting nanosuspension and the flow rates on the characteristics of the final electrosprayed particles was also evaluated. Using an optimized nanosuspension with reasonable size, size distribution and flow rates, the enteric coating layer reduced the percentage of DRV release in acidic medium in the in vitro dissolution test to ca. 20%. This study indicates that coaxial electrospraying is a potential and unique technique for encapsulating drug nanocrystals within a polymeric shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrospray ionization from an adjustable gap between two silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Patrik; Schönberg, Tommy; Sjödahl, Johan; Jacksén, Johan; Vieider, Christian; Emmer, Asa; Roeraade, Johan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, a silicon chip-based electrospray emitter with a variable orifice size is presented. The device consists of two chips, with a thin beam elevating from the center of each of the chips. The chips are individually mounted to form an open gap of a narrow, uniform width between the top areas of the beams. The electrospray is generated at the endpoint of the gap, where the spray point is formed by the very sharp intersection between the crystal planes of the silicon chips. Sample solution is applied to the rear end of the gap from a capillary via a liquid bridge, and capillary forces ensure a spontaneous imbibition of the gap. The sample solution is confined to the gap by means of a hydrophobic treatment of the surfaces surrounding the gap, as well as the geometrical boundaries formed by the edges of the gap walls. The gap width could be adjusted between 1 and 25 microm during electrospray experiments without suffering from any interruption of the electrospray process. Using a peptide sample solution, a shift toward higher charge states and increased signal-to-noise ratios was observed when the gap width was decreased. The limit of detection for the peptide insulin (chain B, oxidized) was approximately 4 nM. We also show a successful interfacing of the electrospray setup with capillary electrophoresis. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Research on Glass Frit Deposition Based on the Electrospray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrospray technology is used to easily deposit the glass frit into patterns at a micro-scale level. First, far-field electrospray process was carried out with a mixture of glass frit in the presence of ethanol. A uniform, smooth, and dense glass frit film was obtained, verifying that the electrospray technology was feasible. Then, the distance between the nozzle and the substrate was reduced to 2 mm to carry out near-field electrospray. The experimental process was improved by setting the range of the feed rate of the substrate to match both the concentration and the flow rate of the solution. Spray diameter could be less at the voltage of 2 kV, in which the glass frit film was expected to reach the minimum line width. A uniform glass frit film with a line width within the range of 400–500 μm was prepared when the speed of the substrate was 25 mm/s. It indicates that electrospray is an efficient technique for the patterned deposition of glass frit in wafer-level hermetic encapsulation.

  16. A rapid screening method for prenylated flavonoids with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in licorice root extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Bakx, E.J.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their substitution with an isoprenoid group, prenylated flavonoids have an increased affinity for biological membranes and target proteins, enhancing their potential bioactivity. Although many prenylated flavonoids have been described, there are no methods that specifically screen for their

  17. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Yang, Baoru

    2011-08-01

    Eleven major phenolic compounds (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, ideain, epicatechin, two procyanidin (PA) dimers, three PA trimers and a PA dimer-hexoside) were quantified in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of the Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) by HPLC-ESI-MS-SIR. Hyperoside (0.1-0.8mg/g dry mass [DM]), isoquercitrin (0.1-0.3mg/g DM), chlorogenic acid (0.2-1.6mg/g DM), epicatechin (0.9-11.7mg/g DM), PA B2 (0.7-12.4mg/g DM), PA dimer II (0.1-1.5mg/g DM), PA trimer I (0.1-2.7mg/g DM), PA trimer II (0.7-6.9mg/g DM), PA trimer III (0.01-1.2mg/g DM) and a PA dimer-hexoside (trace-1.1mg/g DM) were detected in all the samples. Ideain (0.0-0.7mg/g DM) was found in all the samples except Crataegus scabrifolia. Significant correlations between the contents of individual PA aglycons were observed (r>0.9, P<0.01). A strong correlation between flavonols was also shown (r=0.71, P<0.01). Fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major had higher contents of PAs but lower contents of flavonols compared with Crataegus brettschneideri. The fruits of C. scabrifolia contained the highest level of PA dimer-hexoside, which was present in trace amounts in the fruits of C. pinnatifida. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative electrospray ionisation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) and FTOH-derived acrylate surfactants by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate (tandem) mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Christensen, Jan H.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are used to synthesize fluorinated surfactants, which form bioaccumulative perfluorinated degradation products, which are toxic to humans and the environment. To facilitate screening for FTOH-derived surfactants by LC-ESI–-MS, we identified product ions of FTOHs, an......, and propose FTOH fragmentation pathways on two MS instruments. By extraction of FTOH basepeak ions from accurate mass spectra, homologues series of peaks showed up in an industrial blend of FTOH-derived fluoroacrylates used in food paper packaging....

  19. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Detection and Localisation of Disulphide Bonds in a Synthetic Peptide Reproducing the Sequence 1–30 of Par j 1.0101 by Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Foti, Salvatore; Saletti, Rosaria; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; di Stefano, Vita

    2001-01-01

    ...–30 of Par j 1.0101, a major allergenic protein present in the pollen of Parietaria judaica, by combined use of chemical and enzymatic cleavage, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC...

  1. Characterisation of botulinum toxins type C, D, E, and F by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Wils, E.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a follow-up of the earlier characterisation of botulinum toxins type A and B (BTxA and BTxB) by mass spectrometry (MS), types C, D, E, and F (BTxC, BTxD, BTxE, BTxF) were now investigated. Botulinum toxins are extremely neurotoxic bacterial toxins, likely to be used as biological warfare agent.

  2. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staykov, Lazar

    2012-10-15

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  3. Electrospray formation of ring-shaped silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kazuhiro; Higashi, Kazuhiko; Hishida, Koichi; Hotta, Atsushi; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-02-01

    Electrospray is one of the processes employed for the production of silica nanoparticles (NPs). We have experimentally determined that not only spherical but also ring-shaped NPs can be manufactured by electrospray, and that the shape of the NPs is dependent on ambient humidity and the substrate on which the NPs are deposited. Although the effect of humidity that reflects the evaporation characteristics of the suspension during flight has been reported, we have experimentally determined that the affinity of the sol suspension and the substrate play a crucial role in the formation of torus silica NPs.

  4. Exploring Learners' Conceptual Resources: Singapore a Level Students' Explanations in the Topic of Ionisation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes findings from a study to explore Singapore A-level (Grades 11 and 12, 16-19 yr old) students' understanding of ionisation energy, an abstract and complex topic that is featured in school chemistry courses. Previous research had reported that students in the United Kingdom commonly use alternative notions based on the perceived…

  5. Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) and REMPI-photoelectron spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, R.A.; Buma, W.J.; Baldwin, M.A.; Ascenzi, D.; Orr-Ewing, A.J.; Ashfold, M.N.R.; de Milan, J.B.; Scheper, C.R.; de Lange, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of recent mass-resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) and REMPI-photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of the sixteen valence electron molecules OCS and CS2 are used to illustrate some of the many opportunities offered by (and a few of the possible limitations

  6. Experimental investigation of ionisation track structure of carbon ions at HIL Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantsar, A; Hilgers, G; Pszona, S; Rabus, H; Szeflinski, Z

    2015-09-01

    In view of the upcoming radiation therapy with carbon ions, the ionisation structure of the carbon ion track at the nanometre scale is of particular interest. Two different nanodosimeters capable of measuring track structure of ionising particles in a gas target equivalent to a nanometric site in condensed matter were involved in the presented experimental investigation, namely the NCBJ Jet Counter and the PTB Ion Counter. At the accelerator facility of the HIL in Warsaw, simulated nanometric volumes were irradiated with carbon ions of 45 and 76 MeV of kinetic energy, corresponding to a range in the tissue of ∼85 µm and ∼190 µm, respectively. The filling gas of both nanodosimeters' ionisation volume was molecular nitrogen N2, and the ionisation cluster size distributions, i.e. the statistical distribution of the number of ionizations produced by one single primary carbon ion in the filling gas, were measured for the two primary particle energies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bioaerosol detection by aerosol TOF-mass spectrometry: Application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Stowers, M.A.; Kientz, Ch.E.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.

    2000-01-01

    In previous publications the use of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer was reported for the on-line measurements of aerosols (Weiss 1997, Kievit 1995). The apparatus is capable of measuring the size as well as the chemical composition, by the use of Laser Desorption/Ionisation (LDI), of an

  8. Stellar populations, neutral hydrogen, and ionised gas in field early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, P.; Trager, S. C.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Morganti, R.

    Aims. We present a study of the stellar populations of a sample of 39 local, field early-type galaxies whose H I properties are known from interferometric data. Our aim is to understand whether stellar age and chemical composition depend on the H I content of galaxies. We also study their ionised

  9. Calculated ionisation potentials to determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hartmans, S.; Swarts, H.J.; Field, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. The ionisation potential (IP) of a series of model compounds was

  10. The impact of high and low dose ionising radiation on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calina Betlazar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Responses of the central nervous system (CNS to stressors and injuries, such as ionising radiation, are modulated by the concomitant responses of the brains innate immune effector cells, microglia. Exposure to high doses of ionising radiation in brain tissue leads to the expression and release of biochemical mediators of ‘neuroinflammation’, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to tissue destruction. Contrastingly, low dose ionising radiation may reduce vulnerability to subsequent exposure of ionising radiation, largely through the stimulation of adaptive responses, such as antioxidant defences. These disparate responses may be reflective of non-linear differential microglial activation at low and high doses, manifesting as an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functional state. Biomarkers of pathology in the brain, such as the mitochondrial Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO, have facilitated in vivo characterisation of microglial activation and ‘neuroinflammation’ in many pathological states of the CNS, though the exact function of TSPO in these responses remains elusive. Based on the known responsiveness of TSPO expression to a wide range of noxious stimuli, we discuss TSPO as a potential biomarker of radiation-induced effects.

  11. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  12. An ionisation gauge using a channel electron multiplier for pressures below 10$\\^{-12}$

    CERN Document Server

    Blechschmidt, Diether

    1973-01-01

    Since new techniques to achieve pressures of below 10/sup -12/ Torr have been developed, gauges with an appropriate low pressure limit are required. Channeltrons, with their high gain, seem to be the best means to construct gauges with high sensitivity. In this paper a new ionisation gauge using a channeltron has been described. (15 refs).

  13. Destruction of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation and the implications for life detection on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Page, Kristian; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Wright, Gary; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J; Ward, John M; Edwards, Howell G M

    2012-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very effective approach for the detection of microorganisms colonising hostile environments on Earth. The ExoMars rover, due for launch in 2018, will carry a Raman laser spectrometer to analyse samples of the martian subsurface collected by the probe's 2-m drill in a search for similar biosignatures. The martian surface is unprotected from the flux of cosmic rays, an ionising radiation field that will degrade organic molecules and so diminish and distort the detectable Raman signature of potential martian microbial life. This study employs Raman spectroscopy to analyse samples of two model organisms, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the extremely radiation resistant polyextremophile Deinococcus radiodurans, that have been exposed to increasing doses of ionising radiation. The three most prominent peaks in the Raman spectra are from cellular carotenoids: deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans and β-carotene in Synechocystis. The degradative effect of ionising radiation is clearly seen, with significant diminishment of carotenoid spectral peak heights after 15 kGy and complete erasure of Raman biosignatures by 150 kGy of ionising radiation. The Raman signal of carotenoid in D. radiodurans diminishes more rapidly than that of Synechocystis, believed to be due to deinoxanthin acting as a superior scavenger of radiolytically produced reactive oxygen species, and so being destroyed more quickly than the less efficient antioxidant β-carotene. This study highlights the necessity for further experimental work on the manner and rate of degradation of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation, as this is of prime importance for the successful detection of microbial life in the martian near subsurface.

  14. Application of parallel gradient high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet, evaporative light scattering and electrospray mass spectrometric detection for the quantitative quality control of the compound file to support pharmaceutical discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Anthony W; Taylor, Mark R; Parnas, Barry L; Williams, Gareth; Girdler, Richard; Waghorn, Peter; Wright, Adrian G; Pullen, Frank S

    2008-05-02

    The success of drug discovery assays, using plate-based technologies, relies heavily on the quality of the substrates being tested. Sample purity, identity and concentration must be assured for a screening hit to be validated. Most major pharmaceutical companies maintain large liquid screening files with often in excess of one million stock solutions, typically dissolved in DMSO. However, due to the inherent inaccuracies of high-throughput gravimetric analysis and automated dilution, stock solution concentrations can vary significantly from the assumed nominal value. Here, we present a rapid and effective method for measuring purity, identity and concentration of these stock solutions using four high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns with parallel ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) with a throughput of 1 min per sample.

  15. Deposit Structure for Particle-laden Droplets Targeted by Electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Aref; Singler, Timothy; Yong, Xin; Chiarot, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid printing technique that combines electrospray atomization with inkjet printing provides unique capabilities for exploring transport creating nanoparticle deposits with controlled structures. In this research, we use electrospray to deliver dry nanoparticles to the interface of particle-laden sessile droplets. Upon evaporation of the target sessile droplet, the particles at the interface are mapped to the underlying substrate. Particle locations in the final deposit were observed separately by tagging the particles dispersed inside the droplet and at its interface with different fluorophores. As expected, surfactant-free particles inside the target droplet were transported to its (pinned) contact line, creating a ``coffee ring'' morphology in the final deposit. The transport and final location of the interfacial particles was highly dependent on the presence of surfactant in the electrosprayed solution. If surfactant was present, the interfacial particles were transported to the apex of the target droplet, forming a dense region at the center of the final deposit. If the electrosprayed solution was surfactant-free, the transport of the interfacial particles was arrested and they were distributed uniformly across the final deposit. Similar deposit morphologies were found when experimenting with various surfactants, including Tween and sodium dodecyl sulfate. These results highlight the important of Marangoni flow in governing the final deposit structure for hybrid printing. This research supported by the National Science Foundation (Award 1538090).

  16. Combining two-dimensional diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, imaging desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry for the integral investigation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyadong, Leonard; Harris, Glenn A; Balayssac, Stéphane; Galhena, Asiri S; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Martino, Robert; Parry, R Mitchell; Wang, May Dongmei; Fernández, Facundo M; Gilard, Véronique

    2009-06-15

    During the past decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of reported cases involving counterfeit medicines in developing and developed countries. Particularly, artesunate-based antimalarial drugs have been targeted, because of their high demand and cost. Counterfeit antimalarials can cause death and can contribute to the growing problem of drug resistance, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the complementarity of two-dimensional diffusion-ordered (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D DOSY (1)H NMR) with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) was assessed for pharmaceutical forensic purposes. Fourteen different artesunate tablets, representative of what can be purchased from informal sources in southeast Asia, were investigated with these techniques. The expected active pharmaceutical ingredient was detected in only five formulations via both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. Common organic excipients such as sucrose, lactose, stearate, dextrin, and starch were also detected. The graphical representation of DOSY (1)H NMR results proved very useful for establishing similarities among groups of samples, enabling counterfeit drug "chemotyping". In addition to bulk- and surface-average analyses, spatially resolved information on the surface composition of counterfeit and genuine antimalarial formulations was obtained using DESI MS that was performed in the imaging mode, which enabled one to visualize the homogeneity of both genuine and counterfeit drug samples. Overall, this study suggests that 2D DOSY (1)H NMR, combined with ambient MS, comprises a powerful suite of instrumental analysis methodologies for the integral characterization of counterfeit antimalarials.

  17. Evaluation of the smear layer removal and erosive capacity of EDTA, boric acid, citric acid and desy clean solutions: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tugba; Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Şen, Bilge Hakan

    2015-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smear layer removal and erosive capacity of various irrigation solutions with sequential use of NaOCl on instrumented root canal walls. The root canals of single-rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instrument. Then, the teeth were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The root canals were irrigated with one of the following solutions (5 mL/1 min): 5% EDTA, 5% boric acid (BA), a mixture of BA and CA, 2.5% citric acid (CA) and 5% Desy Clean. After irrigating with 2.5% NaOCl and distilled water, the roots were split into two halves and each half was prepared for SEM examination. Representative photographs were taken from each third at x500 and x1000 magnifications. Double blind scoring was performed by two calibrated observers for smear layer and erosion. The scores were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn's post hoc and Spearman's correlation tests (p = 0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the solutions by means of smear layer and erosion (p < 0.05). While 2.5% CA solution was the most effective solution in removal of smear layer, it was also the most erosive solution (p < 0.05). 5% Desy Clean removed smear layer effectively and caused less erosion. There was a negative, but statistically significant correlation between presence of smear layer and erosion (r = -0.684; p < 0.0001). Desy Clean can be a promising agent as an irrigation solution with optimal smear layer removal capacity and less erosive effects.

  18. Electrospray in the dripping mode for cell microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2007-08-15

    Entrapment of living cells in microbeads is to protect the encapsulated cells from the host's immune system, which can be used as drug delivery vehicles, immunotherapies and engineered tissues. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the droplet formation and to better develop mono-dispersed microencapsulation of living cells with controllable size. The uniformity of microencapsulation size was realized by performing electrospray in the dripping mode and also stabilized by an additional ring electrode. Reduction of droplet diameter and increase in the dripping frequency were observed with increasing applied voltage to the nozzle using a conventional electrospray setup. The vibration of the needle was found to reduce when high voltage was applied to the nozzle. With increasing voltage applied to the ring electrode, the dripping frequency was found to decrease with the formation of slightly larger sizes of droplets. Hep G2 cell line was taken as the model cell line for encapsulation in calcium alginate microbeads. Relatively uniform microbeads could be achieved when operating under low flow rates with high voltages applied to the nozzle by using a conventional electrospray setup. In contrast, uniform microbeads can not be obtained using a similar setup under high flow rates unless the ring electrode is applied with voltage to stabilize the electrospray in the dripping mode. In this modified electrospray, microbeads with narrow size distribution and slightly larger size can be obtained even for cases under high flow rates. Phase contrast microscope images showed that the diameter of microbeads from around 200 microm to 2 mm could be finely tuned by adjusting various operating parameters.

  19. Metal Cationization Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Multiple Oxygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Spencer, Sandra E.; Glish, Gary L.

    2017-06-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization is an ambient ionization technique that allows real-time sampling of liquid samples, including organic aerosols. Similar to electrospray ionization, the composition of the electrospray solvent used in extractive electrospray ionization can easily be altered to form metal cationized molecules during ionization simply by adding a metal salt to the electrospray solvent. An increase in sensitivity is observed for some molecules that are lithium, sodium, or silver cationized compared with the protonated molecule formed in extractive electrospray ionization with an acid additive. Tandem mass spectrometry of metal cationized molecules can also significantly improve the ability to identify a compound. Tandem mass spectrometry of lithium and silver cationized molecules can result in an increase in the number and uniqueness of dissociation pathways relative to [M + H]+. These results highlight the potential for extractive electrospray ionization with metal cationization in analyzing complex aerosol mixtures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Theoretical investigation of the ultrafast dissociation of ionised biomolecules immersed in water: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigeot, M-P; Lopez-Tarifa, P; Martin, F; Alcami, M; Vuilleumier, R; Tavernelli, I; Hervé du Penhoat, M-A; Politis, M-F

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical simulations are particularly well suited to investigate, at a molecular level, direct and indirect effects of ionising radiations in DNA, as in the particular case of irradiation by swift heavy ions such as those used in hadron therapy. In the past recent years, we have developed the modeling at the microscopic level of the early stages of the Coulomb explosion of DNA molecules immersed in liquid water that follows the irradiation by swift heavy ions. To that end, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory molecular dynamics simulations (TD-DFT MD) have been developed where localised Wannier orbitals are propagated. This latter enables to separate molecular orbitals of each water molecule from the molecular orbitals of the biomolecule. Our main objective is to demonstrate that the double ionisation of one molecule of the liquid sample, either one water molecule from the solvent or the biomolecule, may be in some cases responsible for the formation of an atomic oxygen as a direct consequence of the molecule Coulomb explosion. Our hypothesis is that the molecular double ionisation arising from irradiation by swift heavy ions (about 10% of ionisation events by ions whose velocity is about the third of speed of light), as a primary event, though maybe less probable than other events resulting from the electronic cascading (for instance, electronic excitations, electron attachments), may be systematically more damageable (and more lethal), as supported by experiments that have been carried out in our group in the 1990s (in studies of damages created by K holes in DNA). The chemical reactivity of the produced atomic oxygen with other radicals present in the medium will ultimately lead to chemical products that are harmful to DNA. In the present paper, we review our theoretical methodology in an attempt that the community be familiar with our new approach. Results on the production of atomic oxygen as a result of the double ionisation of water or as a result of

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-04

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism.

  2. Effect of the diaphragm of free-air ionisation chamber for X-ray air-kerma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Takata, Nobuhisa; Saito, Norio

    2011-07-01

    Free-air ionisation chambers are widely used at standards laboratories as primary standards for absolute measurements of air kerma in X-ray fields. The area of the diaphragm aperture of a free-air ionisation chambers is an important factor for absolute measurements because it defines the size of the X-ray beam incident on the free-air chamber. In this study, correction factors for the contribution of X rays transmitted through the diaphragm of a free-air ionisation chamber and those scattered from the surface of the diaphragm aperture are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation for two different sized free-air ionisation chambers and for various diaphragm aperture sizes, X-ray energies and source-to-chamber distances.

  3. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; Boer, de J.

    2011-01-01

    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  4. How do air ions reflect variations in ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere in a boreal forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ion production in the atmosphere is attributed to ionising radiation. In the lower atmosphere, ionising radiation consists mainly of the decay emissions of radon and its progeny, gamma radiation of the terrestrial origin as well as photons and elementary particles of cosmic radiation. These types of radiation produce ion pairs via the ionisation of nitrogen and oxygen as well as trace species in the atmosphere, the rate of which is defined as the ionising capacity. Larger air ions are produced out of the initial charge carriers by processes such as clustering or attachment to pre-existing aerosol particles. This study aimed (1 to identify the key factors responsible for the variability in ionising radiation and in the observed air ion concentrations, (2 to reveal the linkage between them and (3 to provide an in-depth analysis into the effects of ionising radiation on air ion formation, based on measurement data collected during 2003–2006 from a boreal forest site in southern Finland. In general, gamma radiation dominated the ion production in the lower atmosphere. Variations in the ionising capacity came from mixing layer dynamics, soil type and moisture content, meteorological conditions, long-distance transportation, snow cover attenuation and precipitation. Slightly similar diurnal patterns to variations in the ionising capacity were observed in air ion concentrations of the cluster size (0.8–1.7 nm in mobility diameters. However, features observed in the 0.8–1 nm ion concentration were in good connection to variations of the ionising capacity. Further, by carefully constraining perturbing variables, a strong dependency of the cluster ion concentration on the ionising capacity was identified, proving the functionality of ionising radiation in air ion production in the lower atmosphere. This relationship, however, was only clearly observed on new particle formation (NPF days, possibly indicating that charges after

  5. Effect of radiation-induced charge accumulation on build-up cap on the signal current from an ionisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, N; Morishita, Y

    2011-04-01

    The signal current from a thimble ionisation chamber with a build-up cap made of an insulator decreases by about 0.41 % after being irradiated for 17 h at an air kerma rate of 41 Gy h(-1) by a collimated (60)Co gamma-ray beam in air. In contrast, the signal current remains constant when the thimble ionisation chamber is irradiated in a water phantom. During irradiation, positive charge is considered to accumulate near the outer surface of the build-up cap where electron equilibrium is not achieved. Secondary electrons travelling in the build-up cap and the chamber wall toward the ionisation volume are decelerated by the electric field generated by the positive charge. Consequently, the signal current decreases with increasing charge accumulation because some secondary electrons are prevented from entering the ionisation volume. In the water phantom, electron equilibrium is established in and around the ionisation chamber and charge does not accumulate. To confirm this hypothesis, the signal current was measured for an ionisation chamber in air with a build-up cap wrapped with Al foil and covered with PMMA tubes. Electron equilibrium was established over the build-up cap because the tubes were thicker than the secondary electron range. The signal current decreased with increasing positive voltage applied to the Al foil. It was estimated from the results that positive charges equivalent to a voltage of over 6 kV applied to the Al foil accumulated during irradiation. The signal current was also measured for an ionisation chamber with a metal build-up cap and for an ionisation chamber with a wall and build-up cap made of conductive plastic.

  6. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Ł; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. An important step forward in continuous spectroscopic imaging of ionising radiations using ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Fessler, P; Eberle, H; Raad-Iseli, C D; Hilt, B; Huss, D; Krummenacher, F; Lutz, Jean Robert; Prevot, G; Renouprez, Albert Jean; Sigward, M H; Schwaller, B; Voltolini, C

    1999-01-01

    Characterization results are given for an original ASIC allowing continuous acquisition of ionising radiation images in spectroscopic mode. Ionising radiation imaging in general and spectroscopic imaging in particular must primarily be guided by the attempt to decrease statistical noise, which requires detection systems designed to allow very high counting rates. Any source of dead time must therefore be avoided. Thus, the use of on-line corrections of the inevitable dispersion of characteristics between the large number of electronic channels of the detection system, shall be precluded. Without claiming to achieve ultimate noise levels, the work described is focused on how to prevent good individual acquisition channel noise performance from being totally destroyed by the dispersion between channels without introducing dead times. With this goal, we developed an automatic charge amplifier output voltage offset compensation system which operates regardless of the cause of the offset (detector or electronic). ...

  8. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Hannah; Saleem, Saira; Loadman, Paul M; Sutton, Chris W

    2011-01-01

    Cancer significantly affects millions of people worldwide. It is possible to use proteomic techniques to aid in detection, monitoring of treatment and progression, as well as gaining an increased understanding of cancer. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry can be utilised to detect the presence of proteins and peptides within various samples from the body, including blood, biological fluids and tumour tissue. This review aims to introduce MALDI mass spectrometry and discuss a range of applications in the field of cancer research, from quantitative to qualitative methods. Also described is MALDI imaging mass spectrometry which differs from typical sample preparation methods, as analytes are ionised directly from the tissue. Finally, presented is a brief summary of the status of biomarker discovery using blood/serum and biological fluids samples, and the implications in the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Powerful Ionised Wind in the Seyfert Galaxy PG1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Highly-ionised high-speed winds in AGN (UFOs) were first detected with XMM-Newton a decade ago, and are now established as a key factor in the study of SMBH accretion, and in the growth and metal enrichment of their host galaxies. However, information on the ionisation and dynamical structure, and the ultimate fate of UFOs remains very limited. We request a 600ks extended XMM-Newton study of the prototype UFO PG1211+143 in AO-13, to obtain high quality EPIC and RGS spectra, to map the flow structure and variability, while seeking evidence for the anticipated interaction with the ISM and possible conversion of the energetic wind to a momentum-driven flow.

  10. Radon in drinking water: Comparison and evaluation of two ionisation chamber activity measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, H; Lotter, K; Karner, P; Friedmann, H; Maringer, F J

    2017-06-23

    In this study the radon activity concentration of water samples from the so called "Thermenlinie" are measured using two different techniques: currents measured with an ionisation chamber setup developed by H. Friedmann are compared with results obtained using a commercially available AlphaGUARD. A fit to compensate for measurements made in non-equilibrium state is applied and the detection limit is estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  12. New coplanar (e,2e) experiments for the ionisation of He and Ar atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, E.M. Staicu [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 8625) and Federation Lumiere Matiere (FR 2764), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: staicu-casagrande@lcam.u-psud.fr; Catoire, F.; Naja, A.; Ren, X.G.; Lahmam-Bennani, A. [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 8625) and Federation Lumiere Matiere (FR 2764), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Nekkab, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria); Dal Cappello, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions and ICPMB (FR 2843), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Institut de Physique, 1 rue Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 5031 (United States); Whelan, C.T. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We report new coplanar measurements of the (e,2e) TDCS for the ionisation of helium 1s-shell and argon 3p- and 2p-shells. The kinematics employed remained rather unexplored to date, and could be investigated here using an improved version of our multi-angle (e,2e) spectrometer, with increased sensitivity. The results are discussed in the light of state-of-the-art theoretical models.

  13. Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of polymers and polymer additives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Martin R L; Barker, Philip J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of this review is to showcase the present capabilities of ambient sampling and ionisation technologies for the analysis of polymers and polymer additives by mass spectrometry (MS) while simultaneously highlighting their advantages and limitations in a critical fashion. To qualify as an ambient ionisation technique, the method must be able to probe the surface of solid or liquid samples while operating in an open environment, allowing a variety of sample sizes, shapes, and substrate materials to be analysed. The main sections of this review will be guided by the underlying principle governing the desorption/extraction step of the analysis; liquid extraction, laser ablation, or thermal desorption, and the major component investigated, either the polymer itself or exogenous compounds (additives and contaminants) present within or on the polymer substrate. The review will conclude by summarising some of the challenges these technologies still face and possible directions that would further enhance the utility of ambient ionisation mass spectrometry as a tool for polymer analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of ionisation measurements in water and polystyrene for electron beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinvis, I A; Heukelom, S; Mijnheer, B J

    1985-10-01

    For the determination of absorbed dose to water in electron beams, dosimetry protocols advocate ionisation measurements in plastic phantoms instead of water for practical reasons. The chamber readings in polystyrene at the depth of maximum ionisation must be corrected for the difference in physical properties between the two materials. This correction factor was determined for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 graphite-walled chamber in electron beams with mean energies at the phantom surface between 6 and 19 MeV. Experiments with white polystyrene yielded corrections for the measured ionisation ranging from 0.3 to 2.4%. For clear polystyrene, 0.6-1% higher corrections were found. For beams with the same mean energy at the phantom surface, but with different beam-flattening and collimation systems, variations in this correction up to 1.2% were observed. In contrast to recent reports on electrical charge storage in polystyrene due to electron irradiation, our experiments do not show differences in the chamber readings any larger than 0.5%.

  15. Micro- and nanoparticles by electrospray: advances and applications in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Hernández, José A; Torres-Chávez, Patricia I; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Barreras-Urbina, Carlos G; Rangel-Vázquez, Norma A; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco

    2015-05-20

    Micro- and nanotechnology are tools being used strongly in the area of food technology. The electrospray technique is booming because of its importance in developing micro- and nanoparticles containing an active ingredient as bioactive compounds, enhancing molecules of flavors, odors, and packaging coatings, and developing polymers that are obtained from food (proteins, carbohydrates), as chitosan, alginate, gelatin, agar, starch, or gluten. The electrospray technique compared to conventional techniques such as nanoprecipitation, emulsion-diffusion, double-emulsification, and layer by layer provides greater advantages to develop micro- and nanoparticles because it is simple, low cost, uses a low amount of solvents, and products are obtained in one step. This technique could also be applied in the agrifood sector for the preparation of controlled and/or prolonged release systems of fertilizer or agrochemicals, for which more research must be conducted.

  16. Electrosprayed inulin microparticles for microbiota triggered targeting of colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arvind K; Sood, Vishesh; Bora, Meghali; Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2014-11-04

    Inulin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, was acetylated to make it processable by electrospraying, a facile and single step method for microparticle fabrication. Electrospraying process parameters were optimized for fabrication of spherical and monodisperse indomethacin (IDM) loaded inulin acetate (INA) microparticles. The apparent entrapment efficiency of IDM was determined to be 100%, whereas working encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 35.39 ± 1.63%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed molecular dispersion of IDM in an amorphous state within the INA matrix. Finally, the results from in vitro release study performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids demonstrated that IDM was released only in simulated colonic fluid that contained inulinase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acetylation of inulin does not alter its susceptibility to inulinase and that microparticles fabricated from INA can be developed as a colon targeting drug delivery system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonically Aided Electrospray source for monodisperse, charged nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weidong

    This dissertation presents a new method of producing nearly monodisperse electrospray using charged capillary standing waves. This method, based on the Ultrasonically Aided Electrospraying (UAE) technology concept invented by the author, includes the steps of dispensing a liquid on the top surface of a diaphragm so as to form a liquid film on the surface of the diaphragm, setting the diaphragm into vibration using piezoelectric transducers so as to induce capillary standing waves in the liquid film, applying electric charge to the capillary standing waves so that electrospray is extracted from the crests of the capillary standing waves. Theoretical analysis on the formation of charged particles from charged capillary standing waves at critically stable condition is performed. An experimental UAE system is designed, built, and tested and the performance of this new technology concept is assessed. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the UAE concept. The method has several applications including electric space propulsion, nano particulate technologies, nanoparticle spray coating and painting techniques, semiconductor fabrication and biomedical processes. Two example applications in electric space propulsion and nanoparticle spray coating are introduced.

  18. Improved design for high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M T

    2009-03-15

    An improved design for high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) was developed by making some salient modifications to the IMS cell and its performance was investigated. To enhance desolvation of electrospray droplets at high sample flow rates in this new design, volume of the desolvation region was decreased by reducing its diameter and the entrance position of the desolvation gas was shifted to the end of the desolvation region (near the ion gate). In addition, the ESI source (both needle and counter electrode) was positioned outside of the heating oven of the IMS. This modification made it possible to use the instrument at higher temperatures, and preventing needle clogging in the electrospray process. The ion mobility spectra of different chemical compounds were obtained. The resolving power and resolution of the instrument were increased by about 15-30% relative to previous design. In this work, the baseline separation of the two adjacent ion peaks of morphine and those of codeine was achieved for the first time with resolutions of 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. These four ion peaks were well separated from each other using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) rather than nitrogen as the drift gas. Finally, the analytical parameters obtained for ethion, metalaxyl, and tributylamine indicated the high performance of the instrument for quantitative analysis.

  19. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2003-08-01

    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  20. Electrospray Deposition of ZnO Thin Films and Its Application to Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray is a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate micro-structured thin films. This work investigates the electrospray process of ZnO patterns. The effects of experimental parameters on jet characteristics and electrosprayed patterns are studied. The length of stable jets increases with increasing applied voltage and flow rate, and decreases with increasing nozzle-to-substrate distance, while electrospray angles exhibit an opposite trend with respect to the stable jet lengths. The diameter of electrosprayed particles decreases with increasing applied voltage, and increases with flow rate. Furthermore, an alcohol gas sensor is presented. The ZnAc is calcined into ZnO, which reveals good repeatability and stability of response in target gas. The sensing response, defined as the resistance ratio of R0/Rg, where R0 and Rg are resistance of ZnO in air and alcohol gas, increases with the concentration of alcohol vapors and electrospray deposition time.

  1. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co{sup 60} based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei, E-mail: matheus.soares@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: augusti.rodinei@gmail.com, E-mail: augusti@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H., E-mail: eberlin@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: ph_vendramini@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Thompson Mass Spectroscopy Laboratory

    2017-07-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  2. Quantification of levoglucosan and its isomers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry and its applications to atmospheric and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, C.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Cozic, J.; Pissot, N.; El Haddad, I.; Marchand, N.; Besombes, J.-L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of atmospheric concentrations of levoglucosan and its two isomers, unambiguous tracers of biomass burning emissions, became even more important with the development of wood as renewable energy for domestic heating. Many researches demonstrated the increase during recent years of atmospheric particulate matter load due to domestic biomass combustion in developed countries. Analysis of biomass burning tracers is traditionally performed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique after derivatization and requires an organic solvent extraction. A simpler and faster technique using Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionisation - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized for the analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan isomers after an aqueous extraction. This technique allows a good separation between the three compounds in a very reduced time (runtime ~5 min). LOD and LOQ of this method are 30 μg l-1 and 100 μg l-1 respectively, allowing the use of filters from low-volume sampler (as commonly used in routine campaigns). A comparison of simultaneous levoglucosan measurements by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS for about 50 samples coming from different types of sampling sites and seasons was realized and shows very good agreement between the two methods. Therefore LC-ESI-MS/MS method can be used as an alternative to GC-MS particularly for measurement campaigns in routine where analysis time is important and detection limit is reduced. This paper shows that this method is also applicable to other environmental sample types like soil.

  3. Steroidal glycosides from the leaves of Ruscus colchicus: isolation and structural elucidation based on a preliminary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Angela; Muzashvili, Tamara; Napolitano, Assunta; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2009-12-01

    An HPLC-ESIMS(n) method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray positive ionisation multistage ion trap mass spectrometry, has been used as an effective tool to rapidly identify and guide the isolation of target saponins from the ethanol extract of the leaves of Ruscus colchicus Y. Yeo. Twenty-two steroidal glycosides, including seventeen furostanol, four spirostanol and one cholestane glycosides, were online identified. Subsequently, compounds were isolated and their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. The structures identified by MS were fully consistent with those elucidated by NMR data. Sixteen steroidal glycosides, including thirteen furostanol, two spirostanol and one cholestane glycosides, were identified along with four known furostanol and two spirostanol glycosides. The saponin profile shows that the furostanol glycosides are the main constituents of R. colchicus extract, unlike the other Ruscus species, for which the spirostanol derivatives generally are reported as the major compounds. Moreover, for the first time a cholestane glycoside has been isolated from R. colchicus.

  4. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl

    2013-01-01

    . japonicus leaves, CYP79D3, was found to be highly expressed during the early stages of leaf development, and the hydroxynitrile glucoside distribution in mature leaves reflected this early expression pattern. Direct DESI-MSI of plant tissue was demonstrated using cryo-sections of cassava (Manihot esculenta...

  5. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeremy P; Taylor, Daniel J; Paterson, Martin J

    2013-05-15

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) (Greer, J. Chem. Phys. 1995a, 103, 1821; Tong, Nolan, Cheng, and Greer, Comp. Phys. Comm. 2000, 142, 132) is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of N2 and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these nonvariational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with full configuration interaction results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112) and "exact" nonrelativistic results (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112). We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculation of atomic ionisation energies however electron affinities appear much more challenging for MCCI. Due to the small magnitude of the electron affinities their percentage errors can be high, but with regards to absolute errors MCCI performs similarly for ionisation energies and electron affinities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dissipative instabilities in a partially ionised prominence plasma slab. II. The effect of compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. F.; Ballai, I.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-02-01

    This study deals with the dissipative instability that appears in a compressible partially ionised plasma slab embedded in a uniform magnetic field, modelling the state of the plasma in solar prominences. In the partially ionised plasma, the dominant dissipative effect is the Cowling resistivity. The regions outside the slab (modelling the solar corona) are fully ionised, and the dominant mechanism of dissipation is viscosity. Analytical solutions to the extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are found inside and outside of the slab and solutions are matched at the boundaries of the slab. The dispersion relation is derived and solutions are found analytically in the slender slab limit, while the conditions necessary for the appearance of the instability is investigated numerically for the entire parameter space. Our study is focussed on the effect of the compressibility on the generation and evolution of instabilities. We find that compressibility reduces the threshold of the equilibrium flow, where waves can be unstable, to a level that is comparable to the internal cusp speed, which is of the same order of flow speeds that are currently observed in solar prominences. Our study addresses only the slow waves, as these are the most likely perturbations to become unstable, however the time-scales of the instability are found to be rather large ranging from 105-107 s. It is determined that the instability threshold is further influenced by the concentration of neutrals and the strength of the viscosity of the corona. Interestingly, these two latter aspects have opposite effects. Our numerical analysis shows that the interplay between the equilibrium flow, neutrals and dispersion can change considerably the nature of waves. Despite employing a simple model, our study confirms the necessity of consideration of neutrals when discussing the stability of prominences under solar conditions.

  7. Comparison of low and high dose ionising radiation using topological analysis of gene coexpression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Monika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing use of imaging procedures in medicine has raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR. While the disastrous effects of high dose ionising radiation (HDIR is well documented, the detrimental effects of LDIR is not well understood and has been a topic of much debate. Since little is known about the effects of LDIR, various kinds of wet-lab and computational analyses are required to advance knowledge in this domain. In this paper we carry out an “upside-down pyramid” form of systems biology analysis of microarray data. We characterised the global genomic response following 10 cGy (low dose and 100 cGy (high dose doses of X-ray ionising radiation at four time points by analysing the topology of gene coexpression networks. This study includes a rich experimental design and state-of-the-art computational systems biology methods of analysis to study the differences in the transcriptional response of skin cells exposed to low and high doses of radiation. Results Using this method we found important genes that have been linked to immune response, cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also were able to identify genes such as BRCA1, ABCA1, TNFRSF1B, MLLT11 that have been associated with various types of cancers. We were also able to detect many genes known to be associated with various medical conditions. Conclusions Our method of applying network topological differences can aid in identifying the differences among similar (eg: radiation effect yet very different biological conditions (eg: different dose and time to generate testable hypotheses. This is the first study where a network level analysis was performed across two different radiation doses at various time points, thereby illustrating changes in the cellular response over time.

  8. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  9. On the use of hypodermic needles in electrospray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gañán-Calvo A.M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental analysis of electrospray where the standard feeding capillary was re- placed with a hypodermic needle. Both the current intensity and the jet diameter were measured for a variety of leaky-dielectric liquids. The results obtained with a feeding capillary and a hypodermic needle of similar dimen- sions were compared. An increase of the liquid conductivity was measured by assuming that the electric current obeys the same scaling law in both configurations. That increase was likely due to the electrochemical reaction taking place in the needle tip.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of transfer ribonucleic acids isolated from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruic-Sovulj, I; Lüdemann, H C; Hillenkamp, F; Weygand-Durasevic, I; Kucan, Z; Peter-Katalinic, J

    1997-01-01

    tRNATyr and tRNASer purified from bulk brewer's yeast tRNA were subjected to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Choosing a mixture of 2,4,6- and 2,3,4-trihydroxy-acetophenone and diammonium citrate as matrix a mass resolution of up to 220 (FWHM) was achieved in the linear mode of operation. Cation adduct suppression by addition of cation exchange beads and a chelating agent (CDTA) is shown to substantially improve mass resolution for this class of molecules. PMID:9108172

  11. Skin dose measurements using radiochromic films, TLDS and ionisation chamber and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashrah, Saleh; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Maalej, Nabil; El-Taher, A

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of the surface dose is very important for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose at the surface of a water phantom at a depth of 0.007 cm as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement with radiochromic films (RFs), thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber in a 6-MV photon beam. The results were compared with the theoretical calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (MCNP5, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). The RF was calibrated by placing the films at a depth of maximum dose (d(max)) in a solid water phantom and exposing it to doses from 0 to 500 cGy. The films were scanned using a transmission high-resolution HP scanner. The optical density of the film was obtained from the red component of the RGB images using ImageJ software. The per cent surface dose (PSD) and percentage depth dose (PDD) curve were obtained by placing film pieces at the surface and at different depths in the solid water phantom. TLDs were placed at a depth of 10 cm in a solid water phantom for calibration. Then the TLDs were placed at different depths in the water phantom and were exposed to obtain the PDD. The obtained PSD and PDD values were compared with those obtained using a cylindrical ionisation chamber. The PSD was also determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a LINAC 6-MV photon beam. The extrapolation method was used to determine the PSD for all measurements. The PSD was 15.0±3.6% for RF. The TLD measurement of the PSD was 16.0±5.0%. The (0.6 cm(3)) cylindrical ionisation chamber measurement of the PSD was 50.0±3.0%. The theoretical calculation using MCNP5 and DOSXYZnrc yielded a PSD of 15.0±2.0% and 15.7±2.2%. In this study, good agreement between PSD measurements was observed using RF and TLDs with the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the cylindrical chamber measurement yielded an overestimate of the PSD

  12. Migration to new ampoule types for the NPL secondary standard ionisation chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M; Fenwick, A; Ferreira, K; Keightley, J; Johansson, L; Collins, S

    2014-05-01

    As the pre-calibrated sample containers used for activity assay in the two NPL secondary standards ionisation chambers are being phased out, suitable replacements have been identified. Characterisation checks have been carried out on the new ISO ampoules and a long-term recalibration schedule has been devised. Around 40 calibration factors have been determined so far and comparison of ion chamber responses for the two ampoule types showed variations of up to 7% for low energy photon emitting radionuclides. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. First on-line results from the CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) beam line at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T. J., E-mail: thomas.procter@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Collaboration: CRIS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    The CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) experiment at the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, CERN, has been constructed for high-sensitivity laser spectroscopy measurements on radioactive isotopes. The technique determines the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spin and changes in mean-square charge radii of exotic nuclei via measurement of their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts. In November 2011 the first on-line run was performed using the CRIS beam line, when the hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Fr was successfully measured. This paper will describe the technique and experimental setup of CRIS and present the results from the first on-line experiment.

  14. X-ray imaging of the ionisation cones in NGC 5252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadina, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Cappi, M.; Bianchi, S.; Vignali, C.; Malaguti, G.; Comastri, A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The physical conditions of the gas forming the narrow-line regions (NLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been extensively studied in the optical band. Recently detailed X-ray studies have shown how the emission in the 0.1-2 keV band detected in Seyfert 2 galaxies is associated to gas lying close to or associated with the NLR. Aims: We take advantage of the spectacular extension (~15”) of the NLR in the type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252 and of the complementary characteristics of XMM-Newton and Chandra to investigate the physical conditions of the gas in this galaxy. Methods: The X-ray data from XMM-Newton are used to define the spectral properties of the ionising nuclear source. The Chandra data are used to trace the spatial characteristics of the soft X-ray emission. This information is then compared to the optical HST characteristics of the NLR in NGC 5252. Results: The X-ray spectrum of the nucleus of NGC 5252 is intrinsically flat (Γ~1.4-1.5) and absorbed by neutral gas with a column density NH~1022 cm-2. Below ~1 keV a soft excess is detected. The high-resolution spectrum obtained with the XMM-Newton RGS shows emission lines in the 0.2-1.5 keV range which strongly indicate that the soft X-ray component is essentially due to ionised gas. Moreover, the soft X-ray emission is spatially resolved around the nucleus and well overlaps the images obtained in narrow optical bands centred around the [Oiii] emission line at 5007 Å. The [Oiii]/soft-X flux ratios along the ionisation cones are basically constant. This indicates that the electron density does not significantly deviate from the r-2 law (constant ionisation parameter) moving outward from the nucleus. Conclusions: This result combined with previous optical studies suggests two plausible but different scenarios in the reconstruction of the last ~30 000 years of history of the central AGN. The most promising one is that the source is indeed a “quasar relic” with a steady and inefficient

  15. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Kostidis, L.I. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  16. Characterisation of the Muon Beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J.H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L.M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O.M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T.L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M.A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T.J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D.A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P.J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D.J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C.G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  17. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A. [Harwell Oxford, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry (United Kingdom); Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H. [Universite de Geneve, DPNC, Section de Physique, Geneva (Switzerland); De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G. [Sezione INFN Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K. [The University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G. [Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano (Italy); Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G. [St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Department of Atomic Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravar, U. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L. [Sezione INFN Roma Tre e Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Cooke, P.; Gamet, R. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J. [University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G. [University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Filthaut, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ishimoto, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Onel, Y. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA (United States); Palladino, V. [Universita Federico II, Sezione INFN Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); Palmer, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (US); Roberts, T.J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (US); Collaboration: The MICE Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 {pi} mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 {pi} mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  18. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  19. Flow interface for charge-reduced electrospray of nanoparticle solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adou, Kouame; Johnston, Murray V

    2009-12-15

    A charge reduction (CR) interface for electrospray ionization that permits simultaneous analysis of nanoparticle solutions by multiple detection methods was characterized. In the direct infusion configuration, a constant flow of analyte solution undergoes electrospray ionization (ESI). The charged aerosol is sampled directly into the atmospheric pressure inlet of a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and into a CR device followed by a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and condensation particle counter (CPC). In the plug injection configuration, analyte solution is injected into a liquid chromatograph. The effluent is split to an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and the ESI interface. The charged aerosol is then sampled through the CR device directly into the CPC. Performance characteristics of the two configurations were studied with sucrose and protein solutions. When a liquid flow rate in the low microliter per minute range was used, the reconstructed droplet size distribution from the ESI interface had an average diameter of 184 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.4. For the first configuration, the linear working range was wider for ESI-MS than the CR device-DMA-CPC. For the second configuration, the detection efficiency, defined as the fraction of molecules flowing through the ESI interface that are ultimately detected by the CPC, was on the order of 10(-6). Simultaneous measurements with the ELSD and CPC were consistent with analyte molecular size and may provide a means of estimating the size of unknown particles.

  20. Study of superhydrophobic electrosprayed catalyst layers using a localized reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, A. M.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M. A.; Brightman, E.; Hinds, G.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of electrosprayed cathode catalyst layers in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied using a localized reference electrode technique. Single cells with an electrosprayed cathode catalyst layer show an increase of >20% in maximum power density under standard testing conditions, compared with identical cells assembled with a conventional, state-of-the-art, gas diffusion cathode. When operated at high current density (1.2 A cm-2) the electrosprayed catalyst layers show more homogeneous distribution of the localized cathode potential, with a standard deviation from inlet to outlet of gas diffusion cathode. Higher performance and homogeneity of cell response is attributed to the superhydrophobic nature of the macroporous electrosprayed catalyst layer structure, which enhances the rate of expulsion of liquid water from the cathode. On the other hand, at low current densities (catalyst layers. The optimum performance may be obtained with electrosprayed catalyst layers employing a high Pt/C catalyst ratio.

  1. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Agren

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present data from the sixth Cassini flyby of Titan (T5, showing that the magnetosphere of Saturn strongly interacts with the moon's ionosphere and exo-ionosphere. A simple electron ionisation model provides a reasonable agreement with the altitude structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore, we suggest that the dense and cold exo-ionosphere (from the exobase at 1430 km and outward to several Titan radii from the surface can be explained by magnetospheric forcing and other transport processes whereas exospheric ionisation by impacting low energy electrons seems to play a minor role.

  3. Serum ionised calcium and cardiovascular disease in 45-years old men and women followed for 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogard, Christina Gerlach; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    a health survey in 1981 in Copenhagen had ionised serum calcium and different cardiovascular risk factors measured. The participants were followed until 1999 in The National Hospital Patients Registry and The National Death Registry in Denmark regarding the diagnosis ischemic heart disease (IHD......High level of total serum calcium within the normal range has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We wanted to evaluate whether the physiological active ionised form of calcium also was a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A total of 974 participants from...

  4. An experimental and theoretical study of core-valence double ionisation of acetaldehyde (ethanal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodskikh, S; Vapa, M; Vahtras, O; Zhaunerchyk, V; Mucke, M; Eland, J H D; Squibb, R J; Linusson, P; Jänkälä, K; Ågren, H; Feifel, R

    2016-01-28

    Core-valence double ionisation spectra of acetaldehyde (ethanal) are presented at photon energies above the carbon and oxygen 1s ionisation edges, measured by a versatile multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy technique. We use this molecule as a testbed for analyzing core-valence spectra by means of quantum chemical calculations of transition energies. These theoretical approaches range from two simple models, one based on orbital energies corrected by core valence interaction and one based on the equivalent core approximation, to a systematic series of quantum chemical electronic structure methods of increasing sophistication. The two simple models are found to provide a fast orbital interpretation of the spectra, in particular in the low energy parts, while the coverage of the full spectrum is best fulfilled by correlated models. CASPT2 is the most sophisticated model applied, but considering precision as well as computational costs, the single and double excitation configuration interaction model seems to provide the best option to analyze core-valence double hole spectra.

  5. A rapid ex vivo tissue model for optimising drug detection and ionisation in MALDI imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K; Aichler, M; Sun, N; Buck, A; Li, Z; Fernandez, I E; Hauck, S M; Zitzelsberger, H; Eickelberg, O; Janssen, K P; Keller, U; Walch, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an ex vivo model for a faster optimisation of sample preparation procedures, for example matrix choice, in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) drug imaging studies. The ionisation properties of four drugs, afatinib, erlotinib, irinotecan and pirfenidone, were determined in an ex vivo tissue experiment by spotting decreasing dilution series onto liver sections. Hereby, the drug signals were distinctly detectable using different matrix compounds, which allowed the selection of the optimal matrix for each drug. The analysis of afatinib and erlotinib yielded high drug signals with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix, whereas 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was identified as optimal matrix for irinotecan and pirfenidone detection. Our method was validated by a MALDI drug imaging approach of in vivo treated mouse tissue resulting in corresponding findings, indicating the spotting method as an appropriate approach to determine the matrix of choice. The present study shows the accordance between the detection of ex vivo spotted drugs and in vivo administered drugs by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FT-ICR imaging, which has not been demonstrated so far. Our data suggest the ex vivo tissue spotting method as an easy and reliable model to optimise MALDI imaging measurements and to predict drug detection in tissue sections derived from treated mice prior to the recruitment of laboratory animals, which helps to save animals, time and costs.

  6. Absorbed dose in ion beams: comparison of ionisation- and fluence-based measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Julia-Maria; Brons, Stephan; Bartz, James A; Akselrod, Mark S; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    A direct comparison measurement of fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) and a thimble ionisation chamber is presented. Irradiations were performed using monoenergetic protons (142.66 MeV, ϕ=3×10(6) cm(-2)) and carbon ions (270.55 MeV u(-1), ϕ=3 × 10(6) cm(-2)). It was found that absorbed dose to water values as determined by fluence measurements using FNTDs are, in case of protons, in good agreement (2.4 %) with ionisation chamber measurements, if slower protons and Helium secondaries were accounted for by an effective stopping power. For carbon, however, a significant discrepancy of 4.5 % was seen, which could not be explained by fragmentation, uncertainties or experimental design. The results rather suggest a W-value of 32.10 eV ± 2.6 %. Additionally, the abundance of secondary protons expected from Monte-Carlo transport simulation was not observed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gas chromatography with diode array detection in series with flame ionisation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim; Shellie, Robert A

    2017-06-02

    We introduce a gas chromatography detection approach that uses diode array detection operated in series with flame ionisation detection and demonstrate the utility of the detection approach for determination of volatile organic compounds. Diode array detection brings ultraviolet - visible spectroscopy (over a range of 190-640nm) onto the capillary gas chromatography time-scale, where average peak widths of analytes are on the order of 3-5s. The non-destructive nature of the diode array detector affords serially-coupled flame ionisation detection. This arrangement delivers near-simultaneous selective and universal detection without incurring additional analytical time, and without recourse to column flow splitting. The hyphenated technique is shown to be effective for chromatographic applications spanning an equivalent volatility range from C1 to C7n-paraffin hydrocarbons. The approach introduced herein provides increased sensitivity and selectivity for classes of compounds amenable to electronic spectroscopy such as alkenes, dienes, sulfurs, and aromatic compounds. The approach is demonstrated for direct measurement of carbon disulfide in work place atmospheres with a detection limit of 93pg on column and for the direct measurement of 1,3-butadiene in hydrocarbon matrices and ambient air with a detection of 73pg on column, each in less than 5min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionisation effects on the permeation of pharmaceutical compounds through silicone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L J; Bhuiyan, A K M M H

    2016-05-01

    Silicone membrane is frequently used as an in vitro skin mimic whereby experiments incorporate a range of buffered media which may vary in pH. As a consequence of such variability in pH there is a corresponding variability in the degree of ionisation which in turn, could influence permeation through the mainly hydrophobic-rich membrane structure. This study reports the effect of pH on the permeation of five model compounds (benzoic acid, benzotriazole, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and lidocaine). For the five compounds analysed, each at three distinct percentages of ionisation, it was found that the greater extent of permeation was always for the more 'neutral', i.e. more greatly unionised, species rather than the anionic or cationic species. These findings fit with the theory that the hydrophobic membrane encourages permeation of 'lipid-like' structures, i.e. the more unionised form of compounds. However, results obtained with an Inverse Gas Chromatography Surface Energy Analyser (iGC SEA) indicate the membrane surface to be an electron dense environment. In the knowledge that unionised forms of compounds permeate (rather than the charged species) this negatively charged surface was not anticipated, i.e. the basic membrane surface did not appear to affect permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinematically complete study on electron impact ionisation of aligned hydrogen molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senftleben, Arne

    2009-10-28

    Within the work presented here, single ionisation of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by 200 eV electrons was studied in a kinematically complete experiment. For the first time, a comprehensive set of fully differential cross sections (FDCS) was obtained for this process on a molecular target. The direction of the internuclear axis was derived from the fragment emission of post-collision dissociation of the residual H{sub 2}{sup +} ion. Therefore, a protonic fragment was detected in coincidence with the two final-state electrons using a dedicated reaction microscope and sophisticated data analysis. For direct ionisation into the ionic ground state, existing theoretical cross sections for aligned molecules were tested. Additionally, we observed molecular frame angular distributions of Auger electrons emitted through dissociative autoionisation of H{sub 2}. Earlier findings of kinematically incomplete experiments were reproduced, but the FDCS reveal structures so far unknown. Furthermore, for random alignment, differential cross sections at two distinct values of the mean internuclear distance were obtained, providing new arguments in the current discussion on the nature of discrepancies observed between atomic and molecular collisions. (orig.)

  10. Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, F. [Laboratory of Environmental Modelling, DEI/SECRE/LME, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache, Building 159, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr; Hertel-Aas, T. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Gilek, M. [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University College, 14189 Huddinge (Sweden); Gilbin, R. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Oughton, D.H. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h{sup -1}). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h{sup -1}. In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h{sup -1}), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  11. Towards a Symmetric Momentum Distribution in the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, O M; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    TheMuon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at Rutherford Appleton Labratory (UK). It is a proof-of-principle experiment for ionisation cooling, which is a prerequisite for a future Neutrino Factory (NF) or a Muon Collider. The muon beam will have a symmetrical momentum distribution in the cooling channel of theNF [1]. In the MICE beamline pions are captured by a quadrupole triplet, beam momentum is selected by dipole 1 (D1) before the beam traverses the decay solenoid. After the decay solenoid the beam momentum is selected by dipole 2 (D2), the beam is focused in two quadrupole triplets and characterised by time-of-flight (TOF) detectors TOF0 and TOF1 before entering the cooling channel. By doing a so-called D1-scan, where the optics parameters are scaled according to the upstream beam momentum, the purity and momentum distribution of the decay muons are changed. In this paper simulation results from G4Beamline (G4BL) [2] and data from MICE are presented and compared.

  12. Study and optimization of the ionisation channel in the Edelweiss dark matter direct detection experiment; Etude et optimisation de la voie ionisation dans l'experience Edelweiss de detection directe de la matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censier, B

    2006-02-15

    The EDELWEISS experiment is aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), today's most favoured candidates for solving the dark matter issue. Background ionising particles are identified thanks to the simultaneous measurement of heat and ionisation in the detectors. The main limitation to this method is coming from the ionisation measurement, charge collection being less efficient in some part of the detectors known as 'dead' areas. The specificity of the measurement is due to the use of very low temperatures and low collection fields. This thesis is dedicated to the study of carrier trapping. It involves time-resolved charge measurements as well as a simulation code adapted to the specific physical conditions. We first present results concerning charge trapping at the free surfaces of the detectors. Our method allows to build a surface-charge in a controlled manner by irradiation with a strong radioactive source. This charge is then characterised with a weaker source which acts as a probe. In a second part of the work, bulk-trapping characteristics are deduced from charge collection efficiency measurements, and by an original method based on event localisation in the detector. The results show that a large proportion of the doping impurities are ionised, as indicated independently by the study of degradation by space-charge build-up. In this last part, near-electrodes areas are found to contain large densities of charged trapping centres, in connection with dead-layer effects. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  14. Ab Initio SCF MO Calculation of Ionisation Energies and Charge Distributions of TCNQ and Its Mono- and Divalent Anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, H.T.; Velde, G.A. van der; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    Ab initio SCF MO calculations using a contracted double zeta basis set of 168 gaussian type functions were performed on TCNQ+, TCNQ, TCNQ- and TCNQ2-. The ionisation potentials obtained from total energy differences are generally 0.25-0.50 eV higher than the corresponding negative orbital energies

  15. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in 3D simulations of the solar chromosphere. Methods and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Bohm, S.

    2006-01-01

    Context. The hydrogen ionisation degree deviates substantially from statistical equilibrium under the conditions of the solar chromosphere. A realistic description of this atmospheric layer thus must account for time-dependent non-equilibrium effects. Aims. Advancing the realism of numerical

  16. Hyphenation of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry to supercritical fluid chromatography for polar car lubricant additives analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavison-Bompard, Gwenaelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Beziau, Jean-François; Carrazé, Bernadette; Valette, Pascale; Duteurtre, Xavier; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-30

    Car lubricant additives are added to mineral or synthetic base stocks to improve viscosity and resistance to oxidation of the lubricant and to limit wear of engines. As they belong to various chemical classes and are added to a very complex medium, the base stock, their detailed chromatographic analysis is very difficult and time consuming. In a previous paper, it was demonstrated that supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) allows the elution of common low-molecular-weight additives. Since their total resolution could not be achieved owing to the limited peak capacity of packed columns, the hyphenation of selective and informative detection methods such as atomic emission detection (AED) was required. Further to results obtained in SFC-AED, this work describes the hyphenation of SFC to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). SFC-MS hyphenation is detailed: temperature, flow rates of gas and mobile phase introduced in the source, position of the restrictor, ionisation additives and conditions of autotune are studied. Car lubricant monitoring requires negative and positive ionisation modes with or without the addition of ionisation auxiliary solvent according to the nature of additives. Moreover, when sensitivity is of major concern for a selected additive, the autotuning routine of the MS has to be performed in conditions as close as possible to analytical conditions, i.e. under subcritical conditions. Unambiguous identification and structure elucidation of several additives in formulated car lubricants are also presented.

  17. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol

  18. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): Integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karapiperis (Christos); S.J. Kempf (Stefan J.); R. Quintens (Roel); O. Azimzadeh (Omid); V.L. Vidal (Victoria Linares); S. Pazzaglia; D. Bazyka (Dimitry); P.G. Mastroberardino (Pier); Z.G. Scouras (Zacharias G.); S. Tapio (Soile); M.A. Benotmane (Mohammed Abderrafi); C.A. Ouzounis (Christos A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being

  19. KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSE RESPONSE: LONG OVERDUE CONFRONTATION WITH THE EFFECTS OF IONISATION DENSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Y S; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L

    2016-12-01

    The reader will time-travel through almost seven decades of kinetic models and mathematical simulations of thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics based on the band-gap theory of the solid state. From post-World-War II, ideas concerning electron trapping mechanisms to the highly idealised one trap-one recombination (OTOR) model first elaborated in 1956 but still in 'high gear' today. The review caresses but purposely avoids in-depth discussion of the endless stream of papers discussing the intricacies of glow peak shapes arising from first-order, second-order, mixed-order and general-order kinetics predominantly based on non-interacting systems, and then on to the more physically realistic scenarios that have attempted to analyse complex systems involving ever greater numbers of interacting trapping centres, luminescent centres and non-luminescent centres. The review emphasises the difficulty the band-gap models have in the simulation of dose response linear/supralinear behaviour and especially the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density. The significance of the non-observation of filling-rate supralinearity in the absorption stage is emphasised since it removes from consideration the possibility of TL supralinearity arising from irradiation stage supralinearity. The importance of the simultaneous action of both localised and delocalised transitions has gradually penetrated the mindset of the community of kinetic researchers, but most simulations have concentrated on the shape of glow peaks and the extraction of the glow peak parameters, E (the thermal activation energy) and s (the attempt-to-escape frequency). The simulation of linear/supralinear dose response and its dependence on ionisation density have been largely avoided until recently due to the fundamental schism between the effects of ionisation density and some basic assumptions of the band-gap model. The review finishes with an in-depth presentation and discussion of the most recent

  20. Multidisciplinary approach to assess the sensitivity of dwarf tomato plants to low-LET ionising radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Turano, Mimmo; Arena, Carmen

    Ionising radiation, acting alone or in interaction with microgravity and other environmental constraints, may affect plant at molecular, morpho-structural and physiological level. The intensity of the plant’s response depends on the properties of radiation and on the features of the plant itself. Indeed, different species are characterised by different susceptibility to radiation which may change during the life course. The aim of this research was to study the radiosensitivity to low-LET ionising radiation of plants of dwarf tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Microtom’) at two phenological phases (vegetative and reproductive), within the purpose of analysing plants for consideration as candidates for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) in Space. To pursue this objective, plants of the cultivar Microtom were irradiated with different doses of X-rays either at the stage of the second true leaf (VP - vegetative phase) or when at least one flower was blossomed (RP - reproductive phase). Plant’s response to ionising radiation was assessed through a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic analyses, ecophysiological measurements, morpho-anatomical characterisation of leaves and fruits, nutritional analyses of fruits. Growth, molecular and morpho-functional traits were measured during plant development up to fruiting in both VP and RP plant groups, and compared with non-irradiated control plants. Plant growth was monitored weekly recording parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, flowering and fruiting rate. Potential DNA alterations were explored through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by determining photosynthetic pigment composition, photochemistry and leaf gas exchanges. Leaf and fruit structure were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Leaf anatomical traits related to photosynthetic efficiency, and to structural radioprotection

  1. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf...... of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), a significant class of metabolites located in the cuticle layer in leaves and petals, as well as other plant metabolites. In the case of the petals of H. perforatum, all common metabolites could be imaged directly using the ternary solvent, whereas in the case...... of leaves from the same plant, only some of the metabolites were accessible, even with the ternary solvent system. For these samples, the leaves could be imaged with direct DESI after chloroform had been used to remove most of the cuticle, thus exposing lower layers in the leaf structure. A number...

  2. Recent directions of electrospray mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumloeffel, Dirk [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS UMR 5254, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement/IPREM, Pau (France); Tholey, Andreas [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Institute for Experimental Medicine - Div. Systematic Proteome Research, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A brief survey is given of the last 2 years' literature on electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for speciation analysis. As observed for many years, the main recent applications in this field concern arsenic and selenium species, especially in studies encompassing combined use of molecular and element mass spectrometry. A further application field is the stoichiometric characterization of metal complexes by ESI-MS, which in some studies was assisted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A few examples are presented to illustrate arsenic species involved in metabolic pathways, sulfur species in oils and bitumen, and aluminum complexes. On the basis of this review, we also give an outlook of expected future developments and trends in this research field. (orig.)

  3. Combined electrophoretic-separation and electrospray method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.D.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-06-27

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary zone electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit. 10 figs.

  4. Analysis of oxysterols by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, William J; Wang, Yuqin; Alvelius, Gunvor; Liu, Suya; Bodin, Karl; Sjövall, Jan

    2006-03-01

    Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol. They are intermediates in cholesterol excretion pathways and may also be regarded as transport forms of cholesterol. The introduction of additional hydroxyl groups to the cholesterol skeleton facilitates the flux of oxysterols across the blood brain barrier, and oxysterols have been implicated in mediating a number of cholesterol-induced metabolic effects. Oxysterols are difficult to analyze by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry on account of the absence of basic or acidic functional groups in their structures. In this communication, we report a method for the derivatization and analysis of oxysterols by electrospray mass spectrometry. Oxysterols with a 3beta-hydroxy-Delta5 structure were converted by cholesterol oxidase to 3-oxo-Delta4 steroids and then derivatized with the Girard P reagent to give Girard P hydrazones, which were subsequently analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The improvement in sensitivity for the analysis of 25-hydroxycholesterol upon oxidation and derivatization was over 1000.

  5. Fabrication of silica nanocomposite-cups using electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, P. B.; Kameoka, J.

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated a new process for the fabrication of nanocomposite cups by electrospraying blended polymer-sol-gel solutions followed by calcination. Due to the low viscosity and high surface tension of the blended polymer-sol-gel solutions, the electrostatically extruded continuous liquid jet from the spray source became tiny droplets with diameters of less than 1 µm. These droplets dried in transit and were collected at the counter electrode. To eliminate polymers, as well as cross-link sol-gel material, they were calcined at 850 °C for 3 h. We also investigated a probable method to control the morphology of the nanocups by changing the ionic concentration of the polymer solution. This is a simple and efficient approach for producing nanocomposite cups, which cannot be made by the aggregation method. These nanocomposite cups may find applications in drug delivery and filtration media.

  6. Dehydrodimerization of pterostilbene during electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen

    2013-04-30

    RATIONALE Pterostilbene is a member of the hydroxystilbene family of compounds commonly found in plants such as blueberry and grapes. During the analysis of this compound by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), an ion was observed that corresponds to the dehydrodimer of pterostilbene in mass-to-charge ratio. Since such unexpected dimerization may lead to decreased monomer signal during quantitative analysis, it was of interest to identify the origin and structure of the observed pterostilbene dimer and examine the experimental conditions that influence its formation. METHODS Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) were used to examine the origin of the dimerization products. The structure of the formed pterostilbene dimer was examined by performing MSn analysis on the dimer ion. Effects of solvent composition, analyte concentration, radical scavenger, and other experimental conditions on the dimerization were also studied. RESULTS LC/MS and NMR analyses clearly showed that the starting solution did not contain the pterostilbene dimer. Solvent type and radical scavenger concentration were found to have pronounced effects on the dimer formation. Particularly, presence of acetonitrile or ammonium acetate had favorable effects on the extent of dimerization during ESI-MS analysis whereas hydroquinone and butylated hydroquinone had negative effects. Dimer formation decreased at high flow rates and when fused-silica capillary was used as the spray needle. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that this dimerization occurs as a result of solution-phase electrochemical reactions taking place during the electrospray process. A possible structure for this dimer was proposed based on the MSn analysis and was similar to that of the enzymatically derived pterostilbene dehydrodimer already reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  7. Effect of Mobile Phase on Electrospray Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liigand, Jaanus; Kruve, Anneli; Leito, Ivo; Girod, Marion; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2014-08-01

    Electrospray (ESI) ionization efficiencies (IE) of a set of 10 compounds differing by chemical nature, extent of ionization in solution (basicity), and by hydrophobicity (tetrapropylammonium and tetraethylammonium ion, triethylamine, 1-naphthylamine, N,N-dimethylaniline, diphenylphthalate, dimethylphtahalate, piperidine, pyrrolidine, pyridine) have been measured in seven mobile phases (three acetonitrile percentages 20%, 50%, and 80%, and three different pH-adjusting additives, 0.1% formic acid, 1 mM ammonia, pH 5.0 buffer combination) using the relative measurement method. MS parameters were optimized separately for each ion. The resulting relative IE data were converted into comparable logIE values by anchoring them to the logIE of tetrapropylammonium ion taking into account the differences of ionization in different solvents and thereby making the logIE values of the compounds comparable across solvents. The following conclusions were made from analysis of the data. The compounds with pK a values in the range of the solution pH values displayed higher IE at lower pH. The sensitivity of IE towards pH depends on hydrophobicity being very strong with pyridine, weaker with N,N-dimethylaniline, and weakest with 1-naphthylamine. IEs of tetraalkylammonium ions and triethylamine were expectedly insensitive towards solution pH. Surprisingly high IEs of phthalate esters were observed. The differences in solutions with different acetonitrile content and similar pH were smaller compared with the pH effects. These results highlight the importance of hydrophobicity in electrospray and demonstrate that high hydrophobicity can sometimes successfully compensate for low basicity.

  8. A novel method for bacterial inactivation using electrosprayed water nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Yamauchi, Toshiyuki; Demokritou, Philip

    2012-08-01

    This is a study focusing on the potential to deactivate biological agents (bacteria and endospores) using engineered water nanostructures (EWNS). The EWNS were generated using an electrospray device that collects water by condensing atmospheric water vapor on a Peltier-cooled electrode. A high voltage is applied between the collection electrode and a grounded electrode resulting in aerosolization of the condensed water and a constant generation of EWNS. Gram-negative Serratia marcescens, gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus atrophaeus endospores were placed on stainless steel coupons and exposed to generated EWNS at multiple time intervals. Upon exposures, the bacteria were recovered and placed on nutrient agar to grow, and the colony forming units were counted. Ozone levels as well as air temperature and relative humidity were monitored during the experiments. Qualitative confirmation of bacterial destruction was also obtained by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, important EWNS aerosol properties such as particle number concentration as a function of size as well as the average surface charge of the generated EWNS were measured using real-time instrumentation. It was shown that the novel electrospray method can generate over time a constant flux of EWNS. EWNS have a peak number concentration of 8,000 particles per cubic centimeter with a modal peak size around 20 nm. The average surface charge of the generated EWNS was found to be 10 ± 2 electrons per particle. In addition, it was shown that the EWNS have the potential to deactivate both bacteria types from surfaces. At the same administrate dose, however, the endospores were not inactivated. This novel method and the unique properties of the generated EWNS could potentially be used to develop an effective, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive method for bacteria inactivation.

  9. A novel method for bacterial inactivation using electrosprayed water nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios, E-mail: gpyrgiot@hsph.harvard.edu; McDevitt, James [Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology (United States); Yamauchi, Toshiyuki [Panasonic Corporation, Appliances Company (Japan); Demokritou, Philip [Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This is a study focusing on the potential to deactivate biological agents (bacteria and endospores) using engineered water nanostructures (EWNS). The EWNS were generated using an electrospray device that collects water by condensing atmospheric water vapor on a Peltier-cooled electrode. A high voltage is applied between the collection electrode and a grounded electrode resulting in aerosolization of the condensed water and a constant generation of EWNS. Gram-negative Serratia marcescens, gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillusatrophaeus endospores were placed on stainless steel coupons and exposed to generated EWNS at multiple time intervals. Upon exposures, the bacteria were recovered and placed on nutrient agar to grow, and the colony forming units were counted. Ozone levels as well as air temperature and relative humidity were monitored during the experiments. Qualitative confirmation of bacterial destruction was also obtained by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, important EWNS aerosol properties such as particle number concentration as a function of size as well as the average surface charge of the generated EWNS were measured using real-time instrumentation. It was shown that the novel electrospray method can generate over time a constant flux of EWNS. EWNS have a peak number concentration of {approx}8,000 particles per cubic centimeter with a modal peak size around 20 nm. The average surface charge of the generated EWNS was found to be 10 {+-} 2 electrons per particle. In addition, it was shown that the EWNS have the potential to deactivate both bacteria types from surfaces. At the same administrate dose, however, the endospores were not inactivated. This novel method and the unique properties of the generated EWNS could potentially be used to develop an effective, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive method for bacteria inactivation.

  10. Ionisation in turbulent magnetic molecular clouds. I. Effect on density and mass-to-flux ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu; Caselli, Paola

    2017-05-01

    Context. Previous studies show that the physical structures and kinematics of a region depend significantly on the ionisation fraction. These studies have only considered these effects in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations with microturbulence. The next logical step is to explore the effects of turbulence on ionised magnetic molecular clouds and then compare model predictions with observations to assess the importance of turbulence in the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds. Aims: In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the effect of ionisation fractions on star formation to clouds that include both non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and turbulence. We aim to quantify the importance of a treatment of the ionisation fraction in turbulent magnetised media and investigate the effect of the turbulence on shaping the clouds and filaments before star formation sets in. In particular, here we investigate how the structure, mass and width of filamentary structures depend on the amount of turbulence in ionised media and the initial mass-to-flux ratio. Methods: To determine the effects of turbulence and mass-to-flux ratio on the evolution of non-ideal magnetised clouds with varying ionisation profiles, we have run two sets of simulations. The first set assumes different initial turbulent Mach values for a fixed initial mass-to-flux ratio. The second set assumes different initial mass-to-flux ratio values for a fixed initial turbulent Mach number. Both sets explore the effect of using one of two ionisation profiles: step-like (SL) or cosmic ray only (CR-only). We compare the resulting density and mass-to-flux ratio structures both qualitatively and quantitatively via filament and core masses and filament fitting techniques (Gaussian and Plummer profiles). Results: We find that even with almost no turbulence, filamentary structure still exists although at lower density contours. Comparison of simulations shows that for turbulent Mach numbers above 2, there is

  11. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  12. CF3+ and CF2H+: new reagents for n-alkane determination in chemical ionisation reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert S; Ouheda, Saleh A; Evans, Corey J; Monks, Paul S

    2016-11-28

    Alkanes provide a particular analytical challenge to commonly used chemical ionisation methods such as proton-transfer from water owing to their basicity. It is demonstrated that the fluorocarbon ions CF3+ and CF2H+, generated from CF4, as reagents provide an effective means of detecting light n-alkanes in the range C2-C6 using direct chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. The present work assesses the applicability of the reagents in Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometric (CI-TOF-MS) environments with factors such as high moisture content, operating pressures of 1-10 Torr, accelerating electric fields (E/N) and long-lived intermediate complex formation. Of the commonly used chemical ionisation reagents, H3O+ and NO+ only react with hexane and higher while O2+ reacts with all the target samples, but creates significant fragmentation. By contrast, CF3+ and CF2H+ acting together were found to produce little or no fragmentation. In dry conditions with E/N = 100 Td or higher the relative intensity of CF2H+ to CF3+ was mostly less than 1% but always less than 3%, making CF3+ the main reagent ion. Using O2+ in a parallel series of experiments, a substantially greater degree of fragmentation was observed. The detection sensitivities of the alkanes with CF3+ and CF2H+, while relatively low, were found to be better than those observed with O2+. Experiments using alkane mixtures in the ppm range have shown the ionisation technique based on CF3+ and CF2H+ to be particularly useful for measurements of alkane/air mixtures found in polluted environments. As a demonstration of the technique's effectiveness in complex mixtures, the detection of n-alkanes in a smoker's breath is demonstrated.

  13. Electron and nuclear dynamics following ionisation of modified bismethylene-adamantane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Albertani, Fabio E A; Jenkins, Andrew J; Polyak, Iakov; Bearpark, Michael J; Robb, Michael A

    2016-12-16

    We have simulated the coupled electron and nuclear dynamics using the Ehrenfest method upon valence ionisation of modified bismethylene-adamantane (BMA) molecules where there is an electron transfer between the two π bonds. We have shown that the nuclear motion significantly affects the electron dynamics after a few fs when the electronic states involved are close in energy. We have also demonstrated how the non-stationary electronic wave packet determines the nuclear motion, more precisely the asymmetric stretching of the two π bonds, illustrating "charge-directed reactivity". Taking into account the nuclear wave packet width results in the dephasing of electron dynamics with a half-life of 8 fs; this eventually leads to the equal delocalisation of the hole density over the two methylene groups and thus symmetric bond lengths.

  14. Electrifying atmospheres charging, ionisation and lightning in the solar system and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Electrical processes take place in all planetary atmospheres. There is evidence for lightning on Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, it is possible on Mars and Titan, and cosmic rays ionise every atmosphere, leading to charged droplets and particles. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This book reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity, taken to include ion production and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification is more important at planets receiving little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ...

  15. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation—Implications for low dose risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Munira; Salomaa, Sisko; Wright, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Non-DNA targeted effects of ionising radiation, which include genomic instability, and a variety of bystander effects including abscopal effects and bystander mediated adaptive response, have raised concerns about the magnitude of low-dose radiation risk. Genomic instability, bystander effects an......) Integrated Project funded by the European Union. Here we critically examine the evidence for non-targeted effects, discuss apparently contradictory results and consider implications for low-dose radiation health effects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... and adaptive responses are powered by fundamental, but not clearly understood systems that maintain tissue homeostasis. Despite excellent research in this field by various groups, there are still gaps in our understanding of the likely mechanisms associated with non-DNA targeted effects, particularly...

  17. Effect of methanol quality on the ionisation of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides using gradient elution liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael J; Jahani, Sohail; Low, Gary K-C

    2012-01-06

    This paper explores the changes in the electrospray signal response of 39 structurally different compounds caused by the quality of the methanol, when used as a component in a gradient elution mobile phase. When three batches of LC-MS grade methanol from one manufacturer were evaluated, the largest variation in the electrospray signal responses of the 39 compounds examined was 18%. However, significant enhancement of the electrospray signals of up to 106% were observed among different brands of LC-MS grade methanol from different manufacturers. The effect of methanol quality on signal response was found to be compound dependent. This study also demonstrated that the senescence of the methanol was important. Using an expired batch of LC-MS grade methanol, electrospray signals were suppressed by as much as 95% for all compounds measured using positive mode electrospray. Conversely, the negative mode electrospray signals of compounds such as 4-octyl benzoic acid showed an enhancement of up to 96% when using the same batch of methanol. Linuron was used as a model compound to examine the change in the electrospray response, during gradient elution, when the proportion of an expired batch of methanol was varied. An infusion experiment showed that the linuron signal intensity decreased as the proportion of expired methanol increased in the mobile phase, which was in direct contrast to the increase in linuron signal observed with a non-expired batch of methanol. A series of isocratic experiments also showed that the linuron signal decreased as the proportion of expired methanol increased in the mobile phase. The ion ratios of several of the compounds studied changed significantly when using the expired batch of LC-MS methanol. The change in the ion ratios accentuates the difficulty of identifying compounds from in-source spectral libraries. A protocol is recommended for assessing the quality of methanol for LC-MS applications. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier

  18. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    With a view to finding some radiochemical reactions applicable on an industrial scale for evaluating the radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, a systematic study was made of the radiochemical synthesis of thiazinic dyes such as methylene blue and Lauths' violet, on which the first tests were carried out in 1954. The first part of the study concerned the identification and the dosage, during radiolysis, of dyes by means of their absorption spectra after separation from the reaction medium by adsorption chromatography or ion-exchange; other radiolysis products such as ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were also identified. During a later stage by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters it was possible to determine the most favourable conditions for radio-synthesis; the maximum radiochemical yields obtained had the following values: G (Lauths' violet) 1,65; G (Methylene blue) = 1,75. Furthermore, the study of the influence of variously substituted aminated products on the radiochemical yield showed the possibility of synthesising Bindsehedlers green and Wursters blue by radiochemical methods. Finally the discovery of a fundamental intermediate product, Wursters red, together with the kinetic study of the chemical synthesis of methylene blue made it possible to determine the main stages of the reaction mechanism and to decide which of these stages could be attributed to ionising radiations in the case of the radiochemical synthesis. (author) [French] Dans le but de trouver des reactions radiochimiques susceptibles d'une application industrielle pour valoriser les dechets radioactifs provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, il a ete entrepris une etude systematique de la synthese radiochimique des colorants thiazimiques tels que le Bleu de Methylene et le Violet de Lauth dont les premiers essais ont ete effectues par Loiseleur en 1954. La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur l'identification et le dosage des colorants formes

  19. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study; Etude Rimed rayonnements ionisants en milieu medical. Etude de faisabilite. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  20. Electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry: fundamentals, instrumentation, practicalities, and biological applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    .... Electrochemistry of the Electrospray Ion Source Gary J. Van Berkel and Vilmos Kertesz 75 4. ESI Source Design Andries P. Bruins 123 Part III ES and MALDI Coupling to Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation 9. Coup...

  1. Impact of Acetic Acid on the Survival of L. plantarum upon Microencapsulation by Coaxial Electrospraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, coaxial electrospraying was used for the first time to microencapsulate probiotic bacteria, specifically Lactobacillus plantarum, within edible protein particles with the aim of improving their resistance to in vitro digestion. The developed structures, based on an inner core of whey protein concentrate and an outer layer of gelatin, were obtained in the presence of acetic acid in the outer solution as a requirement for the electrospraying of gelatin. Despite the limited contact of the inner suspension and outer solution during electrospraying, the combination of the high voltage used during electrospraying with the presence of acetic acid was found to have a severe impact on the lactobacilli, not only decreasing initial viability but also negatively affecting the survival of the bacteria during storage and their resistance to different stress conditions, including simulated in vitro digestion.

  2. An Investigation of Chemical Landscapes in Aqueous Electrosprays by Tracking Oligomerization of Isoprene

    KAUST Repository

    Junior, Adair Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is widely used to characterize neutral and ionic species in solvents. Typically, electrical, thermal, and pneumatic potentials are applied to create electrosprays from which charged ionic species are ejected for downstream analysis by mass spectrometry. Most recently, ESIMS has been exploited to investigate ambient proton transfer reactions at air-water interfaces in real time. We assessed the validity of these experiments via complementary laboratory experiments. Specifically, we characterized the products of two reaction scenarios via ESIMS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR): (i) emulsions of pH-adjusted water and isoprene (C5H8) that were mechanically agitated, and (ii) electrosprays of pH-adjusted water that were collided with gas-phase isoprene. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrate that, while isoprene does not oligomerize in emulsions, it does undergo protonation and oligomerization in electrosprays, both with and without pH-adjusted water, confirming that C-C bonds form along myriad high-energy pathways during electrospray ionization. We also compared our experimental results with some quantum mechanics simulations of isoprene molecules interacting with hydronium at different hydration levels (gas versus liquid phase). In agreement with our experiments, the kinetic barriers to protonation and oligomerization of isoprene were inaccessible under ambient conditions. Rather, the gas-phase chemistries during electrospray ionization drove the oligomerization of isoprene. Therefore, we consider that ESIMS could induce artifacts in interfacial reactions. These findings warrant a reassessment of previous reports on tracking chemistries under ambient conditions at liquid-vapor interfaces via ESIMS. Further, we took some high-speed images of electrosprays where it was possible to observe the main characteristics of the phenomena, i.e. Taylor cone, charge separation, and Coulomb fission. Finally, we took

  3. Controlled release behaviour of protein-loaded microparticles prepared via coaxial or emulsion electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Xiaoping; Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Qing; Deng, Xuliang

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are an effective way to achieve sustained drug release. In this study, we investigated a sustained release model of PLGA microparticles with incorporated protein via either emulsion or coaxial electrospray techniques. PLGA (75:25) was used as the carrier, and bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Coaxial electrospray resulted in a type of core–shell structure with mean diameters of 2.41 ± 0.60 µm and a centralised protein distribution within the core. Emulsion electrospray formed bigger microparticles with mean diameters of 22.75 ± 8.05 µm and a heterogeneous protein distribution throughout the microparticles. The coaxial electrospray microparticles presented a much slighter burst release than the emulsion electrospray microparticles. Loading efficiency was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the coaxial group than emulsion group. This indicated that both emulsion and coaxial electrospray could produce protein-loaded microparticles with sustained release behaviour, but the former revealed a superior approach for drug delivery. PMID:23346923

  4. Preparation of quantum dots encoded microspheres by electrospray for the detection of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Yu, Xiaofang; Sun, Mingda; Wang, Hengguo; Xu, Shufei; Dixon, John D; Wang, Y Andrew; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Xu, Xiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a novel method based on the electrospray technique has been developed for preparation of quantum dot (QD)-encoded microspheres for the fist time. By electrospraying the mixture of polymer solution and quantum dots solution (single-color QDs or multi-color QDs), it is accessible to obtain a series of composite microspheres containing the functional nanoparticle. Poly(styrene-acrylate) was utilized as the electrospray polymer materials in order to obtain the microsphere modified with carboxyl group on the surface. Moreover, to test the performance of the QD-encoded microsphere in bioapplication, it is carried out that immunofluorescence analysis between antigens of mouse IgG immobilized on the functional microsphere and FITC labeled antibodies of goat-anti-mouse IgG in experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of QD-encoded microspheres prepared by electrospray technology. This technology can carry out the one-pot preparation of different color QD-encoded microspheres with multiple intensities. This technology could be also suitable for encapsulating other optical nanocrystals and magnetic nanoparticles for obtaining multifunctional microspheres. All of the results in this paper show that the fluorescence beads made by electrospray technique can be well applied in multiplex analysis. These works provide a good foundation to accelerate application of preparing microspheres by electrospray technique in practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of levoglucosan and its isomers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry and its applications to atmospheric and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of atmospheric concentrations of levoglucosan and its two isomers, unambiguous tracers of biomass burning emissions, became even more important with the development of wood as renewable energy for domestic heating. Many researches demonstrated the increase during recent years of atmospheric particulate matter load due to domestic biomass combustion in developed countries. Analysis of biomass burning tracers is traditionally performed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS technique after derivatization and requires an organic solvent extraction. A simpler and faster technique using Liquid Chromatography – Electrospray Ionisation – tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS was optimized for the analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan isomers after an aqueous extraction. This technique allows a good separation between the three compounds in a very reduced time (runtime ~5 min. LOD and LOQ of this method are 30 μg l−1 and 100 μg l−1 respectively, allowing the use of filters from low-volume sampler (as commonly used in routine campaigns. A comparison of simultaneous levoglucosan measurements by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS for about 50 samples coming from different types of sampling sites and seasons was realized and shows very good agreement between the two methods. Therefore LC-ESI-MS/MS method can be used as an alternative to GC-MS particularly for measurement campaigns in routine where analysis time is important and detection limit is reduced. This paper shows that this method is also applicable to other environmental sample types like soil.

  6. Method validation for the analysis of 169 pesticides in soya grain, without clean up, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using positive and negative electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, André; Zanella, Renato; Adaime, Martha B; Hiemstra, Maurice; Wickert, Cristine; Prestes, Osmar D

    2007-02-23

    Part of a comprehensive study on the comparison of different extraction methods, GC-MS(/MS) and LC-MS/MS detection methods and modes, for the analysis of soya samples is described in this paper. The validation of an acetone-based extraction method for analysis of 169 pesticides in soya, using LC-MS/MS positive and negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, is reported. Samples (5 g) were soaked with 10 g water and subsequently extracted with 100 mL of a mixture of acetone, dichloromethane and light petroleum (1:1:1), in the presence of 15 g anhydrous sodium sulphate. After centrifugation, aliquots of the extract were evaporated and reconstituted in 1.0 mL of methanol, before direct injection of the final extract (corresponding with 0.05 g soya mL(-1)) into the LC-MS/MS system. Linearity, r(2) of calibration curves, instrument limit of detection/quantitation (LOD/LOQ) and matrix effect were evaluated, based on seven concentrations measured in 6-fold. Good linearity (at least r(2)> or =0.99) of the calibration curves was obtained over the range from 0.1 or 0.25 to 10.0 ng mL(-1), corresponding with pesticide concentrations in soya bean extract of 2 or 5-200 microg kg(-1). Instrument LOD values generally were 0.1 or 0.25 ng mL(-1). Matrix effects were negligible for approximately 90% of the pesticides. The accuracy, precision and method LOQ were determined via recovery experiments, spiking soya at 10, 50, 100 microg kg(-1), six replicates per level. In both ESI modes, method LOQ values were mostly 10 or 50 microg kg(-1) and more than 70% of pesticides analysed by each mode met the acceptability criteria of recovery (70-120%) and RSD (soya, without cleanup.

  7. Versatile sample environments and automation for biological solution X-ray scattering experiments at the P12 beamline (PETRA III, DESY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Clement E; Spilotros, Alessandro; Schwemmer, Frank; Graewert, Melissa A; Kikhney, Alexey; Jeffries, Cy M; Franke, Daniel; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; Cipriani, Florent; Fiedler, Stefan; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-04-01

    A high-brilliance synchrotron P12 beamline of the EMBL located at the PETRA III storage ring (DESY, Hamburg) is dedicated to biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and has been designed and optimized for scattering experiments on macromolecular solutions. Scatterless slits reduce the parasitic scattering, a custom-designed miniature active beamstop ensures accurate data normalization and the photon-counting PILATUS 2M detector enables the background-free detection of weak scattering signals. The high flux and small beam size allow for rapid experiments with exposure time down to 30-50 ms covering the resolution range from about 300 to 0.5 nm. P12 possesses a versatile and flexible sample environment system that caters for the diverse experimental needs required to study macromolecular solutions. These include an in-vacuum capillary mode for standard batch sample analyses with robotic sample delivery and for continuous-flow in-line sample purification and characterization, as well as an in-air capillary time-resolved stopped-flow setup. A novel microfluidic centrifugal mixing device (SAXS disc) is developed for a high-throughput screening mode using sub-microlitre sample volumes. Automation is a key feature of P12; it is controlled by a beamline meta server, which coordinates and schedules experiments from either standard or nonstandard operational setups. The integrated SASFLOW pipeline automatically checks for consistency, and processes and analyses the data, providing near real-time assessments of overall parameters and the generation of low-resolution models within minutes of data collection. These advances, combined with a remote access option, allow for rapid high-throughput analysis, as well as time-resolved and screening experiments for novice and expert biological SAXS users.

  8. Ionic strength of electrospray droplets affects charging of DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of charging in electrospray ionization (ESI) are hotly debated. In the present study, ESI charging of DNA oligonucleotides was explored in both positive (ESI+) and negative (ESI-) polarity using mass spectrometry detection. Single-stranded 12-mer CCCCAATTCCCC in buffer solution (aqueous NH4Ac, 100 mM) produced similar charge state distribution (CSD) in either ESI+ or ESI-. Similarity of CSD in ESI+ and ESI- was also observed for the double-stranded 12-mer CGCGAATTCGCG. By adding typical low-vapor reagents (e.g. m-nitro benzyl alcohol, m-NBA; sulfolane) into the same buffer solution (sulfolane or m-NBA, the CGCGAATTCGCG duplex dissociated into single strands in ESI-. No SC was observed in both ESI+ and ESI- for thermally denatured CGCGAATTCGCG duplex in NH4 Ac buffer without the reagents. These findings are difficult to reconcile with the earlier model, which attributes SC in aqueous buffer solution to the conformational changes of analytes. Our observations suggest that the ionic strength of ESI droplets strongly affects the CSD of biopolymers such as DNA oligonucleotides and that SC effect is related to the depletion of ionic strength during the ESI process. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Electrochemistry combined on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F.; Berkel, G.J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-10-15

    In this paper a variety of methods to couple electrochemistry on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ES-MS) are presented, and the fundamental and analytical utility of this hybrid technique is illustrated. The major problems encountered in coupling EC and ES-MS are discussed, and means to overcome them are presented. Three types of electrochemical flow cells, viz., a thin-layer electrode flow-by cell, a tubular electrode flow-through cell, and a porous electrode flow-through cell, are discussed in regard to their suitability for this coupling. Methods for coupling each of these electrochemical cells on-line with ES-MS, either floated at or decoupled from the ES high voltage and controlled by a constant current supply, a constant potential supply, or a potentiostat are presented. Three applications are used to illustrate the utility and versatility of the EC/ES-MS combination: (1) the ionization of neutral analytes (i.e., perylene) for detection by ES-MS, (2) the study of the products of electrode reactions (i.e., nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin oxidation products), including relatively short-lived products (i.e., {Beta}-carotene oxidation products), and (3) the enhanced determination of metals (i.e., elemental silver) achieved by coupling anodic stripping voltammetry on-line with ES-MS. 52 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Geoporphyrin analysis using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, G.J.; Quinones, M.A.; Quirke, J.M.E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA). Analytical Chemistry Division)

    The utility of electrospray ionization combined with mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the analysis of free-base, nickel and vanadyl geoporphyrins is demonstrated. In positive ion mode, free-base alkyl-substituted porphyrins are detected as the protonated molecule, (M + H)[sup +], while the nickel and vanadyl chelates of these same porphyrins are observed as their radical cations, M[sup .+], as is chlorophyll a. Detection of free-base octaethylporphyrin (OEP) using continuous infusion at 1-5 [mu]L/min required sampling as little as 1 fmol of material, while at these same flow rates 18 fmol of OEP could be detected via flow injection. Detection of 500 fmol of mesoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester injected is demonstrated using on-line reverse-phase microbore-HPLC at a solvent flow rate of 40 [mu]L/min. ES-MS is shown to be well-suited for geoporphyrin molecular weight and carbon number determination since no fragment ions are produced by this ionization process. Accuracy in determining the relative abundances of porphyrins within geoporphyrin mixtures is demonstrated using standard solutions containing known molar ratios of OEP and free-base etioporphyrin-III (etio-III) and a total free-base porphyrin mixture isolated from Gilsonite bitumen. On-line separation/mass spectrometric detection of free-base and nickel geoporphyrin mixtures using reverse-phase microbore-HPLC/ES/MS is demonstrated with Gilsonite porphyrins. 51 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Controlled electrosprayed formation of non-spherical microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of biocompatible microparticles, such as alginate particles, with the possibility of controlling the particles' morphology in a high-throughput manner, is essential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Even though the shape of alginate particles has been shown to be an important parameter in controlling drug delivery, there are very limited manufacturing methods to produce non-spherical alginate microparticles in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we present a system that generates non-spherical biocompatible alginate microparticles with a tunable size and shape, and at high-throughput, using an electrospray technique. Alginate solution, which is a highly biocompatible material, is flown through a needle using a constant flow rate syringe pump. The alginate phase is connected to a high-voltage power supply to charge it positively. There is a metallic ring underneath the needle that is charged negatively. The applied voltage creates an electric field that forces the dispensing droplets to pass through the metallic ring toward the collection bath. During this migration, droplets break up to smaller droplets to dissipate their energy. When the droplets reach the calcium chloride bath, polymerization happens and solidifies the droplets. We study the effects of changing the distance from the needle to the bath, and the concentration of calcium chloride in the bath, to control the size and the shape of the resulting microparticles.

  12. Preparation of ion-exchange fiber fabrics by electrospray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Wakamatsu, Yuji; Minagawa, Mie; Tanioka, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Ion-exchange fiber (IEF) fabrics were prepared by electrospray deposition (ESD) and post-deposition chemical modification of their surfaces. Nonwoven fibrous fabrics were obtained from the solutions of synthetic polymers-polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP)-of various concentrations. The diameter of the fiber in the fabrics ranged from 600 nm to 1.70 microm. Cation- and anion-exchange fiber (CEF and AEF) fabrics were obtained from the sulfonation of PS fabrics and the quaternization of P4VP fabrics, respectively. These fabrics were thoroughly characterized by a series of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), permporometry, nitrogen adsorption measurements, and potentiometric titrations. The SEM images showed that the fabrics had a porous structure after their chemical modification. The mean pore size, porosity, and specific surface area of the flow-through pores were 1.67-3.53 microm, about 80%, and 13 m(2)/g, respectively. The ion-exchange capacity was in the range from 0.78 to 1.34 mmol/g. The AEF fabric, on the other hand, showed a high specific surface area, i.e., the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 600 m(2)/g, due to the formation of much smaller pores on the surface of the fiber structure in the fabric. The secondary chemical modification of the nano-microfiber fabrics by ESD provides novel functional materials with a large adsorption capacity and a high catalytic activity.

  13. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar Irani, Farid; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2016-11-30

    In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs) using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz) in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  14. Analytical Properties of Solid-substrate Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) uses a capillary for sample loading and ionization. Along with the development of ambient ionization techniques, ESI-MS using noncapillary emitters has attracted more interest in recent years. Following our recent report on ESI-MS using wooden tips ( Anal. Chem. 83, 8201-8207 (2011)), the technique was further investigated and extended in this study. Our results revealed that the wooden tips could serve as a chromatographic column for separation of sample components. Sequential and exhaustive ionization was observed for proteins and salts on wooden tips with salts ionized sooner and proteins later. Nonconductive materials that contain microchannels/pores could be used as tips for ESI-MS analysis with sample solutions loaded to the sharp-ends only, since rapid diffusion of sample solutions by capillary action would enable the tips to become conductive. Tips of inert materials such as bamboo, fabrics, and sponge could be used for sample loading and ionization, while samples such as tissue, mushroom, and bone could form tips to induce ionization for direct analysis with application of a high voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Electrospray mode transition of microdroplets with semiconductor nanoparticle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Orozco, Eduardo; Kar, Aravinda; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2017-07-11

    Electrosprays operate in several modes depending on the flow rate and electric potential. This allows the deposition of droplets containing nanoparticles into discrete nanodot arrays to fabricate various electronic devices. In this study, seven different suspensions with varying properties were investigated. In the dripping mode, the normalized dropsize decreases linearly with electric capillary number, Ca e , (ratio of electric to surface tension forces) up to Ca e  ≈ 1.0. The effect of viscous forces is found to be negligible in the dripping mode since the capillary number is small. For flow rates with low Reynolds number, the mode changes to microdripping mode, and then to a planar oscillating microdripping mode as Ca e increases. The normalized dropsize remains nearly constant at 0.07 for Ca e  > 3.3. The microdripping mode which is important for depositing discrete array of nanodots is found to occur in the range, 2 ≤ Ca e  ≤ 2.5. The droplet frequency increases steadily from dripping to microdripping mode, but stays roughly constant in the oscillating microdripping mode. This work provides a physical basis by which the flow rate and the voltage can be chosen for any nanosuspension to precisely operate in the microdripping mode at a predetermined dropsize and droplet frequency.

  16. Is electrospray emission really due to columbic forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Aliotta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray ionization (ESI is a widely adopted soft ionization method for mass spectroscopy (MS. In spite of the undeniable success of the technique, its mechanisms are difficult to be analytically modelled because the process is characterized by non-equilibrium conditions. The common belief is that the formation of gas-phase ions takes place at the apex of the Taylor cone via electrophoretic charging. The charge balance implies that a conversion of electrons to ions should occur at the metal-liquid interface of the injector needle. We have detected that the above description is based on unproved assumptions which are not consistent with the correct evaluation of the problem. The comparison between experiments performed under the usual geometry and observations obtained under symmetric field configurations suggests that the emitted droplets cannot be significantly charged or, at least, that any possible ionization mechanism is so poorly efficient to ensure that columbic forces cannot play a major role in jet formation, even in cases where the liquid consists of a solution of ionic species. Further work is required to clearly understand how ionization occurs in ESI-MS.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Flow Field of Ionised Gases with Applications to High-Performance Electronics and Oil Shale Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amayreh, Malik

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates two new applications of flow field ionised gases. The first application involves coupled electromagnetic and aerothermodynamic phenomena in an electrical contactor chamber. I studied a new blowout technique to control the speed of the flow. With this new blowout technique, the ionised gases can be generated between the electrodes to feed the coils with current. I observed that the recovery time for the case of higher current is less than that of the following low curr...

  18. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D.; Gillies, Michael; O?Hagan, Jacqueline A; Ghassan B. Hamra; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308?297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66?...

  19. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A system for fast ammonia (NH3 measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min−1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m−2 s−1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 μg m−2 s−1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  20. Spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning selective: Elimination des corrections necessaires a la determination du rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Sylvain

    Dans le but d'ameliorer la precision avec laquelle le rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene peut etre determine, un spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning a ete construit pour provoquer l'ionisation selective de l'hydrogene moleculaire et de l'hydrure de deuterium a partir d'un melange gazeux. L'utilisation d'atomes dans des etats d'excitation metastable s'est averee une solution adequate pour reponde a cette attente. L'emploi de l'helium, a l'interieur d'une source d'atomes metastables construit specifiquement pour ce travail, ne permet pas d'obtenir un spectre de masse compose uniquement des deux molecules d'interet. L'ionisation de ces dernieres provient de deux processus distincts, soient l'ionisation Penning et l'ionisation par bombardement electronique. Contrairement a l'helium, il a ete demontre que le neon metastable est un candidat ideal pour produire l'ionisation selective de type Penning. Le nombre d'ions produits est directement proportionnel au courant de la decharge electrique et de la pression d'operation de la source d'atomes metastables. Ces resultats demontrent le potentiel d'un tel spectrometre de masse pour ameliorer la precision a laquelle le rapport isotopique peut etre determine comparativement aux autres techniques existantes.

  1. Potential errors in relative dose measurements in kilovoltage photon beams due to polarity effects in plane-parallel ionisation chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, S; Tyler, M; McNamara, J; Sloan, K; Ceylan, A; Rinks, A

    2016-11-15

    Plane-parallel ionisation chambers are regularly used to conduct relative dosimetry measurements for therapeutic kilovoltage beams during commissioning and routine quality assurance. This paper presents the first quantification of the polarity effect in kilovoltage photon beams for two types of commercially available plane-parallel ionisation chambers used for such measurements. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis in a solid water phantom and for different field sizes at 2 cm depth to determine the polarity effect for PTW Advanced Markus and Roos ionisation chambers (PTW-Freiburg, Germany). Data was acquired for kilovoltage beams between 100 kVp (half-value layer (HVL)  =  2.88 mm Al) and 250 kVp (HVL  =  2.12 mm Cu) and field sizes of 3-15 cm diameter for 30 cm focus-source distance (FSD) and 4  ×  4 cm2-20  ×  20 cm2 for 50 cm FSD. Substantial polarity effects, up to 9.6%, were observed for the Advanced Markus chamber compared to a maximum 0.5% for the Roos chamber. The magnitude of the polarity effect was observed to increase with field size and beam energy but was consistent with depth. The polarity effect is directly influenced by chamber design, with potentially large polarity effects for some plane-parallel ionisation chambers. Depending on the specific chamber used, polarity corrections may be required for output factor measurements of kilovoltage photon beams. Failure to account for polarity effects could lead to an incorrect dose being delivered to the patient.

  2. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Aladjev, G. A.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Mingalev, V. S.; G. I. Mingaleva; E. D. Tereshchenko; Khudukon, B. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE) in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionospher...

  3. Matrix-free mass spectrometric imaging using laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Pitt, Andrew R; Harrison, David; Weidt, Stefan K; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Barrett, Michael P; Logan Mackay, C

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool in metabolomics and proteomics for the spatial localization and identification of pharmaceuticals, metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. However, sample preparation remains a crucial variable in obtaining the most accurate distributions. Common washing steps used to remove salts, and solvent-based matrix application, allow analyte spreading to occur. Solvent-free matrix applications can reduce this risk, but increase the possibility of ionisation bias due to matrix adhesion to tissue sections. We report here the use of matrix-free MSI using laser desorption ionisation performed on a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. We used unprocessed tissue with no post-processing following thaw-mounting on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates. The identification and distribution of a range of phospholipids in mouse brain and kidney sections are presented and compared with previously published MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) MSI distributions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21416534

  4. Investigation of the ionisation density dependence of the glow curve characteristics of LIF:MG,TI (TLD-100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Y. S.; Horowitz, A.; Oster, L.; Marino, S.; Datz, H.; Margaliot, M.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the shape of the glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) on ionisation density was investigated using irradiation with 90Sr/90Y beta rays, 60 and 250 kVp X rays, various heavy-charged particles and 0.2 and 14 MeV neutrons. Special attention is focused on the properties of high-temperature thermoluminescence; specifically, the behaviour of the high-temperature ratio (HTR) of Peaks 7 and 8 as a function of batch and annealing protocol. The correlation of Peaks 7 and 8 with average linear-energy-transfer (LET) is also investigated. The HTR of Peak 7 is found to be independent of LET for values of LET approximately >30 keV µm−1. The behaviour of the HTR of Peak 8 with LET is observed to be erratic, which suggests that applications using the HTR should separate the contributions of Peaks 7 and 8 using computerised glow curve deconvolution. The behaviour of the HTR following neutron irradiation is complex and not fully understood. The shape of composite Peak 5 is observed to be broader following high ionisation alpha particle irradiation, suggesting that the combined use of the HTR and the shape of Peak 5 could lead to improved ionisation density discrimination for particles of high LET. PMID:18667402

  5. FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND MICRONUCLEI IN HORSE LYMPHOCYTES FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE IONISING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is known to cause chromosomal instability, which is observed as increased frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei. These are listed as reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Numerous experiments conducted on both animal and plant models demonstrated that increase in radiation dosage is followed by increased mutation frequency, and that mutations occur even at the lowest exposure. We used horse blood in vitro irradiated by low doses of ionizing radiation. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronucleus test were used as biomarkers of genetic damage. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified in accordance with the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Micronuclei were identified on the basis of criteria proposed by Fenech et al. (8. Analysis of chromosomal aberration showed increased frequency of aberrations in blood cultures exposed to 0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy compared to the controls. Microscopic analysis of chromosomal damage in in vitro micronucleus test revealed that the applied radiation dose induced micronuclei while no binucleated cells with micronuclei were found in lymphocytes that were not irradiated. In this paper we analysed the influence of low dose ionising radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei in horse lymphocytes following in vitro exposure to X-rays (0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy. Key words: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, ionising radiation, horse lymphocytes

  6. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  7. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil(®) M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray time-of-flight and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry to identify phenolic compounds from a Cistus ladanifer aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, S; Barrajón-Catalán, E; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2010-01-01

    Cistus ladanifer is an aromatic shrub that is widespread in the Mediterranean region. The labdanum exudate is used in the fragrance industry and has been characterised. However, there is not enough information about the phenolic content of the raw plant, the aerial part of it being a very rich source of bioactive compounds. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds of the raw plant and its aerial parts. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection was used to carry out the comprehensive characterisation of a Cistus ladanifer shrub aqueous extract. Two different MS techniques were coupled to HPLC: time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Many well-known compounds present in Cistus ladanifer were characterised, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, ellagitanins, hexahydroxydiphenoyl and derivatives, and other compounds. The method described simultaneously separated a wide range of phenolic compounds and the proposed characterisation of the major compounds of this extract was carried out. It is important to highlight that, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a Cistus ladanifer aqueous extract from the raw plant has been characterised.

  9. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daar, Eman, E-mail: e.daar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Woods, E. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, Hampstead, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Keddie, J.L. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  10. Development of lithium attachment mass spectrometry - knudsen effusion and chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A Murray; Bannan, Thomas J; Benyezzar, Med; Bacak, Asan; Alfarra, M Rami; Topping, David; Percival, Carl J

    2017-10-07

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting, sensitive and robust method for the detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture and results of lithium based ion attachment ionisation sources for two different mass spectrometry systems are presented. In this study trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure measurements are made using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS). In the Li+ CIMS, where the Li+ ionization acts a soft and unselective ionization source, limits of detection of 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt for ammonia were achieved, allowing for ambient measurements of such species at atmospherically relevant concentrations. In the first application of Lithium ion attachment in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), vapor pressures of various atmospherically relevant species were measured with the adapted KEMS, giving measured values equivalent to previous results from electron impact KEMS. In the Li+ KEMS vapour pressures <10-3 mbar can be measured without any fragmentation, as is seen with the initial electron impact (EI) set up, allowing the vapor pressure of individual components within mixtures to be determined.

  11. Growth alteration and leaf biochemical responses in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to different doses of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C; De Micco, V; De Maio, A

    2014-01-01

    Ionising radiation may have different effects on plant metabolism, growth and reproduction, depending on radiation dose, plant species, developmental stage and physiological traits. In this study, exposure of dwarf bean plants to different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy) was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach consisting of morphological, ecophysiological and biochemical analysis. Both mature and young leaves still growing during the X-rays exposure were compared with non-irradiated control leaves. In particular, leaf expansion, leaf anatomy and functional traits, as well as photosynthetic pigment content and Rubisco expression were analysed. Moreover, the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was also measured as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA damage. Our data showed that leaf growth is affected by high levels of radiation and demonstrate that mature leaves are more radio-resistant than young leaves, which experience severe dose-dependent changes in leaf functional traits. In particular, young leaves exhibited a reduction of area and an increase in specific mass and dry matter content, as well as a decline in Rubisco activity. Moreover, they showed elevated PARP activity and an increase in phenolic compounds in wall cells if compared with mature leaves. Both of these strategies have been interpreted as a way to help developing leaves withstand irradiation. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. A gas ionisation Direct-STIM detector for MeV ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn, E-mail: rattanaporn@rmutl.ac.th [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Chiang Rai, 57120 Chiang Rai (Thailand); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Jyväskylä FI-40014 (Finland); Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Dellea, Mario; Jenni, Josef [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Roux, Adrien; Stoppini, Luc [Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Campus Biotech, Chemin des Mines 9, Geneva (Switzerland); Whitlow, Harry J. [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    Direct-Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (Direct-STIM) is a powerful technique that yields structural information in sub-cellular whole cell imaging. Usually, a Si p-i-n diode is used in Direct-STIM measurements as a detector. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation damage which appears as a broadening in the energy resolution, we have developed a gas ionisation detector for use with a focused ion beam. The design is based on the ETH Frisch grid-less off-axis Geiger–Müller geometry. It is developed for use in a MeV ion microscope with a standard Oxford Microbeams triplet lens and scanning system. The design has a large available solid angle for other detectors (e.g. proton induced fluorescence). Here we report the performance for imaging ReNcells VM with μm resolution where energy resolutions of <24 keV fwhm could be achieved for 1 MeV protons using isobutane gas.

  13. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M

    2017-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P; Paterson, M J

    2013-01-01

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) [1,2] is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of the nitrogen molecule and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these non-variational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with FCI results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo [3,4] and `exact' non-relativistic results [3,4]. We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculati...

  15. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Acien, Maribel [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Paya, Pilar [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Giulotto, Elena [Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Egozcue, Josep [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Montserrat [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain) and Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2006-03-20

    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs.

  16. Ionisation Beam Profile Monitor at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich

    CERN Document Server

    Kamerdzhiev, V

    2003-01-01

    For beam profile measurements, a residual-gas ionisation beam profile monitor using a position sensitive micro channel plate (MCP) detector was developed and installed at the cooler synchrotron and storage ring COSY at Forschungszentrum Julich. A parallel ion drift field is maintained in the gap between two electrodes. Residual gas ions are drifted onto an MCP assembly that provides a charge gain of about 107. For online calibration the detector can be illuminated with an α-source. The secondary charge produced from each ion is collected by a wedge and strip anode. After some processing the charge signal is digitized and read out by means of a PC running Cobold PC software. Since COSY operates with beam intensities up to 1011 protons and a vacuum of 10-9 mbar, there is a high risk of detector damage. The lifetime of the channel plates and the event rate are crucial issues for the profile measurement of intense proton beams. The aging of the channel plates (i.e. inhomogeneous decrease of the gain) we...

  17. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

  18. Non-ionising UV light increases the optical density of hygroscopic self assembled DNA crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Alexandria E; Sanchez, Susy; Doiron, Amber L; Lyles, Mark; German, Guy K

    2017-07-26

    We report on ultraviolet (UV) light induced increases in the UV optical density of thin and optically transparent crystalline DNA films formed through self assembly. The films are comprised of closely packed, multi-faceted and sub micron sized crystals. UV-Vis spectrophotometry reveals that DNA films with surface densities up to 0.031 mg/mm(2) can reduce the transmittance of incident UVC and UVB light by up to 90%, and UVA transmittance by up to 20%. Subsequent and independent film irradiation with either UVA or UVB dosages upwards of 80 J/cm(2) both reduce UV transmittance, with reductions scaling monotonically with UV dosage. To date the induction of a hyperchromic effect has been demonstrated using heat, pH, high salt mediums, and high energy ionising radiation. Both hyperchromicity and increased light scattering could account for the increased film optical density after UV irradiation. Additional characterisation of the films reveal they are highly absorbent and hygroscopic. When coated on human skin, they are capable of slowing water evaporation and keeping the tissue hydrated for extended periods of time.

  19. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Enghoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find an enrichment factor (δ34S of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV to S(VI conversion.

  20. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Eman; Woods, E.; Keddie, J. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  1. DESY. Scientific annual report 2006; DESY. Wissenschaftlicher Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The following topics are dealt with: The H1 experiment, the ZEUS experiment, the HERMES experiment, the HERA-B experiment, the ATLAS experiment, the CMS experiment, astroparticle physics, theoretical work on the standard model and its possible extensions, particle cosmology, string theory, and lattice gauge theory, the International Linear Collider, linear-accelerator technologies, the storage rings HERA and DORIS III, the preaccelerators, the free electron laser FLASH, the future synchrotron radiation source PETRA III, the XFEL, accelerator technologies concerning injection and ejection, RF techniques, accelerator control, personnel safety system, beam diagnostics and instrumentation, beam control, vacuum techniques, cryogenics and superconductivity, power supplies, as well as vacuum techniques. (HSI)

  2. Fabrication of Polymeric Coatings with Controlled Microtopographies Using an Electrospraying Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongyu Guo

    Full Text Available Surface topography of medical implants provides an important biophysical cue on guiding cellular functions at the cell-implant interface. However, few techniques are available to produce polymeric coatings with controlled microtopographies onto surgical implants, especially onto implant devices of small dimension and with complex structures such as drug-eluting stents. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a new strategy to fabricate polymeric coatings using an electrospraying technique based on the uniqueness of this technique in that it can be used to produce a mist of charged droplets with a precise control of their shape and dimension. We hypothesized that this technique would allow facile manipulation of coating morphology by controlling the shape and dimension of electrosprayed droplets. More specifically, we employed the electrospraying technique to coat a layer of biodegradable polyurethane with tailored microtopographies onto commercial coronary stents. The topography of such stent coatings was modulated by controlling the ratio of round to stretched droplets or the ratio of round to crumped droplets under high electric field before deposition. The shape of electrosprayed droplets was governed by the stability of these charged droplets right after ejection or during their flight in the air. Using the electrospraying technique, we achieved conformal polymeric coatings with tailored microtopographies onto conductive surgical implants. The approach offers potential for controlling the surface topography of surgical implant devices to modulate their integration with surrounding tissues.

  3. Crystal engineering of lactose using electrospray technology: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Mahadik, Abhijeet; Nalawade, Pradeep; More, Priyesh

    2017-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) consisting of a powder mixture containing coarse carrier particles (generally lactose) and micronized drug particles are used for lung drug delivery. The effective drug delivery to the lungs depends on size and shape of carrier particles. Thus, various methods have been proposed for engineering lactose particles to enhance drug delivery to lungs. The objective of current work was to assess suitability of electrospray technology toward crystal engineering of lactose. Further, utility of the prepared lactose particles as a carrier in DPI was evaluated. Saturated lactose solutions were electrosprayed to obtain electrosprayed lactose (EL) particles. The polymorphic form of EL was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, morphological, surface textural, and flow properties of EL were determined using scanning electron microscopy and Carr's index, respectively. The aerosolization properties of EL were determined using twin-stage impinger and compared with commercial lactose particles [Respitose(®) (SV003, Goch, Germany)] used in DPI formulations. EL was found to contain both isomers (α and β) of lactose having flow properties comparable to Respitose(®) (SV003). In addition, the aerosolization properties of EL were found to be significantly improved when compared to Respitose(®) (SV003) which could be attributed to morphological (high elongation ratio) and surface characteristic (smooth surface) alterations induced by electrospray technology. Electrospray technology can serve as an alternative technique for continuous manufacturing of engineered lactose particles which can be used as a carrier in DPI formulations.

  4. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    At the moment ionisation chambers are the detectors which are best suited to the task of nuclear reactor control by neutronic measurements. We have thought it wise to state some generalities concerning reactor dynamics, the various neutron detection methods, the working of ionisation chambers and the measurement methods used. Our contribution to reactor control techniques consists on the one hand in an attempt to make a synthesis of the factors influencing the operation of ionisation chambers, the study of these factors, and on the other hand in the development of ionisation chambers of the fission and boron types, making it possible to follow the working of a reactor from the moment it starts up until maximum power is attained. In the field of fission chambers, we have in particular improved the technique for depositing uranium oxide on aluminium and have perfected the electrolytic deposition process on other metals: stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium, kovar, tungsten and beryllium. We have developed several types of fission chambers used during the start-up of reactors: one type of medium performance now in use in French piles one high-sensitivity type one high-temperature type which has operated up to 600 deg. C. As far as boron chambers are concerned, we have studied the perturbations caused to the measurement by the exposure of the chamber to high neutron flux and to a very strong {gamma} radiation. This exposure brings about a modification of the properties of the constituent materials and causes a background noise in the chamber which can seriously handicap the neutron measurements. We have shown that the compensation technique makes it possible to limit this noise and to thereby increase the range of measurement of conventional ionisation chambers intended for power measurements. Finally, we have built two types of compensation chambers used in the French reactors and have begun the study of a third type of high sensitivity for

  5. Classification of Gunshot Residue Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry and Offline Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Johnny J; Watson, David A; Levis, Robert J

    2016-12-06

    Nonresonant laser vaporization combined with high-resolution electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry enables analysis of a casing after discharge of a firearm revealing organic signature molecules including methyl centralite (MC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-NO-DPA), 4-nitrodiphenylamine (4-NDPA), a DPA adduct, and multiple unidentified features not observed in previous mass spectral measurements. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of unknown GSR signature ions reveals inorganic barium and derivatives BaOH, BaOHCH3, BaCH3COO remaining from the primer. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic signatures are detected using water-methanol electrospray solution. Offline principal component analysis and discrimination of the laser electrospray mass spectral (LEMS) measurements resulted in perfect classification of the gun shot residue with respect to the manufacturer. Principal component analysis of recycled and reloaded casings resulted in classification of the penultimate manufacturer with an accuracy of 89%.

  6. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  7. Submillimetre molecular line observations of M17: The interaction of an ionisation front and molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, R.; White, G. J.; Gatley, I.; Hayashi, S. S.; Kaifu, N.; Griffin, M. J.; Monteiro, S.; Cronin, N. J.; Scivetti, A.

    1986-01-01

    An area of about 9 by 10 arc minutes in the M17 molecular cloud has been mapped in the J=3-2 transition of CO. The strongest CO emission is observed to come from the two bars to the north and southwest, which lie just outside the area of ionized gas seen in the radio continuum studies. We are viewing the boundary between the ionized and molecular gas almost edge on. The most intense CO emission is from the area around the dense molecular cloud core M17SW in the southwest bar. To the east of M17SW there are signs of recent or continuing star formation including H2O masers and an ultra-compact HII region. The CO J=3-2 spectra observed are complex with considerable variation in line shapes occuring over distances of less than one arc minute. We interpret the velocity structure of this region as arising from an ensemble of molecular cloud fragments in addition to extended emission. We have identified several cloud components at different velocities within both the northern and southwest bars of CO emission. A simple kinematic model of the cloud components in the southwest bar in which they are considered to be clumps of post-shock gas lying close to the edge of the expanding HII region, with the shock being driven by Kleinmann's star, gives a velocity of approx. 10.8 km s(-1) for the expansion velocity of the HII region, which is currently at a distance of approx. 2.4 pc from Kleinmann's star. The resulting shock is thought to be preceding the ionisation front and appears to have led to the fragmentation of the original cloud.

  8. A real time metabolomic profiling approach to detecting fish fraud using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Connor; Chevallier, Olivier P; Haughey, Simon A; Balog, Julia; Stead, Sara; Pringle, Steven D; Riina, Maria V; Martucci, Francesca; Acutis, Pier L; Morris, Mike; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Takats, Zoltan; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    Fish fraud detection is mainly carried out using a genomic profiling approach requiring long and complex sample preparations and assay running times. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) can circumvent these issues without sacrificing a loss in the quality of results. To demonstrate that REIMS can be used as a fast profiling technique capable of achieving accurate species identification without the need for any sample preparation. Additionally, we wanted to demonstrate that other aspects of fish fraud other than speciation are detectable using REIMS. 478 samples of five different white fish species were subjected to REIMS analysis using an electrosurgical knife. Each sample was cut 8-12 times with each one lasting 3-5 s and chemometric models were generated based on the mass range m/z 600-950 of each sample. The identification of 99 validation samples provided a 98.99% correct classification in which species identification was obtained near-instantaneously (≈ 2 s) unlike any other form of food fraud analysis. Significant time comparisons between REIMS and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were observed when analysing 6 mislabelled samples demonstrating how REIMS can be used as a complimentary technique to detect fish fraud. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the catch method of fish products is capable of detection using REIMS, a concept never previously reported. REIMS has been proven to be an innovative technique to help aid the detection of fish fraud and has the potential to be utilised by fisheries to conduct their own quality control (QC) checks for fast accurate results.

  9. Accurate simulation of ionisation chamber response with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempau, Josep; Andreo, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Ionisation chambers (IC) are routinely used in hospitals for the dosimetry of the photon and electron beams used for radiotherapy treatments. The determination of absorbed dose to water from the absorbed dose to the air filling the cavity requires the introduction of stopping power ratios and perturbation factors, which account for the disturbance caused by the presence of the chamber. Although this may seem a problem readily amenable to Monte Carlo simulation, the fact is that the accurate determination of IC response has been, for various decades, one of the most important challenges of the simulation of electromagnetic showers. The main difficulty stems from the use of condensed history techniques for electron and positron transport. This approach, which involves grouping a large number of interactions into a single artificial event, is known to produce the so-called interface effects when particles travel across surfaces separating different media. These effects can be sizeable when the electron step length is not negligible compared to the size of the region being crossed, as it is the case with the cavity of an IC. The artefact, which becomes apparent when the chamber response shows a marked dependence on the adopted step size, can be palliated with the use of sophisticated electron transport algorithms. These topics are discussed in the context of the transport model implemented in the PENELOPE code. The degree of violation of the Fano theorem for a simple, planar geometry, is used as a measure of the stability of the algorithm with respect to variations of the electron step length, thus assessing the "quality" of its condensed history scheme. It is shown that, with a suitable choice of transport parameters, PENELOPE simulates IC response with an accuracy of the order of 0.1%.

  10. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  11. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  12. Electrospray/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Detection and Identification of Organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Stephenson, James L., Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Current electrospray ion trap methodology for rapid mixture analysis of proteins used for the identification of microorganisms is described. Development of ion/ion reaction techniques (e.g. reactions of multiply-charged protein cations with singly-charged anions) from both a fundamental and practical approach are presented, detailing the necessary steps and considerations involved in complex mixture analysis. Data describing the reduction of the initial charge states of electrospray ions to arbitrarily low values, the utility of ion/ion reactions for mixture separation on the millisecond time scale, and effects of excess singly-charged reactants on detection and storage efficiency are illustrated.

  13. (S)-(-)-N-(pentafluorobenzylcarbamoyl)prolyl chloride: a chiral derivatisation reagent designed for gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of amino compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Hans J; Windischhofer, Werner

    2012-03-30

    The synthesis of a novel chiral derivatisation reagent, (S)-(-)-N-(pentafluorobenzylcarbamoyl)prolyl chloride is described which is preferably useful for negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Preparation of the reagent followed a general strategy used to prepare enantioselective reagents based on the N-substitution of L-proline. Pentafluorobenzyl chloroformate smoothly reacted with L-proline to give the desired derivatisation reagent after conversion into the acyl chloride. The product was sufficiently pure to be used in the following steps without any additional purification. The reagent was tested against selected chiral and non-chiral analytical targets. Chromatographic enantioseparation was at least equal to the commonly used (S)-(-)-N-(heptafluorobutyryl)prolyl derivatives. The derivatives exhibit excellent mass spectral properties under negative ion chemical ionisation, i.e. reduced fragmentation and thus high ion current for the targeted m/z during analysis. With electron ionisation, the fragmentation that occurs is mainly directed by the introduced group. Enantioseparation with gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of the derivatives was demonstrated for the enantiomers of amphetamine, α-aminocaprylic acid methyl ester and threo-methylphenidate. The new derivatisation reagent shows highly improved mass spectral properties for negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry and is thus suitable for sensitive chiral detection of amino compounds. The reagent extends the applicability of dissociative resonance electron capture using pentafluorobenzyl derivatives to chiral analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A novel method for the analysis of the substitution pattern of O-methyl-[alpha]- and [beta]-1,4-glucans by means of electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry/collision induced dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adden, Roland; Mischnick, Petra

    2005-03-01

    The substitution pattern of O-methyl amylose and O-methyl cellulose was analysed after per-O-methylation (Me-d3), and partial hydrolysis by subsequent ESI-MS/CID of the sodium (MS2) and the lithium adducts (MS3). Based on previous studies about the influence of regioselective O-methylation on the fragmentation pathways of malto- and cello-oligosaccharides, we could calculate the contribution of a certain methyl pattern to a distinct signal in the reproducible ESI-MS2 daughter spectrum. Signal intensities obtained from each O-methyl-O-methyl-d3 disaccharide were distributed on the corresponding methyl patterns and accumulated for all peaks of the mother mass spectrum. Data from ESI-MS2 were not sufficient for disaccharides bearing methyl and deuteromethyl groups in the combination 2 and 4, 3 and 3, or 4 and 2. Further independent information was obtained by ESI-MS3 of the lithium adducts. Monomer composition of methyl celluloses and methyl amyloses obtained by this novel approach were in very good agreement with reference data from GLC of the partially methylated glucitol acetates after complete hydrolysis, reduction and acetylation.

  16. Quantitative and transformation product analysis of major active physalins from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii (Chinese lantern) using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunliang; Chen, Yong; Ren, Yiping; Luan, Lianjun; Wu, Yongjiang

    2012-01-01

    Chinese lantern is the calyx or calyx-with-fruit of the plant Physalis alkekengi .var. franchetii (Solanaceae), and is potential material for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Physalins are the most active and representative secondary metabolites of Chinese lantern. A separation and quantification method based on UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed for the quantitative analysis of five active physalins. The transformation products were also detected and identified for the first time. To establish a LC-MS/MS method to quantify five physalins in Chinese lantern for the purpose of quality control, and to identify the transformation products of 4,7-didehydrophysalin B. The separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP C₁₈-column with water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. ESI-MS/MS was used as the detector to quantify the five physalins. The transformation products of 4,7-didehydroneophysalin B were detected by UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and identified through comparing their HRMS and MS² ion fragmentations with corresponding references. All the compounds showed good linearity (R²  > 0.998). The recoveries, measured at three concentration levels, varied from 98.8 to 101.4% with RSDs transformation products of 4,7-didehydroneophysalin B were detected and tentatively identified. The present study developed a highly effective analytical method for the quality control of Chinese lantern, and it could provide comprehensive information for quality evaluation and new drug development of Chinese lantern. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Report on three aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds as common minor constituents in marine samples. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three water-soluble aliphatic arsenicals, dimethylarsinoyl acetate (DMAA), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE), and dimethylarsinoyl propionate (DMAP), were identified in marine biological samples. Sample extracts in methanol/water (1 + 1) were analysed by cation-exchange high-performance liquid...... for the structures of the three compounds. The concentrations of the three arsenicals were determined in 37 marine organisms comprising algae, crustaceans, bivalves, fish and mammals by HPLC/ICPMS. The three arsenicals DMAA, DMAE and DMAP, which occurred at mug kg(-1) concentrations, were detected in 25, 23 and 17...

  18. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  19. LA SPECTROSCOPIE DE MASSE PAR IONISATION CHIMIQUE AVEC LA DIETHYLAMINE COMME GAZ REACTANT DES IRIDOIDES GLUCOSIDIQUES DE TYPE C-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SAADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse à l’étude de la spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique de quelques composés des iridoïdes glucosidiques de type C-9 extraits des plantes de l’espèce Euplantago en utilisant la diéthylamine comme gaz réactant. Nous avons appliqué la même technique que précédemment à deux d’entre eux se trouvant en abondance dans ce type de plantes, après leur acétylation.

  20. The solar ionisation rate deduced from Ulysses measurements and its implications to interplanetary Lyman alpha-intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summanen, T.; Kyroelae, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a computer code which can be used to study 3-dimensional and time-dependent effects of the solar cycle on the interplanetary (IP) hydrogen distribution. The code is based on the inverted Monte Carlo simulation. In this work we have modelled the temporal behaviour of the solar ionisation rate. We have assumed that during the most of the time of the solar cycle there is an anisotopic latitudinal structure but right at the solar maximum the anisotropy disappears. The effects of this behaviour will be discussed both in regard to the IP hydrogen distribution and IP Lyman a a-intensity.

  1. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  2. Role of opposite charges in protein electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalikova, Maria; Grandori, Rita

    2003-09-01

    The conformation dependence of protein spectra recorded by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is an interesting and useful phenomenon, whose origin is still the object of debate. Different mechanisms have been invoked in the attempt to explain the lower charge state of folded versus unfolded protein ions in ESI-MS, such as electrostatic repulsions, solvent accessibility, charge availability, and native-like interactions. In this work we try to subject to direct experimental test the hypothesis that conformation-dependent neutralization of charges with polarity opposite to the net charge of the protein ion could play a critical role in such an effect. We present results of time-of-flight nano-ESI-MS on the peptide angiotensin II, indicating that negative charges of carboxylate groups can contribute to spectra recorded in positive-ion mode when stabilized by favorable electrostatic interactions, which is the central assumption of our hypothesis. Comparison of horse and spermwhale myoglobin (Mb) shows that changing the total number of basic residues within a given three-dimensional structure shifts the charge-state distribution (CSD) of the folded protein in positive-ion mode. This result appears to be in contrast to models in which electrostatic repulsions or availability of charges in the ESI droplets represent the limiting factor for the ionization of folded protein ions in ESI-MS. At the same time, it suggests a role of acidic residues in conformational effects in positive-ion mode. Furthermore, an attempt is made to rationalize those cases in which, in contrast, the main charge state observed in ESI-MS under non-denaturing conditions deviates considerably from the net charge expected on the basis of the amino-acid composition. These cases usually correspond to proteins with quite balanced content in basic and acidic residues, suggesting that this might be a factor influencing their charging behavior in ESI-MS. Experiments on mutants of

  3. Determination of chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the Firth of Clyde by gas chromatography with electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry and carbon skeleton analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussy, Ines; Webster, Lynda; Russell, Marie; Moffat, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of increasing concern, but are to date not widely investigated in the environment, largely due to the challenges involved in their quantification. Here, SCCPs were quantified in marine sediments from the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, by gas chromatography with electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-ECNIMS) and through carbon skeleton analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID), and the analytical challenges encountered are discussed. Concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.4 to 69 μg kg(-1) when determined by GC-ECNIMS, and from 5.6 to 379 μg kg(-1) when determined by GC-FID. For 8 out of 11 samples, analysis by GC-FID gave higher results than analysis by GC-ECNIMS. Unexpected aspects of the analysis, such as the presence of high concentrations of longer chain chlorinated paraffins in the samples, are also presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical parameters affecting the electrospray ionization efficiency of amino acids after acylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Jos; Ongay, Sara; Markov, Vadym; Bischoff, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is widely used in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the analysis of biomolecules. However, the ESI process is still not completely understood and it is often a matter of trial and error to enhance ESI efficiency and hence the response of a

  5. Feasibility of nonvolatile buffers in capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Jonas H.C.; Mol, Roelof; Somsen, Govert W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) via a triaxial interface was studied as a potential means for the characterization of intact proteins. To evaluate the possibility to use a nonvolatile electrolyte for CE, the effect of sodium

  6. Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

  7. On cluster ions, ion transmission, and linear dynamic range limitations in electrospray (ionspray) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zook, D.R; Bruins, A.P.

    The ion transmission in Electrospray (Ionspray) Mass Spectrometry (ESMS) was studied in order to examine the instrumental factors potentially contributing to observed ESMS linear dynamic range (LDR) limitations. A variety of means used for the investigation of ion transmission demonstrated that a

  8. Revision of capillary cone-jet physics: electrospray and flow focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Montanero, José M

    2009-06-01

    Capillary cone jets are natural microfluidic structures arising in steady capillary tip streaming, whose paradigms are electrospray and flow focusing phenomena. In this work, we make a profound revision of the basic underlying physics of generic cone jets from thousands of experimental measurements, most of them reported in the literature. First, the boundaries of the stability region of steady jetting are calculated. We describe these limitations by instability mechanisms associated with the local flow structure in the tip and the issuing jet and with the global behavior of the meniscus. Second, to undertake a general physical treatment of cone jets in steady regime, we analyze the energy balance taking place in the tips of both flow focusing and electrospray. This analysis yields a fundamental result: if the electrospray data are expressed in terms of an effective pressure drop, both phenomena satisfy the same scaling law for the droplet size, which exhibits nearly complete similarity in the parameter window where quasimonodisperse sprays are produced. That effective pressure drop is a function of the liquid properties exclusively, i.e., it does not depend on the operational parameters (flow rate and applied voltage). Moreover, the stability limits of the operational regimes are analyzed in detail, finding fundamental coincidences between flow focusing and electrospray as well. These results provide most useful general description and predictive scaling laws for nearly monodisperse microspraying or nanospraying based on steady cone jets, of immediate applicability in analytical chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, pharmaceutical and food technologies, painting, and many other technological fields.

  9. Characterization of a Porous Nano-electrospray Capillary Emitter at Ultra-low Flow Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvas, Gabor; Fonslow, Bryan; Yates, John R; Foret, Frantisek; Guttman, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, especially therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, have emerged as a very promising new generation of protein-based drugs. However, their comprehensive analysis continues to pose new challenges for the bioanalytical field. Hyphenation of capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization (CE-MS) is a promising technique to address these challenges. One of the main advantages of CE-MS is the ability to produce stable electrospray at ultra-low flow rates (5-20 nl/min range). In this short communication we report on the characterization of a porous nano-electrospray capillary emitter focusing on the effects of ultra-low flow rate on ionization efficiency, ion suppression and detection sensitivity. Ion suppression effect of a poorly-ionizable sugar in the presence of an easily-ionized peptide was reduced by almost 2-fold. Intact therapeutic antibody infusion analysis demonstrated that MS detection sensitivity increased by an order of magnitude with the decrease of flow rate from 250 nL/min to 20 nL/min using the nano-electrospray capillary emitter. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in snake venom by electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, A.; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Schebb, Nils Helge; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    An electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS)-based assay for the determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity in snake venom was developed. It allows the direct monitoring of the natural AChE substrate acetylcholine (AC) and the respective product choline. The assay

  11. Terverticillate penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts II. Database and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectral database was built using standard instrument software from 678 electrospray mass spectra (mass profiles) from crude fungal extracts of terverticillate taxa within the genus Penicillium. The match factors calculated from searching all the mass profiles stored in the database were u...

  12. A decade of microfluidic analysis coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Verpoorte, E.

    2007-01-01

    This review presents a thorough overview covering the period 1997-2006 of microfluidic chips coupled to mass spectrometry through an electrospray interface. The different types of fabrication processes and materials used to fabricate these chips throughout this period are discussed. Three 'eras' of

  13. Development and characterization of electrosprayed Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum nanoparticles for encapsulation of d-limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, Khadije; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Allafchian, Alireza

    2017-03-15

    In this study, the feasibility of developing Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) nanocapsules containing d-limonene by electrospraying has been investigated. d-limonene emulsions with constant AHSG (0.5% w/w) and various flavor concentrations (10-30% based on gum weight) with 0.1% Tween 20 were electrosprayed at 20kV and 0.1ml/h of flow rate. The effects of key parameters of emulsions (rheological properties, droplet size, surface tension and electrical conductivity) on the morphology of structures have been studied. The morphology of nanocapsules had strong dependency on solution properties. The aggregated irregular shaped nanoparticles were obtained from electrospraying of AHSG solution. After incorporation of 10 and 20% d-limonene, spherical nanocapsules were yielded. However, morphology of nanocapsules changed to nanofibers by increasing the flavor content to 30%. The encapsulation efficiency for 10 and 20% d-limonene loaded nanocapsules was around 87-93%. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also employed to study the physicochemical characteristics of nanocapsules. These experiments provided evidences that electrosprayed AHSG nanoparticles introduce a novel and efficient carrier for encapsulation of bioactive ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of a porous nano-electrospray capillary emitter at ultra-low flow rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Járvás, G.; Fonslow, B.; Yates III, J. R.; Foret, František; Guttman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 47-51 ISSN 0021-9665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nano-electrospray * ion suppression * porous joint Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2016

  15. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    ) and Yeast Extract Sucrose agar (YES) directly into the electrospray source of the mass spectrometer. A data matrix was made from each substrate by transferring the complete centroid mass spectrum from 200 to 700 amu as 501 variables to individual columns. No attempt was made to identify ions in the mass...

  16. The analysis of aqueous mixtures using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of chromatographic methods coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the determination of both organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous solutions. The combination of liquid chromatography (LC) methods and ES-MS offers one of the foremost methods for determining compounds in complex aqueous solutions. In this work, LC-ES-MS methods are devised using ion exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, as well as capillary electrophoresis (CE). For an aqueous sample, these LC-ES-MS and CE-ES-MS techniques require no sample preparation or analyte derivatization, which makes it possible to observe a wide variety of analytes as they exist in solution. The majority of this work focuses on the use of LC-ES-MS for the determination of unknown products and intermediates formed during electrochemical incineration (ECI), an experimental waste remediation process. This report contains a general introduction to the project and the general conclusions. Four chapters have been removed for separate processing. Titles are: Chapter 2: Determination of small carboxylic acids by ion exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; Chapter 3: Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone in aqueous media using a quaternary metal oxide electrode in the absence of a soluble supporting electrolyte; Chapter 4: The determination of electrochemical incineration products of 4-chlorophenol by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry; and Chapter 5: Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

  17. gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Cowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed gammaH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since gammaH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The

  18. Static electric fields interfere in the viability of cells exposed to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Neto, João D T; Friedberg, Errol C; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria C; Cavalcante-Silva, Erika; Schenberg, Ana C G; Rodrigues, Tulio E; Garcia, Fermin; Louvison, Monica; Paula, Claudete R; Mesa, Joel; Moron, Michelle M; Maria, Durvanei A; Genofre, Godofredo C

    2009-04-01

    The interference of electric fields (EF) with biological processes is an issue of considerable interest. No studies have as yet been reported on the combined effect of EF plus ionising radiation. Here we report studies on this combined effect using the prokaryote Microcystis panniformis, the eukaryote Candida albicans and human cells. Cultures of Microcystis panniformis (Cyanobacteria) in glass tubes were irradiated with doses in the interval 0.5-5 kGy, using a (60)Co gamma source facility. Samples irradiated with 3 kGy were exposed for 2 h to a 20 V . cm(-1) static electric field and viable cells were enumerated. Cultures of Candida albicans were incubated at 36 degrees C for 20 h, gamma-irradiated with doses from 1-4 kGy, and submitted to an electric field of 180 V . cm(-1). Samples were examined under a fluorescence microscope and the number of unviable (red) and viable (apple green fluorescence) cells was determined. For crossing-check purposes, MRC5 strain of lung cells were irradiated with 2 Gy, exposed to an electric field of 1250 V/cm, incubated overnight with the anti-body anti-phospho-histone H2AX and examined under a fluorescence microscope to quantify nuclei with gamma-H2AX foci. In cells exposed to EF, death increased substantially compared to irradiation alone. In C. albicans we observed suppression of the DNA repair shoulder. The effect of EF in growth of M. panniformis was substantial; the number of surviving cells on day-2 after irradiation was 12 times greater than when an EF was applied. By the action of a static electric field on the irradiated MRC5 cells the number of nuclei with gamma-H2AX foci increased 40%, approximately. Application of an EF following irradiation greatly increases cell death. The observation that the DNA repair shoulder in the survival curve of C. albicans is suppressed when cells are exposed to irradiation + EF suggests that EF likely inactivate cellular recovering processes. The result for the number of nuclei with gamma

  19. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Finley, H.; Boogaard, L. A.; Guérou, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Carton, D.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, M.; Hamer, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnović, D.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 104 kpc2 gaseous structure detected in [O II]λλ3727, 3729 in an over-dense region of the COSMOS-Gr30 galaxy group at z 0.725 with deep MUSE Guaranteed Time Observations. We estimate the total amount of diffuse ionised gas to be of the order of ( 5 ± 3) × 1010 M⊙ and explore its physical properties to understand its origin and the source(s) of the ionisation. The MUSE data allow the identification of a dozen group members that are embedded in this structure through emission and absorption lines. We extracted spectra from small apertures defined for both the diffuse ionised gas and the galaxies. We investigated the kinematics and ionisation properties of the various galaxies and extended gas regions through line diagnostics (R23, O32, and [O III]/Hβ) that are available within the MUSE wavelength range. We compared these diagnostics to photo-ionisation models and shock models. The structure is divided into two kinematically distinct sub-structures. The most extended sub-structure of ionised gas is likely rotating around a massive galaxy and displays filamentary patterns that link some galaxies. The second sub-structure links another massive galaxy that hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to a low-mass galaxy, but it also extends orthogonally to the AGN host disc over 35 kpc. This extent is likely ionised by the AGN itself. The location of small diffuse regions in the R23 vs. O32 diagram is compatible with photo-ionisation. However, the location of three of these regions in this diagram (low O32, high R23) can also be explained by shocks, which is supported by their high velocity dispersions. One edge-on galaxy shares the same properties and may be a source of shocks. Regardless of the hypothesis, the extended gas seems to be non-primordial. We favour a scenario where the gas has been extracted from galaxies by tidal forces and AGN triggered by interactions between at least the two sub-structures. Based on observations made with

  1. Ion recombination correction factor in scanned light-ion beams for absolute dose measurement using plane-parallel ionisation chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Horn, J; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Mairani, A; Ciocca, M; Floquet, V; Romano, F; Rodriguez Garcia, D; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2017-07-07

    Based on international reference dosimetry protocols for light-ion beams, a correction factor (k s) has to be applied to the response of a plane-parallel ionisation chamber, to account for recombination of negative and positive charges in its air cavity before these charges can be collected on the electrodes. In this work, k s for IBA PPC40 Roos-type chambers is investigated in four scanned light-ion beams (proton, helium, carbon and oxygen). To take into account the high dose-rates used with scanned beams and LET-values, experimental results are compared to a model combining two theories. One theory, developed by Jaffé, describes the variation of k s with the ionization density within the ion track (initial recombination) and the other theory, developed by Boag, describes the variation of k s with the dose rate (volume recombination). Excellent agreement is found between experimental and theoretical k s-values. All results confirm that k s cannot be neglected. The solution to minimise k s is to use the ionisation chamber at high voltage. However, one must be aware that charge multiplication may complicate the interpretation of the measurement. For the chamber tested, it was found that a voltage of 300 V can be used without further complication. As the initial recombination has a logarithmic variation as a function of 1/V, the two-voltage method is not applicable to these scanned beams.

  2. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) Provides Accurate Direct from Culture Species Identification within the Genus Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Simon J S; Bolt, Frances; Perdones-Montero, Alvaro; Rickards, Tony; Hardiman, Kate; Abdolrasouli, Alireza; Burke, Adam; Bodai, Zsolt; Karancsi, Tamas; Simon, Daniel; Schaffer, Richard; Rebec, Monica; Balog, Julia; Takáts, Zoltan

    2016-11-14

    Members of the genus Candida, such as C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, are important human pathogens. Other members of this genus, previously believed to carry minimal disease risk, are increasingly recognised as important human pathogens, particularly because of variations in susceptibilities to widely used anti-fungal agents. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of clinical Candida isolates is fundamental in ensuring timely and effective treatments are delivered. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) has previously been shown to provide a high-throughput platform for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to commercially available matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF), REIMS based methods require no preparative steps nor time-consuming cell extractions. Here, we report on the ability of REIMS-based analysis to rapidly and accurately identify 153 clinical Candida isolates to species level. Both handheld bipolar REIMS and high-throughput REIMS platforms showed high levels of species classification accuracy, with 96% and 100% of isolates classified correctly to species level respectively. In addition, significantly different (FDR corrected P value < 0.05) lipids within the 600 to 1000 m/z mass range were identified, which could act as species-specific biomarkers in complex microbial communities.

  3. Solvent separating secondary metabolites directly from biosynthetic tissue for surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, David; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-03-16

    Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS) methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI) and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of "on surface" solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  4. Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry for lipid profiling and structural analysis of mammalian oocytes, preimplantation embryos and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Christina R; Jarmusch, Alan K; Pirro, Valentina; Alfaro, Clint M; González-Serrano, Andres F; Niemann, Heiner; Wheeler, Matthew B; Rabel, Rathnaweera A C; Hallett, Judy E; Houser, Rebecca; Kaufman, Annemarie; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-05-01

    Lipids play fundamental roles in mammalian embryo preimplantation development and cell fate. Triacylglycerol accumulates in oocytes and blastomeres as lipid droplets, phospholipids influence membrane functional properties, and essential fatty acid metabolism is important for maintaining the stemness of cells cultured in vitro. The growing impact that lipids have in the field of developmental biology makes analytical approaches to analyse structural information of great interest. This paper describes the concept and presents the results of lipid profiling by mass spectrometry (MS) of oocytes and preimplantation embryos, with special focus on ambient ionisation. Based on our previous experience with oocytes and embryos, we aim to convey that ambient MS is also valuable for stem cell differentiation analysis. Ambient ionisation MS allows the detection of a wide range of lipid classes (e.g. free fatty acids, cholesterol esters, phospholipids) in single oocytes, embryos and cell pellets, which are informative of in vitro culture impact, developmental and differentiation stages. Background on MS principles, the importance of underused MS scan modes for structural analysis of lipids, and statistical approaches used for data analysis are covered. We envisage that MS alone or in combination with other techniques will have a profound impact on the understanding of lipid metabolism, particularly in early embryo development and cell differentiation research.

  5. Leaf anatomy and photochemical behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. plants from seeds irradiated with low-LET ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G; De Pascale, S; Quarto, M; Arena, C

    2014-01-01

    Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. "Microtom" grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy). Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency.

  6. Assessing the surroundings for effects of ionising radiation on the granting of permits, DOVIS A. Emissions to air and water

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauboer, R O

    2002-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in most other countries, one generally needs a permit to produce (including the manufacture, processing, control and storage), to apply or to dispose of radioactive materials, or to use equipment that produces ionising radiation. This permit must be in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. Limits that are set for radioactive material can be found in the Decree on radiation protection ('Besluit stralings-bescherming') which has been in force since March 1, 2002. Along with the application for a permit, calculation results have to be submitted on the radiation dose that members of the public receive as a consequence of (possible) emissions of radioactive material (into the atmosphere or surface water) or as a consequence of external irradiation. Fairly rough estimates, based on simple rules, will often be satisfactory. These rules can be found in an annex of a Ministerial Order on the assessment of consequences of ionising radiation (mr-AGIS). However, in some cases this will not be ade...

  7. Aqueous complexes of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III) with the carbonate and sulphate ions. Thermodynamic study by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and electro-spray-ionisation mass spectrometry; Complexes aqueux de lanthanides (3) et actinides (3) avec les ions carbonate et sulfate. Etude thermodynamique par spectrofluorimetrie laser resolue en temps et spectrometrie de masse a ionisation electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercouter, Th

    2005-03-15

    The prediction of the environmental impact of a possible geological disposal of radioactive wastes is supported by the thermodynamic modelling of the radionuclides behaviour in the groundwater. In this framework, the analogy between lanthanides and actinides(III) is confirmed by a critical analysis of the literature and the comparison with experimental results obtained here. The limiting complex, Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-}, is identified by solubility measurements in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. Then the formation constants of the complexes Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub i}{sup 3-2i} (i=1-3) and Eu(SO{sub 4}){sub i}{sup 3-2i} (i=1-2) are measured by TRLFS. The formation of aqueous LaSO{sub 4}{sup +} is studied by ESI-MS and is in good agreement with the expected speciation. The enthalpy and entropy of the reaction Cm(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup -} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} {r_reversible} Cm(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} are deduced from TRLFS measurements of the equilibrium constant between 10 and 70 C. The ionic strength effect is calculated using the SIT formula. (author)

  8. Calibration of the radiation monitors from DESY and SPring-8 at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams using 100 and 300 MeV 7Li(p,n reaction at RCNP in Osaka Japan in November 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuschner Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ring cyclotron facility of the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP Osaka University, Osaka, Japan a series of measurement campaigns had been continued with quasi mono-energetic neutron beams in November 2014. A 7Li target was bombarded with 100 and 300 MeV protons and the generated neutron beams were directed into a long time-of-flight tunnel at 0 and 25 degrees deflection angle with respect to the proton beam. At a distance of 41 m the cross section of the neutron beam was large enough for the illumination of square meter sized objects like extended range rem-counters. The research institutes SPring-8/RIKEN, Japan, and DESY, Germany, participated in this campaign for the calibration of 4 different types of active ambient dose rate monitors: LB 6411, LB 6411-Pb, LB 6419 and LB 6420. The measurements of their responses are reported and compared with the calculated values.

  9. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    -barcoding, invertebrate DNA barcoding, DNA methylation, and other molecular endpoints is ongoing, together with studies of possible adaptation of plants, invertebrates and microorganisms. Preliminary results show significant differences in diversity for many species between contaminated and reference sites. However, more research is needed to draw conclusions about the cause of such observations. Nevertheless, by combining a through site characterisation and exposure assessment with a variety of ecologically relevant biomarker and endpoint measurements, the data produced should be a valuable contribution to international activities looking at the impacts of chronic exposure of ionising radiation on non-human species. Project participants: Elena Belykh, Anna Kaneva, Boris Kondratenok, Alla Kolesnikova, Alexey Kurdin, Tatinana Majstrenko, Taskayeva Anastasia Oleshya Vakhrusheva, Illa Velegzhaninov, Vladimir Zainullin (IoB, Komi Republic, Russia); S. Haciyakupoglu (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey); Rahime Oral, Sabriye Yusan, Filiz Gur Filiz (Ege University, Turkey); Murat Belivermis, Onder Kilic (Istanbul University, Turkey); Fatma Kocbas (Celal Bayar University, Turkey); Mustafa Akiner, (Rize University, Turkey); Claire Coutris, Erik Joner (Bioforsk, Norway); Turid Hertel-Aas, Emmanuel Lapied, Yevgeniya Tomkiv, Brit Salbu, Lindis Skipperud (Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, UMB, Norway). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Rapid and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and their main metabolites (hydroxylated and methyl sulfonyl) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: comparison of different ionisation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Puyana, M; Herrero, L; González, M J; Gómara, B

    2013-07-17

    Instrumental methods based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed and compared using two different MS ionisation modes, electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionisation (ECNI), for the fast, quantitative and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their main metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs, OH-PCBs, and methyl sulfone PCBs, MeSO2-PCBs). Parameters affecting chromatographic separation and MS detection were evaluated in order to achieve the highest selectivity and sensitivity for both operation modes. The analytical characteristics of the developed methods were studied and compared in terms of linear range, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), and instrumental precision (repeatability and intermediate precision). Both ionisation methods showed similar precision, being relative standard deviations (RSD, %) lower than 9% and 14% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. However, better LODs (from 0.01 to 0.14 pg injected for the three families of congeners studied) were achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. The suitability of the developed method was demonstrated through their application to fish liver oil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  12. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Laser post-ionisation combined with a high resolving power orbitrap mass spectrometer for enhanced MALDI-MS imaging of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S R; Soltwisch, J; Paine, M R L; Dreisewerd, K; Heeren, R M A

    2017-06-29

    Coupling laser post-ionisation with a high resolving power MALDI Orbitrap mass spectrometer has realised an up to ∼100-fold increase in the sensitivity and enhanced the chemical coverage for MALDI-MS imaging of lipids relative to conventional MALDI. This could constitute a major breakthrough for biomedical research.

  14. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.

  15. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was

  16. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Game-Theory-Based Search Engine to Automate the Mass Assignment in Complex Native Electrospray Mass Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Y.H.; Uetrecht, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824623; Yang, S.C.; Barendregt, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484845X; Heck, A.J.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Peng, W.P.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospray ionization coupled to native mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved into an important tool in structural biology to decipher the composition of protein complexes. However, the mass analysis of heterogeneous protein assemblies is hampered because of their overlapping charge state

  18. Effect of solvent on dynamic range and sensitivity in pneumatically-assisted electrospray (ion spray) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostiainen, R; Bruins, AP

    1996-01-01

    Mass-analyzed detector signal and spray current have been measured in pneumatically-assisted electrospray mass spectrometry. The sample was tetrabutylammonium bromide dissolved in water, methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, dichloromethane or toluene. At low sample concentrations (less than or equal

  19. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment; Recherche de matiere sombre non-baryonique au moyen d`un bolometre a ionisation dans le cadre de l`experience edelweiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, Ph. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-24

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author) 196 refs.

  20. Design and fabrication of hollow and filled graphene-based polymeric spheres via core-shell electrospraying

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi Poudeh, Leila; Saner Okan, Burcu; Seyyed Monfared Zanjani, Jamal; Yıldız, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z.

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional graphene oxide sheets are converted into three dimensional (3D) hollow and filled microspheres by using three different carrying polymers through one-step core–shell electrospraying technique without applying any post treatments. Electrospraying process prevents the aggregations and crumbling of graphene sheets by constructing 3D interconnected framework, and provides homogeneous dispersion of graphene sheets in polymer solution under electric field, and allows the polymer cha...

  1. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...

  2. Electrospray ionization from nanopipette emitters with tip diameters of less than 100 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Elizabeth M; Sa, Niya; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M; Baker, Lane A

    2013-09-17

    Work presented here demonstrates application of nanopipettes pulled to orifice diameters of less than 100 nm as electrospray ionization emitters for mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometric analysis of a series of peptides and proteins electrosprayed from pulled-quartz capillary nanopipette emitters with internal diameters ranging from 37 to 70 nm is detailed. Overall, the use of nanopipette emitters causes a shift toward the production of ions of higher charge states and leads to a reduction in width of charge-state distribution as compared to typical nanospray conditions. Further, nanopipettes show improved S/N and the same signal precision as typical nanospray, despite the much smaller dimensions. As characterized by SEM images acquired before and after spray, nanopipettes are shown to be robust under conditions employed. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are used to calculate the electric field at the emitter tip, which can be significant for the small diameter tips used.

  3. Novel method for preparation of PEMFC electrodes by the electrospray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, R.; Soler, J.; Daza, L. [Dpto. Combustibles Fosiles, CIEMAT Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    A novel method based on the electrospray technique has been developed for the preparation of electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The material obtained was characterized by different techniques, which showed both morphological and structural improvements that contribute to a better catalyst utilization compared to conventional methods. These facts were corroborated after manufacturing several membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with electrodes prepared by three different methods. MEAs obtained by means of the electrospray technique exhibited three times higher power density than those prepared by the impregnation method ones and eight times higher than MEAs made with electrodes prepared by the spray technique with platinum loadings of 0.5mgcm{sup -2}. Moreover, the power density obtained was twice better than a commercial E-TEK. This technique can be scaled up and becomes a volume production method using a low-cost process. (author)

  4. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  5. Electrospray as a suitable technique for manufacturing carbon-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Aïda; Monereo, Oriol; Xuriguera, Elena; Prades, J. Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate here that electrospray is a technique suitable for deposition carbon-based materials. It is versatile enough to be used with graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carbon nanofibers (CNF), obtained by chemical methods. A detailed analysis of the effects of the dispersion properties and the main process parameters (voltage and flow rate) on the deposits quality is presented. Rigid and flexible substrates have been coated with good geometry control under ambient conditions. Thickness of GO films onto silicon substrates, optical transmittance of rGO onto fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate and electrical resistance of both, rGO and CNF films onto flexible polyamide have been correlated with deposition time. As an example of application, the manufacture of carbon nanofibers gas sensing devices deposited onto a ceramic platform and flexible polyimide by means of electrospray technique are shown.

  6. Application of spray-drying and electrospraying/electospinning for poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Boetker, Johan P; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    performance due to enhancement in the pharmacokinetics and low variability in plasma concentration. Progress in processing technologies and particle engineering provides new opportunities to prepare particle-based solid dispersions with control of physical characteristics and tailored drug release kinetics....... Spray-drying and electrospraying are both technologies that allow production and continuous manufacturing of particle-based amorphous solid dispersions in a single step process and electrospinning further allows the production of fiber based systems. This review presents the use of spray drying...... and electrospraying/electrospinning as techniques for preparing particle-based solid dispersions, describes the particle formation processes via numerical and experimental models and discusses particle engineering using these techniques. Examples are given on the applications of these techniques for preparing solid...

  7. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  8. Electrospray fabrication and osmotic response of fluid core-viscoelastic shell microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Osuji, Chinedum

    2011-03-01

    Microcapsules with fluid-core in viscoelastic shell is interesting partially because of their unusual elasticity/rigidity. Electrospray technique, more flexible and scalable than traditional bulk and microfluidic emulsification, was used to generate spherical microcapsules. In particular, sodium alginate fine droplets generated by electrospray was surface cross-linked by either Ca(II) or chitosan to form polyelectrolyte microcapsules. By adjusting the needle inner diameter, concentration of sodium alginate, and applied voltage, we can control the droplet size to the designated range. Furthermore, we can tune the thickness and thereby rigidity/elasticity of the viscoelastic shell by adjusting the residence time of microcapsules in gelation solution to control the rigidity/elasticity of microcapsules. These polyelectrolyte microcapsules were subject to the osmotic pressure of synthetic water-soluble polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol), with progressively lower concentration to observe their osmotic swelling behavior.

  9. Bio-electrospraying and droplet-based microfluidics: control of cell numbers within living residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jongin; DeMello, Andrew J [Nanostructured Materials and Devices Group, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jayasinghe, Suwan N, E-mail: a.demello@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: s.jayasinghe@ucl.ac.u [BioPhysics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Bio-electrospraying (BES) has demonstrated great promise as a rapidly evolving strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative biology/medicine. Since its discovery in 2005, many studies have confirmed that cells (immortalized, primary and stem cells) and whole organisms (Danio rerio, Xenopus tropicalis, Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila) remain viable post-bio-electrospraying. Although this bio-protocol has achieved much, it suffers from one crucial problem, namely the ability to precisely control the number of cells within droplets and or encapsulations. If overcome, BES has the potential to become a high-efficiency biotechnique for controlled cell encapsulation, a technique most useful for a wide range of applications in biology and medicine ranging from the forming of three-dimensional cultures to an approach for treating diseases such as type I diabetes. In this communication, we address this issue by demonstrating the coupling of BES with droplet-based microfluidics for controlling live cell numbers within droplets and residues. (communication)

  10. Electrospray ionization in concentrated acetonitrile vapor improves the performance of mass spectrometry for proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Fangjun; Liu, Zheyi; Liu, Jing; Zhu, Yixin; Zhang, Yukui; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-02-03

    Suppressing the background interferences and enhancing the analytes signals are long-term goals in high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. We observed that performing electrospray in the presence of a concentrated acetonitrile atmosphere suppresses background interferences and enhances peptide signals. An enclosed nanoESI source was utilized to provide a stable atmosphere of concentrated acetonitrile vapor for high performance ESI-MS analyses. The median MS signal intensity increased by 5 times for a set of 23 BSA tryptic peptides in direct ESI-MS analysis. Further, the number of reproducibly and precisely quantified peptides could be improved 67% in six replicate label-free quantitative proteome analyses by this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein-based emulsion electrosprayed micro- and submicroparticles for the encapsulation and stabilization of thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-03-01

    This work shows the potential of emulsion electrospraying of proteins using food-grade emulsions for the microencapsulation and enhanced protection of a model thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactive. Specifically, gelatin, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and a soy protein isolate (SPI) were compared as emulsion stabilizers and wall matrices for encapsulation of α-linolenic acid. In a preliminary stage, soy bean oil was used as the hydrophobic component for the implementation of the emulsion electrospraying process, investigating the effect of protein type and emulsion protocol used (i.e. with or without ultrasound treatment) on colloidal stability. This oil was then substituted by the ω-3 fatty acid and the emulsions were processed by electrospraying and spray-drying, comparing both techniques. While the latter resulted in massive bioactive degradation, electrospraying proved to be a suitable alternative, achieving microencapsulation efficiencies (MEE) of up to ∼70%. Although gelatin yielded low MEEs due to the need of employing acetic acid for its processing by electrospraying, SPI and WPC achieved MEEs over 60% for the non-sonicated emulsions. Moreover, the degradation of α-linolenic acid at 80°C was significantly delayed when encapsulated within both matrices. Whilst less than an 8% of its alkene groups were detected after 27h of thermal treatment for free α-linolenic acid, up to 43% and 67% still remained intact within the electrosprayed SPI and WPC capsules, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of food emulsifiers in commercial additives and food products by liquid chromatography/atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, M; Silva, G; Catellani, D; Bersellini, U; Caffarra, V; Careri, M

    2009-05-01

    A new, reliable liquid chromatography/atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of food emulsifiers composed of mono- and diacylglycerols of fatty acids (E471 series) in complex food matrices. These additives are extremely interesting for the food industry because of their useful properties. Indeed, they improve the manufacture of products by acting as foams and creams stabilisers, crumb-softeners, or antistaling agents. The proposed method also allows us to qualitatively characterise new food emulsifiers composed of other acid esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (E472 series). The validation of the method was performed on blank minicake spiked samples for detection limits (reaching ppm levels), linearity, recovery, precision, and accuracy. The method was then successfully applied to commercial additives containing mixtures of emulsifiers, as well as to food products such as margarines and minicakes.

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF) mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples. PMID:21726462

  14. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  15. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  16. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J; Quintens, Roel; Azimzadeh, Omid; Vidal, Victoria Linares; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Bazyka, Dimitry; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Scouras, Zacharias G; Tapio, Soile; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2016-05-11

    The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being explored using omics technologies. We describe a light-weight approach for the storage, analysis and distribution of relevant LDIR omics datasets. The data integration platform, called BRIDE, contains information from the literature as well as experimental information from transcriptomics and proteomics studies. It deploys a hybrid, distributed solution using both local storage and cloud technology. BRIDE can act as a knowledge broker for LDIR researchers, to facilitate molecular research on the systems biology of LDIR response in mammals. Its flexible design can capture a range of experimental information for genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The data collection is available at: .

  17. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of large biomolecules in complex buffer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadler, S.A.; Bruce, J.E.; Cheng, X.; Anderson, G.A.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wang, K. [Univ.of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Swanek, F.; Ewing, A.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry allow ultra-high resolution, precision mass measurements of a wide range of biochemically relevant species including proteins, glycoproteins, DNA, and non-covalent complexes. One of the most common difficulties encountered when analyzing biological samples derived from multi-step extraction procedures is obtaining an {open_quotes}electrosprayable{close_quotes} analyte solution which keeps the protein(s) of interest in solution and which does not create numerous background ions which overwhelm the analyte signal or adversely affect the electrospray ionization process. In addition to loss of sensitivity, ionized buffer ions introduce undesirable space charge to the trapped ion cell which limits dynamic range and adversely affects mass measurement precision. Thus, it is highly desirable to minimize the number of background ions in the trapped ion cell. In this poster the authors will present two distinct, and potentially complimentary, techniques which allow high performance mass analysis of biomolecules from complex buffer systems. The first technique, which is particularly well suited for larger analytes, discriminates against low mass matrix ions by the combination of kinetic energy dependent ion accumulation and mass dependent ion loss due to collisionally enhanced magnetron radii. An alternative technique, which is particularly applicable to smaller analytes, is based on electrophoretic separations using on-line capillary zone electrophoresis prior to mass analysis. Preliminary results are presented in which two classes of biomolecules were analyzed from complex buffer systems. These examples include large muscle proteins electrosprayed directly from a 5 M urea buffer and mass analysis from whole human erthrocytes extracted from a buffer which mimics physiological conditions.

  18. Speciation of chromium and manganese using pneumatically assisted electrospray mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwizdala, III, Albin B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-10-17

    It is not an exaggeration to say that much of chemistry involves ions in solution. A technique which allows for ions to be transferred from solution into the gas phase and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometric detection would be of importance. If structural information, representative of the solution chemistry could be gained from these gas-phase ions, this would also be important. Electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) is such a technique.

  19. Relating chromatographic retention and electrophoretic mobility to the ion distribution within electrosprayed droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bökman, C Fredrik; Bylund, Dan; Markides, Karin E; Sjöberg, Per J R

    2006-03-01

    Ions that are observed in a mass spectrum obtained with electrospray mass spectrometry can be assumed to originate preferentially from ions that have a high distribution to the surface of the charged droplets. In this study, a relation between chromatographic retention and electrophoretic mobility to the ion distribution (derived from measured signal intensities in mass spectra and electrospray current) within electrosprayed droplets for a series of tetraalkylammonium ions, ranging from tetramethyl to tetrapentyl, is presented. Chromatographic retention in a reversed-phase system was taken as a measure of the analyte's surface activity, which was found to have a large influence on the ion distribution within electrosprayed droplets. In addition, different transport mechanisms such as electrophoretic migration and diffusion can influence the surface partitioning coefficient. The viscosity of the solvent system is affected by the methanol content and will influence both diffusion and ion mobility. However, as diffusion and ion mobility are proportional to each other, we have, in this study, chosen to focus on the ion mobility parameter. It was found that the influence of ion mobility relative to surface activity on the droplet surface partitioning of analyte ions decreases with increasing methanol content. This effect is most probably coupled to the decrease in droplet size caused by the decreased surface tension at increasing methanol content. The same observation was made upon increasing the ionic strength of the solvent system, which is also known to give rise to a decreased initial droplet size. The observed effect of ionic strength on the droplet surface partitioning of analyte ions could also be explained by the fact that at higher ionic strength, a larger number of ions are initially closer to the droplet surface and, thus, the contribution of ionic transport from the bulk liquid to the liquid/air surface interface (jet and droplet surface), attributable to

  20. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter, (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  1. Experimental design and instability analysis of coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of drugs and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Zhang, Leilei; Li, Guangbin; Roberts, Cynthia J; Yin, Xiezhen; Xu, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy requires multilayered microparticles that encapsulate several imaging and therapeutic agents in the same carrier. However, commonly used microencapsulation processes have multiple limitations such as low encapsulation efficiency and loss of bioactivity for the encapsulated biological cargos. To overcome these limitations, we have carried out both experimental and theoretical studies on coaxial electrospray of multilayered microparticles. On the experimental side, an improved coaxial electrospray setup has been developed. A customized coaxial needle assembly combined with two ring electrodes has been used to enhance the stability of the cone and widen the process parameter range of the stable cone-jet mode. With this assembly, we have obtained poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles with fine morphology and uniform size distribution. On the theoretical side, an instability analysis of the coaxial electrified jet has been performed based on the experimental parameters. The effects of process parameters on the formation of different unstable modes have been studied. The reported experimental and theoretical research represents a significant step toward quantitative control and optimization of the coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy.

  2. Absolute Quantification of Bionanoparticles by Electrospray Differential Mobility Analysis: An Application to Lipoprotein Particle Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Foraison, Noémie; Gaie-Levrel, Francois; Coquelin, Loic; Ebrard, Géraldine; Gillery, Philippe; Delatour, Vincent

    2017-02-21

    This study presents an upgraded electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) setup for the absolute quantification of bionanoparticle concentrations in biological samples, with a special focus on non-high-density-lipoprotein particle concentrations (non-HDL-P). Metrological characterization of the system's analytical performances for concentration measurements shows that the mean intermediate precision relative standard deviation is 14% for biological samples, 6% for silica nanoparticles, and less than 1% for diameter measurements. This study also demonstrates that the most accurate method for non-HDL-P quantification in native serum samples implies daily calculation of the electrospray transmission efficiency (E) of the system with the WHO SP3-08 reference material. The establishment of the uncertainty budget reveals that the main contribution to particle concentration measurement uncertainties is the electrospray transmission efficiency. This data additionally shows that E is not only low (approximately 15-20%) but also highly variable over time and strongly affected by sample composition. This work suggests that absolute enumeration of bionanoparticles is achievable with ES-DMA but provided that a special care is taken to quantifying E with a calibrator of nature and matrix highly similar to the samples ones.

  3. Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E D; Donets, E D no 1; Ilyushchenko, V I no 1

    1975-01-01

    Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

  4. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

  5. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  6. The effect of the molecular mass on the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael; Gamero-Castaño, Manuel, E-mail: mgameroc@uci.edu

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • We study the effect of the molecular mass on nanodroplet sputtering of silicon. • The impact phenomenology is a strong function of the projectile’s molecular mass. • Nanodroplet sputtering intrinsically is a molecular scale phenomenon. - Abstract: Energetic bombardment of covalently bonded materials by electrosprayed nanodroplets causes sputtering and topographic changes on the surface of the target. This work investigates the influence of the projectile's molecular mass on these phenomena by sputtering single-crystal silicon wafers with a variety of liquids (molecular masses between 45.0 and 773.3 amu), and acceleration voltages. The electrosprays are characterized via time of flight to determine the charge to mass ratio of the nanodroplets which, together with the acceleration voltage, yield the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure, and the molecular kinetic energy of the projectile. The estimated range of droplet diameters is 20–79 nm, while the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure and the molecular kinetic energy range between 2.9–10 km/s, 4.7–63 GPa, and 2.1–98 eV. We find that the damage on the surface of the targets strongly depends on the molecular mass of the projectile: liquids with low molecular mass sputter significantly less and produce nanometric indentations and low surface roughness, the latter increasing moderately with stagnation pressure; in contrast, the roughness and sputtering caused by the impacts of droplets with larger molecular mass reach significantly higher values, and exhibit non-monotonic behaviors. The maximum sputtering yields for formamide, EAN, EMI-BF{sub 4}, EMI-Im, TES, and TPP are 0.20, 0.75, 1.20, 2.80, 4.00 and 2.90 silicon atoms per molecule in the projectile. These trends indicate that despite their rather large diameters, the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets is intrinsically a molecular scale phenomenon.

  7. Electrospraying technique for the fabrication of metronidazole contained PLGA particles and their release profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zamani, Maedeh [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Felice, Betiana [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases, Departamento de Bioingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-11-01

    Advanced engineering of materials for the development of drug delivery devices provides scope for novel and versatile strategies for treatment of various diseases. ‘Electrospraying’ was used to prepare PLGA microparticles and further encapsulate the drug, metronidazole (Met) within the particles to function as a drug delivery system. Two different solvents were utilized for the preparation of drug loaded PLGA particles, whereby the polymeric solution in dichloromethane (DCM) produced particles of bigger sizes than using trifluoroethanol (TFE). Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical morphology of the particles, with sizes of 3946 ± 407 nm and 1774 ± 167 nm, respectively for PLGA-Met(DCM) and PLGA-Met(TFE). The FTIR spectroscopy proved the incorporation of metronidazole in the polymer, but without any specific drug–polymer interaction. The release of the drug from the particles was studied in phosphate buffered saline, where a sustained drug release was obtained for at least 41 days. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the drug extract using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed not hindering the proliferation of MSCs, and the cell phenotype was retained after incubation in the drug containing media. Electrospraying is suggested as a cost-effective and single step process for the preparation of polymeric microparticles for prolonged and controlled release of drug. - Highlights: • Electrospraying as a novel method for the fabrication of drug delivery device • Metronidazole encapsulated PLGA particles were fabricated by electrospraying. • Solvent DCM produced particles of double the size than using TFE. • Sustained release of metronidazole studied for a period of 41 days • Drug release pattern from particles followed Fickian diffusion. • PLGA-metronidazole particles can function as a substrate for periodontal regeneration.

  8. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of terrestrial humic substances and their size fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055, Portici (Italy); Spiteller, M. [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), University of Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, 44227, Dortmund (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to evaluate the average molecular mass of terrestrial humic substances, such as humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids from a soil, and humic acid from a lignite (NDL). Their ESI mass spectra, by direct infusion, gave average molecular masses comparable to those previously obtained for aquatic humic materials. The soil HA and FA were further separated in size-fractions by preparative high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and analyzed with ESI-MS by both direct infusion and a further on-line analytical HPSEC. Unexpectedly, their average molecular mass was only slightly less than for the bulk sample and, despite different nominal molecular size, did not substantially vary among size-fractions. The values increased significantly (up to around 1200 Da) after on-line analytical HPSEC for the HA bulk sample, at both pH 8 and 4, and for the HA size-fractions when pH was reduced from 8 to 4. It was noticed that HA size-fractions at pH 8 were separated by on-line HPSEC in further peaks showing average masses which progressively increased with elution volume. Furthermore, when the HA and NDL bulk samples were sequentially ultracentrifuged at increasing rotational speed, their supernatants showed mass values which were larger than bulk samples and increased with rotational speed. These variations in mass values indicate that the electrospray ionization is dependent on the composition of the humic molecular mixtures and increases when their heterogeneity is progressively reduced. It is suggested that the dominance of hydrophobic compounds in humic supramolecular associations may inhibit the electrospray ionization of hydrophilic components. Our results show that ESI-MS is reasonably applicable to humic substances only after an extensive reduction of their chemical complexity. (orig.)

  9. The risk of low doses of ionising radiation and the linear no threshold relationship debate; La controverse sur les effets des faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants et la relation lineaire sans seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Centre Antoine Beclere, Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [11 rue du Haras, Residence Le Boqueteau, Acacias 2, 91 - Saint-Michel-sur-Orge (France); Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U 605., 94 - Villejuif (France); Averbeck, D. [Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond Latarjet, UMR2027 du CNRS, Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    The ICRP and the B.E.I.R. VII reports recommend a linear no threshold (L.N.T.) relationship for the estimation of cancer excess risk induced by ionising radiations (IR), but the 2005 report of Medicine and Science French Academies concludes that it leads to overestimate of risk for low and very low doses. The bases of L.N.T. are challenged by recent biological and animal experimental studies which show that the defence against IR involves the cell microenvironment and the immunologic system. The defence mechanisms against low doses are different and comparatively more effective than for high doses. Cell death is predominant against low doses. DNA repairing is activated against high doses, in order to preserve tissue functions. These mechanisms provide for multicellular organisms an effective and low cost defence system. The differences between low and high doses defence mechanisms are obvious for alpha emitters which show several greys threshold effects. These differences result in an impairment of epidemiological studies which, for statistical power purpose, amalgamate high and low doses exposure data, since it would imply that cancer IR induction and defence mechanisms are similar in both cases. Low IR dose risk estimates should rely on specific epidemiological studies restricted to low dose exposures and taking precisely into account potential confounding factors. The preliminary synthesis of cohort studies for which low dose data (< 100 mSv) were available show no significant risk excess, neither for solid cancer nor for leukemias. (authors)

  10. Ionisation and dissociation of water induced by swift multicharged ions; Etude de l'ionisation et de la dissociation d'H{sub 2}O induites par collision avec des ions multicharges rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, S

    2006-02-15

    Ionization and dissociation of water molecules and water clusters induced by 11.7 MeV/A Ni{sup 25+} ions were carried out by imaging techniques. Branching ratios, ionisation cross sections and Kinetic Energy Released distributions have been measured together with fragmentation dynamics studies. Multiple ionization represents approximately 30% of the ionizing events. Double ionization produces in significant way atomic oxygen, considered as a possible precursor of the large production of HO{sub 2} radical in liquid water radiolysis by ions of high Linear Energy Transfer. We evidence a strong selectivity of bond breakage in the case of ion-induced HOD fragmentation. Once the molecule doubly ionized, the breakage of the O-H bond is found 6.5 times more probable than that of the O-D bond. A semi-classical calculation simulating the fragmentation dynamics on the potential energy surface of the ground-state of di-cation H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} makes possible to as well reproduce the preferential nature of the breakage of the O-H bond as the position and the shift of the kinetic energy distributions. First results concerning interaction with water clusters are also reported. Measurements in coincidence are carried out giving access to correlation, with the distributions in energy and angle of the emitted fragments. Mass spectrum points fast intra-cluster proton transfer, leading to the emission of protonated clusters. (author)

  11. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and field-effect transistor (FET measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  12. Characterization of the improvised explosive urea nitrate using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiri, Tsippy

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectra of urea nitrate were measured in electrospray ionization and in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the negative mode. In both ionization methods two characteristic adduct ions containing the intact molecule [urea nitrate+NO3]- and [urea nitrate+HNO3+NO3]- are shown. The structure of the two adduct ions was deduced using measurements of isotopically labeled urea nitrate. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of the adduct ions show typical losses enabling the identification of urea nitrate in trace amounts. Using these methods urea nitrate was identified in real cases. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Triiodide and mixed tri-halide anions from negative ion electrospray ionization of alkali halide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anil

    2017-10-01

    Electrospray ionization of alkali halide solutions in the negative ion mode results in the formation of cluster ions of the general formula, (MX)nX-. However, alkali iodides form triiodide anion, I3-, in high abundance in addition to cluster ions. Br3- ions are observed in low abundance. Also, mixed tri-halide anions, I2Y-, are observed in high abundance when a small amount (<1%) of KI is added to other alkali halide solutions. These results are explained by the uniquely different physical characteristics of lithium and the iodide ions compared with others in the series.

  14. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of mixtures of triterpene glycosides with paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekar, A. V.; Vetrova, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.; Yakovishin, L. A.; Grishkovets, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular complexation of paracetamol with hederagenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (α-hederin) and its 28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-Dglucopyranosyl ether (hederasaponin C) was investigated for the first time using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The glycosides form complexes with paracetamol in a 1:1 molar ratio. The hederasaponin C complex is more stable. The structures of the glycosides and paracetamol are concluded to have an impact on the complexation process.

  15. How are completely desolvated ions produced in electrospray ionization: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Christopher D; Cann, Natalie M

    2011-11-15

    We apply molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the final phase of electrospray ionization (ESI), where an ion loses all of its associated solvent molecules. By applying an electric field to a cluster of H(2)O molecules solvating an ion and including a surrounding gas of varying pressure, we demonstrate that collisions with the gas play a major role in removing this final layer of solvent. We make quantitative predictions of the critical velocity required for the cluster to start losing molecules via collisions with gas and propose that this should be important in real ESI experiments. Such collisions have heretofore not been explicitly considered in discussions of the ESI process.

  16. Risks of low dose ionising radiation exposures Riesgos derivados de la exposición a dosis bajas de radiación ionizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Real Gallego

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although ionising radiation has been shown to have several beneficial applications for humans, it can also produce detrimental effects in humans and the environment. To adequately protect man and environment from the potential harmful effects of ionising radiation, is essential to know in detail the biological effects produced by it, its characteristics and the various factors that influence these effects. That is the objective of this article, describe the current status of knowledge about biological effects induced by ionising radiation, with special emphasis on those effects occurring after low dose exposures.La radiación ionizante ha mostrado tener diversas aplicaciones beneficiosas para el hombre, pero también puede dañar la salud de las personas y el medio ambiente. Para proteger adecuadamente al hombre de los posibles efectos nocivos de la radiación ionizante es imprescindible conocer en detalle los efectos biológicos producidos por esta, sus características y los distintos factores que influyen en dichos efectos. Ese es el objetivo de este artículo: describir el estado actual del conocimiento sobre los efectos biológicos que puede producir la radiación ionizante, con especial énfasis en aquellos efectos que se producen tras la exposición a dosis bajas.

  17. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  18. A comparative study of matrix- and nano-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry of isolated and synthetic lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Koichi; Ando, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer next to cellulose. However, because of the complexity of the heterogeneous macromolecules, it is difficult to elucidate the polymeric structures of lignin by conventional analytical methods. To obtain the detailed structures of lignin, we comparatively applied nano-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (NALDI-TOF MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Synthetic lignin from coniferyl alcohol and an isolated lignin from Pinus densiflora were subjected to NALDI- and MALDI-TOF MS. We first obtained NALDI-TOF MS of synthetic and isolated lignin. Mass increments of 178 and 196 Da were observed in NALDI- and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the synthetic and isolated lignin. The mass intervals indicated that radical coupling forming β-O-4 bonds is the major pathway. Peaks in the low molecular mass region between m/z 500 and 800 were observed more extensively using NALDI-TOF MS than MALDI-TOF MS, which enabled detailed analysis of the interunit linkages in lignin. Owing to the ionisation profile differentiation from MALDI-TOF MS, NALDI-TOF MS is useful for the structural analysis of lignin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Observations of a groove in the interplanetary Lyman alpha pattern as the signature of enhanced ionisation in the neutral sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaux, J. L.; Quemerais, E.; Lallement, R.; Summanen, T.; Kyrola, E.

    1995-01-01

    We report several observations of the Lyman alpha interplanetary emission recorded by a photometer flown in 1976-1977 on board the Soviet spacecraft Prognoz-5 and Prognoz-6. Several scans made in a plane perpendicular to the sun were cutting through the maximum emission region. where the interstellar hydrogen is approaching nearest to the sun (upwind region). On each of these scans is observed a dip in the intensity curve near the ecliptic plane. about 30 deg wide and approximately equals 10% deep. They reveal the presence of a new feature of the interplanetary emission. a 'groove' aligned approximately with the ecliptic plane. This groove is present only near the upwind direction, and is interpreted as the result of enhanced ionisation of interstellar H by charge-exchange with the solar wind in a sheet of approximately 30 deg around the average position of the neutral sheet at this time of solar this Lyman alpha groove is a prime target for future observations with SWAN experiment on SOHO.

  20. Headspace analysis of new psychoactive substances using a Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe; Lanza, Matteo; Agarwal, Bishu; Jürschik, Simone; Sulzer, Philipp; Breiev, Kostiantyn; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Märk, Lukas; Mayhew, Chris A.; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion in the number and use of new psychoactive substances presents a significant analytical challenge because highly sensitive instrumentation capable of detecting a broad range of chemical compounds in real-time with a low rate of false positives is required. A Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SRI-ToF-MS) instrument is capable of meeting all of these requirements. With its high mass resolution (up to m/Δm of 8000), the application of variations in reduced electric field strength (E/N) and use of different reagent ions, the ambiguity of a nominal (monoisotopic) m/z is reduced and hence the identification of chemicals in a complex chemical environment with a high level of confidence is enabled. In this study we report the use of a SRI-ToF-MS instrument to investigate the reactions of H3O+, O2+, NO+ and Kr+ with 10 readily available (at the time of purchase) new psychoactive substances, namely 4-fluoroamphetamine, methiopropamine, ethcathinone, 4-methylethcathinone, N-ethylbuphedrone, ethylphenidate, 5-MeO-DALT, dimethocaine, 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and nitracaine. In particular, the dependence of product ion branching ratios on the reduced electric field strength for all reagent ions was investigated and is reported here. The results reported represent a significant amount of new data which will be of use for the development of drug detection techniques suitable for real world scenarios. PMID:25844048

  1. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of low-dose ionising radiation on pituitary adenoma: is there a role for L-type calcium channel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: santosr@cdtn.br

    2005-10-15

    Pituitary adenomas constitute about 6-18% of brain tumours in adults. Activation of voltage gated calcium currents can account for growth hormone over secretion in some GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that produce an acromegaly appearance and increase mortality. Ca{sup 2+} ions, as mediators of intracellular signalling, are crucial for the development of apoptosis. However, the role of [Ca{sup 2+}] in the development of apoptosis is ambiguous. In this study, the effects of low-dose ionising gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) on rat pituitary adenoma cells survival and proliferation and the role of calcium channels on the apoptosis radio-induced were evaluated. Doses as low as 3 Gy were found to inhibit GH3 cell proliferation. Even though there was a significant number of live cells,168 hours following irradiation, they were not able to proliferate. The results indicate that the blockade of extracellular calcium influx through these channels does not interfere in the radiation-induced apoptosis in GH3 cells. (author)

  3. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs.

  4. Usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identifying clinical Trichosporon isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Júnior, J N; Figueiredo, D S Y; Toubas, D; Del Negro, G M B; Motta, A L; Rossi, F; Guitard, J; Morio, F; Bailly, E; Angoulvant, A; Mazier, D; Benard, G; Hennequin, C

    2014-08-01

    Trichosporon spp. have recently emerged as significant human pathogens. Identification of these species is important, both for epidemiological purposes and for therapeutic management, but conventional identification based on biochemical traits is hindered by the lack of updates to the species databases provided by the different commercial systems. In this study, 93 strains, or isolates, belonging to 16 Trichosporon species were subjected to both molecular identification using IGS1 gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Our results confirmed the limits of biochemical systems for identifying Trichosporon species, because only 27 (36%) of the isolates were correctly identified using them. Different protein extraction procedures were evaluated, revealing that incubation for 30 min with 70% formic acid yields the spectra with the highest scores. Among the six different reference spectra databases that were tested, a specific one composed of 18 reference strains plus seven clinical isolates allowed the correct identification of 67 of the 68 clinical isolates (98.5%). Although until recently it has been less widely applied to the basidiomycetous fungi, MALDI-TOF appears to be a valuable tool for identifying clinical Trichosporon isolates at the species level. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  6. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water using a large volume ionisation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Isam; Pettersson, Haakan E-mail: hakan.pettersson@lio.se; Lund, Eva

    2000-04-01

    A new method for measuring {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water has been devised. It is based on exhaling radon to a void volume by continuous bubbling of air through the water. The exhaled radon is then transferred in a closed circuit to a modified radon gas pulse ionisation chamber for alpha-spectrometric measurements. About 86% of the radon in water is transferred from 0.75 l of water to the void volume (3.2 l). The set-up offers direct and specific {sup 222}Rn measurements for a wide range of concentrations and shows a low detection limit (LLD=45 mBq l{sup -1} for 8 h counting time). Radium in water is measured, via radon, after sample storage for a month. The method was compared with gamma ray spectrometry for radon and for radium, the latter after pre-concentration by co-precipitation with MnO{sub 2} from 10 l water samples. An excellent agreement between the two techniques was obtained. As a part of a radon survey, the method was employed for analysis of drinking water from bedrock wells.

  7. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-11-15

    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct analysis of triterpenes from high-salt fermented cucumbers using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ioniz...

  9. Ambient femtosecond laser vaporization and nanosecond laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Paul; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of ambient laser-based transfer of molecules into the gas phase for subsequent mass spectral analysis have undergone a renaissance resulting from the separation of vaporization and ionization events. Here, we seek to provide a snapshot of recent femtosecond (fs) duration laser vaporization and nanosecond (ns) duration laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry experiments. The former employs pulse durations of vaporization with little or no fragmentation. When coupled to electrospray ionization, femtosecond laser vaporization provides a universal, rapid mass spectral analysis method requiring no sample workup. Remarkably, laser pulses with intensities exceeding 10(13) W cm(-2) desorb intact macromolecules, such as proteins, and even preserve the condensed phase of folded or unfolded protein structures according to the mass spectral charge state distribution, as demonstrated for cytochrome c and lysozyme. Because of the ability to vaporize and ionize multiple components from complex mixtures for subsequent analysis, near perfect classification of explosive formulations, plant tissue phenotypes, and even the identity of the manufacturer of smokeless powders can be determined by multivariate statistics. We also review the more mature field of nanosecond laser desorption for ambient mass spectrometry, covering the wide range of systems analyzed, the need for resonant absorption, and the spatial imaging of complex systems like tissue samples.

  10. Fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using a coaxial electrospray process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    Full Text Available This study reports on novel fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using coaxial electrospraying. A PVC-coated concentric spinneret was developed to conduct the electrospray process. A series of analyses were undertaken to characterize the resultant particles in terms of their morphology, the physical form of their components, and their functional performance. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that the microparticles had spherical morphologies with clear core-shell structure visible. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction verified that the quercetin active ingredient in the core and sucralose and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS excipients in the shell existed in the amorphous state. This is believed to be a result of second-order interactions between the components; these could be observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the microparticles rapidly released the incorporated quercetin within one minute, and had permeation rates across the sublingual mucosa around 10 times faster than raw quercetin.

  11. Discriminating patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis using serum electrospray mass profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, James R.; Postier, Russell G.; Li, Min; Lerner, Megan R.; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Peyton, Marvin D.; Deb, Subrato J.; Baker, Candace M.; Williams, Travis L.; Hanas, Rushie Jane; Stowell, Donald E.; Lander, Theresa J.; Brackett, Daniel J.; Hanas, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are needed to aid in the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and monitoring pancreatitis development into malignancy especially in high risk patients. This study exhibits efforts and progress toward developing such blood tests, using electrospray-mass spectrometry (MS) serum profiling to distinguish patients with early-stage PDAC or pancreatitis from each other and from controls. Identification of significant serum mass peak differences between these individuals was performed using t tests and “leave one out” cross validation. Serum mass peak distributions of control individuals were distinguished from those of patients with chronic pancreatitis or early-stage PDAC with P values early-stage PDAC with a P value stages I, IIA and IIB were blindly validated from controls. Tandem MS/MS identified a cancer phenotype with elements of PDAC involved in early-stage PDAC/control discrimination. These studies indicate electrospray-MS mass profiling can detect serum changes in patients with pancreatitis or early-stage pancreatic cancer. Such technology has the potential to aid in early detection of pancreatic cancer, biomarker development, and in monitoring development of pancreatitis into PDAC. PMID:25637792

  12. Characterization and deposition of various light-harvesting antenna complexes by electrospray atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vivek B; Orf, Gregory S; Reisch, Sean; Harrington, Lucas B; Prado, Mindy; Blankenship, Robert E; Biswas, Pratim

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have light-harvesting complexes that absorb and transfer energy efficiently to reaction centers. Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) have received increased attention in order to understand the natural photosynthetic process and also to utilize their unique properties in fabricating efficient artificial and bio-hybrid devices to capture solar energy. In this work, LHCs with different architectures, sizes, and absorption spectra, such as chlorosomes, Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein, LH2 complex, and phycobilisome have been characterized by an electrospray-scanning mobility particle-sizer system (ES-SMPS). The size measured by ES-SMPS for FMO, chlorosomes, LH2, and phycobilisome were 6.4, 23.3, 9.5, and 33.4 nm, respectively. These size measurements were compared with values measured by dynamic light scattering and those reported in the literature. These complexes were deposited onto a transparent substrate by electrospray deposition. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the deposited LHCs were measured. It was observed that the LHCs have light absorption and fluorescence spectra similar to that in solution, demonstrating the viability of the process.

  13. Electrospray-assisted characterization and deposition of chlorosomes to fabricate a biomimetic light-harvesting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto-Lopez, Luis B.; Thimsen, Elijah J.; Collins, Aaron M.; Blankenship, R. E.; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis is an efficient process by which solar energy is converted into chemical energy. Green photosynthetic bacteria such as Chloroflexus aurantiacus have supramolecular antenna complexes called chlorosomes attached to their cytoplasmic membrane that increase the cross section for light absorption even in low-light conditions. Self-assembled bacteriochlorophyll pigments in the chlorosome interior play a key role in the efficient transfer and funneling of the harvested energy. In this work it was demonstrated that chlorosomes can be rapidly and precisely size-characterized online in real time using an electrospray-assisted mobility-based technique. Chlorosomes were electrospray-deposited onto TiO{sub 2} nanostructured films with columnar morphology to fabricate a novel biomimetic device to overcome the solvent compatibility issues associated with biological particles and synthetic dyes. The assembled unit retained the viability of the chlorosomes, and the harvesting of sunlight over a broader range of wavelengths was demonstrated. It was shown that the presence of chlorosomes in the biomimetic device had a 30-fold increase in photocurrent.

  14. Fast-Dissolving Core-Shell Composite Microparticles of Quercetin Fabricated Using a Coaxial Electrospray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Yu, Deng-Guang; Williams, Gareth R.; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on novel fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using coaxial electrospraying. A PVC-coated concentric spinneret was developed to conduct the electrospray process. A series of analyses were undertaken to characterize the resultant particles in terms of their morphology, the physical form of their components, and their functional performance. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that the microparticles had spherical morphologies with clear core-shell structure visible. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction verified that the quercetin active ingredient in the core and sucralose and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) excipients in the shell existed in the amorphous state. This is believed to be a result of second-order interactions between the components; these could be observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the microparticles rapidly released the incorporated quercetin within one minute, and had permeation rates across the sublingual mucosa around 10 times faster than raw quercetin. PMID:24643072

  15. Chemical derivatization for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 1. Alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirke, J.M.E.; Adams, C.L.; Van Berkel, G.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-04-15

    Derivatization strategies and specific derivatization reactions for conversion of simple alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines to ionic or solution-ionizable derivatives, that is [open quotes]electrospray active[close quotes] (ES-active) forms of the analyte, are presented. Use of these reactions allows detection of analytes among those listed that are not normally amenable to analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS). In addition, these reactions provide for analysis specificity and flexibility through functional group specific derivatization and through the formation of derivatives that can be detected in positive ion or in negative ion mode. For a few of the functional groups, amphoteric derivatives are formed that can be analyzed in either positive or negative ion modes. General synthetic strategies for transformation of members of these five compound classes to ES-active species are presented along with illustrative examples of suitable derivatives. Selected derivatives were prepared using model compounds and the ES mass spectra obtained for these derivatives are discussed. The analytical utility of derivatization for ES-MS analysis is illustrated in three experiments: (1) specific detection of the major secondary alcohol in oil of peppermint, (2) selective detection of phenols within a synthetic mixture of phenols, and (3) identification of the medicinal amines within a commercially available cold medication as primary, secondary or tertiary. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A Comparison of Alternating Current and Direct Current Electrospray Ionization for Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Scott A.; Chetwani, Nishant; Dovichi, Norman J.; Go, David B.; Gartner, Carlos A.

    2014-04-01

    A series of studies comparing the performance of alternating current electrospray ionization (AC ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and direct current electrospray ionization (DC ESI) MS have been conducted, exploring the absolute signal intensity and signal-to-background ratios produced by both methods using caffeine and a model peptide as targets. Because the high-voltage AC signal was more susceptible to generating gas discharges, the operating voltage range of AC ESI was significantly smaller than that for DC ESI, such that the absolute signal intensities produced by DC ESI at peak voltages were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for AC ESI. Using an electronegative nebulizing gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), instead of nitrogen (N2) increased the operating range of AC ESI by ~50 %, but did not appreciably improve signal intensities. While DC ESI generated far greater signal intensities, both ionization methods produced comparable signal-to-background noise, with AC ESI spectra appearing qualitatively cleaner. A quantitative calibration analysis was performed for two analytes, caffeine and the peptide MRFA. AC ESI utilizing SF6 outperforms all other techniques for the detection of MRFA, producing chromatographic limits of detection nearly one order of magnitude lower than that of DC ESI utilizing N2, and one-half that of DC ESI utilizing SF6. However, DC ESI outperforms AC ESI for the analysis of caffeine, indicating that improvements in spectral quality may benefit certain compounds or classes of compounds, on an individual basis.

  17. Coaxial Electrospray of Curcumin-Loaded Microparticles for Sustained Drug Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    Full Text Available Curcumin exhibits superior anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and analgesic activities without significant side effects. However, clinical dissemination of this natural medicine is limited by its low solubility and poor bio-availability. To overcome this limitation, we propose to encapsulate curcumin in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microparticles (MPs by an improved coaxial electrospray (CES process. This process is able to generate a stable cone-jet mode in a wide range of operation parameters in order to produce curcumin-loaded PLGA MPs with a clear core-shell structure and a designated size of several micrometers. In order to optimize the process outcome, the effects of primary operation parameters such as the applied electric voltages and the liquid flow rates are studied systemically. In vitro drug release experiments are also carried out for the CES-produced MPs in comparison with those by a single axial electrospray process. Our experimental results show that the CES process can be effectively controlled to encapsulate drugs of low aqueous solubility for high encapsulation efficiency and optimal drug release profiles.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Insights into the Dissociation of 2-Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate Clusters Formed via Electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Amanda L; Vogelhuber, Kristen M; Prince, Benjamin D; Annesley, Christopher J

    2018-02-19

    Ionic liquids are used for myriad applications, including as catalysts, solvents, and propellants. Specifically, 2-hydroxyethylhydrazinium nitrate (HEHN) has been developed as a chemical propellant for space applications. The gas-phase behavior of HEHN ions and clusters is important in understanding its potential as an electrospray thruster propellant. Here, the unimolecular dissociation pathways of two clusters are experimentally observed, and theoretical modeling of hydrogen bonding and dissociation pathways is used to help rationalize those observations. The cation/deprotonated cation cluster [HEH 2 - H] + , which is observed from electrospray ionization, is calculated to be considerably more stable than the complementary cation/protonated anion adduct, [HEH + HNO 3 ] + , which is not observed experimentally. Upon collisional activation, a larger cluster [(HEHN) 2 HEH] + undergoes dissociation via loss of nitric acid at lower collision energies, as predicted theoretically. At higher collision energies, additional primary and secondary loss pathways open, including deprotonated cation loss, ion-pair loss, and double-nitric-acid loss. Taken together, these experimental and theoretical results contribute to a foundational understanding of the dissociation of protic ionic liquid clusters in the gas phase.

  19. In situ analysis of soybeans and nuts by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Gabriela; Mandal, Mridul K; Chen, Lee C; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is an ESI-based ionization technique that generates electrospray from the tip of a solid metal needle. In the present work, we describe the PESI mass spectra obtained by in situ measurement of soybeans and several nuts (peanuts, walnuts, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts and almonds) using different solid needles as sampling probes. It was found that PESI-MS is a valuable approach for in situ lipid analysis of these seeds. The phospholipid and triacylglycerol PESI spectra of different nuts and soybean were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows significant differences among the data of each family of seeds. Methanolic extracts of nuts and soybean were exposed to air and sunlight for several days. PESI mass spectra were recorded before and after the treatment. Along the aging of the oil (rancidification), the formation of oxidated species with variable number of hydroperoxide groups could be observed in the PESI spectra. The relative intensity of oxidated triacylglycerols signals increased with days of exposition. Monitoring sensitivity of PESI-MS was high. This method provides a fast, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis (detection and characterization) of lipids in seed tissue and degree of oxidation of the oil samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fabrication of core-shell micro/nanoparticles for programmable dual drug release by emulsion electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yazhou, E-mail: yazhou_wang@cqu.edu.cn; Zhang Yiqiong; Wang Bochu, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com; Cao Yang [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering (China); Yu Qingsong [University of Missouri, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States); Yin Tieying [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering (China)

    2013-06-15

    The study aimed at constructing a novel drug delivery system for programmable multiple drug release controlled with core-shell structure. The core-shell structure consisted of chitosan nanoparticles as core and polyvinylpyrrolidone micro/nanocoating as shell to form core-shell micro/nanoparticles, which was fabricated by ionic gelation and emulsion electrospray methods. As model drug agents, Naproxen and rhodamine B were encapsulated in the core and shell regions, respectively. The core-shell micro/nanoparticles thus fabricated were characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence optical microscope. The core-shell micro/nanoparticles showed good release controllability through drug release experiment in vitro. It was noted that a programmable release pattern for dual drug agents was also achieved by adjusting their loading regions in the core-shell structures. The results indicate that emulsion electrospraying technology is a promising approach in fabrication of core-shell micro/nanoparticles for programmable dual drug release. Such a novel multi-drug delivery system has a potential application for the clinical treatment of cancer, tuberculosis, and tissue engineering.