WorldWideScience

Sample records for electroplated znfe steel

  1. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  2. Mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe alloy coated mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Agathocleous, P.E.; Giannakopoulos, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc alloy coatings containing various amounts of Fe were deposited by electrodeposition technique on a mild steel substrate. The concentration of Fe in the produced alloy coatings ranged from 0 to 14 wt.%, whereas the thickness of the coatings was about 50 μm. Structural and metallurgical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. This study aims in investigating the mechanical behaviour of Zn-Fe coated mild steel specimens, as no research investigation concerning the tensile behaviour of Zn alloy coated ferrous alloys has been reported in the past. The experimental results indicated that the ultimate tensile strength of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was lower than the bare mild steel. In addition, the ductility of the Zn-Fe coated mild steel was found to decrease significantly with increasing Fe content in the coating.

  3. Voltammetric determination of Zn(II in Zn-Fe alloy electroplating baths using square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaron Regiane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A routine analytical method for zinc (II determination in Zn-Fe alloy galvanic baths was developed employing square-wave voltammetry with the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE as working electrode. Real alloy bath samples were analyzed by the standard addition method and recovery tests were undertaken. The supporting electrolytes used in the analyses were 1.0 mol L-1 NH3 / 0.2 mol L-1 NH4Cl or 0.1 mol L-1 citric acid (pH=3, presenting peak potentials for zinc (II, respectively, at -1.30 V and -0.99 V vs. Ag|AgCl (saturated KCl. The proposed voltammetric method showed a linear response range at 25 °C between 1.0 x 10-5 and 2.2 x 10-4 mol L-1 for zinc (II, in both electrolytes studied. The interference levels for some metals, such as Cu (II, Pb (II, Cr (III and Mn (II, which could prejudice Zn-Fe alloy deposition, were evaluated. These ions did not present significant degrees of interference in the zinc (II determination. The zinc (II recovery tests for the proposed method exhibited a good agreement with the reference method, showing relative errors lower than 3.0%.

  4. Electroplating of erbium on steel surface in ErCl3 doped LiCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The electroplating of Er metal on the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C), in a molten salt was studied. The specimen was immersed in the molten ErCl 3 doped LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The electroplating was carried out by a constant potential electrolysis method and a pulsed current electrolysis method. It was found that the Er metal was deposited on the specimen surface due to the electrochemical reaction. (author)

  5. Rule of formation of aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhimin; Feng, Qiuyuan; Shen, Changbin; Gao, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel in AlCl3-NaCl-KCl molten salt was obtained, and the rule of its nucleation and growth were investigated. The results showed that aluminum electroplating layer formed through nucleating and growing of aluminum particles, and thickened by delaminating growth pattern. At low current density, the morphology of aluminum particles took on flake-like, while at high current density they changed to spherical. The thickness of plating layer increases with increasing current density and electroplating time. The relationship between the plating thickness (δ) and electroplating time (t) or current density (i) can be expressed as δ = 0.28f(137), and δ = 1.1i(1-39). Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epitaxial growth of zinc on ferritic steel under high current density electroplating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greul, Thomas; Comenda, Christian; Preis, Karl; Gerdenitsch, Johann; Sagl, Raffaela; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •EBSD of electroplated Zn on Fe or steel was performed. •Zn grows epitaxially on electropolished ferritic steel following Burger's orientation relation. •Surface deformation of steel leads to multiple electroplated zinc grains with random orientation. •Zn grows epitaxially even on industrial surfaces with little surface deformation. •Multiple zinc grains on one steel grain can show identical orientation relations. -- Abstract: The dependence of the crystal orientation of electrodeposited zinc of the grain orientation on ferritic steel substrate at high current density deposition (400 mA cm −2 ) during a pulse-plating process was investigated by means of EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) measurements. EBSD-mappings of surface and cross-sections were performed on samples with different surface preparations. Furthermore an industrial sample was investigated to compare lab-coated samples with the industrial process. The epitaxial growth of zinc is mainly dependent on the condition of the steel grains. Deformation of steel grains leads to random orientation while zinc grows epitaxially on non-deformed steel grains even on industrial surfaces

  7. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  8. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  9. Corrosion behaviour and galvanic coupling with steel of Al-based coating alternatives to electroplated cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasuba, O.A.; Yerokhin, A., E-mail: A.Yerokhin@sheffield.ac.uk; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2013-08-15

    The galvanic corrosion behaviour of bare steel coupled to steel with an Al–Zn flake inorganic spin coating, an Al-based slurry sprayed coating, an arc sprayed Al coating and electroplated cadmium has been investigated. The sacrificial and galvanic behaviour of the coatings was studied in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution using open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical noise measurements. The coatings were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results showed that the Al-based slurry sprayed coating exhibited an open-circuit potential closer to the steel substrate than other coatings, as well as a low corrosion current density and a more positive corrosion potential. In terms of the galvanic suitability of the investigated coatings for the steel substrate, both the Al–Zn flake inorganic spin coating and the Al-based slurry sprayed coating show low galvanic current, in comparison with the arc sprayed Al coating and electroplated cadmium. This behaviour confirms their superior cathodic protection capability and galvanic compatibility over other coatings tested. Electrochemical noise measurements provide accurate information on the coatings' galvanic behaviour, which can be complimented by the data obtained from superposition of potentiodynamic corrosion scans of the coating and bare steel, provided that the corrosion potential difference between the two materials does not exceed 300 mV. - Highlights: • Al-based slurry coating has best galvanic compatibility with steel. • Mg, Cr, P in Al-based slurry coating reinforce its corrosion resistance. • Ennoblement of Al–Zn flake coating compromises its cathodic protection. • Poor corrosion behaviour of arc sprayed Al coating caused by rough morphology. • Electrochemical noise provides adequate estimates of galvanic behaviour.

  10. Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steel electroplated with zincâ  cobalt allo

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, Elizabeth M. K.; Robinson, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Slow strain rate tests were performed on quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel to measure the extent of hydrogen embrittlement caused by electroplating with zincâ  cobalt alloys. The effects of bath composition and pH were studied and compared with results for electrodeposited cadmium and zincâ  10%nickel. It was found that zincâ  1%cobalt alloy coatings caused serious hydrogen embrittlement (EI 0.63); almost as severe as that of cadmium (EI 0.78). Baking cadmium plate...

  11. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocabas, Mustafa; Uelker, Suekrue

    2015-01-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  12. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, Mustafa [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Danisman, Murat [Gedik Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept.; Cansever, Nurhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Uelker, Suekrue [Afyon Kocatepe Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-06-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  13. Sealing of thermally-sprayed stainless steel coatings against corrosion using nickel electroplating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaipat Koiprasert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc spraying (EAS is one of the thermal spray techniques used for restoration and to providecorrosion resistance. It can be utilized to build up coatings to thicknesses of several millimeters, It is easy to use on-site. Most importantly, the cost of this technique is lower than other thermal spraying techniques thatmay be suitable for part restoration. A major disadvantage associated with the electric arc sprayed coating is its high porosity, which can be as high as 3-8% making it not appropriate for use in immersion condition. This work was carried out around the idea of using electroplating to seal off the pore of the EAS coating, with an aim to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating in immersion condition. This research compared the corrosion behavior of a stainless steel 316 electric arc sprayed coating in 2M NaOH solution at 25oC. It was found that the Ni plating used as sealant can improve the corrosion resistance of the EAS coating. Furthermore, the smoothened and plated stainless steel 316 coating has a better corrosion resistance than the plated EAS coating that was not ground to smoothen the surface before plating.

  14. An overview of the recovery of acid from spent acidic solutions from steel and electroplating industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K K

    2009-11-15

    Every metal and metallurgical industry is associated with the generation of waste, which may be a solid, liquid or gaseous in nature. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable due to their complex and hazardous nature affecting the living and non-living environment which is an alarming issue to the environmentalist. The increasingly stringent regulations regarding the discharge of acid and metal into the environment, and the increasing stress upon the recycling/reuse of these effluents after proper treatment have focused the interest of the research community on the development of new approaches for the recovery of acid and metals from industrial wastes. This paper is a critical review on the acidic waste streams generated from steel and electroplating industries particularly from waste pickle liquor and spent bleed streams. Various aspects on the generation of these streams and the methods used for their treatment either for the recovery of acid for reuse or disposal are being dealt with. Major stress is laid upon the hydrometallurgical methods such as solvent extraction.

  15. Improvement of the galvanized coating quality of high strength dual phase steels by pre-electroplating nickel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N. [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Zhang, K. [Institute of Concrete Pumps Machinery R and D, Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. 410100 (China); Li, J. [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Hu, W.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Galvanized dual phase steel sheets are used extensively in the industrial applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and superior corrosion resistance, but the segregation of alloying elements and the formation of oxides on the steel surface often have a deleterious effect on coating adhesion during the galvanizing process. In order to improve the coating quality, a nickel layer was pre-electroplated on the steel substrate before galvanizing and it's found that there is an improvement in the coating quality. The coating microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, glow discharge optical emission spectroscope and X-ray diffractions. The experimental results show that the compact Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22} intermetallic layer formed at the zinc/nickel interface during the galvanizing process, prohibiting the nucleation and the growth of the {zeta}-Zn phase layer and resulting in the improvement of the zinc coating adhesion. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Vacuum brazing of OFE Copper-316L stainless steel transition joints without electroplating stainless steel part for application in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazed transition Joints between OFE copper and type 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS) find extensive applications in particle accelerators all over the world. In contrast to excellent wettability of OFE copper, austenitic SS is well known for its poor wettability for BVAg-8 ( 72 Ag/ 28 Cu; melting point: 1052 K) braze filler metal (BFM). High surface wettability is believed to be necessary to drag molten BFM into the capillary gap between mating metallic surfaces. Therefore, the widely accepted practice for vacuum brazing of such transition joints involves electroplating of SS parts with nickel or copper to enhance its wettability. A recently concluded in-house study, involving Nb to Ni-plated 316L SS brazing, has demonstrated that satisfactory ingress of BFM into a capillary joint between two dissimilar metals is possible if the poor wettability of one of the mating surfaces is compensated by good wettability of its counterpart. In the light of these observations, the present study was undertaken to explicitly evaluate the requirement of electroplating the SS part for establishment of sound OFE copper-316L SS brazed joints suitable for service in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) of particle accelerators

  17. Electroplating of Ni-Mo Coating on Stainless Steel for Application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rashtchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel bipolar plates are preferred choice for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. However, regarding the working temperature of 80 °C and corrosive and acidic environment of PEMFC, it is necessary to apply conductive protective coatings resistant to corrosion on metallic bipolar plate surfaces to enhance its chemical stability and performance. In the present study, by applying Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloy coatings via electroplating technique, corrosion resistance was improved, oxid layers formation on substrates which led to increased electrical conductivity of the surface was reduced and consequently bipolar plates fuction was enhanced. Evaluation tests included microstructural and phase characterizations for evaluating coating components; cyclic voltammetry test for electrochemical behavior investigations; wettability test for measuring hydrophobicity characterizations of the coatings surfaces; interfacial contact resistance measurements of the coatings for evaluating the composition of applied coatings; and polarization tests of fuel cells for evaluating bipolar plates function in working conditions. Finally, the results showed that the above-mentioned coatings considerably decreased the corrosion and electrical resistance of the stainless steel.

  18. Study of corrosion behavior on the addition of sodium citrate in nickel electroplating on SPCC steel using EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riastuti, R.; Ramadini, C.; Siallagan, S. T.; Rifki, A.; Herdino, F.

    2018-04-01

    The addition of sodium citrate to nickel electroplating process as additive is useful for refining the grain size of nickel deposit. The refining of grain size in nickel deposit as coating layer can improve surface performance, one of which corrosion resistance. This paper aims to investigate the effect of sodium citrate addition as grain refiner to promote corrosion resistance on SPCC steel. This experiment used Watt’s Bath solution of NiSO4 300 g/L, NiCl4 45 g/L, H3BO3 60 g/L, wetting agent 0.2 cc/L. Sodium citrate was added in composition of 45g/L and 60g/L. Nickel were deposited by direct current using current density on 6 A/dm2 at the acidity level of 5 for 30 minutes by keeping the operating temperature stable at 50°C. The grain size of nickel deposit was observed through Optical Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The corrosion behavior of SPCC was observed by linear polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) methods using 3% NaCl solution. Based on the research, the addition of sodium citrate as grain refiner will increasing corrosion resistance on SPCC steel from 0.35 to 0.05 mm/year.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel/Brass Joints Brazed by Sn-Electroplated Ag Brazing Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2018-05-01

    To develop a high-Sn-content AgCuZnSn brazing filler metal, the BAg50CuZn was used as the base filler metal and a Sn layer was electroplated upon it. Then, the 304 stainless steel and the H62 brass were induction-brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metals. The microstructures of the joints were examined with an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray diffractometer. The corresponding mechanical properties were obtained with a universal tensile testing machine. The results indicated that the induction brazed joints consisted of the Ag phase, the Cu phase and the CuZn phase. When the content of Sn in the Sn-plated Ag brazing filler metal was 6.0 or 7.2 wt.%, the Cu5Zn8, the Cu41Sn11 and the Ag3Sn phases appeared in the brazed joint. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was higher compared to the joints with the base filler metal. When the content of Sn was 6.0 wt.%, the highest tensile strength of the joint reached to 395 MPa. The joint fractures presented a brittle mode, mixed with a low amount of ductile fracture, when the content of Sn exceeded 6.0 wt.%.

  20. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Lu, Chen-En; Ger, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm 2 ) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm 2 and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I corr = 9.360 × 10 −8 A/cm 2 ). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm 2 at 150 N cm −2 ), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm 2 ) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm 2 ). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel

  1. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu, E-mail: khou@ndu.edu.tw [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chen-En [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm{sup 2}) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm{sup 2} and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I{sub corr} = 9.360 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm{sup 2} at 150 N cm{sup −2}), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm{sup 2}). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel.

  2. Preparation of protactinium measurement source by electroplating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongwei; Yang Weifan; Fang Keming; Yuan Shuanggui; Guo Junsheng; Pan Qiangyan

    1998-01-01

    An electroplating method for the preparation of Pa sources is described, and the main factors (such as pH value of solution, electroplating time and current density) influencing the electroplating of Pa are tested and discussed with 233 Pa as a tracer. A thin and uniform electroplating Pa-Layer of 1 mg/cm 2 thick on thin stainless steel disk was obtained. The Pa source was measured by a HPGe detector to determine the chemical efficiency

  3. The electroplated Pd–Co alloy film on 316 L stainless steel and the corrosion resistance in boiling acetic acid and formic acid mixture with stirring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sirui; Zuo, Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tang, Yuming; Zhao, Xuhui

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Pd–Co alloy films were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by electroplating. • The Pd–Co films show fine grain size, low porosity and obviously high hardness. • In strong acids with Br{sup −} and stirring, Pd–Co films show good corrosion resistance. • The high hardness of Pd–Co film retards the development of micro-pores in the film. - Abstract: Pd–Co alloy films were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by electroplating. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, weight loss test and polarization test were used to determine the properties of the Pd–Co alloy films. The Pd–Co films show fine grain size, low porosity and obviously high micro-hardness. The Co content in the film can be controlled in a large range from 21.9 at.% to 57.42 at.%. Pd is rich on the Pd–Co film surface, which is benefit to increase the corrosion resistance. In boiling 90% acetic acid plus 10% formic acid mixture with 0.005 M Br{sup −} under stirring, the Pd–Co plated stainless steel samples exhibit evidently better corrosion resistance in contrast to Pd plated samples. The good corrosion resistance of the Pd–Co alloy film is explained by the better compactness, the lower porosity, and the obviously higher micro-hardness of the alloy films, which increases the resistance to erosion and retards the development of micro-pores in the film.

  4. Effect of mechanical pre-loadings on corrosion resistance of chromium-electroplated steel rods in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina Helbert, Varvara; Dhondt, Matthieu; Homette, Remi; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Calloch, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    Providing high hardness, low friction coefficient, as well as, relatively good corrosion resistance, chromium-plated coatings (∼20 μm) are widely used for steel cylinder rods in marine environment. However, the standardized corrosion test method (ISO 9227, NSS) used to evaluate efficiency of this type of coatings does not take into account in-service mechanical loadings on cylinder rods. Nevertheless, the uniform initial network of microcracks in chromium coating is changing under mechanical loadings. Propagation of these microcracks explains premature corrosion of the steel substrate. The aim of the study was to evaluate relationship between mechanical loadings, propagation of microcracks network and corrosion resistance of chromium coatings. After monotonic pre-loading tests, it was demonstrated by microscopic observations that the microcracks propagation started at stress levels higher than the substrate yield stress (520 MPa). The microcracks become effective, i.e. they have instantly undergone through the whole coating thickness to reach the steel substrate. The density of effective microcracks increases with the total macroscopic level, i.e. the intercrack distance goes from 60 ± 5 μm at 1% of total strain to approximately 27 ± 2 μm at 10%. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the higher the plastic strain level applied during mechanical loading, the more the corrosion potential of the sample decreased until reaching the steel substrate value of approximately ‑0.65 V/SCE after 2 h of immersion. The polarization curves have also highligthed an increase in the corrosion current density with the strain level. Therefore, electrochemical measurements could be used to realize quick and comprehensive assesment of the effect of monotonic pre-loadings on corrosion properties of the chromium coating.

  5. Electroplating sludge derived zinc-ferrite catalyst for the efficient photo-Fenton degradation of dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianyong; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2017-05-15

    A zinc-dominant ferrite catalyst for efficient degradation of organic dye was prepared by the calcination of electroplating sludge (ES). Characterizations indicated that zinc ferrite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) coexisted with Fe 2 O 3 structure was the predominant phase in the calcined electroplating sludge (CES). CES displayed a high decolorization ratio (88.3%) of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 combined with UV irradiation. The high efficiency could be ascribed to the photocatalytic process induced by ZnFe 2 O 4 and the photo-Fenton dye degradation by ferrous content, and a small amount of Al and Mg in the sludge might also contribute to the catalysis. Moreover, the degradation capability of dye by CES was supported by the synthetic ZnFe 2 O 4 with different Zn to Fe molar ratio (n(Zn): n(Fe)), as 84.81%-86.83% of dye was removed with n(Zn): n(Fe) ranged from 1:0.5 to 1:3. All synthetic ferrite samples in the simulation achieved adjacent equilibrium decolorization ratio, the flexible proportioning of divalent metal ions (M 2+ ) to trivalent metal ions (M 3+ ) applied in the synthesis indicated that the catalyst has a high availability. Therefore, an efficacious catalyst for the degradation of dye can potentially be derived from heavy metal-containing ES, it's a novel approach for the reutilization of ES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  7. Joining of HHF materials applying electroplating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.krauss@kit.edu; Lorenz, Julia; Konys, Jürgen

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Electroplating of fillers is industrially relevant for brazing in fusion. • Interlayers (Ni or Pd) improve adherence and reduce failure risks. • Tungsten and Eurofer joints successfully fabricated by electroplating. • Mechanical and non-destructive testing integrated into qualification. • Shear strength of W joints comparable with conventionally brazed steel. - Abstract: Tungsten will be used as armor material for blanket shielding and is designated as high heat flux material for divertors, beyond application of improved W composite alloys as structural material. Independent from design (water- or helium-cooled), a successful development is inherently correlated with joining of tungsten with functional components. Depending on the design variants, the fabricated joints have to guarantee specific functional or structural properties, e.g., good thermal conductivity or mechanical load transmission. Tungsten shows lacks in adapted joining due to its metallurgical behavior ranging from immiscibility over bad wetting to brittle intermetallic phase formation. Electroplating has shown to overcome such drawbacks and that homogeneous functional (e.g., Ni or Pd) and filler (e.g., Cu) layers can be deposited. In this paper the progress achieved in development of electroplating processes for joining W to W or steel to steel will be shown. The main focus will be the characterization of the processed joints applying metallurgical investigations including SEM/EDX analyses and non-destructive testing. The mechanical stability of the produced joints is demonstrated by presenting recent shear test data. The W–W joints failed due to cracking in W, whereas the steel–steel joints cracked in the brazing zone at about 200 N/mm{sup 2} load.

  8. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  9. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  10. Audible monitor for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burowick, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    "No buzzer" indicates early problem in electroplating when parts are properly immersed into electropolating bath. Buzzer sounds when current flows through part; however, if current is cut, buzzer stops warning that parts must be removed and refinished thus preventing unnecessary waste of electrical energy and labor.

  11. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  13. Electroplating method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, R.B.; Smith, W.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm

  14. Electroplating method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Robert B.; Smith, William E. L.

    1978-06-20

    An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

  15. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  16. Monolith electroplating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  17. Electroplating of nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite coating in a stainless-steel tube for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiabi, Hamid; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-06-05

    In this work, a novel and efficient on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography was developed for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of parabens. A nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite was electrochemically deposited on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube and used as the extraction phase. Several important factors that influence the extraction efficiency, including type of solid-phase coating, extraction and desorption times, flow rates of the sample solution and eluent, pH, and ionic strength of the sample solution were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg L(-1). This method showed good linearity for parabens in the range of 0.07-50 μg L(-1), with coefficients of determination better than 0.998. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (RSD%, n=3) were in the range of 5.9-7.0% and 4.4-5.7% at three concentration levels of 2, 10, and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The extraction recovery values for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 80.3-90.2%. The validated method was successfully applied for analysis of methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl parabens in some water, milk, and juice samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electroplating eliminates gas leakage in brazed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Electroplating method seals brazed or welded joints against gas leakage under high pressure. Any conventional electroplating process with many different metal anodes can be used, as well as the build up of layers of different metals to any required thickness.

  19. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for potential application in radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayatullah, M; Nurhasanah, I; Budi, W S

    2016-01-01

    Radiosensitizer is a material that can increase the effects of radiation in radiotherapy application. Various materials with high effective atomic number have been developed as a radiosensitizer, such as metal, iron oxide and quantum dot. In this study, ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles are included in iron oxide class were synthesized by precipitation method from the solution of zinc nitrate and ferrite nitrate and followed by calcination at 700° C for 3 hours. The XRD pattern shows that most of the observed peaks can be indexed to the cubic phase of ZnFe 2 O 4 with a lattice parameter of 8.424 Å. SEM image reveals that nanoparticles are the sphere-like shape with size in the range 84-107 nm. The ability of ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles as radiosensitizer was examined by loading those nanoparticles into Escherichia coli cell culture which irradiated with photon energy of 6 MV at a dose of 2 Gy. ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles showed ability to increase the absorbed dose by 0.5 to 1.0 cGy/g. In addition, the presence of 1 g/L ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles resulted in an increase radiation effect by 6.3% higher than if exposed to radiation only. These results indicated that ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles can be used as the radiosensitizer for increasing radiation effect in radiotherapy. (paper)

  20. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  1. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  2. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  3. Magnetic structure evolution in mechanically milled nanostructured ZnFe2O4 particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wynn, P.; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Nanostructured partially-inverted ZnFe2O4 particles have been prepared from bulk ZnFe2O4 by high-energy ball milling in an open container. The grain size reduction, cation site distributions, and the evolution of magnetic structures have been studied by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld structure...... refinements, transmission electron microscopy, and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It is found that a change of magnetic structure from an antiferromagnetic to a ferrimagnetic (or ferromagnetic) structure occurs in the milled samples. This change is correlated with the redistribution of the cations, Zn and Fe...

  4. Experimental study on manufacturing of grits-spiral- distribution electroplated wire saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei GAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high performance electroplating diamond wire saw, experimental studies are conducted for development of grits-spiral-distribution electroplated diamond wire saw using sand-suspend electroplating method. The influences of pre-plating cathode current density, grits electro-embedding cathode current density and time on composite deposite coating appearance and grits distribution of wire saw are analyzed, and the sawing experiment is carried out by using the trial wire saw. The results show that good bonding strength between the coating and the steel wire can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 at pre-plating stage; good coating and girts distribution can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 and the electroplating time is 7~8 min at grits electro-embedding stage. By winding insulation wire on the surface of steel wire and reasonably selecting technological parameters before pre-plating can make the diamond wire saw with grits-spiral-distribution on surface, and the new type of wire saw has a better crumbs-clearing effect in wire sawing process.

  5. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery

  6. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery.

  7. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  8. Electroplated zinc-cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.E.O.S.; Farr, J.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc-cobalt alloys is surveyed. Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. The structures of the deposits is related to their chemical and mechanical properties. The inclusion of oxide and its role in the deposition mechanism may be significant. Chemical and engineering properties relate to the metallurgical structure of the alloys, which derives from the mechanism of deposition. The inclusion of oxides and hydroxides in the electroplate may provide evidence for this mechanism. Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made at significant deposition potentials, in alkaline electrolytes. These reveal a complex electrode behaviour which depends not only on the electrode potential but on the Co content of the electrolyte. For the relevant range of cathodic potential zinc-cobalt alloy electrodeposition occurs through a stratified interface. The formation of an absorbed layer ZnOH/sup +/ is the initial step, this inhibits the deposition of cobalt at low cathodic potentials, so explaining its 'anomalous deposition'. A porous layer of zinc forms on the adsorbed ZnOH/sup +/ at underpotential. As the potential becomes more cathodic, cobalt co- deposits from its electrolytic complex forming a metallic solid solution of Co in Zn. In electrolytes containing a high concentration of cobalt a mixed entity (ZnCo)/sub +/ is assumed to adsorb at the cathode from which a CoZn intermetallic deposits. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sigit

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION. Electroplating process of uranyl nitrate and effluent process has been carried out in order to collect uranium contained therein using electrode Pt / Pt and Pt / SS at various currents and times. Material used for electrode were Pt (platinum and SS (Stainlees Steel. Feed solution of 250 mL was entered into a beaker glass equipped with Pt anode - Pt cathode or Pt anode - SS cathode, then fogged direct current from DC power supply with specific current and time so that precipitation of uranium sticking to the cathode. After the processes completed, the cathode was removed and weighed to determine weight of precipitates, while the solution was analyzed to determine the uranium concentration decreasing after and before electroplating process. The experiments showed that a relatively good time to acquire uranium deposits at the cathode was 1 hour by current 7 ampere, uranyl nitrate as feed, and Pt (platinum as cathode. In these conditions, uranium deposits attached to the cathode amounted to 74.96% of the original weight of uranium oxide in the feed or 206.5 mg weight. The use of Pt cathode for  uranyl nitrate, SS and Pt cathode for effluent process feed gave uranium specific weight at the cathode of 12.99 mg/cm2, 2.4 mg/cm2 and 5.37 mg/cm2 respectively for current 7 ampere and electroplating time 1 hour. Keywords: Electroplating, uranyl nitrate, effluent process, Pt/Pt electrode, Pt/SS electrode

  10. Direct electroplating of plastic for advanced electrical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2017-01-01

    Electrodeposition or electroplating is predominantly applied to metallic components. Electroplating of plastics is possible in some cases where an initial electroless plating layer of nickel or copper is made to provide a conductive surface on the plastic part. This paper proposes a method...... for direct electroplating of plastic eliminating the need for slow and expensive processes like electroless metal deposition, PVD coating, painting with conductive inks etc. The results obtained from the test demonstrate the potential of direct electroplating of plastic to enhance the electrical conductivity...... and the use of electroplated plastics for advanced applications like Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs)....

  11. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 44-page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and Technology publication is an update of a 1980 EPA publication that has been revised to reflect changes in the EPA regulations, as well as in the pollution control technologies that affect the electroplating industry. ...

  13. Solvothermal Synthesis of Hierarchical Colloidal Nanocrystal Assemblies of ZnFe2O4 and Their Application in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical colloidal nanocrystal assemblies (CNAs of ZnFe2O4 have been synthesized controllably by a solvothermal method. Hollow ZnFe2O4 spheres can be formed with the volume ratios of ethylene glycol to ethanol of 1:4 in the starting systems, while solid ZnFe2O4 CNAs are obtained by adjusting the volume proportion of ethylene glycol to ethanol from 1:2 to 2:1. Magnetometric measurement data showed that the ZnFe2O4 CNAs obtained with the volume ratios of 1:2 and 1:1 exhibited weak ferromagnetic behavior with high saturation magnetization values of 60.4 and 60.3 emu·g−1, respectively. However, hollow spheres showed a saturation magnetization value of 52.0 emu·g−1, but the highest coercivity among all the samples. It was found that hollow spheres displayed the best ability to adsorb Congo red dye among all the CNAs. The formation mechanisms of ZnFe2O4 CNAs, as well as the relationship between their structure, crystallite size, and properties were discussed based on the experimental results.

  14. Study of solid state interactions in the systems ZnFe2O4 - CaO, ZnFe2O4 - MgO and zinc cake with CaO and MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltekov A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid state interactions of CaO and MgO with synthetic and industrial ZnFe2O4 (in zinc cake have been studied using chemical, XRD analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The exchange reactions in the systems ZnFe2O4 - CaO and ZnFe2O4 - MgO have been investigated in the range of 850-1200ºC and duration up to 180 min. It has been established that Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions exchange Zn2+ in ferrite partially and the solubility of zinc in a 7% sulfuric acid solution increases. The possibilities for utilization of the obtained results in zinc hydrometallurgy have been discussed.

  15. An excellent performance anode of ZnFe2O4/flake graphite composite for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lingmin; Hou, Xianhua; Hu, Shejun; Tang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiang; Ru, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composite was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode demonstrated high initial coulombic efficiency of 87.7%. • The initial discharge /charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 . • The high capacity retention of 98% was obtained for the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode. -- Abstract: An approach of hydrothermal reaction for lithium ion battery was adopted, by which ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composites with excellent performance could be prepared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. With nano-sized ZnFe 2 O 4 particles coating on the electrochemical active matrix of flake graphite, the special composites allowed improved electronic conductivity and constructed an expressway for the transport of charges and lithium ions. Thus the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode became a compromise between capacity and cycle ability. The initial discharge–charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 at a constant current density of 100 mA g −1 , respectively. As high as 87.7% of the initial coulombic efficiency was obtained. Additionally, the charge capacity maintained constantly in the range of 720–735 mA h g −1 in following cycles. And a high reversible charge capacity of 730 mA h g −1 could be attained after 100 cycles, with the reversible capacity retention of 98%

  16. A new approach to control a deflection of an electroplated microstructure: dual current electroplating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Seo, Min-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and novel method to control the deflection in a suspended microstructure by using a dual current electroplating (DuCE) method. The key concept of this method is to divide the structure into two layers—a bottom layer and a top layer—and then apply respective current densities in electroplating to those two layers while all other conditions are kept the same. In addition to a flat structure, the direction of structure bending is freely controlled by virtue of the DuCE method. Cantilever Ni beams with a length of 400 µm, which were electroplated by the conventional single current electroplating method, bent downward with a deflection of 3.4 µm. On the contrary, by the DuCE method, cantilever beams with a length of 400 µm showed an almost flat structure as desired. (The current densities of the bottom layer, the top layer, and the ratio of the two current densities, are 0.15, 1.24 A dm −2 , and 8.3, respectively.) Consequently, a nickel electroplated spiral structure with a length of 8600 µm was suspended flat with an end deflection of less than 0.7 µm (the ratio between the deflection and length is 0.007%). This work therefore represents the unprecedented ultra-long suspended microstructure with submicrometer deflection. (paper)

  17. Electroplating of low stress permalloy for MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yonghua; Ding Guifu; Cai Yuli; Wang Hong; Cai Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    With the wafer-bending method and spectrophotometry, the internal stress in electroplated Ni-Fe alloy for MEMS has been investigated as a function of bath concentration. This investigation demonstrated that low concentration plating solution is useful for the decrease of the residual stress in the electrodeposits, and the stress could further decrease with an increase of saccharin additive content. And the change of stress from tensile to compressive was not observed with the increase of the additive content in plating path. The low stress permalloy (Ni 81 Fe 19 ) was reached in our experimental conditions. A bistable electromagnetic RF MEMS switch with deformation-free bilayer cantilever beam was fabricated successfully by electroplated permalloy

  18. Longitudinal magnetic bistability of electroplated wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Garcia-Miquel, H.; Vazquez, M.; Svalov, A.V.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 20 Ni 74 Co 6 and Fe 20 Ni 64 Co 16 1 μm thick magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu 98 Be 2 conductive wire have been investigated in as-deposited state, after heat treatment under longitudinal magnetic field for 1 h at 330 deg. C, and after rf-sputtering deposition of the additional 2 μm Fe 19 Ni 81 layer. Heat treatments and an additional layer deposition modify the shape of hysteresis loops. Magnetically bistable behaviour, observed after the field annealing at a temperature of 330 deg. C, is studied as a function of the length of the samples. This is the first report by our knowledge on the bistable behaviour of the electroplated wires. The bistability of these wires is promising for applications such as tagging or pulse generator applications

  19. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  20. Development of Cr Electroplated Cladding Tube for preventing Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Woo, Je Woong; Kim, Sung Ho; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byung Oon; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Metal fuel has been selected as a candidate fuel in the SFR because of its superior thermal conductivity as well as enhanced proliferation resistance in connection with the pyroprocessing. However, metal fuel suffers eutectic reaction (Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction, FCCI) with the fuel cladding made of stainless steel at reactor operating temperature so that cladding thickness gradually reduces to endanger reactor safety. In order to mitigate FCCI, barrier concept has been proposed between the fuel and the cladding in designing fuel rod. Regarding this, KAERI has initiated barrier cladding development to prevent interdiffusion process as well as enhance the SFR fuel performance. Previous study revealed that Cr electroplating has been selected as one of the most promising options because of its technical and economic viability. This paper describes the development status of the Cr electroplating technology for the usage of fuel rod in SFR. This paper summarizes the status of Cr electroplating technology to prevent FCCI in metal fuel rod. It has been selected for the ease of practical application at the tube inner surface. Technical scoping, performance evaluation and optimization have been carried out. Application to the tube inner surface and in-pile test were conducted which revealed as effective.

  1. PENGARUH JENIS ANODA PADA PROSES PEMULIHAN LOGAM NIKEL DARI TIRUAN AIR LIMBAH ELECTROPLATING MENGGUNAKAN SEL ELEKTRODEPOSISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Dhaenudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF ANODES TYPES ON NICKEL RECOVERY FROM SYNTHETIC ELECTROPLATING WASTE ELECTRODEPOSITION CELLS. A study concerning the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater artificial solution. The study was conducted with a batch system using electrodeposition cell consisting of two spaces separated by water hyacinth leaf, copper cathode plate, H2SO4 solution anolyte, catholyte solution of NiSO4 plus NaCl supporting electrolyte and anode varied. Electrodeposition performed at the direct current of 5V power for 4 hours each run. The research objective was to obtain the best anode in nickel electrodeposition process of electroplating waste artificial solution. Graphite, stainless steel type AISI 316 and the lead were used as a variation of the anode. Concentration of nickel in the catholyte at baseline 2200 mg/L. The results showed that the anode was a graphite anode with best value decreased by 72.44% nickel concentration, deposition of nickel on the cathode of 0.188 grams and specific energy values ​​of 6.1625 kWh/kg.nickel.   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pemulihan logam nikel dari larutan tiruan air limbah electroplating. Penelitian dilakukan dengan sistem batch menggunakan sel elektrodeposisi yang terdiri dari dua ruang yang dipisahkan dengan daun eceng gondok, katoda pelat tembaga, anolit larutan H2SO4, katolit larutan NiSO4 ditambah elektrolit pendukung larutan NaCl dan anoda divariasikan. Elektrodeposisi dilakukan pada listrik searah sebesar 5V selama 4 jam setiap tempuhan. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh anoda terbaik pada proses elektrodeposisi nikel dari larutan tiruan limbah electroplating. Grafit, Stainless Steel  tipe AISI 316 dan timbal digunakan sebagai variasi jenis anoda. Konsentrasi nikel dalam katolit pada awal penelitian 2200 mg/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anoda grafit merupakan anoda yang paling baik dengan nilai penurunan konsentrasi nikel sebesar 72,44%, deposisi nikel di katoda sebesar 0

  2. Porous Hierarchical Nitrogen-doped Carbon Coated ZnFe_2O_4 Composites as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Hongyun; Wang, Qiuxian; Shi, Zhenpu; Ma, Chao; Ding, Yanmin; Huo, Ningning; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuting

    2015-01-01

    Porous hierarchical and nitrogen-doped carbon coated ZnFe_2O_4 (ZnFe_2O_4@NC) was obtained by combustion method and unique carbon coating technology. Gum Arabic was firstly introduced in the carbon coating process as an additive, which played an important role to control the uniformity of carbon coating layer. The nitrogen-doped carbon layer was obtained through the pyrolysis of glycine. The elemental composition and content of the nitrogen-doped carbon in composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling was used to test the electrochemical performance of ZnFe_2O_4@NC and pure ZnFe_2O_4. The sub-micro size ZnFe_2O_4@NC with unique porous structure showed an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material, which was higher than that of pure ZnFe_2O_4. ZnFe_2O_4@NC could maintain the specific discharge capacity of 1477 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1 A g"−"1 after 100 cycles and 705 mAh g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 after 1000 cycles, respectively.

  3. Magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles for visible light photodegradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Suresh D.; Kumbar, Sagar; Menon, Samvit G.; Choudhari, K.S.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase pure, magnetic ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles synthesized with excellent yield. • ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed higher UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO nanoparticles. • First report on visible light photodegradation of methyl orange by ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO. • Excellent reusability of ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles observed for azo dye removal. - Abstract: Visible light photodegradation of aqueous methyl orange using magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported. A combination of low temperature (190 °C) microwave synthesis and hydrothermal method were used to prepare phase pure material with excellent yield (95%). The magnetic separability, surface area of 41 m"2/g and visible light absorption make ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles a good solar photocatalyst. ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed greater UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO owing to the generation of large number of electron-hole pairs. Visible light photodegradation of MO using ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported for the first time. Higher first order rate constants under both UV and visible light for core-shell nanoparticles suggested their superiority over its individual oxides. The ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO showed excellent reusability with high photocatalytic efficiencies suggesting its suitability for solar photocatalytic applications.

  4. First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction: Approach towards solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Shrikant S.; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using SILAR method. • ZnFe_2O_4 electrode yields the specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. • Solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device based on ZnFe_2O_4 sandwiched in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–LiClO_4 gel electrolyte exhibits voltage windows of 1.0 V. • ZnFe_2O_4-SSS supercapacitor device shows good energy and power density with long cycle life. - Abstract: ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been synthesized by a simple and low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method without the use of surfactant or template. The nanoplate composed of nanoparticles with porous surface morphology has been revealed which is beneficial towards supercapacitor application. Formed ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor through electrochemical analysis. First attempt for SILAR synthesized ZnFe_2O_4 thin film exhibited a specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. Further, ZnFe_2O_4 solid-state symmetric (SSS) supercapacitor device demonstrated voltage window of 1.0 V with specific capacitance of 32 Fg"−"1, energy density of 4.47 Whkg"−"1 and power density of 277 Wkg"−"1 at 1 Ag"−"1 current density. Such high performance capacitive behavior indicates ZnFe_2O_4 thin film is promising and low cost electrode material towards energy storage devices for various portable electronic systems.

  5. ZnFe2O4 Containing Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zālīte Ilmārs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid solutions of Co1−xZnxFe2O4 and Ni1−xZnxFe2O4 (0 < x < 1 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel self-propagating combustion method. The obtained single cubic phase product has a specific surface area 25 m2∙g−1 to 33 m2∙g−1 and crystallite size 25 nm to 40 nm. Lattice parameters change linearly from 8.371 A (CoFe2O4 and 8.337 A (NiFe2O4 to 8.431 A (ZnFe2O4. The saturation magnetization (Ms changes non-linearly from 60.8 emu∙g−1 (CoFe2O4, respectively, from 35.6 emu∙g−1 (NiFe2O4 to 3.3 emu∙g−1 (ZnFe2O4 reaching maximal value 76.1 emu∙g−1 for Co0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 and 64.9 emu∙g−1 – for Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4.

  6. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composites derived from a diatomite template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoting; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Di; Gong, Xiaolu; Guo, Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    A novel porous ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composite product has been generated with a template-directed assembly method from porous diatomite under different synthesis conditions, such as precursor concentrations (metallic nitrates), calcination temperature and diatomite type. The phase composition and morphology of all the materials were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that an inherited hierarchical porous structure from the diatomite template can be obtained, and the synthesis conditions were found to have clear effects on the formation of the ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composite. The ideal composite of ZnFe2O4/SiO2 can be obtained through optimization of diatomite template type, precursor solution and calcination temperature. Furthermore, the adsorption abilities of two types of diatomites were analyzed in detail using FTIR spectra and nitrogen adsorption measurements etc, which proved that A-diatomite (Shengzhou-diatomite) is better than B-diatomite (Changbai-diatomite) on the aspect of adsorbing Zn and Fe ions, and of forming the ZnFe2O4.

  8. Electroplating of Uranium -Foil Target With Ni And Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna AI Hasa, Muhammad; Suripto, Asmedi

    2001-01-01

    The uranium foil target, which was produced by rolling, was subjected to preparation treatment prior to the electroplating. The electroplating produced certain plate thickness on the foil surface. The electroplating was applied to the uranium foil of 71 mm long and 46 mm wide using plating materials of Ni and Zn. The plating is intended to serve as barrier for fission fragment recoils, which are produced during irradiation. The plate thickness produced by the electroplating was measured by a micrometer and an analytical balance. The electroplating with Ni produced plate-thickness of 8,9 mm when measured by the micrometer, or 11.4 mm when measured by the analytical balance, while the Zn electroplating produced greater plate-thickness, i.e. 16.2 mm by the micrometer measurement or 13.7 mm by the analytical balance measurement. The current efficiency of the electroplating was 62 % for Ni and 80 % for Zn. It was observed that the optimum condition for the electroplating depended on the plating materials, plating time, and current density. The plate-thickness produced under the optimum condition was 7-15 mm at 15 mA/cm 2 for Ni and ]0 mA/cm 2 for Zn with plating time of 60 minutes

  9. Electroplating of gold using a sulfite-based electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, E.; Jacobs, B.; Falcone, S.; Geluk, E.J.; Karouta, F.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, den J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Electroplating of gold is often used in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices for air-bridges, heat-sinks or gold-bumps for flip-chip techniques. The gold-cyanide electrolytes, which are commonly used in gold-electroplating, are toxic and attack resist patterns causing cracks during the plating

  10. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit

  11. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetens, T.; Guo, M.; Van Acker, K.; Blanpain, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe 2 O 3 particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe 2 O 3 , Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe 2 O 4 and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe 2 O 4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe 2 O 4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe 2 O 4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe 2 O 4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber

  12. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  13. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  14. 40 CFR 413.20 - Applicability: Description of the electroplating of precious metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating of precious metals subcategory. 413.20 Section 413.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroplating of Precious Metals Subcategory § 413.20 Applicability: Description of the electroplating of...

  15. 40 CFR 413.10 - Applicability: Description of the electroplating of common metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating of common metals subcategory. 413.10 Section 413.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroplating of Common Metals Subcategory § 413.10 Applicability: Description of the electroplating of common...

  16. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion behaviour of tin-20 wt.% zinc coatings electroplated from a non-cyanide alkaline bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; Mertens, M.L.A.D.; Saurat, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant deposits because they combine the barrier protection of tin with the cathodic protection afforded by zinc. The coatings containing 20 wt.% zinc, balance tin, offer excellent corrosion protection for steel and do not form gross voluminous white corrosion products like pure zinc or high zinc alloy deposits. In this study, the effects of variables of the process (i.e. cathodic current density, pH and temperature) on deposit composition have been evaluated using a Hull cell to obtain 20 wt.% zinc alloy coatings. The tin-20 wt.% zinc deposits, produced with electroplating optimized conditions, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). On the other hand, the corrosion behaviour of tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings on steel has been investigated using electrochemical methods in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution and the salt spray test. The performance of the deposits was compared with cadmium and zinc-nickel electrodeposited coatings. The results show that the corrosion resistance of tin-20 wt.% zinc alloy coating is superior to that of cadmium and zinc-12 wt.% nickel coatings. Finally, sliding friction tests were conducted.

  17. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  18. Implications of Zn/Fe ratios for the sources of Colorado Plateau basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, S.; Reid, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Early Miocene to recent mafic magmatism migrated across the Arizona Transition Zone towards the center of the stable Colorado Plateau at a rate of ~ 3-6 km/Myr (Roy et al., 2009). Present-day volcanic centers are close to a stepwise change in the thickness of the lithosphere between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range. Accordingly, volcanic migration might track progressive thinning of the lithosphere towards the center of the Colorado Plateau. This project aims to determine the conditions of melt generation across the transition zone in order to investigate the temporal/spatial correlation between volcanism and thinning of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere. Pressure and temperature estimates for Colorado Plateau basalts can be obtained from the Mg and Si contents of melts (Lee et al, 2009) but require melting of a peridotitic source. Eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths reported in Colorado Plateau basalts show that melt sources could be olivine-poor. Zn/Fe ratios in melts can help to distinguish contributions from olivine-poor sources because they are sensitive to differences in bulk chemistry and to mineralogy (Le Roux et al., 2010). Specifically, Zn/Fe is not fractionated between melt, olivine, and orthopyroxene, but is highly fractionated when clinopyroxene and garnet are present. Our work to date has focused on laser ablation-IC-PMS analysis of individual olivine grains from high-Mg basalts (>8.0 wt. %) from the San Francisco and Mormon Mountain volcanic fields. Preliminary values of Zn/Fe ratios that represent the averages of multiple analyses of several grains in individual samples range from 7.9 to 9.3 (x10000). Variations of up to 1.7 (x10000) in the ratios exist between individual grains within samples and could be the result of co-crystallization of clinopyroxene with olivine. The lowest values in each sample should approach the Zn/Fe ratios of parental melts, and are, in turn, similar to MORB values and predicted peridotite melts. The results suggest

  19. Synthesis of ZnFe2O4/ZnO nanocomposites immobilized on graphene with enhanced photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lin; Shao, Rong; Tang, Lanqin; Chen, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnFe 2 O 4 /ZnO nanocomposites immobilized on graphene were successfully prepared. ► The photocatalyst exhibited excellent reactivity under solar light irradiation. ► The photocatalysts could be recycled by external magnetic field conveniently. ► The photocatalytic mechanism of the novel material was proposed in detail. -- Abstract: Magnetically recyclable ZnFe 2 O 4 /ZnO nanocomposites immobilized on different content of graphene with favorable photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation were successfully prepared on the basis of an ultrasound aided solution method. The molar ratio of ZnFe 2 O 4 to ZnO and the content of graphene could be controlled by adjusting the amount of zinc salts and graphene oxide dispersions. The most excellent photocatalytic activity under solar light irradiation was displayed when the molar ratio of ZnFe 2 O 4 to ZnO was 0.1 and the weight ratio of graphene to ZnFe 2 O 4 /ZnO was 0.04. Furthermore, the presence of magnetical ZnFe 2 O 4 will facilitate the recycling process of photocatalyst nanoparticles

  20. [Hexavalent chromium pollution and exposure level in electroplating workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-hui; Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Zhang-ping; Jiang, Cai-xia; Ren, Xiao-bin; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-min

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pollution of hexavalent chromium in the electroplating workplace and screen the biomarkers of chromium exposure. Field occupational health investigation was conducted in 25 electroplating workplaces. 157 electroplating workers and 93 healthy unexposed controls were recruited. The epidemiological information was collected with face to face interview. Chromium in erythrocytes was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The median of short-term exposure concentration of chromium in the air at electroplating workplace was 0.06 mg/m(3) (median) and ranging from 0.01 (detect limit) to 0.53 mg/m(3)). The median concentration of Cr (VI) in erythrocytes in electroplating workers was 4.41 (2.50 ∼ 5.29) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in control subjects [1.54 (0.61 ∼ 2.98) µg/L, P electroplating workers and control subjects, except for the subjects of age less than 30 years old (P = 0.11). There was hexavalent chromium pollution in electroplating workplace. Occupational hazards prevention measures should be taken to control the chromium pollution hazards.

  1. Graphene–palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe2O4–graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanohybrid ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs was developed by assembling the GQDs on the ZnFe 2 O 4 through a photo-Fenton reaction. • The ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs exhibited higher peroxidase-like activity and better stability than each individual and HRP. • An electrochemical sensor was fabricated using ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic to detect DNA. • Graphene and Pd nanowires were modified on the glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate. - Abstract: We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe 2 O 4 –graphene quantum dots (ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe 2 O 4 through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe 2 O 4 , the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe 2 O 4 /GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10 −16 to 5 × 10 −9 M and low detection limit of 6.2 × 10 −17 M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems can be widely utilized for the identification of other target molecules

  2. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region.

  3. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region. PMID:24452389

  4. Effects of pattern characteristics on the copper electroplating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Wenbiao; Chen Lan; Li Zhigang; Ye Tianchun; Ma Tianyu; Wang Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The non-planarity of a surface post electroplating process is usually dependent on variations of key layout characteristics including line width, line spacing and metal density. A test chip is designed and manufactured in a semiconductor foundry to test the layout dependency of the electroplating process. By checking test data such as field height, array height, step height and SEM photos, some conclusions are made. Line width is a critical factor of topographical shapes such as the step height and height difference. After the electroplating process, the fine line has a thicker copper thickness, while the wide line has the greatest step height. Three typical topographies, conformal-fill, supper-fill and over-fill, are observed. Moreover, quantified effects are found using the test data and explained by theory, which can be used to develop electroplating process modeling and design for manufacturability (DFM) research. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Creating low-impedance tetrodes by electroplating with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, John E.; Boldt, Chris; Redish, A. David

    2011-01-01

    A tetrode is a bundle of four microwires that can record from multiple neurons simultaneously in the brain of a freely moving animal. Tetrodes are usually electroplated to reduce impedances from 2-3 MΩ to 200-500 kΩ (measured at 1 kHz), which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and allows for the recording of small amplitude signals. Tetrodes with even lower impedances could improve neural recordings but cannot be made using standard electroplating methods without shorting. We were able to electroplate tetrodes to 30-70 kΩ by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) solutions to a commercial gold-plating solution. The MWCNTs and PEG acted as inhibitors in the electroplating process and created large-surface-area, low-impedance coatings on the tetrode tips. PMID:21379404

  6. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic diphase ZnFe2O4/γ-Fe2O3 electrospun fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M.; Pantojas, V.M.; Perales, O.; Otano, W.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic nanofibers of ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 composite were synthesized by electrospinning from a sol-gel solution containing a molar ratio (Fe/Zn) of 3. The effects of the calcination temperature on phase composition, particle size and magnetic properties have been investigated. Zinc ferrite fibers were obtained by calcinating the electrospun fibers in air from 300 to 800 deg. C and characterized by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibration sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy. The resulting fibers, with diameters ranging from 90 to 150 nm, were ferrimagnetic with high saturation magnetization as compared to bulk. An increase in the calcination temperature resulted in an increase in particle size and saturation magnetization. The observed increase in saturation magnetization was most likely due to the formation and growth of ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 diphase crystals. The highest saturation magnetization (45 emu/g) was obtained for fibers calcined at 800 deg. C. - Research highlights: → Nanofibers were produced by electrospinning from a sol-gel. → ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 formed after cacination in air from 300 to 800 deg. C. → Fibers were ferrimagnetic with high saturation magnetization. → Crystallite particle size and saturation magnetization increase with temperature. → Magnetic domains with sizes similar to topographical grains were observed.

  8. Cement stabilization of hazardous and radioactive electroplating sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Pickett, J.B.; Martin, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Cement stabilization was evaluated for treatment of nickel and uranium in electroplating sludge at the Savannah River Site. Waste forms were prepared by pretreating the sludge and the solidifying it in a variety of cement, cement plus flyash, and cement-flyash-slag mixes. The sludge was also treated by one-step filtration-solidification. Leaching results and processing data indicate the cement solidification is an effective method of treating hazardous-low-level electroplating waste

  9. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10 17 N-at/cm 2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  10. Performance of electro-plated and joined components for divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Wolfgang; Lorenz, Julia; Konys, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Active interlayers of Ni and Pd were electroplated on W to assist joining. • Demonstrator types of W-steel and W–W joints were successfully fabricated. • Diffusion processes increase operation temperature above brazing temperature. • Ni electro-plating is less sensitive to variation of deposition parameters than Pd. • Shear tests showed values in resistance comparable to those of commercial fillers. -- Abstract: A general challenge in divertor development, independently of design type and cooling medium water or helium, is the reliable and adapted joining of components. Depending on the design variants, the characteristics of the joints will be focused on functional or structural behavior to guarantee e.g. good thermal conductivity and sufficient mechanical strength. All variants will have in common that tungsten is the plasma facing material. Thus, material combinations to be joined will range from Cu base over steel to tungsten. Especially tungsten shows lacks in adapted joining due to its metallurgical behavior ranging from immiscibility over bad wetting up to brittle intermetallic phase formation. Joining assisted by electro-chemical deposition of functional and filler layers showed that encouraging progress was achieved in wetting applying nickel interlayers. Nickel proved to be a good reference material but alternative elements (e.g. Pd, Fe) may be more attractive in fusion to manufacture suitable joints. Replacing of Ni as activator element by Pd for W/W or W/steel joints was achieved and joining with Cu-filler was successfully performed. Manufactured joints were characterized applying metallurgical testing and SEM/EDX analyses demonstrating the applicability of Pd activator. First shear tests showed that the joints exhibit mechanical stability sufficient for technical application

  11. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  12. Impurity Effects in Electroplated-Copper Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu electroplating is a mature technology, and has been extensively applied in microelectronic industry. With the development of advanced microelectronic packaging, Cu electroplating encounters new challenges for atomic deposition on a non-planar substrate and to deliver good throwing power and uniform deposit properties in a high-aspect-ratio trench. The use of organic additives plays an important role in modulating the atomic deposition to achieve successful metallic coverage and filling, which strongly relies on the adsorptive and chemical interactions among additives on the surface of growing film. However, the adsorptive characteristic of organic additives inevitably results in an incorporation of additive-derived impurities in the electroplated Cu film. The incorporation of high-level impurities originating from the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG and chlorine ions significantly affects the microstructural evolution of the electroplated Cu film, and the electroplated-Cu solder joints, leading to the formation of undesired voids at the joint interface. However, the addition of bis(3-sulfopropyl disulfide (SPS with a critical concentration suppresses the impurity incorporation and the void formation. In this article, relevant studies were reviewed, and the focus was placed on the effects of additive formula and plating parameters on the impurity incorporation in the electroplated Cu film, and the void formation in the solder joints.

  13. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  14. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic performances and magnetic recovery capacity of visible-light-driven Z-scheme ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Tianzhao; Feng, Deqiang; Zheng, Lingcheng; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Feng; Dong, Hong; Zheng, Rongkun; Liu, Hui

    2018-05-01

    High efficiency, high stability and easy recovery are three key factors for practical photocatalysts. Z-scheme heterostructure is one of the most promising photocatalytic systems to meet all above requirements. However, efficient Z-scheme photocatalysts which could absorb visible light are still few and difficult to implement at present. In this work, the composite photocatalysts ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag were prepared through a two-step method. A ∼92% photodegradation rate on methyl orange was observed within 30 min under visible light, which is much better than that of individual ZnFe2O4 or AgBr/Ag. The stability was also greatly improved compared with AgBr/Ag. The increased performance is resulted from the suitable band alignment of ZnFe2O4 and AgBr, and it is defined as Z-scheme mechanism which was demonstrated by detecting active species and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Besides, ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is ferromagnetic and can be recycled by magnet. These results show that ZnFe2O4/AgBr/Ag is a potential magnetically recyclable photocatalyst which can be driven by visible light.

  16. Nonstoichiometric Zn Ferrite and ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 Composite Spheres: Preparation, Magnetic Properties, and Chromium Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chun-Liang; Yang, Li-Xia; Sun, Chang-Mei; Liang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Monodisperse and porous nonstoichiometric Zn ferrite can be prepared by a solvothermal method. Such non-Zn ferrite was used to be the precursor for synthesis of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite via calcination at 600°C for 3 h in air. X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) proved the nonstoichiometry of Zn ferrite synthesized by solvothermal method and the formation of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite via calcination. TEM image showed that non-Zn ferrite spheres with wormlike nanopore structure were made of primary nanocrystals. BET surface area of non-Zn ferrite was much higher than that of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite. Saturation magnetization of non-Zn ferrites was significantly higher than that of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composites. Calcination of non-Zn ferrite resulted in the formation of large amount of non-magnetic Fe2O3,which caused a low magnetization of composite. Because of higher BET surface area and higher saturation magnetization, non-Zn ferrite presented better Cr6+ adsorption property than ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composites.

  17. Synthesis and properties of ZnFe2O4 replica with biological hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Yiping; Zhang, Yangyang; Wu, Fen; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ZFO replica with hierarchical structure was synthesized from butterfly wings. • Biotemplate has a significant impact on the properties of ZFO material. • Our method opens up new avenues for the synthesis of spinel ferrites. -- Abstract: ZnFe 2 O 4 replica with biological hierarchical structure was synthesized from Papilio paris by a sol–gel method followed by calcination. The crystallographic structure and morphology of the obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmittance electron microscope. The results showed that the hierarchical structures were retained in the ZFO replica of spinel structure. The magnetic behavior of such novel products was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. A superparamagnetism-like behavior was observed due to nanostructuration size effects. In addition, the ZFO replica with “quasi-honeycomb-like structure” showed a much higher specific capacitance of 279.4 F g −1 at 10 mV s −1 in comparison with ZFO powder of 137.3 F g −1 , attributing to the significantly increased surface area. These results demonstrated that ZFO replica is a promising candidate for novel magnetic devices and supercapacitors

  18. Drilling of optical glass with electroplated diamond tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. J.; Luan, C. G.; Yu, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    K9 optical glass drilling experiments were carried out. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tools with small slots and under heat treatment in different temperature were fabricated. Scan electro microscope was applied to analyze the wear of electroplated diamond tool. The material removal rate and grinding ratio were calculated. Machining quality was observed. Bond coating hardness was measured. The experimental results show that coolant is needed for the drilling processes of optical glasses. Heat treatment temperature of diamond tool has influence on wearability of diamond tool and grinding ratio. There were two wear types of electroplated diamond tool, diamond grit wear and bond wear. With the machining processes, wear of diamond grits included fracture, blunt and pull-out, and electroplated bond was gradually worn out. High material removal rates could be obtained by using diamond tool with suitable slot numbers. Bright nickel coating bond presents smallest grains and has better mechanical properties. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tool with slot structure and heat treatment under 200°C was suitable for optical glass drilling.

  19. [Mortality study in metal electroplating workers in Bologna (Northern Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Alberto; Scarnato, Corrado; Giacomozzi, Giuseppe; d'Errico, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    to investigate general and cause-specific mortality of workers exposed to metals and other chemicals in the electroplating industry in Bologna Province. factory records of workers employed in 90 electroplating companies present in 1995 were used to build a cohort of subjects potentially exposed to carcinogenic and other substances in this industry, defined as "revised cohort", which was followed-up for mortality from 1960, or since first employment in an electroplating company if later, to 2008. Mortality risk was also examined separately in a subset of the cohort, composed of workers with at least one year of employment in electroplating, denominated "final cohort". Death rates of residents in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) were used as a reference. follow-up completeness was 99%. During the observation period, 533 deaths out of 2,983 subjects were observed in the revised cohort and 317 out of 1,739 in the final cohort. Significantly increased Standardized Mortality Ratios were estimated for overall mortality and for mortality from AIDS in the revised cohort and for bladder and rectal cancer in both cohorts. the present study is, to authors' knowledge, the largest mortality investigation conducted in Italy on electroplating workers, for both size and temporal extension. The presence of excess mortality from causes of death not consistently associated in the literature with exposure to agents in this industry suggests that further research is needed to confirm these associations.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Electroplated Nickel Coating on Hard Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt’s solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5 constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  1. Target preparation by electroplating of enriched thallium-203 and its quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rayyes, A. H.; Ailouti, Y.

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the optimum conditions of enriched thallium-203 electroplating on copper holders have been determined starting from different electroplating electrolytes. These conditions include current intensity and thallium concentration. The different solutions were: Newly prepared electrolyte using 203 Tl 2 O 3 , depleted solution used in a previous operations of electroplating, and recovery solutions, coming from Tl-203 separation from lead-201.(author)

  2. 2π absolute measurement research for α-electroplating source covering ZnS(Ag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianxia

    1999-01-01

    2π absolute measurement can be completed after the quantitative deposit (5 +- 1) mg/cm 2 with ZnS(Ag) on surface of the alpha electroplating source. The measuring efficiency is 100%. This method is suitable for both of electroplating ordinary sample and electroplating standard (of reference) source

  3. Graphene-palladium nanowires based electrochemical sensor using ZnFe2O4-graphene quantum dots as an effective peroxidase mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ding, Ya-nan; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-12-10

    We proposed an electrochemical DNA sensor by using peroxidase-like magnetic ZnFe2O4-graphene quantum dots (ZnFe2O4/GQDs) nanohybrid as a mimic enzymatic label. Aminated graphene and Pd nanowires were successively modified on glassy carbon electrode, which improved the electronic transfer rate as well as increased the amount of immobilized capture ssDNA (S1). The nanohybrid ZnFe2O4/GQDs was prepared by assembling the GQDs on the surface of ZnFe2O4 through a photo-Fenton reaction, which was not only used as a mimic enzyme but also as a carrier to label complementary ssDNA (S3). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically activity of nano-sized GQDs and ZnFe2O4, the nanohybrid possessed highly-efficient peroxidase-like catalytic activity which could produce a large current toward the reduction of H2O2 for signal amplification. Thionine was used as an excellent electron mediator. Compared with traditional enzyme labels, the mimic enzyme ZnFe2O4/GQDs exhibited many advantages such as environment friendly and better stability. Under the optimal conditions, the approach provided a wide linear range from 10(-16) to 5×10(-9) M and low detection limit of 6.2×10(-17) M. The remarkable high catalytic capability could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based assay systems. The new, robust and convenient assay systems can be widely utilized for the identification of other target molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  5. In-situ synthesized ZnFe2O4 firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs as a long-life anode material with high lithium storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbo; Zhang, Wanxi; Li, Linlin; Jin, Bo; Jin, Enmei; Jeong, Sangmoon; Jiang, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Because of two different metal cations in the crystal structures, binary transition metal oxides possess a lot of unique properties. ZnFe2O4 emerges from these transition metal oxides on account of its high theoretical capacity (1072 mAh g-1). One-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would be a desirable conductive additive for ZnFe2O4, thereby improving the electrochemical performance of ZnFe2O4. In this work, we prepare ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs by solvothermal method with further heat-treatment. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles are firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs. ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite displays high specific capacity (1278 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, and 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1500 mA g-1 after 500 cycles), and good rate performance (367 mAh g-1 even at a current density of 6000 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles). The superior electrochemical performance may promote ZnFe2O4 to be a promising alternative anode in lithium-ion batteries.

  6. [Quantitative classification-based occupational health management for electroplating enterprises in Baoan District of Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Huang, Jinsheng; Yang, Baigbing; Lin, Binjie; Xu, Xinyun; Chen, Jinru; Zhao, Zhuandi; Tu, Xiaozhi; Bin, Haihua

    2014-04-01

    To improve the occupational health management levels in electroplating enterprises with quantitative classification measures and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational hazards in electroplating enterprises and the protection of workers' health. A quantitative classification table was created for the occupational health management in electroplating enterprises. The evaluation indicators included 6 items and 27 sub-items, with a total score of 100 points. Forty electroplating enterprises were selected and scored according to the quantitative classification table. These electroplating enterprises were classified into grades A, B, and C based on the scores. Among 40 electroplating enterprises, 11 (27.5%) had scores of >85 points (grade A), 23 (57.5%) had scores of 60∼85 points (grade B), and 6 (15.0%) had scores of electroplating enterprises is a valuable attempt, which is helpful for the supervision and management by the health department and provides an effective method for the self-management of enterprises.

  7. Synthesis of visible light active Gd3+-substituted ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for photocatalytic and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. B.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Nagaraju, G.; Viswanath, R.; Rashmi, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    In the present analysis, we study the assembly of a low-cost and visible light active ZnFe2-xGdxO4 ( x = 0 , 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) nanoparticles (NPs) photocatalyst. The synthesized samples were characterized by several physicochemical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The phase transition from cubic to orthorhombic was confirmed by XRD patterns. The increase in the concentration of Gd3+ substitution in ZnFe2O4 NPs enhances the redshift of absorption in the visible region of UV-Vis absorption spectra and reduces the band gap. In the photo-Fenton-type reaction, the gadolinium-substituted zinc ferrite (ZGF) NPs exhibit a significant catalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (99% in 90 minutes) under visible light (500W xenon lamp) with respect to bare samples (95% in 240 minutes) and they also show an excellent reusability nature. These materials were also screened for antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria strains ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli).

  8. Facial synthesis of carbon-coated ZnFe2O4/graphene and their enhanced lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Libing; Su, Qingmei; Xiao, Yanling; Huang, Min; Li, Haojie; Deng, Huihui; Du, Gaohui

    2017-07-01

    Carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 spheres with sizes of 110-180 nm anchored on graphene nanosheets (ZF@C/G) are successfully prepared and applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The obtained ZF@C/G presents an initial discharge capacity of 1235 mAh g-1 and maintains a reversible capacity of 775 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1. After being tested at 2 A g-1 for 700 cycles, the capacity still retains 617 mAh g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be attributed to the synergetic role of graphene and uniform carbon coating ( 3-6 nm), which can inhibit the volume expansion, prevent the pulverization/aggregation upon prolonged cycling, and facilitate the electron transfer between carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 spheres. The electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized ZF@C/G nanostructures are promising electrode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Estimation of Pb from metal and electroplating industrial waste by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of lead in sediment and liquid waste samples of selected metal electroplating industries was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data obtained revealed that lead content in liquid wastes varies in the range of 0.582-14.97 mg L-1 and 1.300-757.8 mg Kg-1 in sediments. Removal of ...

  10. Patterned Electroplating of Micrometer Scale Magnetic Structures on Glass Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  11. Patterned electroplating of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, S.J.; Krenn, G.E.; van Driel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  12. Process Technology Development of Ni Electroplating in Steam Generator Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Yi, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Jeong, M. K.

    2009-11-01

    Operating nuclear power steam generator tubing material, Alloy 600, having superior resistance to corrosion has many experiences of damage by various corrosion mechanisms during long term operation period. In this research project, a new Ni electroplating technology to be applied to repair the damaged steam generator tubes has been developed. In this technology development, the optimum conditions for variables affecting the Ni electroplating process, optimum process conditions for maximum adhesion forces at interface between were established. The various mechanical properties (RT and HT tensile, fatigue, creep, burst, etc.) and corrosion properties (general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, boric acid corrosion, doped steam) of the Ni plated layers made at the established optimum conditions have been evaluated and confirmed to satisfy the specifications. In addition, a new ECT probe developed at KAERI enable to detect defects from magnetic materials was confirmed to be used for Ni electroplated Alloy 600 tubes at the field. For the application of this developed technology to operating plants, a mock-up electroplating system has been designed and manufactured, and set up at Doosan Heavy Industry Co. and also its performance test has been done. At same time, the anode probe has been modified and improved to be used with the established mock-up system without any problem

  13. Inverse spinel ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation and post-annealing: An investigation using X-ray spectroscopy and magneto-transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Buerger, D.; Kuepper, K.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noncrystalline ZnFe 2 O 4 has been investigated intensively due to the drastic difference in cation distribution compared with bulk materials. We previously synthesized ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles by ion implantation and post-annealing [S. Zhou, K. Potzger, H. Reuther, G. Talut, F. Eichhorn, J. von Borany, W. Skorupa, M. Helm, J. Fassbender, J. Phys. D - Appl. Phys. 40 (2007) 964]. These ZnFe 2 O 4 nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented inside the ZnO matrix and show a hysteretic behavior upon magnetization reversal at 5 K. Their magnetic properties are explained by assuming that Fe 3+ ions partially occupy tetrahedral sites. In this paper an X-ray spectroscopic and magneto-transport investigation on ZnFe 2 O 4 nanocrystals in a ZnO matrix will be presented. The occupation of Fe 3+ at tetrahedral sites has been directly proved. A positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect is observed and is attributed to ordinary MR.

  14. Recovery of valuable metals from electroplating sludge with reducing additives via vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruth; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Zih-Yi; Wang, Jian-Wen; Lin, Chitsan; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-11-15

    In this study, vitrification was applied to treat Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. The sludge was mixed with additives (limestone:cullet = 4:6) and then heated to 1450 °C. The cooled product could be separated into slag and ingot. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used to determine the metal levels of specimens and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests, whereas the crystalline and surface characteristics were examined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. With a glassy structure, the slag was mainly composed of Ca, Si, and Mg. The TCLP results of slags met the Taiwan regulated standards, suggesting that slag can be used for recycling purposes. With the aid of additives, the crystalline phase of slag was transformed form CaMgSiO4 into CsSiO3. The ingots were mainly composed of Ni (563,000-693,800 mg/kg), Cu (79,900-87,400 mg/kg), and Fe (35,000-43,600 mg/kg) (target metals) due the gravity separation during vitrification. At appropriate additives/sludge ratios (>0.2), >95% of target metals gathered in the ingot as a recoverable form (Ni-Fe alloy). The high Ni level of slag suggests that the ingot can be used as the raw materials for smelters or the additives for steel making. Therefore, the vitrification approach of this study is a promising technology to recover valuable metals from Ni-Cu electroplating sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by the combustion method: Comparison between aspartic acid and glycine as fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugavani, A.; Kalai Selvan, R.; Layek, Samar; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-01-01

    Using two different fuels such as aspartic acid and glycine, the spinel zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the combustion method at different pH values. The thermochemical calculations for both the fuel assisted materials and its adiabatic flame temperature were calculated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of single phase ZnFe 2 O 4 with high crystallinity. The characteristic functional groups of Fe3O and Zn3O were identified through FTIR analysis. Uniform size distribution of spherical particle in the average size range of 35–100 nm was inferred from SEM images. The room temperature DC conductivities of ZnFe 2 O 4 particles prepared by using aspartic and glycine are in the order of 10 −7 and 10 −8 respectively. The dielectric spectral analysis inferred that the obtained dielectric constant is high at low frequency and decreases with increase in frequency. This dielectric behavior is in accordance with the Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization. VSM and Mössbauer analysis revealed that the prepared material exhibits paramagnetic behavior and Fe 3+ state of iron content in ZnFe 2 O 4 at room temperature. - Highlights: • For the first time aspartic acid is used as a fuel to synthesize ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. • Theoretical adiabatic flame temperature for the formation of ZnFe 2 O 4 is calculated. • Individual spherical shape particles are achieved by combustion synthesis. • Enhanced room temperature conductivity for aspartic acid assisted particles are revealed. • Size dependent electrical and magnetic properties are demonstrated

  16. Corrosion barriers processed by Al electroplating and their resistance against flowing Pb–15.7Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.krauss@kit.edu; Konys, Jürgen; Wulf, Sven-Erik

    2014-12-15

    In the HCLL blanket design, ferritic–martensitic steels are in direct contact with the flowing liquid breeder Pb–15.7Li and have to withstand severe corrosion attack. Beyond corrosion, T-permeation from the breeder into the RAFM-steels is also an important issue and has to be reduced significantly. Earlier work showed that Al-based coatings can act as barriers for both, however, applied processes e.g. HDA or VPS exhibited strong drawbacks in the past. Meanwhile new industrial relevant coating processes, using electroplating technology are under development and called ECA (electrochemical aluminization) and ECX (electrochemical deposition from ionic liquids) process. In this study electrochemically Al-coated and heat-treated Eurofer samples were tested in PICOLO loop for exposure times up to 12,000 h (ECA) and 2000 h (first results ECX) respectively to determine corrosion properties in flowing Pb–15.7Li (550 °C, 0.1 m/s). Cross section analysis afterward corrosion testing proved the ability of thin Al-based barriers made by electrochemical techniques to protect the bare Eurofer from corrosion attack even at exposure times of 12,000 h. Determined radial corrosion rates lay between 10 and 20 μm/a. First results for ECX coated samples (2000 h) revealed more homogeneous corrosion behavior of the barrier layer itself compared to ECA.

  17. Novel ternary composites: Preparation, performance and application of ZnFe2O4/TiO2/polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanbi; Xiao, Qiushi; Li, Liangchao; Shen, Junhai; Hu, Diqiong

    2015-03-01

    A series of ZnFe2O4/TiO2/polyaniline ternary composites with excellent photocatalytic activity were successfully synthesized by chemical method. The phase composition, morphology, conductivity, electrical and magnetic performances of the as-samples were characterized by means of modern measurement technology. And the photocatalytic degradation activity tests for the samples were estimated using rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) as targeted pollutants. The results indicated that there existed some interactions between each component in the ternary composites, and the electrical conductivities and photocatalytic degradation activities of the ternary composites were improved due to the coating of polyaniline. Moreover, when the mass fraction of aniline was up to 50%, the ternary composite exhibited a great decontaminating (including photocatalytic degradation and adsorption) activity of on both MO and RhB and displayed an excellent reusability.

  18. Synthesis of electroplated {sup 63}Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using {sup 63}Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated {sup 63}Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including {sup 62}Ni and {sup 63}Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}. The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively.

  19. Titanium electroplating of copper in molten salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Denis

    1985-01-01

    After a bibliographical survey on electroplating in molten salt media and on the electrolytic production of titanium, the author explains the reasons for the choice of the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic mix as solvent. He recalls the main properties which are used, and describes the conventional and convolutional processing of data obtained by linear volt-amperometry. He presents the electrolyte preparation mode which takes into account the existence of titanium ions with intermediate oxidation degree, and the reactivity of titanium with oxygenated species. Experimental results are discussed. Then, after the study of the mechanism of reduction of trivalent titanium into titanium on molybdenum (intermetallic diffusion is here negligible), he reports the study of this mechanism on copper (it is a more complicated situation, due to combinations between titanium and copper). The effect of different parameters (electrolyte purity, current density, electrode potential and temperature) is interpreted in order to identify optimal conditions for titanium electroplating of copper [fr

  20. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  1. Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 μm have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets

  2. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Gonzales, Gilbert R [New York, NY; Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Meinken, George E [Middle Island, NY

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  3. Synthesis of electroplated 63Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using 63 Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated 63 Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including 62 Ni and 63 Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H 3 BO 3 , and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm -2 . The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively

  4. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of nanotechnology, the new generation of heat transfer fluids called, “nanofluids” have been developed and researchers found that these fluids offer higher thermal conductivity compared to that of conventional coolants. This study focused on the preparation of Zinc based nanofluids (ZnFe2O4 using chemical co-precipitation method and its application in an automotive cooling system along with mixture of ethylene glycol and water (50:50. Relevant input data, nanofluids properties and empirical correlations were obtained from literatures to investigate the heat transfer enhancement of an automotive car radiator operated with nano fluid-based coolants. It was observed that, overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate in engine cooling system increased with the usage of nanofluids (with ethylene glycol the base-fluid compared to ethylene glycol (i.e. base-fluid alone. It is observed that, about 78% of heat transfer enhancement could be achieved with the addition of 1% ZnFe2O4 particles in a base fluid at the Reynolds number of 84.4x103 and 39.5x103 for air and coolant respectively

  5. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu

    2016-10-15

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1{sub 0} CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm{sup 2}), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1{sub 0} ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH{sub max} of 100 kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH{sub max} ~100 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  6. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  7. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  8. In-plant testing of membranes to treat electroplating wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D. B.; Talu, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report submitted for the work performed under the NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-301 for the project entitled 'In-Plant Testing of Membranes To Treat Electroplating Waste water'. The main objective of the research project was to determine if the crosslinked polyacrylic acid salt films developed by NASA scientists could be used for heavy metal removal from the wastewater generated by the metals-finishing or electroplating industry. A variety of tasks identified in the original proposal were completed. These included: (1) analysis of our industrial partner Aetna Plating's zinc electroplating process and its wastewater treatment needs for zinc removal; (2) design and construction of a laboratory-scale unit to continuously supply and remove the ion exchange films from the zinc wastewater; (3) performance of a series of runs on such a unit to determine its operating characteristics; and (4) design of a prototype unit for use at the industrial site. In addition, there were a number of tasks that had not been identified in the original proposal but were later judged to be necessary for the successful completion of the project. These were: (1) batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments with analysis of the experimental results to accurately determine the equilibrium and kinetic parameters for the ion exchange films; (2 ) simulation studies for proper design of the prototype unit; and (3) preliminary runs to exchange the films from H form to Calcium form.

  9. Magnetic properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles produced by a low-temperature solid-state reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fashen; Wang Haibo; Wang Li; Wang Jianbo

    2007-01-01

    ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles with average grain size ranging from 40 to 60 nm behaving superparamagnetic at room temperature have been produced using a low-temperature solid-state reaction (LTSSR) method without ball-milling process. Abnormal magnetic properties such as S-shape hysteresis loops and non-zero magnetic moments were observed. ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were also synthesized using a NaOH coprecipitation method and a PVA sol-gel method to study the relationship between the preparation processes and the magnetic properties. Spin-glass behavior was observed in the low temperature solid-state reaction produced Zn ferrite in the zero-field cooled (ZFC) measurement. Our work proves that the various preparation methods will to some extent determine the properties of magnetic nanoparticles

  10. A review of producing hard coatings by means of duplex treatments using an electroplated coating–thermochemical treatment combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Cifuentes Aya

    2011-09-01

    Direct deposition by physical vapour deposition (PVD, used for obtaining chromium nitride films on steel substrates, is limited by high production costs, the low thickness obtained and low resistance to corrosion due to the presence of micro pores. Some studies have combined an electroplated chromium with thermochemical treatments made in a controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces or by plasma. This kind of duplex treatment allows compounds such as CrxN, CrxCyN and CrxCy to be obtained from chemical and micro structural transformation of chromium with nitrogen and/or carbon, the sealing of cracks in the coating and increasing the magnitude of properties like hardness and density, improving wear and abrasion and corrosion resistance.

  11. Effects of the zinc and zinc-nickel alloys electroplating on the corrodibility of reinforced concrete rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. CEDRIM

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper shows the analysis performed on the corrosion parameters of three groups of reinforcing steel bars, two of these coated by electroplating process with Zinc (Zn and Zinc-Nickel (Zn-Ni, and the other without any coating. It was used reinforced concrete specimens, which ones were grouped and then subjected to two different corrosion accelerating methods: aging wetting/drying cycles and salt spray exposure. Corrosion potential was measured to qualitative monitoring of the process and, after the end of the tests, corrosion rate was estimated by measuring the mass loss, to quantitative analyses. As it was expected, coated bars presented a better performance than the average bars regarding the corrosion resistance in chloride ions containing environments. It was also observed that the drying/ NaCl solution wetting cycles seems to be more severe than salt spray fog apparatus with respect to the acceleration of corrosion process.

  12. Visible light photocatalytic activities of ZnFe_2O_4/ZnO nanoparticles for the degradation of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Kumar, Niraj; Karthigeyan, A.; Neppolian, B.

    2016-01-01

    ZnFe_2O_4/ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as surfactant. The phase formation of synthesized products was systematically investigated from powder X-ray diffraction. Cubic ZnFe_2O_4 and hexagonal ZnO were identified in accordance with different molar concentrations of Fe"3"+ ions. The morphology and functionality were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The optical properties and change in the band gap from UV to visible region upon increasing molar concentration of Fe"3"+ ions were analyzed from diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). Superparamagnetic property was observed for synthesized ZnFe_2O_4/ZnO nanoparticles using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The methylene blue and methyl orange were taken as model dyes to illustrate the photocatalytic activity of synthesized products under visible light irradiation. Maximum degradation of 99% for methyl orange (MO) was achieved by the use of 13 nm sized ZnFe_2O_4/ZnO nanoparticles as catalyst and a minutely less activity was observed for the methylene blue (MB) degradation (98%), when the photocatalytic processes were carried out for 5 h and 6 h, respectively. - Highlights: • Co-precipitation method is proposed to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles. • Modifications in the molar concentration lead to the shift in absorption edge. • Superparamagnetic property is demonstrated for the nanoparticles. • Two dye pollutants are utilized to demonstrate the photocatalytic activity.

  13. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-07

    Invited for the cover of this issue is Changzhou Yuan and co-workers at the Anhui University of Technology. The image depicts hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 micro-rods, as a low-cost yet high-performance anode, for advanced next-generation Li-ion batteries. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201501876. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Folic acid-functionalized magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell composite particles: synthesis and application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dandan; Wei, Kaiwei; Liu, Qi; Yang, Yong; Guo, Xue; Rong, Hongren; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-07-01

    A drug delivery system was designed by deliberately combining the useful functions into one entity, which was composed of magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere as the core, and mesoporous silica with folic acid molecules as the outer shell. Amine groups coated magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell (MZHM-MSS-NH2) composite particles were first synthesized by a one-pot direct co-condensation method. Subsequently a novel kind of folic acid-functionalized magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell (MZHM-MSS-NHFA) composite particles were synthesized by conjugating folic acid as targeted molecule to MZHM-MSS-NH2. Ibuprofen, a well-known antiphlogistic drug, was used as a model drug to assess the loading and releasing behavior of the composite microspheres. The results show that the MZHM-MSS-NHFA system has the higher capacity of drug storage and good sustained drug-release property. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influences of the main anodic electroplating parameters on cerium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yu [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Jianqing [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection of Metals, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Cerium oxide thin films were fabricated onto 316 L stainless steel via a potentiostatically anodic electrodeposition approach in the solutions containing cerium(III) nitrate (0.05 M), ammonia acetate (0.1 M) and ethanol (10% V/V). The electrochemical behaviors and deposition parameters (applied potential, bath temperature, dissolving O{sub 2} and bath pH) have been investigated. Results show that, the electrochemical oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} goes through one electrochemical step, which is under charge transfer control. The optimum applied potential for film deposition is 0.8 V. Bath temperature plays a significant effect on the deposition rate, composition (different colors of the film) and surface morphology of the deposits. Due to the hydrolysis of Ce{sup 3+}, cerous hydroxide is facility to form when the bath temperature is higher than 60 °C. The electroplating bath pH is another key role for the anodic deposition of cerium oxide thin films, and the best bath pH is around 6.20. N{sub 2} or O{sub 2} purged into the bath will result in film porosities and O{sub 2} favors cerium oxide particles and film generation.

  16. Investigation of the suppression effect of polyethylene glycol on copper electroplating by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-C.; Lee, W.-H.; Wang, Y.-L.; Chan, D.-Y.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an additive that is commonly used as a suppressor in the semiconductor copper (Cu)-electroplating process. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of PEG in the Cu-electroplating process. Polarization analysis, cyclic-voltammetry stripping, and cell voltage versus plating time were examined to clarify the suppression behavior of PEG. The equivalent circuit simulated from the EIS data shows that PEG inhibited the Cu-electroplating rate by increasing the charge-transfer resistance as well as the resistance of the adsorption layer. The presence of a large inductance demonstrated the strong adsorption of cuprous-PEG-chloride complexes on the Cu surface during the Cu-electroplating process. Increasing the PEG concentration appears to increase the resistances of charge transfer, the adsorption layer, and the inductance of the electroplating system

  17. Stabilization of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge with MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guangren; Yang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shixiang; Zhou, Jizhi; Sun, Ying; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang

    2009-06-15

    This work investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices on stabilizing/solidifying industrial chromium-bearing electroplating sludge using MSWI fly ash as the main raw material with a small addition of active aluminum. The compressive strength, leaching behavior and chemical speciation of heavy metals and hydration phases of matrices were characterized by TCLP, XRD, FTIR and other experimental methods. The results revealed that MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices could effectively stabilize chromium-bearing electroplating sludge, the formed ettringite and Friedel phases played a significant role in the fixation of heavy metals in electroplating sludge. The co-disposal of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge and MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices with a small addition of active aluminum is promising to be an effective way of stabilizing chromium-bearing electroplating sludge.

  18. Precious Metals Recovery from Electroplating Wastewater: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. A.; Jai, J.; Zamanhuri, N. A.; Yahya, A.

    2018-05-01

    Metal bearing electroplating wastewater posts great health and environmental concerns, but could also provide opportunities for precious and valuable metal recovery, which can make the treatment process more cost-effective and sustainable. Current conventional electroplating wastewater treatment and metal recovery methods include chemical precipitation, coagulation and flocculation, ion exchange, membrane filtration, adsorption, electrochemical treatment and photocatalysis. However, these physico-chemical methods have several disadvantages such as high initial capital cost, high operational cost due to expensive chemical reagents and electricity supply, generation of metal complexes sludge which requires further treatment, ineffective in diluted and/or concentrated wastewater, low precious metal selectivity, and slow recovery process. On the other hand, metal bio-reduction assisted by bioactive phytochemical compounds extracted from plants and plant parts is a new found technology explored by several researchers in recent years aiming to recover precious and valuable metals from secondary sources mainly industrial wastewater by utilizing low-cost and eco-friendly biomaterials as reagents. Extract of plants contains polyphenolic compounds which have great antioxidant properties and reducing capacities, able to reduce metal ions into zerovalent metal atoms and stabilize the metal particles formed. This green bio-recovery method has a value added in their end products since the metals are recovered in nano-sized particles which are more valuable and have high commercial demand in other fields ranging from electrochemistry to medicine.

  19. A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J.; Salmi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy. Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist. An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.

  20. Electroplating moulds using dry film thick negative photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharenka, E.; Farooqui, M. M.; Grigore, L.; Kraft, M.; Hollinshead, N.

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on progress on the feasibility of fabricating moulds for electroplating using Ordyl P-50100 (negative) acrylate polymer based dry film photoresist, commercially available from Elga Europe (http://www.elgaeurope.it). We used this photoresist as an alternative to SU8 negative epoxy based photoresist, which is very difficult to process and remove after electroplating (Lorenz et al 1998 Microelectron. Eng. 41/42 371-4, Eyre et al 1998 Proc. MEMS'98 (Heidelberg) (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 218-22). Ordyl P-50100 is easy to work with and can be easily removed after processing. A single layer of Ordyl P-50100 was deposited by lamination up to 20 µm thickness. Thicker layers (200 µm and more) can be achieved with multilayer lamination using a manual laminator. For our applications we found that Ordyl P-50100 dry film photoresist is a very good alternative to SU8 for the realization of 100 µm high moulds. The results presented will open up new possibilities for low-cost LIGA-type processes for MEMS applications.

  1. PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COATINGS CONTAINING PIGMENTS WITH SURFACE MODIFIED WITH A LAYER OF ZnFe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nechvílová

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is focussed on the properties of organic coatings containing pigments whose surface was chemically coated with zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4 layer. Four silicate types with different particle shapes were selected as the cores: diatomite, talc, kaolin and wollastonite. The untreated particles exhibit a barrier effect. The aim of this project was to apply the surface treatment approach with a view to enhancing not only the model paint films’ anticorrosion properties but also their resistance to physico- mechanical tests pursuant to ISO standards (cupping, bending, impact, adhesion. Other parameters examined included: particle size and morphology, density of the modified pigment, oil consumption, pH, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the paint film. A solvent-based epoxy-ester resin was used as the binder and also served as the reference material. The pigment volume concentration (PVC was 1% and 10%. During the last stage of the experiment, the paint films were exposed to a corrosive environment stimulating seaside conditions or conditions roads treated with rock salt. The accelerated cyclic corrosion test in a neutral salt mist atmosphere was conducted for 864 hours. The results served to ascertain a suitable environment for organic coatings.

  2. Electroplating and characterization of cobalt-nickel-iron and nickel-iron for magnetic microsystems applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of pulse reverse (PR) electroplated CoNiFe and DC electroplated NiTe are presented. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density (B-s) and a low coercivity (H-c). A new bath formulation has...... been developed, which by means of PR electroplating makes it possible to deposit high B-s CoNiFe with a low residual stress level. The magnetic properties have been determined using a new simple measurement setup that allows for wafer level characterization. The results have been validated...

  3. Magnetic and bioactivity evaluation of ferrimagnetic ZnFe 2O 4 containing glass ceramics for the hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M. U.; Alam, S.; Shamim, A.

    2010-02-01

    Glass ceramics of the composition xZnO·25Fe 2O 3·(40- x)SiO 2·25CaO·7P 2O 5·3Na 2O were prepared by the melt-quench method using oxy-acetylene flame. Glass-powder compacts were sintered at 1100 °C for 3 h and then rapidly cooled at -10 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 3 prominent crystalline phases: ZnFe 2O 4, CaSiO 3 and Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) data at 10 KOe and 500 Oe showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and hence hysteresis area increased with the increase in ZnO content. Nano-sized ZnFe 2O 4 crystallites were of pseudo-single domain structure and thus coercivity increased with the increase in crystallite size. ZnFe 2O 4 exhibited ferrimagnetism due to the random distribution of Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ cations at tetrahedral A sites and octahedral B sites. This inversion/random distribution of cations was probably due to the surface effects of nano-ZnFe 2O 4 and rapid cooling of the material from 1100 °C (thus preserving the high temperature state of the random distribution of cations). Calorimetric measurements were carried out using magnetic induction furnace at 500 Oe magnetic field and 400 KHz frequency. The data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 26 W/g and 37 °C, respectively for the sample containing 10% ZnO. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 weeks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD results confirmed the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in SBF, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to the living tissues in physiological environment.

  4. Effect of metal cation ratio on chemical properties of ZnFe2O4/AC composite and adsorption of organic contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilia, Demara; Misbah Khunur, Mochamad; Setianingsih, Tutik

    2018-01-01

    Porous woody char is biochar prepared through pyrolisis. The biochar can be used as adsorbent. In this research, ZnFe2O4/AC composite was synthesized through imregnation of the woody biochar with ZnFe2O4 to study effect of mol ratio of Fe(III) and Zn(II) toward their physicochemistry and adsorption of drug wastewater. Paracetamol was used as adsorbate model. This research was conducted in several steps, including activation of the woody biochar using KOH activator at temperatur 500 °C for 15 min to produce the activated carbon, fungsionalization of the carbon using H2SO4 oxidator (6M) at temperature of 80 °C for 3 h, impregnation of the oxidized activated carbon with Zn-Fe-LDH (Layered Double Hydroxide) at various mol ratio of Fe(III) and Zn(III), including 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 using NaOH solution (5M) for coprecipitation, and calcination of Zn-Fe-LDH/AC at 950 °C for 5 min to produce ZnFe2O4/AC. FTIR diffraction characterization indicated existence of M-O (M = Zn(II), Fe(III)) and OH functional groups. FTIR spectra showed increasing of bands connected to -OH by increasing of the ratio till the ratio was achieved at 1:4, then decreased again. The ratio mol showed effect on the adsorption of paracetamol. Profile of adsorption value was fit with changing of functional groups. The highest adsorption was achieved at the ratio of 1:4. After calcination it gave the adsorption value of 17,66 mg/g.

  5. Magnetic and bioactivity evaluation of ferrimagnetic ZnFe2O4 containing glass ceramics for the hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M.U.; Alam, S.; Shamim, A.

    2010-01-01

    Glass ceramics of the composition xZnO.25Fe 2 O 3 .(40-x)SiO 2 .25CaO.7P 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O were prepared by the melt-quench method using oxy-acetylene flame. Glass-powder compacts were sintered at 1100 deg. C for 3 h and then rapidly cooled at -10 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 3 prominent crystalline phases: ZnFe 2 O 4 , CaSiO 3 and Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) data at 10 KOe and 500 Oe showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and hence hysteresis area increased with the increase in ZnO content. Nano-sized ZnFe 2 O 4 crystallites were of pseudo-single domain structure and thus coercivity increased with the increase in crystallite size. ZnFe 2 O 4 exhibited ferrimagnetism due to the random distribution of Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ cations at tetrahedral A sites and octahedral B sites. This inversion/random distribution of cations was probably due to the surface effects of nano-ZnFe 2 O 4 and rapid cooling of the material from 1100 deg. C (thus preserving the high temperature state of the random distribution of cations). Calorimetric measurements were carried out using magnetic induction furnace at 500 Oe magnetic field and 400 KHz frequency. The data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 26 W/g and 37 deg. C, respectively for the sample containing 10% ZnO. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 weeks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD results confirmed the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in SBF, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to the living tissues in physiological environment.

  6. Devices for fatigue testing of electroplated nickel (MEMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, J. T.; Ginnerup, Morten

    2002-01-01

    μm and an effective length from 4μm to 27μm. Maximum stresses of the test beam were calculated to be 500MPa to 2100MPa by use of FEM tools. The test results indicate very promising fatigue properties of nano-nickel, as none of the test devices have shown fatigue failure or even initiation of cracks......In-situ fatigue test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel (nano-nickel). The devices feature in-plane approximately pure bending with fixed displacement of the test specimen of the dimensions: widths from 2μm to 3.7μm, a height of 7...... after 108 cycles. The combination of high strength and toughness, which is known for nanocrystalline materials, together with very small test specimens and low surface roughness could be the explanation for the good fatigue properties....

  7. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators

  8. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Khondaker, Saiful I [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Majima, Yutaka, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is {approx} 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  9. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W; Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel; Khondaker, Saiful I; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  10. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  11. RECYCLING NICKEL ELECTROPLATING RINSE WATERS BY LOW TEMPERATURE EVAPORATION AND REVERSE OSMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperat...

  12. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

  13. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  14. Technology Demonstration of the Zero Emissions Chromium Electroplating System; Appendix I: CHPPM Report on Air Sampling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K. J; Maloney, Stephen W; Cannon, John J; Phelps, Max R; Modrell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This volume is an Appendix to the main report, Volume 1, which documents the demonstration of a technology developed by PRD, Inc, for control of chromium emissions during hard chromium electroplating...

  15. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  16. Fabrication of high aspect ratio through-wafer copper interconnects by reverse pulse electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Changdong; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Xu, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to fabricate high aspect ratio through-wafer copper interconnects by a simple reverse pulse electroplating technique. High aspect-ratio (∼18) through-wafer holes obtained by a two-step deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process exhibit a taper profile, which might automatically optimize the local current density distribution during the electroplating process, thereby achieving void-free high aspect-ratio copper vias

  17. Chemical analysis of zinc electroplating solutions by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung-Mo; Cho, Young-Mo; Na, Han-Gil

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis method used to analyze chlorine, iron and zinc in electroplating solutions, using X-ray spectrometry in atmospheric He mode, is proposed. The present research concerns the replacement of the conventional analyses of electroplating solutions with rapid and reproducible quantification using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. An in-depth investigation conducted in the present study identifies the species present in the real electroplating solutions. XRD patterns and semi-quantitative results for the electroplating solutions show synthetic standards based on the compositional range of solutions by analyzing the electroplating solutions obtained in real processes. 28 calibration standard solutions are prepared by diluting liquid standard solutions certified by titration and ICP-OES analyses used to construct the XRF calibration curves for Cl, Fe and Zn. The suggested method showed satisfactory precision and accuracy in the analysis of electroplating solutions. The present study provides evidences that the proposed XRF spectrometry could be an alternative analytical method to replace the conventional techniques by comparing the uncertainties estimated for each method. (author)

  18. Ni-Flash-Coated Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Improved Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, D.; Dutta, M.; Venugopalan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the last several years, automobile industries have increasingly focused on galvannealed (GA) steel sheet due to their superior properties such as weldability, paintability and corrosion protection. To improve the properties further, different coatings on GA have been reported. In this context, an electroplating process (flash coating) of bright and adherent Ni plating was developed on GA steel sheet for covering the GA defects and enhancing the performances such as weldability, frictional behavior, corrosion resistance and phosphatability. For better illustration, a comparative study with bare GA steel sheet has also been carried out. The maximum electroplating current density of 700 A/m2 yielded higher cathode current efficiency of 95-98%. The performances showed that Ni-coated (coating time 5-7 s) GA steel sheet has better spot weldability, lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.07 in lubrication) and three times more corrosion resistance compared to bare GA steel sheet. Plate-like crystal of phosphate coating with size of 10-25 µm was obtained on the Ni-coated GA. The main phase in the phosphate compound was identified as hopeite (63.4 wt.%) along with other phases such as spencerite (28.3 wt.%) and phosphophyllite (8.3 wt.%).

  19. Influence of layer compositions and annealing conditions on complete formation of ternary PdAgCu alloys prepared by sequential electroless and electroplating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumrunronnasak, Sarocha [Graduate Program of Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tantayanon, Supawan, E-mail: supawan.t@chula.ac.th [Green Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kiatgamolchai, Somchai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-01-01

    PdAgCu ternary alloy membranes were synthesized by the sequential electroless plating of Pd following by electroplating of Ag and Cu onto stainless steel substrate. The composition of the composite was varied by changing the deposition times. The fabricated layers were annealed at the temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for 20–60 h. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to investigate the element distribution in the membrane which provided the insight on membrane alloying process. Complete formation of the alloy could be obtained when the Pd composition was greater than a critical value of 60 wt%, and Ag and Cu contents were in the range of 18–30 wt% and 2–13 wt%, respectively. Deposition times of Ag and Cu were found to affect the completion of alloy formation. Excess amount of the deposited Cu particularly tended to segregate on the surface of the membrane. - Highlights: • Ternary PdAgCu alloy membranes were successfully prepared by the sequential electroless and electroplating methods. • The average Pd composition required to form alloy was found to be approximately at least 60%wt. • The alloy region was achieved for f Pd 60–73 wt%, Cu 18–30 wt% and Ag 2–13 wt%. • Suitable annealing temperature in the range of 500–600 °C for an adequate period of treating time (20–60 h).

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Copper Ferrite (CuFe2O4 and Zinc Ferrite (ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Self-Combustion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samikannu Kanagesan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinel copper ferrite (CuFe2O4 and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol-gel self-combustion technique. The structural, functional, morphological and magnetic properties of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. XRD patterns conform to the copper ferrite and zinc ferrite formation, and the average particle sizes were calculated by using a transmission electron microscope, the measured particle sizes being 56 nm for CuFe2O4 and 68 nm for ZnFe2O4. Both spinel ferrite nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization of 31 emug−1 for copper ferrite (50.63 Am2/Kg and 28.8 Am2/Kg for zinc ferrite. Both synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were equally effective in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH free radicals. ZnFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 nanoparticles showed 30.57% ± 1.0% and 28.69% ± 1.14% scavenging activity at 125 µg/mL concentrations. In vitro cytotoxicity study revealed higher concentrations (>125 µg/mL of ZnFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 with increased toxicity against MCF-7 cells, but were found to be non-toxic at lower concentrations suggesting their biocompatibility.

  1. Texture Formation of Electroplated Nickel and Nickel Alloy on Cu Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Sun Wang; Kim, Ho Jin

    2006-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-tungsten alloy were electroplated on a cold rolled and heat treated copper(Cu) substrate. 4 mm-thick high purity commercial grade Cu was rolled to various thicknesses of 50, 70, 100 and 150 micron. High reduction ratio of 30% was applied down to 150 micron. Rolled texture was converted into cube texture via high temperature heat treatment at 400-800 degrees C. Grain size of Cu was about 50 micron which is much smaller compared to >300 micron for the Cu prepared using smaller reduction pass of 5%. 1.5 km-long 150 micron Cu was fabricated with a rolling speed of 33 m/min and texture of Cu was uniform along length. Abnormal grain growth and non-cube texture appeared for the specimen anneal above 900 degrees C. 1-10 micron thick Ni and Ni-W film was electroplated onto an annealed cube-textured Cu or directly on a cold rolled Cu. Both specimens were annealed and the degree of texture was measured. For electroplating of Ni on annealed Cu, Ni layer duplicated the cube-texture of Cu substrate and the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement for annealed Cu layer and electroplated layer was 9.9 degree and 13.4 degree, respectively. But the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement of the specimen which electroplated Ni directly on cold rolled Cu was 8.6 degree, which is better texture than that of nickel electroplated on annealed Cu and it might be caused by the suppression of secondary recrystallization and abnormal grain growth of Cu at high temperature above 900 degrees C by electroplated nickel.

  2. Double side electroplating for applying beta voltaic with sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Moo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Joo; Park, Jong Han

    2015-01-01

    As a result, a variety of nuclear-based small-scale power sources have been developed with varying degrees of success and maturity. A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amperes, is generated in devices. The difference of the short circuit current between the pre-deposition and post deposition of Ni-63 was found to be 5 nA. This value is very low to apply device junction. To fabricate betavoltaic, Ni-63 should be coated on the double side of substrate. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 on double side has been established

  3. Treatment of complex electroplating waste by 'zero discharge' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, B.Q.; Ram Sankar, P.; Jain, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Surface treatment processes generate lot of liquid waste, which contains toxic substances and are potentially harmful to the living beings. It is extremely difficult to treat the pollutants where processes and frequencies are not fixed. In Chemical Treatment Facility of RRCAT, surface treatment processes are user dependent and makes the electroplating waste very complicated. Initially the waste was treated by simple chemical transformation technique in which heavy metal ions are converted to hydroxide precipitates. Non metallic ions that contribute much to the plating waste could not be treated by this process. To remove maximum possible pollutants, many experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale. Based on those results, a pilot ion exchange plant of various resins was introduced in the process to achieve disposal quality effluent. Anionic load of Phosphate, Nitrate and fluoride caused frequent anionic bed exhaustions and polymeric network damaging. To avoid this phenomenon a new setup was designed. This pre treatment has the capacity to treat 500 litres per hour connected to a platter with clarifier followed by high pressure carbon and pebbles filters. Analysis of these ions was carried out on the advanced ion chromatography system and is found free of toxic metals, phosphate and fluoride. This effluent can be reused by adding a reverse osmosis system followed by ion exchange system to produce good quality de mineralized water needed for surface treatment activities. In this paper we describe the existing status of effluent treatment facility and future plans for achieving 'zero discharge'. (author)

  4. Fluxless Sn-Ag bonding in vacuum using electroplated layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsung; Lee, Chin C.

    2007-01-01

    A fluxless bonding process in vacuum environment using newly developed electroplated Sn-Ag multilayer structure at eutectic composition is presented. The new bonding process is entirely fluxless, or flux-free. It is performed in vacuum (100 mTorr), in which the oxygen content is reduced by a factor of 7600 comparing to air, to inhibit solder oxidation. In the design, Cr/Au dual layer is employed as the UBM as well as the plating seed layer. This UBM design, seldom used in the electronic industry, is explained in some details. To realize the fluxless possibility, a proper layer design of the solder structure is needed. In this connection, we wish to point out that it is hard to achieve fluxless bonding using Sn-rich alloys because these alloys have numerous Sn atoms on the surface that are easily oxidized. To prevent Sn oxidation, a thin Ag layer is plated immediately over Sn layer. XRD results confirm that this thin Ag layer does act as a barrier to prevent oxidation of the inner Sn layer. The resulting solder joints are void free as examined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). SEM and EDX studies on the cross section of the joint indicate a homogeneous Sn-rich phase. The melting temperature is measured to be between 219 and 226 deg. C. This new fluxless bonding process is valuable in many applications where the use of flux is prohibited

  5. Phytoextraction of chromium from electroplating effluent by Tagetes erecta (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppiah Chitraprabha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization has made developing countries ‘hot-spots’ of metal pollution. Being non-biodegradable, they persist in the environment and result in bioaugmentation. To remediate this persistent pollutant, the green technology, phytoremediation has been attempted in the present study. Analysis of variance showed the probability (P of significant chromium (Cr uptake by shoot (P ≤ 0.03 and highly significant Cr accumulation in root (P ≤ 0.0001. Cr-induced physiological changes were observed in the form of significant decrease in chlorophyll content (P ≤ 0.004 and significant increase in biomass (P ≤ 0.002, from day 7 to day 35 when exposed to 2, 4 and 6 mg kg−1 of chrome effluent. Tagetes erecta in association with rhizobacteria (Bacillus cereus-CK 505 and Enterobacter cloacae-CK 555 was found to accumulate high levels (94% of Cr within a short period of 35 days. Keywords: Phytoremediation, Tagetes erecta, African marigold, Electroplating, Chromium, Rhizobacteria

  6. Double side electroplating for applying beta voltaic with sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Moo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Joo; Park, Jong Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a result, a variety of nuclear-based small-scale power sources have been developed with varying degrees of success and maturity. A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amperes, is generated in devices. The difference of the short circuit current between the pre-deposition and post deposition of Ni-63 was found to be 5 nA. This value is very low to apply device junction. To fabricate betavoltaic, Ni-63 should be coated on the double side of substrate. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 on double side has been established.

  7. Simulation of CHF Condition using an Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohk, Seung-Min; Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Heat transfer is enhanced when the bubbles are generated on the heated surface at the nucleate boiling regime since vigorous mixing of the liquid occurs near the heated surface due to the buoyancy force of the bubbles. As this phenomenon intensified, vapor film can be formed on the heated surface and it impairs heat transfer disturbing the heat exchange between the surface and the bulk liquid. And thus, the heat flux has the certain maximum value. This maximum value, Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is generally exhibits in the pool boiling condition in non-film boiling mode. Actually, the higher heat flux could be generated at the film boiling mode with extremely high surface temperature, which may unendurable for the system structure. CHF phenomena is simulated by hydrogen gas using electroplating system in mass transfer experiment. Vapor behavior on mass transfer experiment was visualized, and it was similar to that of on the heat transfer. CHF value was simulated by hydrogen gas with isovolumetric concept. Thus, virtual heat flux was estimated by mass flux, which is a non-heating process. Difference of gas density from heat transfer and mass transfer systems were considered and revised for the simulated heat flux. Despite of the simple parametric analysis, estimated CHF value of this study was 6.6 times smaller than Zuber's.

  8. Electroplating wastewater treatment by the combined electrochemical and ozonation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a pilot-plant study of the electroplating wastewater treatment by the processes of electroreduction with iron electrode plates, and electrocoagulation/ozonation with aluminum electrode set, followed by the process of ozonation. The initial effluent was found to be highly enriched in heavy metals and to possess the elevated levels of organic contaminants. The values of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD exceeded the upper permissible limits of 63, 220.2, 1.1, 7, 131.3, 1.7, 12.3, and 11.4 times, respectively. The heavy metal removal was forced either by the coagulation/flocculation using Fe(II), Fe(III), and Al(III) ions released into the treated solution by the electrochemical corrosion of the sacrificial iron and aluminum electrodes, or the precipitation of the metal hydroxides as well as co-precipitation with iron and aluminum hydroxides. The principle organic matter destruction mechanisms were ozone oxidation and the indirect oxidation with chlorine/hypochlorite formed by the anodic oxidation of chloride already present in the wastewater. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, TOC, and COD were 99.94%, 100.00%, 95.86%, 98.66%, 99.97%, 96.81%, 93.24%, and 93.43%, respectively, thus complying with the regulated values.

  9. Investigation of coercivity for electroplated Fe-Ni thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Eguchi, K.; Koda, K.; Kaji, J.; Aramaki, H.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni firms with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In our previous studies, we prepared the Fe-Ni films from citric-acid-based baths (CA-baths) and ammonium-chloride-based ones (AC-baths), and confirmed that the coercivity for the AC-baths was lower than that for the CA-baths. In the present study, we investigated reasons for the lower coercivity for the AC-baths to further improve the soft magnetic properties. From an observation of magnetic domains of the Fe22Ni78 films, we found that Fe22Ni78 film for AC-bath had a magnetic anisotropy in the width direction, and also found that the coercivity in the width direction was lower than the longitudinal one for the AC-bath. As an annealing for a stress relaxation in the films reduced the difference in the coercivity, we considered that the anisotropy is attributed to the magneto-elastic effect.

  10. Nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes (kiss sleeving process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.

    1988-01-01

    This process, the nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes, has been jointly developed under a Belgatom (Laborelec) and Framatome agreement with shared experience gained by both companies, industrial applications being under the responsibility of Framatome. Application of the coating in zones where residual stresses or cracks are present prevents contact between the primary water and the tube, which stops the stress corrosion process. In the Doel 2 plant, 91 tubes have been plated since 1985, and different sets of parameters have been used for comparison purposes. Among these tubes, 9 have been preventively plugged because of defective plating, 9 have been pulled out for laboratory examinations, 2 just after plating and 7 after 1 or 2 yr of service. There are 73 plated tubes still in service. From the tests that were performed, it was possible to select an optimized set of parameters guaranteeing the following properties: bridging of existing cracks and good behavior of the coating in relevant zones, good adhesion to the Inconel tube, high ductility, low residual stresses, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and low cobalt content. The licensability of this process is being completed. It is based first on the leak-before-break concept to determine the characteristics of the nickel plating, thickness in particular, and second on the inspectability of ultrasonic testing methods

  11. Effects of organic additives on preferred plane and residual stress of copper electroplated on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Heesan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the preferred plane and the residual stress of an electroplated copper on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-N,N-dimethylaminodithiocarbamoyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (DPS) were studied. Polyimide film coated with sputtered copper was used as a substrate. Preferred plane, residual stress, and impurity level in the electroplated copper were measured by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD), calculated by Stoney's equation, and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SMS), respectively. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) while with increasing the concentration of DPS, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 1 0), (1 0 0), and (1 1 1). Based on the modified preferred growth model, where the amount of additive adsorbed on a plane is newly assumed to be proportional to its surface energy in vacuum, the predicted preferred planes correspond to the experimental results. The residual stress of the electroplated copper depended on the type of additive as well as its concentration but was independent of the preferred plane. For example, PEG and DPS induced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the electroplated copper, respectively, and their magnitudes increased with their concentrations. The dependency of residual stress on the additives was explained by the incorporated additives into the electroplated copper.

  12. Effects of plasma cleaning of the Cu seed layer surface on Cu electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O, Jun Hwan; Lee, Seong Wook; Kim, Jae Bum; Lee, Chong Mu

    2001-01-01

    Effects of plasma pretreatment to Cu seed/tantalum nitride (TaN)/ borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) samples on copper (Cu) electroplating were investigated. Copper seed layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering onto tantalum nitride barrier layers before electroplating copper in the forward pulsed mode. The Cu seed layer was cleaned by plasma H 2 and N 2 prior to electroplating a copper film. Cu films electroplated on the copper seed layer with plasma pretreatment showed better electrical and physical properties such as electrical resistivities, surface morphologies, levels of impurities, adhesion and surface roughness than those without plasma pretreatment. It is shown that carbon and metal oxide contaminants at the sputtered Cu seed/TaN surface could be effectively removed by plasma H 2 cleaning. The degree of the (111) prefered orientation of the Cu film with plasma H 2 pretreatment is as high as pulse plated Cu film without plasma pretreatment. Also, plasma H 2 precleaning is more effective in enhancing the Cu electroplating properties onto the Cu seed layer than plasma N 2 precleaning

  13. Post-CMOS selective electroplating technique for the improvement of CMOS-MEMS accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Fang, Weileun; Tang, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a simple approach to improve the performance of the CMOS-MEMS capacitive accelerometer by means of the post-CMOS metal electroplating process. The metal layer can be selectively electroplated on the MEMS structures at low temperature and the thickness of the metal layer can be easily adjusted by this process. Thus the performance of the capacitive accelerometer (i.e. sensitivity, noise floor and the minimum detectable signal) can be improved. In application, the proposed accelerometers have been implemented using (1) the standard CMOS 0.35 µm 2P4M process by CMOS foundry, (2) Ti/Au seed layers deposition/patterning by MEMS foundry and (3) in-house post-CMOS electroplating and releasing processes. Measurements indicate that the sensitivity is improved 2.85-fold, noise is decreased near 1.7-fold and the minimum detectable signal is improved from 1 to 0.2 G after nickel electroplating. Moreover, unwanted structure deformation due to the temperature variation is significantly suppressed by electroplated nickel.

  14. An electroplated copper–silver alloy as antibacterial coating on stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciacotich, Nicole; Din, Rameez Ud; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Transfer and growth of pathogenic microorganisms must be prevented in many areas such as the clinical sector. One element of transfer is the adhesion of pathogens to different surfaces and the purpose of the present study was to develop and investigate the antibacterial efficacy of stainless stee...

  15. Industrial Implementation of Environmentally Friendly Nanometal Electroplating Process for Chromium and Copper Beryllium Replacement using Low Cost Pulse Current Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    FINAL REPORT Industrial Implementation of Environmentally Friendly Nanometal Electroplating Process for Chromium and Copper Beryllium...35 3.2 Phase II – Development/Verification that Nanotechnology Based Electroplating Process to Replace EHC/Cu-Be Processes are Compatible With...36 3.3 Phase III – Development of 200kW Power Supply and Compatible Nanostructured Electroplating Processed for Commercialization

  16. Separation of 1,3-substituted imidazoles for quality control of a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are already used or have great potential in many industrial applications. Knowledge about their unique physicochemical characteristics makes ILs suitable for the electrodeposition of metals with very low negative potentials. Aluminum with its good corrosion protection behavior has great capability to be electroplated from IL electrolytes on steel substrates. The stability of the chosen electrolyte is very important to ensure industrial applicability. In this study, temperature and electrochemical long-term stability from electrolytes based on a Lewis acidic mixture of AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are investigated. A published method was modified to identify possible degradation products using mass spectrometric detection. The optimized method used an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (2.0 × 150 mm, 5 μm particles) with a 20 mmol TFA and 5% ACN mobile phase. This method allowed the quantification of several imidazoles from 0.1 to 100 mg/L. When analyzing the long-term stressed electrolytes, no significant changes in electrolyte composition could be observed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Type conversion, contacts, and surface effects in electroplated CdTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basol, B.M.; Ou, S.S.; Stafsudd, O.M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient electroplated CdS/CdTe solar cells can be fabricated by heat treating and type-converting the n-CdTe films deposited on CdS layers. In this paper, various mechanisms which may give rise to the conversion of electroplated CdTe films from n to p type are investigated. It is concluded that Cd-vacancy generation is the main mechanism of type conversion. Possible effects of oxygen on this mechanism are also discussed. Evaporated Au contacts to electroplated p-CdTe films were studied. It was found that the Au contacts depleted the excess Te present on the surface of Br 2 -methanol etched p-CdTe films. Oxygen was found to affect the electrical characteristics of such contacts

  18. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Yuliani; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani

    2018-02-01

    One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05). This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  19. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningsih Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05. This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  20. Processing of semiconductors and thin film solar cells using electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugu, Mohammad Lamido

    The global need for a clean, sustainable and affordable source of energy has triggered extensive research especially in renewable energy sources. In this sector, photovoltaic has been identified as a cheapest, clean and reliable source of energy. It would be of interest to obtain photovoltaic material in thin film form by using simple and inexpensive semiconductor growth technique such as electroplating. Using this growth technique, four semiconductor materials were electroplated on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate from aqueous electrolytes. These semiconductors are indium selenide (In[x]Sey), zinc sulphide (ZnS), cadmium sulphide (CdS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe). In[x]Se[y] and ZnS were incorporated as buffer layers while CdS and CdTe layers were utilised as window and absorber layers respectively. All materials were grown using two-electrode (2E) system except for CdTe which was grown using 3E and 2E systems for comparison. To fully optimise the growth conditions, the as-deposited and annealed layers from all the materials were characterised for their structural, morphological, optical, electrical and defects structures using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption (UV-Vis spectroscopy), photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurements, current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), DC electrical measurements, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Results show that InxSey and ZnS layers were amorphous in nature and exhibit both n-type and p-type in electrical conduction. CdS layers are n-type in electrical conduction and show hexagonal and cubic phases in both the as-deposited and after annealing process. CdTe layers show cubic phase structure with both n-type and p-type in electrical conduction. CdTe-based solar cell structures with a n-n heterojunction plus large Schottky barrier, as well as multi-layer graded

  1. Optimization of copper electroplating process applied for microfabrication on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Nguyen Ngan; Hue Phan, Thi Cam; Le, Anh Duy; Dung Dang, Thi My; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    Electroplating is an important step in microfabrication in order to increase thickness of undersized parts up to a few micrometers with a low-cost, fast method that is easy to carry out, especially for metals such as copper, nickel, and silver. This important step promotes the development of the fabrication technology of electronic devices on a flexible substrate, also known as flexible electronic devices. Nevertheless, this technology has some disadvantages such as low surface uniformity and high resistivity. In this paper, parameters of copper electroplating were studied, such as the ratio of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO_4) concentration to sulfuric acid (H_2SO_4) concentration and electroplating current density, in order to obtain low resistivity and high surface uniformity of the copper layer. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four-point probe, and surface profiler. The results showed that the sample resistivity could be controlled from about 2.0 to about 3.5 μΩ · cm, and the lowest obtained resistivity was 1.899 μΩ · cm. In addition, surface uniformity of the electroplated copper layer was also acceptable. The thickness of the copper layer was about 10 μm with an error of about 0.5 μm. The most suitable conditions for the electroplating process were CuSO_4 concentration of 0.4 mol l"−"1, H_2SO_4 concentration of 1.0 mol l"−"1, and low electroplating current density of 10–20 mA cm"−"2. All experiments were performed on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. (paper)

  2. The effects of ultrasonic agitation on supercritical CO2 copper electroplating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Yang, Hsi-Min; Wu, Guan-Lin; Sánchez, Jorge; Shyu, Jenq-Huey

    2018-01-01

    Applying ultrasound to the electroplating process can improve mechanical properties and surface roughness of the coating. Supercritical electroplating process can refine grain to improve the surface roughness and hardness. However, so far there is no research combining the above two processes to explore its effect on the coating. This study aims to use ultrasound (42kHz) in supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) electroplating process to investigate the effect of ultrasonic powers and supercritical pressures on the properties of copper films. From the results it was clear that higher ultrasonic irradiation resulted in higher current efficiency, grain refinement, higher hardness, better surface roughness and higher internal stress. SEM was also presented to verify the correctness of the measured data. The optimal parameters were set to obtain the deposit at pressure of 2000psi and ultrasonic irradiation of 0.157W/cm 3 . Compared with SC-CO 2 electroplating process, the current efficiency can be increased from 77.57% to 93.4%, the grain size decreases from 24.34nm to 22.45nm, the hardness increases from 92.87Hv to 174.18Hv, and the surface roughness decreases from 0.83μm to 0.28μm. Therefore, this study has successfully integrated advantages of ultrasound and SC-CO 2 electroplating, and proved that applied ultrasound to SC-CO 2 electroplating process can significantly improve the mechanical properties of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental and ab initio study of the hyperfine parameters of ZnFe {sub 2}O{sub 4} with defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, J. Melo; Salcedo Rodríguez, K. L.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Zélis, P. Mendoza; Stewart, S. J., E-mail: stewart@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Rodríguez Torres, C. E.; Errico, L. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT- La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67 (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    We present a combined Mössbauer and ab initio study on the influence of oxygen-vacancies on the hyperfine and magnetic properties of the ZnFe {sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite. Samples with different degree of oxygen-vacancies were obtained from zinc ferrite powder that was thermally treated at different temperatures up to 650 {sup ∘}C under vacuum.Theoretical calculations of the hyperfine parameters, magnetic moments and magnetic alignment have been carried out considering different defects such as oxygen vacancies and cation inversion. We show how theoretical and experimental approaches are complementary to characterize the local structure around Fe atoms and interpret the observed changes in the hyperfine parameters as the level of defects increases.

  4. Fate of zinc in an electroplating sludge during electrokinetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wang, H Paul

    2008-08-01

    Chemical structure of zinc in the electrokinetic treatments of an electroplating sludge has been studied by in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structural (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopies in the present work. The least-square fitted XANES spectra indicate that the main zinc compounds in the sludge were ZnCO(3) (75%), ZnOSiO(2) (17%) and Zn(OH)(2) (7%). Zinc in the sludge possessed a Zn-O bond distance of 2.07 A with a coordination number (CN) of 5. In the second shells, the bond distance of Zn-(O)-Si was 3.05 A (CN=2). An increase of Zn-(O)-Si (0.05 A) with a decrease of its CN (from 5 to <1) was found in the early stage of the electrokinetic treatment. Prolong the electrokinetic treatment time to 180 min, about 34% of Zn(II) was dissolved into the aqueous phase and about 68% of Zn(II) in the sludge (or 23% of total zinc) was migrated to the cathode under the electric field (5 V cm(-1)). The dissolution and electromigration rates of Zn(II) in the sludge were 1.0 and 0.6 mmol h(-1)g(-1) sludge, respectively during the electrokinetic treatment. This work also exemplifies the utilization of in situ EXAFS and XANES for revealing speciation and possible reaction pathways during the course of zinc recycling from the sludge by electrokinetic treatments.

  5. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  6. In-situ realtime monitoring of nanoscale gold electroplating using micro-electro-mechanical systems liquid cell operating in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Minoru; Fujita, Hiroyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ishida, Tadashi, E-mail: ishida.t.ai@m.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8503 (Japan); Jalabert, Laurent [LIMMS/CNRS-IIS (UMI 2820), Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse, France and University of Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-11

    The dynamics of nanoscale electroplating between gold electrodes was investigated using a microfabricated liquid cell mounted on a scanning transmission electron microscope. The electroplating was recorded in-situ for 10 min with a spatial resolution higher than 6 nm. At the beginning of the electroplating, gold spike-like structures of about 50 nm in size grew from an electrode, connected gold nanoclusters around them, and form three dimensional nanoscale structures. We visualized the elementary process of the gold electroplating, and believe that the results lead to the deeper understanding of electroplating at the nanoscale.

  7. In-situ realtime monitoring of nanoscale gold electroplating using micro-electro-mechanical systems liquid cell operating in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Minoru; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Tadashi; Jalabert, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of nanoscale electroplating between gold electrodes was investigated using a microfabricated liquid cell mounted on a scanning transmission electron microscope. The electroplating was recorded in-situ for 10 min with a spatial resolution higher than 6 nm. At the beginning of the electroplating, gold spike-like structures of about 50 nm in size grew from an electrode, connected gold nanoclusters around them, and form three dimensional nanoscale structures. We visualized the elementary process of the gold electroplating, and believe that the results lead to the deeper understanding of electroplating at the nanoscale

  8. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Influence of branched quaternary ammonium surfactant molecules as levelers for copper electroplating from acidic sulfate bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, An-yin; Chen, Biao; Fang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Wang, Li-min

    2013-01-01

    A family of branched quaternary ammonium surfactants (compounds 1a–1c) with different carbon chains were synthesized for levelers applied in copper electroplating. Their inhibitory actions on copper electroplating were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Compound 1b, as representative structure type, was tested by means of different electrochemical methods including CV, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with different concentrations. The interaction between compound 1b and copper surface was investigated using atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The results indicated that our newly synthesized compounds, particular 1b, were effective levelers used for copper electroplating. Compound 1b could adsorb on copper surface to form an adsorption layer. The adsorption behavior of compound 1b on copper surface indicated that compound 1b could inhibit the copper electrodeposition, which provided favorable conditions used as a leveler. Moreover, the addition of compound 1b could increase the cathodic polarization, which was attributed to the adsorption of compound 1b during copper electroplating process. In addition, various surface morphologies and crystalline orientation of the plated copper films caused by different concentrations of compound 1b were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Effects of compound 1b on refining the grain size and changing the preferential orientation of the plated copper films were exhibited

  10. Application of three tailing-based composites in treating comprehensive electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Mengling; Gao, Saisai

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are major challenging pollutants for most electroplating wastewater treatment plants. A novel composite material, prepared with a mixture of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, was simply mixed by ratios and used to treat a comprehensive electroplating wastewater with influent COD, total copper (T-Cu), and total nickel (T-Ni) respectively as 690, 4.01, and 20.60 mg/L on average. Operational parameters, i.e. the contact time, pH, mass ratio of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, were optimized as 30 min, 10.0, and 4:2:1. Removal rates for COD, T-Cu, and T-Ni could reach 71.8, 90.5, and 98.1%, respectively. No significant effect of initial concentrations on removal of T-Cu and T-Ni was observed for the composite material. The adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the material fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms respectively. Weight of waste sludge from the calcium/sodium-tailing system after reaction was 10% less than that from the calcium-tailing system. The tailing-based composite is cost-effective in combating comprehensive electroplating pollution, which shows a possibility of applying the tailings in treating electroplating wastewater.

  11. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  12. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiao-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P P P P Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  13. MEMS device for bending test: measurements of fatigue and creep of electroplated nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue

    2003-01-01

    In situ bending test devices with integrated electrostatic actuator were fabricated in electroplated nanocrystalline nickel. The device features approximately pure in-plane bending of the test beam. The excitation of the test beam has fixed displacement amplitude as the actuation electrodes...

  14. Genotoxic Effects Due to Exposure to Chromium and Nickel Among Electroplating Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal Mohamed Kamal; Samir, Aisha Mohamed; Mekkawy, Mona Kamal; Fouad, Marwa Mohamed

    Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed. Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum chromium, nickel, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei were measured in buccal cells. In exposed workers, serum chromium ranged from 0.09 to 7.20 µg/L, serum nickel ranged from 1.20 to 28.00 µg/L, serum 8-OHdG ranged from 1.09 to12.60 ng/mL, and these results were statistically significantly increased compared to nonexposed group ( P electroplating industry are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  15. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  16. Multi-technique characterization of gold electroplating on silver substrates for cultural heritage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Feliu, I.; Ager, F. J.; Roldán, C.; Ferretti, M.; Juanes, D.; Scrivano, S.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Ferrazza, L.; Traver, I.; Grilli, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a detailed study of a series of silver plates gilded via electroplating techniques in which the characteristics of the coating gold layers are investigated as a function of the electroplating variables (voltage, time, anode surface and temperature). Some reference samples were coated by radio frequency sputtering in order to compare gold layer homogeneity and effective density. Surface analysis was performed by means of atomic and nuclear techniques (SEM-EDX, EDXRF, PIXE and RBS) to obtain information about thickness, homogeneity, effective density, profile concentration of the gold layers and Au-Ag diffusion profiles. The gold layer thickness obtained by PIXE and EDXRF is consistent with the thickness obtained by means of RBS depth profiling. Electroplated gold mass thickness increases with electroplating time, anode area and voltage. However, electrodeposited samples present rough interfaces and gold layer effective densities lower than the nominal density of Au (19.3 g/cm3), whereas sputtering produces uniform layers with nominal density. These analyses provide valuable information to historians and curators and can help the restoration process of gold-plated silver objects.

  17. A gradient surface produced by combined electroplating and incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hong, Chuanshi; Kitamura, K.

    2017-01-01

    A Cu plate was first electroplated with a Ni layer, with a thickness controlled to be between 1 and 2 mu m. The coated surface was then deformed by incremental frictional sliding with liquid nitrogen cooling. The combined treatment led to a multifunctional surface with a gradient in strain...

  18. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni{sup 2+}). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e{sup -}) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni{sup 0}) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate.

  19. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung

    2014-01-01

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni 2+ ). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e - ) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni 0 ) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 . The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate

  20. An investigation of supercritical-CO2 copper electroplating parameters for application in TSV chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Lai, Wei-Hong; Sanchez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study uses supercritical electroplating for the filling of through silicon vias (TSVs) in chips. The present study utilizes the inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP RIE) process technique to etch the TSVs and discusses different supercritical-CO 2 electroplating parameters, such as the supercritical pressure, the electroplating current density’s effect on the TSV Cu pillar filling time, the I–V curve, the electrical resistance and the hermeticity. In addition, the results for all the tests mentioned above have been compared to results from traditional electroplating techniques. For the testing, we will first discuss the hermeticity of the TSV Cu pillars, using a helium leaking test apparatus to assess the vacuum sealing of the fabricated TSV Cu pillars. In addition, this study also conducts tests for the electrical properties, which include the measurement of the electrical resistance of the TSV at both ends in the horizontal direction, followed by the passing of a high current (10 A, due to probe limitations) to check if the TSV can withstand it without burnout. Finally, the TSV is cut in half in cross-section to observe the filling of Cu pillars by the supercritical electroplating and check for voids. The important characteristic of this study is the use of the supercritical electroplating process without the addition of any surfactants to aid the filling of the TSVs, but by taking advantage of the high permeability and low surface tension of supercritical fluids to achieve our goal. The results of this investigation point to a supercritical pressure of 2000 psi and a current density of 3 A dm −2 giving off the best electroplating filling and hermeticity, while also being able to withstand a high current of 10 A, with a relatively short electroplating time of 3 h (when compared to our own traditional dc electroplating). (paper)

  1. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  2. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus cereus IST105 from electroplating effluent for detoxification of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Umesh Chandra; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2011-08-01

    Electroplating industries are the main sources of heavy metals, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, cadmium and copper. The highest concentrations of chromium (VI) in the effluent cause a direct hazards to human and animals. Therefore, there is a need of an effective and affordable biotechnological solution for removal of chromium from electroplating effluent. Bacterial strains were isolated from electroplating effluent to find out higher tolerant isolate against chromate. The isolate was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Absorbed chromium level of bacterium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Removal of metals by bacterium from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent confirmed by MTT assay. Conformational changes of functional groups of bacterial cell surface were studied through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The chromate tolerant isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus. Bacterium has potency to remove more than 75% of chromium as measured by ICP-AES and AAS. The study indicated the accumulation of chromium (VI) on bacterial cell surface which was confirmed by the SEM-EDX and TEM analysis. The biosorption of metals from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent. The increased survivability of Huh7 cells cultured with treated effluent also confirmed the detoxification as examined by MTT assay. Isolated strain B. cereus was able to remove and detoxify chromium (VI). It would be an efficient tool of the biotechnological approach in mitigating the heavy metal pollutants.

  3. Cathodic protection of steel by electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K.R.; Smith, C.J.E. [Defence Research Agency, Farnborough (United Kingdom). Structural Materials Centre; Robinson, M.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science

    1995-12-01

    The ability of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy coatings to cathodically protect steel was studied in dilute chloride solutions. The potential distribution along steel strips partly electroplated with zinc-nickel alloys was determined, and the length of exposed steel that was held below the minimum protection potential (E{sub prot}) was taken as a measure of the level of cathodic protection (CP) provided by the alloy coatings. The level of CP afforded by zinc alloy coatings was found to decrease with increasing nickel content. When nickel content was increased to {approx} {ge} 21 wt%, no CP was obtained. Surface analysis of uncoupled zinc-nickel alloys that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions showed the concentration of zinc decreased in the surface layers while the concentration of nickel increased, indicating that the alloys were susceptible to dezincification. The analysis of zinc-nickel alloy coatings on partly electroplated steel strips that were immersed in chloride solution showed a significantly higher level of dezincification than that found for uncoupled alloy coatings. This effect accounted for the rapid loss of CP afforded to steel by some zinc alloy coatings, particularly those with high initial nickel levels.

  4. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained by defining a reservoir and a separating trench with different depths of 85 and 125 μm, respectively, in a single embossing step. The fabrication of the required two leveled stamp is done using a modified DEEMO (dry etching, electroplating and molding) process. Dry etching using the Bosch process...... and electroplating are optimized to obtain a stamp with smooth stamp surfaces and a positive sidewall profile. Using this stamp, hot embossing is performed successfully with excellent yield and high replication fidelity....

  5. Photoelectrochemical enhancement of ZnO/BiVO4/ZnFe2O4/rare earth oxide hetero-nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Minki; Yong, Kijung

    2018-01-01

    Over the decades, researchers have made great efforts to turn the world into a cleaner place through efficient recycling of industrial waste and developing of green energy. Here we demonstrate a prototype heterostructure photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell fabricated using recycled industrial waste. ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) nanorod (NR) clusters were synthesized on the BiVO4@ZnO hetero-nanostructures using recycled rare earth oxide (REO) slags as Fe source. The NR-based PEC cell exhibited a significantly enhanced photon to hydrogen conversion efficiency over the entire UV and visible spectrum. Further study demonstrates that the photo-carrier separation and migration processes can be facilitated by the cascade band alignment of the heterostructure and the clustered nanostructure network. In addition, the life-time of the photo-carriers can be enhanced by the REO passivation layer, leading to a further increased PEC performance. Our results present a novel approach for high efficiency PEC cells, and offer great promises to the efficient recycling of industrial waste for clean renewable energy applications.

  6. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-15

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO 4 -multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg -1 and 3.72 W kg -1 , respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO 4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity.

  7. Fabrication of solenoid-type inductor with electroplated NiFe magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoyu; Cao Ying; Zhou Yong; Ding Wen; Lei Chong; Chen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Solenoid-type inductor with ultra-low profile was fabricated by MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technique. NiFe film was electroplated as the magnetic core, and polyimide with a low relative permittivity was used as the insulation material. In the fabrication process, UV-LIGA, dry etching, fine polishing and electroplating technique have been adopted to achieve high performance of the solenoid-type inductor. The inductor was in size of 1.5 mmx0.9 mmx0.1 mm with coil width of 20 μm and aspect ratio of 5:1. The inductance and the quality factor were 0.42-0.345 μH and 1.8-5.3 in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz, respectively

  8. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radna Lidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  9. Changes in the Strength of the Polymer Concrete Used in the Electroplating Vats Under Operational Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, Lidia; Sakharov, Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Due to the strong and aggressive electrolyte media and thermal load, design of the electroplating vats in the copper industry often relies on the resin concrete. The article presents the results of the strength tests of the polymer concrete based on the "Derakane" resin, used in the construction of electroplating vats. Samples were taken from the real vats - both new and 17-year old. Strength tests included compression and bending tensile strength test. To assess the effect of operational conditions the tests were performed on the same-age vats, some of which were never used while others were subjected to the operational load. During the operation, the vats sustained load of the anode and cathode weights, cyclic electrolyte loading with a temperatures up to 60°C. As a result, it was noted that the operational conditions led to the increased strength of the polymer concrete material.

  10. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    -operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...... figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards...... sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production'....

  11. Study of the electroplating mechanism and physicochemical proprieties of deposited Ni-W-Silicate composite alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, W.; Dhouibi, L.; Berçot, P.; Rezrazi, M.; Triki, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, layers based on Nickel-Tungsten (Ni-W) were electroplated from citrate-ammonia bath with and without silicate addition. Firstly, Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM) and Global Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) were used to investigate the electroplating mechanism of both coatings. The gain mass was 14 and 4.13 μg cm −2 for Ni-W-Sil and Ni-W coatings, respectively. Secondly, the morphology of the composite alloy shows a smooth and homogenous surface with compact cauliflower like-structure identified as silicate incorporation. Finally, after a long immersion into chloride solution, Ni-W-Sil composite film showed a good surface stability and a remarkable mechanical hardness. These proprieties enhanced the electrochemical behavior of the composite alloy

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations

  13. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Juu-En

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic β-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of copper electroplating for large accelerating structures for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimczak, G.W.; Stockley, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of changes in operating parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of high electrical conductivity electrodeposits. Based upon the information discerned from the small-scale laboratory evaluation, the process was geared up to a full-scale operation. An engineering study was required to determine the proper electroplating parameters to be utilized within the constraints of a commercial electroplater

  15. [Study of lung cancer risk in the electroplating industry in Lombardy based on the OCCAM method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, C; Bai, E; Oddone, E; Scaburri, Alessandra; Massari, Stefania; Modonesi, C; Crosignani, P

    2011-01-01

    The OCCAM method consists of case-control studies aimed at estimating occupational risks by cancer site, by area and by economic sector, using available archives to identify cases and controls; for exposure definition each subject is assigned to the category code of the economic sector or company where he/she worked the longest, obtained by automatic link with the Social Security Institute (INPS) files. The reference category (unexposed) consists of service industry workers. The economic sector is given by the ATECO category that INPS assigns to each firm. In the Lombardy Region, lung cancer risk evaluated for the "metal treatment" industry as a whole was 1.32 (90% CI 1.33-3.10, 67 cases) for males and 1.33 (90% CI 0.51-3.59, 10 cases) for females. The aim of the study was to estimate lung cancer risk among metal electroplating workers only. The metal electroplating firms were identified according to the detailed description of production, data which was also contained in INPS files, instead of using the "metal treatment" ATECO code. Lung cancer risk was evaluated using 2001-2008 incident cases identified from hospital discharge records of residents in the Lombardy Region. Controls were a sample from National Health Service files. For the group of firms identified as metal electroplating industries the risk was 2.03 (90% CI 1.69-8.32, 18 cases) for males and 3.75 (90% CI 1.38-9.03, 4 cases) for females. Focusing on the true electroplating firms increased the risk estimates. Even though these risk were due to past exposures, case histories and recent acute effects indicate that, at least in some factories, a carcinogenic hazard still exists.

  16. Novel Dual Stage Membrane Bioreactor for the Continuous Remediation of Electroplating Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Q. Santos; S. K. O. Ntwampe; G. Muchatibaya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the designed dual stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was conceptualized for the treatment of cyanide and heavy metals in electroplating wastewater. The design consisted of a primary treatment stage to reduce the impact of fluctuations and the secondary treatment stage to remove the residual cyanide and heavy metal contaminants in the wastewater under alkaline pH conditions. The primary treatment stage contained hydrolyzed Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) p...

  17. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  18. Chemometrics models for assessment of oxidative stress risk in chrome-electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Azari, Mansoor R; Hosseini, Vajihe; Mohammadi, Hamidreza

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress is the main cause of hexavalant chromium-induced damage in chrome electroplating workers. The main goal of this study is toxicity analysis and the possibility of toxicity risk categorizing in the chrome electroplating workers based on oxidative stress parameters as prognostic variables. We assessed blood chromium levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, thiol (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Data were subjected to principle component analysis (PCA) and artificial neuronal network (ANN) to obtain oxidative stress pattern for chrome electroplating workers. Blood chromium levels increased from 4.42 ppb to 10.6 ppb. Induction of oxidative stress was observed by increased in lipid peroxidation (22.38 ± 10.47 μM versus 14.74 ± 4.82 μM, p chrome electroplaters. The result showed multivariate modeling can be interpreted as the induced biochemical toxicity in the workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Different occupation groups were assessed on the basis of risk level of oxidative stress which could further justify proceeding engineering control measures.

  19. The use of bio-monitoring to assess exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Helen; Keen, Chris; Coldwell, Matthew; Tan, Emma; Morton, Jackie; McAlinden, John; Smith, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Workers in the electroplating industry are potentially exposed to a range of hazardous substances including nickel and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) compounds. These can cause serious health effects, including cancer, asthma and dermatitis. This research aimed to investigate whether repeat biological monitoring (BM) over time could drive sustainable improvements in exposure control in the industry. BM was performed on multiple occasions over 3 years, at 53 electroplating companies in Great Britain. Surface and dermal contamination was also measured, and controls were assessed. Air monitoring was undertaken on repeat visits where previous BM results were of concern. There were significant reductions in urinary nickel and chromium levels over the lifetime of this work in the subset of companies where initially, control deficiencies were more significant. Increased risk awareness following provision of direct feedback to individual workers and targeted advice to companies is likely to have contributed to these reductions. This study has shown that exposures to chromium VI and nickel in the electroplating industry occur via a combination of inhalation, dermal and ingestion routes. Surface contamination found in areas such as canteens highlights the potential for transferral from work areas, and the importance of a regular cleaning regime.

  20. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts Based on Diketopyrrolopyrroles Skeletons and Their Applications in Copper Electroplating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Xu, Jie; Wang, Limin; Song, Longfeng; Wu, Shengying

    2017-03-01

    A series of DPP derivatives bearing quaternary ammonium salt centers with different lengths of carbon chains have been designed and synthesized. Their inhibition actions on copper electroplating were first investigated. A total of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives showed different inhibition capabilities on copper electroplating. To investigate interactions between metal surface and additives, we used quantum chemical calculations. Static and dynamic surface tension of four DPP derivatives had been measured, and the results showed DPP-10C (1c) with a faster-decreasing rate of dynamic surface tension among the four derivatives, which indicated higher adsorption rate of additive on the cathode surface and gives rise to stronger inhibiting effect of copper electrodeposition. Then, DPP-10C (1c) as the representative additive, was selected for the systematic study of the leveling influence during microvia filling through comprehensive electroplating tests. In addition, field-emission scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffraction results showed the surface morphology, which indicated that addition of DPP derivative (1c) could lead a fine copper deposit and cause the preferential orientations of copper deposits to change from [220] to [111], which happened in particular at higher concentrations.

  1. Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculated with Ochrobactrum Tritici KCC210 for Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jongtar; Kuo, Juiling; Cheng, Chiuyu; Chung, Yingchien

    2018-01-01

    Many methods/techniques have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite or/and cannot provide real-time for Cr(VI) monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a self-sustaining device and has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Ochrobactrum tritici KCC210, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into the MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The results indicated that O. tritici KCC210 exhibited high adaptability to pH, and temperature under anaerobic conditions. The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 17.5±0.9 mW/m2 at 2,000 Ω. A good linear relationship was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (10-80 mg/L) and voltage output. The stable performance of the MFC biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. Moreover, the developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater generated from different electroplating units within 15 min with low deviations (-1.8% to 7.8%) in comparison with the values determined using standard method. Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents and has potential as an early warning detection device.

  2. Improving Impedance of Implantable Microwire Multi-Electrode Arrays by Ultrasonic Electroplating of Durable Platinum Black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sharanya Arcot; Rolston, John D.; Guo, Liang; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been a boon for neural stimulation and recording experiments. Commercially available MEAs have high impedances, due to their low surface area and small tip diameters, which are suitable for recording single unit activity. Lowering the electrode impedance, but preserving the small diameter, would provide a number of advantages, including reduced stimulation voltages, reduced stimulation artifacts and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Impedance reductions can be achieved by electroplating the MEAs with platinum (Pt) black, which increases the surface area but has little effect on the physical extent of the electrodes. However, because of the low durability of Pt black plating, this method has not been popular for chronic use. Sonicoplating (i.e. electroplating under ultrasonic agitation) has been shown to improve the durability of Pt black on the base metals of macro-electrodes used for cyclic voltammetry. This method has not previously been characterized for MEAs used in chronic neural implants. We show here that sonicoplating can lower the impedances of microwire multi-electrode arrays (MMEA) by an order of magnitude or more (depending on the time and voltage of electroplating), with better durability compared to pulsed plating or traditional DC methods. We also show the improved stimulation and recording performance that can be achieved in an in vivo implantation study with the sonicoplated low-impedance MMEAs, compared to high-impedance unplated electrodes. PMID:20485478

  3. Heavy metal contamination and risk assessment in water, paddy soil, and rice around an electroplating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Tran, Henry; Wang, Dun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Nian

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of long-term electroplating industrial activities on heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and potential health risks for local residents. Water, soil, and rice samples were collected from sites upstream (control) and downstream of the electroplating wastewater outlet. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fractionation and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to evaluate the environmental risks of heavy metals in soils. The health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to assess potential health risks to local populations through rice consumption. Hazardous levels of Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed in water and paddy soils at sites near the plant. According to the RAC analysis, the soils showed a high risk for Ni and a medium risk for Cu and Cr at certain sites. The rice samples were primarily contaminated with Ni, followed by Cr and Cu. HRI values >1 were not found for any heavy metal. However, HI values for adults and children were 2.075 and 1.808, respectively. Water, paddy soil, and rice from the studied area have been contaminated by Cu, Cr, and Ni. The contamination of these elements is related to the electroplating wastewater. Although no single metal poses health risks for local residents through rice consumption, the combination of several metals may threaten the health of local residents. Cu and Ni are the key components contributing to the potential health risks.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Pseudomonas spp. isolated from effluent of an electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Kapil; Yedurkar, Snehal; Doshi, Sejal; Deshapnde, Sunita; Vaidya, Shashikant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and screen bacteria from soil and effluent of electroplating industries for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterize the potential isolate. Soil and effluent of electroplating industries from Mumbai were screened for bacteria capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles. From two soils and eight effluent samples 20 bacterial isolates were obtained, of these, one was found to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle by bacteria was confirmed by undertaking characterization studies of nanoparticles that involved spectroscopy and electron microscopic techniques. The potential bacteria was found to be Gram-negative short rods with its biochemical test indicating Pseudomonas spp . Molecular characterization of the isolate by 16S r DNA sequencing was carried out which confirmed its relation to Pseudomonas hibiscicola ATCC 19867. Stable nanoparticles synthesized were 50 nm in size and variable shapes as seen in SEM micrographs. The XRD and FTIR confirmed the crystalline structure of nanoparticles and presence of biomolecules mainly proteins as agents for reduction and capping of nanoparticles. The study demonstrates synthesis of nanoparticles by bacteria from effluent of electroplating industry. This can be used for large scale synthesis of nanoparticles by cost effective and environmentally benign mode of synthesis.

  5. SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel joints prepared by dynamic diffusion bonding: Microelectrochemical studies in 0.6 M NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, Francesco; Matesanz, Laura; Akita, Adriano H.; Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Fugivara, Cecilio S.; Gomez de Salazar, Jose M.; Benedetti, Assis V.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 μm) and Cu (5 μm) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 μm) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.

  6. Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Sankar, A; Lahiri, S K; Das, S

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass is presented in this paper. The fabricated accelerometer device consists of a heavy proof mass supported by four thin flexures. Boron-diffused piezoresistors located near the fixed ends of the flexures are used for sensing the developed stress and hence acceleration. Performance enhancement is achieved by electroplating a gold mass of 20 µm thickness on top of the proof mass. A commercially available sulfite-based solution TSG-250(TM) was used for the electroplating process. Aluminum metal lines were used to form a Wheatstone bridge for signal pick-up. To avoid galvanic corrosion between two dissimilar metals having contact in an electrolyte, a shadow mask technique was used to selectively deposit a Cr/Au seed layer on an insulator atop the proof mass for subsequent electrodeposition. Bulk micromachining was performed using a 5% dual-doped TMAH solution. Fabricated devices with different electroplated gold areas were tested up to ±13 g acceleration. For electroplated gold dimensions of 2500 µm × 2500 µm × 20 µm on a proof mass, sensitivity along the Z-axis is increased by 21.8% as compared to the structure without gold. Off-axis sensitivities along the X- and Y-axes are reduced by 7.6% and 6.9%, respectively

  7. Sewage water-free electroplating: Block heating power plant as part of a waste disposal plant. Abwasserfreie Galvanik: Blockheizkraftwerk als Teil einer Entsorgungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, R.

    1992-04-01

    The way leading to sewage water-free electroplating requires a lot of measures which have to be attuned to each other. At the end of every planning there comes the energy balance which, specifically for sewage water-free electroplating, is far from satisfactory. (orig.).

  8. Improvement of the tool life of a micro-end mill using nano-sized SiC/Ni electroplating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinyoung; Kim, Kwang-Su; Roh, Ji Young; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    High mechanical properties of a tungsten carbide micro-end-mill tool was achieved by extending its tool life by electroplating nano-sized SiC particles (electroplating method on the surface of the micro-end-mill tool was applied using SiC particles and Ni particles. Organic additives (saccharin and ammonium chloride) were added in a Watts bath to improve the nickel matrix density in the electroplating bath and to smooth the surface of the co-electroplating. The morphology of the coated nano-sized SiC particles and the composition were measured using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. As the Ni/SiC co-electroplating layer was applied, the hardness and friction coefficient improved by 50%. Nano-sized SiC particles with 7 wt% were deposited on the surface of the micro-end mill while the Ni matrix was smoothed by adding organic additives. The tool life of the Ni/SiC co-electroplating coating on the micro-end mill was at least 25% longer than that of the existing micro-end mills without Ni/SiC co-electroplating. Thus, nano-sized SiC/Ni coating by electroplating significantly improves the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide micro-end mills.

  9. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  10. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  11. Effects of barrier composition and electroplating chemistry on adhesion and voiding in copper/dielectric diffusion barrier films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birringer, Ryan P.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Durand Building, Stanford, California 94305-4034 (United States); Shaviv, Roey [Novellus Systems Inc., 4000 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Geiss, Roy H.; Read, David T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The effects of electroplating chemistry and dielectric diffusion barrier composition on copper voiding and barrier adhesion are reported. Adhesion was quantified using the four-point bend thin film adhesion technique, and voiding in the Cu films was quantified using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 12 different film stacks were investigated, including three different Cu electroplating chemistries and four different barrier materials (SiN, N-doped SiC, O-doped SiC, and dual-layer SiC). Both plating chemistry and barrier composition have a large effect on interface adhesion and voiding in the Cu film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the segregation of Cu electroplating impurities, such as S and Cl, to the Cu/barrier interface. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxygen content at the Cu/barrier interface in a subset of samples. This interface oxygen content is correlated with measured adhesion values.

  12. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  13. Reliability improvement of PMZNT relaxor ferroelectrics through surface modification by MnO2 doping against electroplating-induced degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiangli; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2003-01-01

    Electroplating treatment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were conducted to investigate the reliability improvement of lead magnesium niobate-based ceramics (PMZNT) through MnO 2 vaporous doping against hydrogen reduction during electroplating. The results showed that manganese dopant was reduced to be +3 oxidation state during the sintering and Mn 3+ was incorporated into the perovskite lattice; however, only the outermost ceramics surface was doped while 50 μm beneath kept unchanged. This technique proved to enhance the reliability of PMZNT against electroplating significantly without changing the dielectric properties of ceramics body. Based on the above results, the modification mechanism of MnO 2 vaporous doping was analyzed from the viewpoint of defect chemistry

  14. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO. The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  15. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  16. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, R; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C

    2017-01-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment. (paper)

  17. Influence of voltage input to heavy metal removal from electroplating wastewater using electrocoagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, D. R.; Cahyaningsih, S.; Djaenudin

    2017-03-01

    In medium capacity, electroplating industry usually treats wastewater until 5 m3 per day. Heavy metal content becomes concern that should be reduced. Previous studies performed electrocoagulation method on laboratory scale, either batch or continuous. This study was aimed to compare the influence of voltage input variation into heavy metal removal in electroplating wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation process on laboratory-scale in order to determine the optimum condition for scaling up the reactor into pilot-scale. The laboratory study was performed in 1.5 L glass reactor in batch system using wastewater from electroplating industry, the voltage input varied at 20, 30 and 40 volt. The electrode consisted of aluminium 32 cm2 as sacrifice anode and copper 32 cm2 as cathode. During 120 min electrocoagulation process, the pH value was measured using pH meter, whereas the heavy metal of chromium, copper, iron, and zinc concentration were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result showed that removal of heavy metals from wastewater increased due to the increasing of voltage input. Different initial concentration of heavy metals on wastewater, resulted the different detention time. At pilot-scale reactor with 30 V voltage input, chromium, iron, and zinc reached removal efficiency until 89-98%, when copper reached 79% efficiency. At 40V, removal efficiencies increased on same detention time, i.e. chromium, iron, and zinc reached 89-99%, whereas copper reached 85%. These removal efficiencies have complied the government standard except for copper that had higher initial concentration in wastewater. Kinetic rate also calculated in this study as the basic factor for scaling up the process.

  18. Preparation of the electroplated Ni and Co films for applying betavoltaic battery and Moessbauer source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    The reverse occurs at the anode where metallic nickel is dissolved to form divalent positively charged ions that enter the solution. The nickel ions discharged at the cathode are replenished by those formed at the anode. In this study, a Co-and Ni- plating solution is prepared using two different baths. One is the acid-based buffer (pH 3-4) containing boric acid, sodium chloride, and saccharin. The rest is the base-based buffer (pH 10) containing hydrazine hydrate and ammonium citrate. The optimization of the electroplating parameters for the deposition of Co on plate was considered as indispensable. A betavoltaic battery was fabricated using Ni-63 attached on a P-N junction semiconductor, and the I-V characteristics were measured using a probe station. The thickness-dependent self-shielding effect of the radioisotope layer was investigated. Also, the aim of this work was determination of the optimal parameters for thermal diffusion of the electroplated Co into the Rh structure. To establish preparation of betavoltaic battery, and Moessbauer source, natural Ni and Co were electroplated on the Rh plate. Both the acid-based buffer (pH 3) and the alkarine-based buffer (pH 10) are used for plating bath. The deposition yield of the alkarine electrolyte is relatively higher than those of the acidic bath. optimum conditions for the homogeneous diffusion is determined at annealing temperatures of 1100 .deg. C for 3h under the high vacuum atmosphere (10"-"5 hPa). The proposed condition in this study should be applied to prepare 57Co/Rh Moessbauer source at near future

  19. Enhancing the CuCrZr/316L HIP-joint by Ni electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Zhao, S.X., E-mail: sxzhao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Dong, H.; Che, H.Y. [Advanced Technology and Materials Co. Ltd., Beijing, 100081 (China); Li, Q.; Wang, W.J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, X.L.; Sun, Z.X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei, 230022 (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230027 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The quality of CuCrZr/316L HIP-joint can be enhanced by nickel electroplating on CuCrZr and 316L. • Nickel layer can prevent the occurrence of nickel-poor region in 316L and protect CuCrZr from oxidation. • A Charpy Impact Value as high as 111.5 ± 3.3 J/cm{sup 2} can be obtained by HIP at 980 °C, 140 MPa for 2 h. • At high temperature, CuCrZr is easily oxidized even in the situation of a high vacuum degree of 2 × 10{sup −5} Pa. - Abstract: The quality of CuCrZr/316L joint is crucial for the safety of ITER hypervapotron cooling structure and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is an important bonding technique for this structure. In this paper, the authors present a finding that the CuCrZr/316L HIP-joint can be enhanced by nickel electroplating on 316L and CuCrZr. A Charpy Impact Value as high as 111.5 ± 3.3 J/cm{sup 2}, which is more than two times the value in a published article, is obtained. The influence of nickel electroplating is twofold: (1) it can prevent the occurrence of nickel-poor region in 316L and the formation of ferrite; (2) it can protect CuCrZr from oxidation during the heating stage of HIP. However, tensile test is not as effective as Charpy Impact Test in characterizing the bonding quality of the CuCrZr/316L HIP-joint. The surface treatment employed in this study is amenable to batch-scale industrial manufacturing at low cost.

  20. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in electroplating workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.

  1. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  2. Preparation of the electroplated Ni and Co films for applying betavoltaic battery and Moessbauer source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The reverse occurs at the anode where metallic nickel is dissolved to form divalent positively charged ions that enter the solution. The nickel ions discharged at the cathode are replenished by those formed at the anode. In this study, a Co-and Ni- plating solution is prepared using two different baths. One is the acid-based buffer (pH 3-4) containing boric acid, sodium chloride, and saccharin. The rest is the base-based buffer (pH 10) containing hydrazine hydrate and ammonium citrate. The optimization of the electroplating parameters for the deposition of Co on plate was considered as indispensable. A betavoltaic battery was fabricated using Ni-63 attached on a P-N junction semiconductor, and the I-V characteristics were measured using a probe station. The thickness-dependent self-shielding effect of the radioisotope layer was investigated. Also, the aim of this work was determination of the optimal parameters for thermal diffusion of the electroplated Co into the Rh structure. To establish preparation of betavoltaic battery, and Moessbauer source, natural Ni and Co were electroplated on the Rh plate. Both the acid-based buffer (pH 3) and the alkarine-based buffer (pH 10) are used for plating bath. The deposition yield of the alkarine electrolyte is relatively higher than those of the acidic bath. optimum conditions for the homogeneous diffusion is determined at annealing temperatures of 1100 .deg. C for 3h under the high vacuum atmosphere (10{sup -5} hPa). The proposed condition in this study should be applied to prepare 57Co/Rh Moessbauer source at near future.

  3. Electrochemistry of metal complexes applications from electroplating to oxide layer formation

    CERN Document Server

    Survila, Arvydas

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to sequentially cover all the major stages of electrochemical processes (mass transport, adsorption, charge transfer), with a special emphasis on their deep interrelation. Starting with general considerations on equilibria in solutions and at interfaces as well as on mass transport, the text acquaints readers with the theory and common experimental practice for studying electrochemical reactions of metals complexes. The core part of the book deals with all important aspects of electroplating, including a systematic discussion of co-deposition of metals and formation of alloys.

  4. Very high cycle fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films under extreme stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, E.K.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization technique based on kilohertz micro-resonators is presented to investigate the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 20 μm thick electroplated Ni films with a columnar microstructure (grain diameter less than 2 μm). The films exhibit superior fatigue resistance due to the extreme stress gradients at the surface. The effects of stress amplitude and environment on the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks are discussed based on scanning electron microscopy and the tracking of the specimens’ resonant frequency.

  5. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter. (author)

  6. Enhancement of Life Time of the Dimensionally Stable Anode for Copper Electroplating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Seong Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the long-term stability of DSA for copper electroplating process, in the present study, noble metal oxides with excellent electrochemical properties was used and optimum condition was determined the ratio of noble metal oxides, surface pre-treatment of titanium substrate and heat treatment. The effect of the surface pretreatment of titanium substrate and ratio of noble metal oxides were estimated by accelerated test at the highly current density conditions. The lifetime of DSA increase six-fold higher as the oxide thickness of Ta 7 : Ir 3 composition ratio. Under the optimal condition, surface pretreatment led to dramatic increase in the lifetime of DSA.

  7. Gold coated metal nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition and pulsed electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Christoph; Reeck, Pascal; Jacobs, Paul-Philipp; Liedtke, Susann; Lotnyk, Andriy; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Nickel based nanostructures are grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on flat and pre-patterned substrates. These fabricated porous thin films were subsequently coated by pulsed electroplating with gold. The morphology and conformity of the gold coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Controlled growth of closed gold layers on the nanostructures could be achieved, while the open-pore structure of the nanosculptured thin films was preserved. Such gold coated nanostructures are a candidate for optical sensing and catalysis applications. The demonstrated method can be applied for numerous material combinations, allowing to provide GLAD thin films with new surface properties.

  8. Square pulse current wave’s effect on electroplated nickel hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian Alonso Hoyos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of frequency, average current density and duty cycle on the hardness of electroplated nickel were studied in Watts and sulphamate solutions by means of direct and square pulse current. The results in Watts’ solutions revealed greater hardness at low duty cycle, high average current density and high square pulse current frequency. There was little variation in hardness in nickel sulphamate solutions to changes in duty cycle and wave frequency. Hardness values obtained in the Watts’ bath with square pulse current were higher than those achieved with direct current at the same average current density; such difference was not significant in sulphamate bath treatment.

  9. Development of an Electroplating Method Using the Emulsion Under Supercritical C0{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeongmin; Park, Kwangheon; Ha, Sungwoo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of an internal cladding metal coating technology is required as a measure for manufacturing homogeneous burnable poison and preventing PCI. This study applied nickel plating obtaining a film on the metal surface by making the emulsion of supercritical CO2 and plating solution. It is an eco-friendly process that reduced an electrolyte used in the electroplating process to 40% and a method that can inhibit the effect of bubbles generated during plating. According to the experimental results, it was found that emulsion can be formed through agitation by using ultrasonic horn. And the nickel plating film in the relatively uniform and dense from was formed in Zry-4 and Cu specimens with the formed emulsion. Additionally, the side effects of pinhole in existing electroplating were diminished through the emulsion electroplating. Process development research is underway in order to secure a plating layer with the smoother and generally even specimen surface and find optimized plating conditions and this study can be used as the basic data for new plating process development. Recently, pressurized-water reactor nuclear fuel has been developed as high burn up nuclear fuel that can be operated for a long time. To this end, the nuclear fuel aggregate adding neutron absorber (Burnable absorber-BA) is required. To this end, a new technology to replace burnable poison in the form of pellet is required. If BA coating is made inside the nuclear fuel cladding, it is possible to produce burnable poison that improved performance more than that of burnable poison in the form of existing pellet. Generally, coating using plating can be simply manufactured at a low temperature compared to the complex process of making pellet and can also distribute burnable poison overall evenly. The problem in the behavior of high burn up nuclear fuel is pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) shown while burning. Several methods to reduce it have been devised and recently, research on nuclear

  10. Mortality among workers in a die-casting and electroplating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, M; Mirer, F; Kotelchuck, D; Silverstein, B; Bennett, M

    1981-01-01

    A proportional mortality and case-referent analysis of 238 deaths among hourly employees in an automobile hardware manufacturing plant was conducted. The major operations of the plant were zinc die casting and electroplating. Chemical exposure included die-casting emissions and mists from chrome and nickel plating. The chief proportional mortality finding was a significant excess of lung cancer among both white men and women. A case-referent analysis indicated a possible association between lung cancer and work in certain departments. The findings support the hypothesis of a work-related carcinogenic risk. Follow-up recommendations have been made.

  11. Development of an Electroplating Method Using the Emulsion Under Supercritical C02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeongmin; Park, Kwangheon; Ha, Sungwoo

    2015-01-01

    The development of an internal cladding metal coating technology is required as a measure for manufacturing homogeneous burnable poison and preventing PCI. This study applied nickel plating obtaining a film on the metal surface by making the emulsion of supercritical CO2 and plating solution. It is an eco-friendly process that reduced an electrolyte used in the electroplating process to 40% and a method that can inhibit the effect of bubbles generated during plating. According to the experimental results, it was found that emulsion can be formed through agitation by using ultrasonic horn. And the nickel plating film in the relatively uniform and dense from was formed in Zry-4 and Cu specimens with the formed emulsion. Additionally, the side effects of pinhole in existing electroplating were diminished through the emulsion electroplating. Process development research is underway in order to secure a plating layer with the smoother and generally even specimen surface and find optimized plating conditions and this study can be used as the basic data for new plating process development. Recently, pressurized-water reactor nuclear fuel has been developed as high burn up nuclear fuel that can be operated for a long time. To this end, the nuclear fuel aggregate adding neutron absorber (Burnable absorber-BA) is required. To this end, a new technology to replace burnable poison in the form of pellet is required. If BA coating is made inside the nuclear fuel cladding, it is possible to produce burnable poison that improved performance more than that of burnable poison in the form of existing pellet. Generally, coating using plating can be simply manufactured at a low temperature compared to the complex process of making pellet and can also distribute burnable poison overall evenly. The problem in the behavior of high burn up nuclear fuel is pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) shown while burning. Several methods to reduce it have been devised and recently, research on nuclear

  12. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  13. Directed batch assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, D J; Bauert, T E; Zhang, L; Dong, L X; Sun, Y; Gruetzmacher, D; Nelson, B J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for the directed batch assembly of rolled-up three-dimensional helical nanobelts. The wet etch time is controlled in order for the loose end of the self-formed SiGe/Si/Cr nanobelts to be located over an electrode by taking advantage of the additional angular winding motion in the lateral direction. In a subsequent Au electroplating step, contacts are electroformed and the batch assembly is completed, while at the same time the conductance of the structures is increased

  14. Corrosion and Fatigue Behavior of High-Strength Steel Treated with a Zn-Alloy Thermo-diffusion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, C. P.; Vigilante, G. N.; Cannon, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    High and low cycle fatigue tests were conducted on high-strength steel using four-point bending. The materials tested were ASTM A723 steel in the as-machined condition, grit-blasted condition, MIL-DTL-16232 heavy manganese phosphate-coated condition, and ASTM A1059 Zn-alloy thermo-diffusion coated (Zn-TDC). The ASTM A723 steel base material exhibits a yield strength of 1000 MPa. The effects of the surface treatments versus uncoated steel were examined. The fatigue life of the Zn-TDC specimens was generally reduced on as-coated specimens versus uncoated or phosphate-coated specimens. Several mechanisms are examined including the role of compressive residual stress relief with the Zn-TDC process as well as fatigue crack initiation from the hardened Zn-Fe alloy surface layer produced in the gas-metal reaction. Additionally, the effects of corrosion pitting on the fatigue life of coated specimens are explored as the Zn-TDC specimens exhibit significantly improved corrosion resistance over phosphate-coated and oiled specimens.

  15. Laboratory scale electroplating and processing of long lengths of an in situ Cu-Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeHuy, H.; Germain, L.; Roberge, R.; Foner, S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory scale continuous tin electroplating system is described and used to evaluate the effect of various parameters of the alkaline and acid baths plating process. Tin electroplating is shown to be simple and reliable. With an 8 m immersion length production speeds of the order of 1 m min -1 are possible in an alkaline bath at 80degC. An acid bath gives satisfactory tinning deposits with a production speed of up to 3 m min -1 at room temperature. (author)

  16. Fabrication of combined-scale nano- and microfluidic polymer systems using a multilevel dry etching, electroplating and molding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Matteucci, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions to fabric......Microfabricated single-cell capture and DNA stretching devices have been produced by injection molding. The fabrication scheme employed deep reactive ion etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and molding in cyclic olefin polymer. This work proposes technical solutions...

  17. Surface Oxidation of the High-Strength Steels Electrodeposited with Cu or Fe and the Resultant Defect Formation in Their Coating during the Following Galvanizing and Galvannealing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Il; Beom, Won-Jin; Park, Chan-Jin; Paik, Doojin; Hong, Moon-Hi

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the surface oxidation of high-strength steels electrodeposited with Cu or Fe and the resultant defect formation in their coating during the following galvanizing and galvannealing processes. The high-strength steels were coated with an Cu or Fe layer by the electroplating method. Then, the coated steels were annealed in a reducing atmosphere, dipped in a molten zinc, and finally transformed into galvannealed steels through the galvannealing process. The formation of Si and Mn oxides on the surface of the high-strength steel was effectively suppressed, and the density of surface defects on the galvanized steel was significantly reduced by the pre-electrodeposition of Cu and Fe. This effect was more prominent for the steels electrodeposited at higher cathodic current densities. The finer electrodeposit layer formed at higher cathodic current density on the steels enabled the suppression of partial surface oxidation by Mn or Si and better wetting of Zn on the surface of the steels in the following galvanizing process. Furthermore, the pre-electrodeposited steels exhibited a smoother surface without surface cracks after the galvannealing process compared with the untreated steel. The diffusion of Fe and Zn in the Zn coating layer in the pre-electrodeposited steels appears to occur more uniformly during the galvannealing process due to the low density of surface defects induced by oxides.

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects of Silver-Coated Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Valiollah; Keikhaee, Fatemeh; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Khafri, Soraya; Tavanafar, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    White spots and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets are among the most important complications resulting from orthodontic treatments. Since the antibacterial properties of metals and metallic particles have been well documented, the aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of stainless steel orthodontic brackets coated with silver (Ag) particles. In this study, 40 standard metal brackets were divided into two groups of 20 cases and 20 controls. The brackets in the case group were coated with Ag particles using an electroplating method. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the adequacy of the coating process. In addition, antibacterial tests, i.e., disk diffusion and direct contact tests were performed at three, six, 24, and 48 hours, and 15 and 30 days using a Streptococcus mutans strain. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Analyses via SEM and AFM confirmed that excellent coatings were obtained by using an electroplating method. The groups exhibited similar behavior when subjected to the disk diffusion test in the agar medium. However, the bacterial counts of the Ag-coated brackets were, in general, significantly lower (PBrackets coated with Ag, via an electroplating method, exhibited antibacterial properties when placed in direct contact with Streptococcus mutans. This antibacterial effect persisted for 30 days after contact with the bacteria.

  19. Application and analysis of palladium vapor deposited on stainless steel for high temperature electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using electron beam evaporation. Pd thin films of 300 nm thickness have been deposited on 301 stainless steel for high temperature electrical contact studies. The structure and compost ion of the helms were studied in detail x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) with sputter depth profiling. The contact properties such as contact resistance, fretting wear resistance, and thermal stability have been measured.The contact resistance rem ins low after heat-aging in air for 168 h at 150 and 200 deg., but increases significantly after heat-aging at 340 deg.. This increase in contact resistance is caused by the formation of about a 27 nm (1 μin.) thick Pdo. In contrast, the thickness of the Pdo is too thin to cause measurable contact resistance increases after heat-aging at 150 and 200 deg.. The fretting wear resistance of Pd coated 301 stainless steel is better than that of electroplated Sn of ser veal thousand nm thickness. Thus, vapor deposited Pd coating on 301 stainless steel may replace electroplated Sn for electrical contact application at elevated temperatures.

  20. A study on corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Zn-base alloy steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soon

    1986-01-01

    Effects of electrodeposits of Zn-Ni or Zn-Co alloy with small amounts of Mo or W in sulphate bath on the corrosion resistance of plated steel sheet were studied. 1) The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni and Zn-Co alloy shows both anomalous codeposition behavior. The grade of anomalous codeposition of Zn-Co alloy rises with adding Mo or W in bath. 2) The Ni content in Zn-Ni deposits increases with decreasing cathode current density and with increasing bath temperature. 3) In case of electroplating of Zn-Co, the increase of cathodic current density of bath bring on increasing of the Co content, but on decreasing of the Mo content in deposits. And rising bath temperature increases both Co and Mo deposits. 4) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Ni electrodeposited steel sheet is shown a maximum at the Ni content of 10-17%. The structure of Zn-Ni of these composition range was finegrained γ-phase. 5) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co electrodeposited steel sheet is improved with increasing Co content. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co-Mo or Zn-Co-W deposits electroplated by proper plating conditions was improved much more than that of Zn-Co deposits. (Author)

  1. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  2. Warpage Analysis of Electroplated Cu Films on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Packaging Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolgyu Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a warpage analysis method that predicts the warpage behavior of electroplated Cu films on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP packaging substrates. The analysis method is performed using the following sequence: fabricate specimens for scanning 3D contours, transform 3D data into curvatures, compute the built-in stress of the film using a stress-curvature analytic model, and verify it through comparisons of the finite element method (FEM simulations with the measured data. The curvature is used to describe the deflection and warpage modes and orientations of the specimen. Two primary factors that affect the warpage behavior of the electroplated Cu film on FRP substrate specimens are investigated. The first factor is the built-in stress in a Cu film that explains the room temperature warpage of the specimen under no thermal process. The second factor is the misfit of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE between the Cu and FRP layer, which is a dominant factor during the temperature change. The calculated residual stress, and predicted curvatures using FEM simulation throughout the reflow process temperature range between 25 and 180 °C are proven to be accurate by the comparison of the FEM simulations and experiment measurements.

  3. Use of Hg-Electroplated-Pt Ultramicroelectrode for Determining Elemental Sulphur in Naphtha Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the applicability of a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode in the quantification of elemental sulphur in naphtha samples by square-wave voltammetry. A reproducible deposition methodology was studied and is reported in this paper. This methodology is innovative and relies on the quality of the mercury stock solution to obtain reproducible surfaces required for the analytical methodology. All analyses were performed using a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode (Hg-Pt UME due to the low sensibility of such devices to ohmic drops in resistive solutions. The responses of the peak areas in voltammetric experiments were linear in all of the range studied. The method developed here is accurate and reproducible, with a detection limit of 0.010 mg L−1 and a good recovery range for both standard solutions of elemental sulphur (85 to 99% and real naphtha sample (79%. These results attest to the potential for the application of this electroanalytical methodology in determining elemental sulphur in naphtha samples containing mercaptans and disulphides.

  4. Micro-scale metallization on flexible polyimide substrate by Cu electroplating using SU-8 photoresist mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.H.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, H.M.; Nam, Y.W.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for flexible electronics have been developed to make electronic or microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices on inexpensive and flexible organic substrates. In order to fabricate the interconnect lines between device elements or layers in flexible electronic devices, metallization on the flexible substrate is essential. In this case, the width and conductivity of metallization line are very important for minimizing the size of device. Therefore, the realization of metallization process with the scale of a few micrometers on the flexible substrate is required. In this work, micro-scale metallization lines of Cu were fabricated on the flexible substrate by electroplating using the patterned mask of a negative-tone SU-8 photoresist. Polyimide surface was treated by O 2 /Ar atmospheric plasma for the improvement in adhesion between Cr layer and polyimide and in situ sputter deposition of 100-nm-thick Cu seed layers on the sputter-deposited 50-nm-thick Cr adhesion layer was followed. SU-8 photoresist was spin-coated and patterned by photolithography. Electroplating of Cu line, removal of SU-8, and selective wet etch of Cr adhesion and Cu seed layers were carried out. Gap between the Cu lines was successfully filled by spin-coating of polyimide. Micro-scale Cu metal lines with gap filling on the polyimide substrate with a thickness of 6-12 μm and an aspect ratio of 1-3 were successfully fabricated

  5. [Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Environmental Samples Around Electroplating Factories and the Health Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-ran; Lei, Yong-qian; Zhou, Qiao-li; Wang, Chang; Pan, Jia-chuan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pollution degree and human health risk of heavy metals in soil and air samples around electroplating factories. Soil, air and waste gas samples were collected to measure 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in two electroplating factories, located in Baiyun district of Guangzhou city. Geoaccumulation index and USEPA Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) were respectively carried out. Results showed that concentrations of Hg and Pb in waste gas and Cr in air samples were higher than limits of the corresponding quality standards, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn in soil samples reached the moderate pollution level. The HQ and HI of exposure by heavy metals in air and soil samples were both lower than 1, indicating that there was no non-carcinogen risk. CRAs and CRCr in soil samples were beyond the maximum acceptable level of carcinogen risk (10(-4)), and the contribution rate of CRCr to TCR was over 81%. CRCr, CRNi and TCR in air samples were in range of 10(-6) - 10(-4), indicating there was possibly carcinogen risk but was acceptable risk. CR values for children were higher than adults in soils, but were higher for adults in air samples. Correlation analysis revealed that concentrations of heavy metals in soils were significantly correlated with these in waste gas samples, and PCA data showed pollution sources of Cd, Hg and Zn in soils were different from other metals.

  6. Simultaneous bioaccumulation of multiple metals from electroplating effluent using Aspergillus lentulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree

    2012-10-15

    Toxic impacts of heavy metals in the environment have lead to intensive research on various methods of heavy metal remediation. However, in spite of abundant work on heavy metals removal from simple synthetic solutions, a very few studies demonstrate the potential of microbial strains for the treatment of industrial effluents containing mixtures of metals. In the present study, the efficiency of an environmental isolate (Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995), for simultaneous removal of chromium, copper and lead from a small-scale electroplating industry effluent was investigated. Initial studies with synthetic solutions infer that A. lentulus has a remarkable tolerance against Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni. During its growth, a significant bioaccumulation of individual metal was recorded. After 5 d of growth, the removal of metals from synthetic solutions followed the trend Pb(2+) (100%) > Cr(3+) (79%) > Cu(2+) (78%), > Ni(2+) (42%). When this strain was applied to the treatment of multiple metal containing electroplating effluent (after pH adjustment), the metal concentrations decreased by 71%, 56% and 100% for Cr, Cu and Pb, respectively within 11 d. Based on our results, we propose that the simultaneous removal of hazardous metals from industrial effluents can be accomplished using A. lentulus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  8. Efficient removal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through reacting with recycled electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2013-06-18

    This paper reports that recycled electroplating sludge is able to efficiently remove greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The removal process involves various reactions of SF6 with the recycled sludge. Remarkably, the sludge completely removed SF6 at a capacity of 1.10 mmol/g (SF6/sludge) at 600 °C. More importantly, the evolved gases were SO2, SiF4, and a limited amount of HF, with no toxic SOF4, SO2F2, or SF4 being detected. These generated gases can be readily captured and removed by NaOH solution. The reacted solids were further found to be various metal fluorides, thus revealing that SF6 removal takes place by reacting with various metal oxides and silicate in the sludge. Moreover, the kinetic investigation revealed that the SF6 reaction with the sludge is a first-order chemically controlled process. This research thus demonstrates that the waste electroplating sludge can be potentially used as an effective removal agent for one of the notorious greenhouse gases, SF6.

  9. [Effect of simulated heavy metal leaching solution of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin-Yuan; Sun, Pei-De; Lou, Ju-Qing; Guo, Mao-Xin; Ma, Wang-Gang

    2013-01-01

    An Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain WZ-1 was isolated from the tannery sludge in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province in China. The cell of WZ-1 strain is Gram negative and rod-shaped, its 16S rDNA sequence is closely related to that of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC23270 with 99% similarity. These results reveal that WZ-1 is a strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effects of Ni2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and 5 kinds of simulated leaching solutions of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Fe2+ oxidation and apparent respiratory rate of WZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that Ni2+ and Cr3+ did not have any influence on the bioactivity of WZ-1 at concentrations of 5.0 g x L(-1) and 0.1 g x L(-1), respectively. WZ-1 showed tolerance to high levels of Ni2+, Zn2+ (about 30.0 g x L(-1)), but it had lower tolerance to Cr3+ and Cu2+ (0.1 g x L(-1) Cr3+ and 2.5 g x L(-1) Cu2+). Different kinds of simulated leaching solution of electroplating sludge had significant differences in terms of their effects on the bioactivity of WZ-1 with a sequence of Cu/Ni/Cr/Zn > Cu/Ni/Zn > Cu/Cr/Zn > Cu/Ni/Cr > Ni/Cr/Zn.

  10. Effective Reuse of Electroplating Rinse Wastewater by Combining PAC with H2O2/UV Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh-Fang; Lin, Chen Pei

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of treating electroplating rinse wastewater by powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, H2O2/UV oxidation, and their combination to remove organic compounds and heavy metals. The results showed that neither the process of PAC adsorption nor H2O2/UV oxidation could reduce COD to 100 mg/L, as enforced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. On the other hand, the water sample treated by the combined approach of using PAC (5 g/L) pre-adsorption and H2O2/UV post-oxidation (UV of 64 W, H2O2 of 100 mg/L, oxidation time of 90 min), COD and DOC were reduced to 8.2 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, the combined approach reduced heavy metals to meet the effluent standards and to satisfy the in-house water reuse criteria for the electroplating factory. The reaction constant analysis indicated that the reaction proceeded much more rapidly for the combined process. Hence, it is a more efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process.

  11. [Effect of simulated inorganic anion leaching solution of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Fang; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    An Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain WZ-1 (GenBank sequence number: JQ968461) was used as the research object. The effects of Cl-, NO3-, F- and 4 kinds of simulated inorganic anions leaching solutions of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Fe2+ oxidation and apparent respiratory rate of WZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that Cl-, NO3(-)- didn't have any influence on the bioactivity of WZ-1 at concentrations of 5.0 g x L(-1), 1.0 g x L(-1), respectively. WZ-1 showed tolerance to high levels of Cl- and NO3- (about 10.0 g x L(-1), 5.0 g x L(-1), respectively), but it had lower tolerance to F- (25 mg x L(-1)). Different kinds of simulated inorganic anions leaching solutions of electroplating sludge had significant differences in terms of their effects on bioactivity of WZ-1 with a sequence of Cl-/NO3(-)/F(-) > or = NO3(-)/F(-) > Cl-/F(-) > Cl(-)/NO3(-).

  12. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  13. Study of the electroplated of Ni for betavoltaic battery using PN junction without seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byoung Gun [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P.N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converting photons into electrical energy in the junction. In a betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted into electrical energy with a similar principle as a photovoltaic. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long half-life (over 100 years) is used, the lifetime of the power source is extended to as long as the half-life time of the RI. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system can gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. The beta spectrum of {sup 63}Ni is below the radiation damage threshold (approximately 200 keV for Si) of semiconductors such as Si and SiC. Beta particles of 63Ni were deposited by electroplating on the Ni-foil substrate and attached on the trench P-N absorber with a spacing of 50 μm. The optimum total thickness of the 63Ni layer was determined to be about 2 μm, when regarding the minimum self-shielding effect of the beta-ray (β-ray). The optimum condition of the electroplating {sup 63}Ni was determined at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Toxicity assessment of untreated/treated electroplating sludge using human and plant bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Durgo, Ksenija; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin

    2018-04-30

    The purpose of this work was to assess the risk to the environment arising from the electroplating sludge from both chemical and toxicological point of view. Both approaches were used for the assessment of the treatment efficiency which consisted of CaO based solidification followed by thermal treatment at 400°C. The elemental composition was determined in the bulk samples and the leachates of untreated sludge. The toxicity of the leachate was determined using two human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (Caco-2 and SW 480) and Hordeum vulgare L. based plant bioassay. The same toxicity tests were employed to the leachate of the treated sludge. Untreated sludge showed extremely high cytotoxic effect to both human and plant bio-system in dose-dependent manner. The percentages higher than 0.5% and 0.05% of the leachate caused significant cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 and SW 480 cells, respectively. The percentages of the leachate higher than 0.05% also showed significant toxic effect to H. vulgare L. bio-system with complete arrest of seed germination following the treatment with 100% to 5% of the leachate. The leachate of the treated sludge showed no toxicity to any of the test systems confirming the efficiency and justification of the employed procedures for the detoxification of electroplating sludge.

  15. Removal of chromium (VI) from electroplating wastewater using an anion exchanger derived from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Dang, Zhi; Yia, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Chen; Lu, Gui-Ning; Liu, Yun-Feng; Huang, Se-Yan; Zheng, Liu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    An anion exchanger from rice straw was used to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic wastewater and electroplating effluent. The exchanger was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that the quaternary amino group and hydroxyl group are the main functional groups on the fibrous surface of the exchanger. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and pH on the removal of Cr (VI), and adsorption isotherms at different temperature, was investigated. The results showed that the removal of Cr (VI) was very rapid and was significantly affected by the initial pH of the solution. Although acidic conditions (pH = 2-6) facilitated Cr (VI) adsorption, the exchanger was effective in neutral solution and even under weak base conditions. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacities at pH 6.4 were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.38 mmol/g for 15, 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The exchanger was finally tested with real electroplating wastewater, and at sorbent dosage of 10 g/L, the removal efficiencies for Cr (VI) and total Cr were 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively. In addition, the positive relationship between adsorbed Cr (VI) and desorbed Cl- suggested that Cr (VI) was mainly removed by ion exchange with chlorine.

  16. Biosorption of chromium from electroplating and galvanizing industrial effluents under extreme conditions using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] is a toxic oxidized form and an important metal pollutant in the water bodies. Biosorption of chromium(VI offers a potential alternative to conventional metal removal methods. Dried biomass of Chlorella vulgaris was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents as a function of biosorbent dosage, contact time, pH, salinity and initial metal ion concentration. Batch experiments were conducted for biosorption and the optimum conditions were 1 g/L biomass, 4 h contact time, pH 2 and 2.893 mS/cm of electrical conductivity. The chromium biosorption was strictly pH dependent with a maximum Cr removal of 63.2 mg/L at pH 2. Highest Cr removal at a concentration of 81.3 mg/L was observed at Electrical conductivity (EC value of 2.893 mS/cm. A comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed that Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data based on R2, qmax and standard error values. The results suggest that C. vulgaris biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents. Keywords: Biosorption, Chlorella vulgaris, Microalgae, Hexavalent chromium

  17. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  18. Study of the electroplated of Ni for betavoltaic battery using PN junction without seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae; Cho, Byoung Gun

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P.N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converting photons into electrical energy in the junction. In a betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted into electrical energy with a similar principle as a photovoltaic. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long half-life (over 100 years) is used, the lifetime of the power source is extended to as long as the half-life time of the RI. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system can gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. The beta spectrum of 63 Ni is below the radiation damage threshold (approximately 200 keV for Si) of semiconductors such as Si and SiC. Beta particles of 63Ni were deposited by electroplating on the Ni-foil substrate and attached on the trench P-N absorber with a spacing of 50 μm. The optimum total thickness of the 63Ni layer was determined to be about 2 μm, when regarding the minimum self-shielding effect of the beta-ray (β-ray). The optimum condition of the electroplating 63 Ni was determined at current density of 20 mA/cm 2

  19. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  20. Mechanistic insights into the interaction between energetic oxygen ions and nanosized ZnFe2O4: XAS-XMCD investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Pal; Kaur, Baljeet; Sharma, Aditya; Kim, So Hee; Gautam, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Ramesh Chandra; Goyal, Navdeep; Lim, Weol Cheol; Lin, H-J; Chen, J M; Asokan, K; Kanjilal, D; Won, Sung Ok; Lee, Ik-Jae; Chae, Keun Hwa

    2018-04-20

    The interactions of energetic ions with multi-cation compounds and their consequences in terms of changes in the local electronic structure, which may facilitate intriguing hybridization between O 2p and metal d orbitals and magnetic ordering, are the subject of debate and require a deep understanding of energy transfer processes and magnetic exchange mechanisms. In this study, nanocrystals of ZnFe2O4 were exposed to O7+ ions with an energy of 100 MeV to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the metal-ligand field interactions, cation migration and magnetic exchange interactions by employing X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to get deeper mechanistic insights. Nanosized zinc ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of ∼16 nm synthesized in the cubic spinel phase exhibited deterioration of the crystalline phase when 100 MeV O7+ ions passed through them. However, the size of these NPs remained almost the same. The behaviour of crystal deterioration is associated with the confinement of heat in this interaction. The energy confined inside the nanoparticles promotes cation redistribution as well as the modification of the local electronic structure. Prior to this interaction, almost 42% of Zn2+ ions occupied AO4 tetrahedra; however, this value increased to 63% after the interaction. An inverse effect was observed for metal ion occupancies in BO6 octahedra. The L-edge spectra of Fe and Zn reveal that the spin and valence states of the metal ions were not affected by this interaction. This effect is also supported by K-edge measurements for Fe and Zn. The t2g/eg intensity ratio in the O K-edge spectra decreased after this interaction, which is associated with detachment of Zn2+ ions from the lattice. The extent of hybridization, as estimated from the ratio of the post-edge to the pre-edge region of the O K-edge spectra, decreased after this interaction. The metal-oxygen and metal-metal bond lengths were modified

  1. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  2. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, M V; Spengler, N; Mager, D; Wang, N; Kiss, S Z; Höfflin, J; While, P T; Korvink, J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner. (paper)

  3. Lung cancer risk in the electroplating industry in Lombardy, Italy, using the Italian occupational cancer monitoring (OCCAM) information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Celestino; Bai, Edoardo; Oddone, Enrico; Scaburri, Alessandra; Massari, Stefania; Modonesi, Carlo; Contiero, Paolo; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Crosignani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Occupational Cancer Monitoring (OCCAM) is an Italian organization that monitors occupational cancers, by area and industrial sector, by retrieving cases and employment history from official databases. OCCAM previously estimated a relative risk (RR) of lung cancer of about 1.32 among "metal treatment" workers in Lombardy, northern Italy, potentially exposed to chrome and nickel. In the present study, lung cancer risk was estimated among electroplating workers only. Lombardy electroplating companies were identified from descriptions in Social Security files. Lung cancer risk was evaluated from 2001 to 2008 incident cases identified from hospital discharge records. The RR for lung cancer among electroplating workers was 2.03 (90% CI 1.33-3.10, 18 cases) for men; 3.00 (90% CI 1.38-9.03, 4 cases) for women. Electroplaters had higher risks than "metal treatment" workers. Although the risks were due to past exposure, case histories and recent acute effects indicate a present carcinogenic hazard in some Lombardy electroplating factories. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Survey of Melia Azaderach L. ash in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Synthetic Electroplating Industry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Melia azedarach ash is an effective adsorbent in removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic electroplating industries wastewater. In addition, the use of this biosorbent in preparation and application aspects is simple and cheap compared to many other natural and man-made adsorbent.

  5. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  6. A full-wafer fabrication process for glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes by direct bonding of dry film resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulto, Paul; Urban, G A; Huesgen, Till; Albrecht, Björn

    2009-01-01

    A full-wafer process is presented for fast and simple fabrication of glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes. The process employs the permanent dry film resist (DFR) Ordyl SY300 to create microfluidic channels, followed by electroplating of silver and subsequent chlorination. The dry film resist is bonded directly to a second substrate, without intermediate gluing layers, only by applying pressure and moderate heating. The process of microfluidic channel fabrication, electroplating and wafer bonding can be completed within 1 day, thus making it one of the fastest and simplest full-wafer fabrication processes. (note)

  7. Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

    2013-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 μm with an average aperture size of around 58.6 μm. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concept Feasibility Report for Electroplating Zirconium onto Uranium Foil - Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Greg W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meinhardt, Kerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pederson, Larry R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Fuel Fabrication Capability within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion Program is funded through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) NA-26 (Office of Material Management and Minimization). An investigation was commissioned to determine the feasibility of using electroplating techniques to apply a coating of zirconium onto depleted uranium/molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo). Electroplating would provide an alternative method to the existing process of hot roll-bonding zirconium foil onto the U-10Mo fuel foil during the fabrication of fuel elements for high-performance research reactors. The objective of this research was to develop a reproducible and scalable plating process that will produce a uniform, 25 μm thick zirconium metal coating on U-10Mo foil. In previous work, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established a molten salt electroplating apparatus and protocol to plate zirconium metal onto molybdenum foil (Coffey 2015). During this second year of the research, PNNL furthered this work by moving to the U-10Mo alloy system (90 percent uranium:10 percent molybdenum). The original plating apparatus was disassembled and re-assembled in a laboratory capable of handling low-level radioactive materials. Initially, the work followed the previous year’s approach, and the salt bath composition was targeted at the eutectic composition (LiF:NaF:ZrF4 = 26:37:37 mol%). Early results indicated that the formation of uranium fluoride compounds would be problematic. Other salt bath compositions were investigated in order to eliminate the uranium fluoride production (LiF:NaF = 61:39 mol% and LiF:NaF:KF = 46.5:11.5:42 mol% ). Zirconium metal was used as the crucible for the molten salt. Three plating methods were used—isopotential, galvano static, and pulsed plating. The molten salt method for zirconium metal application provided high-quality plating on molybdenum in PNNL’s previous work. A key advantage of this approach is that

  9. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  10. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  11. The structure and properties of ZrN-Ni-Co-coatings on the edges steel knives of wood-cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaevskij, V.V.; Grishkevich, A.A.; Zhilinskij, V.V.; Kuleshov, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Modes were selected and formed electroplated Ni-Co-coatings, ion-plasma Zr N-coatings as well as combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coating on the edges steel (type R6M5) knives of wood-cutting milling tools. Formed electroplated Ni-Co-layers are not mixed with the steel substrate and the Zr N-coating. Microhardness of combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings is to 1,2-1,5 times more than microhardness of steel base and bare steel. When cutting laminated chipboard by steel knives of milling tool with a Ni-Co- and Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings under laboratory conditions, abrasive surface wear type of edges knives is observed. Calculating bulk wear of edges knives with Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings showed reduction of more than 3 times value in comparison with knives with Ni-Co-coatings. Pilot testing of tool modified with combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings at OJSC 'Minskdrev' when cutting pine confirmed relevance of the tests carried out, as well as showed an increase in durability period of cutters to 30% compared with bare tool. (authors)

  12. Defects in electroplated Cu and their impact on stress migration reliability studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoji; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation was used to probe vacancy-type defects in electroplated Cu fabricated using different electrolytes. Isochronal annealing experiments revealed that the agglomeration of vacancy-type defects in grains was observed below 200degC and that their concentration started to decrease above 300degC. The observed annealing stages of the defects agree with those for pure Cu irradiated with light particles such as electrons. The size and concentration of vacancies decreased with decreasing concentrations of residual impurities in Cu films. A decrease in the impurity concentration, however, increased the failure rate of Cu interconnects in a stress-induced voiding test. Thus, void formation related to stress-induced failure can be reduced through the introduction of vacancy clusters into grains. (author)

  13. Role of diagnostic testing in identifying and resolving dimensional-stability problems in electroplated laser mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.L.; Hogan, B.

    1982-01-01

    The metal mirrors which are the subject of this discussion are to be used in the Antares inertial fusion laser system. Antares is a high-power (40 TW), high-energy (35 to 40 kJ), pulsed CO 2 laser system for the investigation of inertial confinement fusion. The system contains more than four hundred small and large diamond-turned and conventionally polished mirrors. The largest mirrors are trapezoidal in shape with the longest dimension being 16 to 18 inches. The substrates are type 2124 aluminum for most large mirrors, and aluminum bronze, oxygen-free copper or a copper-zirconium alloy for most of the smaller mirrors. The optical surface is electro-deposited copper 20 to 40 mils thick. After nondestructive testing and rough machining, the electroplated surface is single-point diamond machined or conventionally polished

  14. Structural modeling and analysis of an effluent treatment process for electroplating--a graph theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Clement, Shibu; Agrawal, V P

    2010-07-15

    An attempt is made to address a few ecological and environment issues by developing different structural models for effluent treatment system for electroplating. The effluent treatment system is defined with the help of different subsystems contributing to waste minimization. Hierarchical tree and block diagram showing all possible interactions among subsystems are proposed. These non-mathematical diagrams are converted into mathematical models for design improvement, analysis, comparison, storage retrieval and commercially off-the-shelf purchases of different subsystems. This is achieved by developing graph theoretic model, matrix models and variable permanent function model. Analysis is carried out by permanent function, hierarchical tree and block diagram methods. Storage and retrieval is done using matrix models. The methodology is illustrated with the help of an example. Benefits to the electroplaters/end user are identified. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of a betavoltaic battery using electroplated nickel-63 on nickel foil as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byoung Gun [Human Interface SoC Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Dong Hyuk [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A betavoltaic battery was prepared using radioactive {sup 63}Ni attached to a three-dimensional single trenched P-N absorber. The optimum thickness of a 63Ni layer was determined to be approximately 2 μm, considering the minimum self-shielding effect of beta particles. Electroplating of radioactive {sup 63}Ni on a nickel (Ni) foil was carried out at a current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}. The difference of the short-circuit currents (I{sub sc}) between the pre- and postdeposition of {sup 63}Ni (16.65 MBq) on the P#-N junction was 5.03 nA, as obtained from the I-V characteristics. An improved design with a sandwich structure was provided for enhancing performance.

  16. Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

    2013-04-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  17. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared in ammonium-chloride-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Koda, K.; Kaji, J.; Aramaki, H.; Eguchi, K.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    We electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films in ammonium-chloride-based plating baths, and investigated the effect of the Co content on the magnetic properties and the structural ones of the as-plated films. The coercivity increased abruptly when the Co content become more than 60 at.%. As the rough surfaces were observed in the high Co content region, we considered that degradation of the surface is a factor of the abrupt increase in the coercivity. From the XRD analysis, we found that another factor of the abrupt increase is fcc-bcc phase transformation, and concluded that we need to keep the fcc structure to obtain Fe-Co-Ni films with low coercivity.

  18. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  19. Study of a betavoltaic battery using electroplated nickel-63 on nickel foil as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Son, Kwang Jae; Choi, Byoung Gun; Jeong, Dong Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    A betavoltaic battery was prepared using radioactive 63 Ni attached to a three-dimensional single trenched P-N absorber. The optimum thickness of a 63Ni layer was determined to be approximately 2 μm, considering the minimum self-shielding effect of beta particles. Electroplating of radioactive 63 Ni on a nickel (Ni) foil was carried out at a current density of 20 mA/cm 2 . The difference of the short-circuit currents (I sc ) between the pre- and postdeposition of 63 Ni (16.65 MBq) on the P#-N junction was 5.03 nA, as obtained from the I-V characteristics. An improved design with a sandwich structure was provided for enhancing performance

  20. Study of a Betavoltaic Battery Using Electroplated Nickel-63 on Nickel Foil as a Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A betavoltaic battery was prepared using radioactive 63Ni attached to a three-dimensional single trenched P–N absorber. The optimum thickness of a 63Ni layer was determined to be approximately 2 μm, considering the minimum self-shielding effect of beta particles. Electroplating of radioactive 63Ni on a nickel (Ni foil was carried out at a current density of 20 mA/cm2. The difference of the short-circuit currents (Isc between the pre- and postdeposition of 63Ni (16.65 MBq on the P–N junction was 5.03 nA, as obtained from the I–V characteristics. An improved design with a sandwich structure was provided for enhancing performance.

  1. Effects of supporting electrolytes on copper electroplating for filling through-hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Su-Mei; Dow, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The through-holes of a printed circuit boardare directly filled by copper electroplating using single organic additive. → The inhibiting strength of the additive on copper deposition is related to a supporting electrolyte. → H 2 SO 4 strongly enhances the inhibiting strength of the additive and results in a conformal deposition, whereas Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 do not affect the inhibiting strength and lead to good filling capability. - Abstract: The filling of micron through-holes (THs) in a printed circuit board (PCB) by copper electroplating was investigated in this study. The role of supporting electrolytes, such as H 2 SO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 , was explored using practical TH filling plating and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV) analysis of plating solutions. The copper could selectively fill THs using one organic additive, namely, tetranitroblue tetrazolium chloride (TNBT), as an inhibitor. The inhibiting strength of TNBT depended on the supporting electrolytes. Although H 2 SO 4 could enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT, it also decreased the filling capability of the copper plating solution; Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 did not enhance the inhibiting strength of TNBT but they increased the filling capability of the copper plating solution. Additionally, the protons could chemically interact with TNBT to form precipitate, whereas sodium and potassium ions did not easily interact with TNBT. The filling capability of the copper plating solution using Na 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 as supporting electrolytes could be greatly improved by adding a small amount of bis(3-sulfopropyl)-disulfide (SPS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 600.

  2. Amine-functionalized mesoporous polymer as potential sorbent for nickel preconcentration from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Zaidi, Noushi; Ahmad, Hilal; Kumar, Suneel

    2015-05-01

    In this study, mesoporous glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-based chelating resin was synthesized and grafted with diethylenetriamine through epoxy ring-opening reaction. The synthesized resin was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and pore size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. The resin was used for the first time as an effective sorbent for the preconcentration of nickel in electroplating wastewater samples. The analytical variables like pH, flow rate for sorption/desorption, and eluate selection were systematically investigated and optimized. The uniform and monolayer sorption behavior of resin for nickel was proved by an evident fit of the equilibrium data to a Langmuir isotherm model. Under optimized conditions, the resin was observed to show a good sorption capacity of 20.25 mg g(-1) and >96% recovery of nickel even in the presence of a large number of competitive matrix ions. Its ability to extract trace amount of nickel was exhibited by low preconcentration limit (5.9 μg L(-1)). The calibration curve was found to be linear (R(2) = 0.998) in the concentration range of 6.0-400.0 μg L(-1). Coefficient of variation of less than 5 for all the analysis indicated good reproducibility. The reliability was evaluated by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) and recovery experiments. The applicability of the resin for the systematic preconcentration of nickel is substantiated by the analysis of electroplating wastewater and river water samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Effective self-purification of polynary metal electroplating wastewaters through formation of layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji Zhi; Wu, Yue Ying; Liu, Chong; Orpe, Ajay; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi Ping; Qian, Guang Ren; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+)) can be effectively removed from real polynary metal ions-bearing electroplating wastewaters by a carbonation process, with ∼99% of metal ions removed in most cases. The synchronous formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates containing these metal ions was responsible for the self-purification of wastewaters. The constituents of formed polynary metals-LDHs mainly depended on the Ni(2+):Zn(2+):Cr(3+) molar ratio in wastewaters. LDH was formed at pH of 6.0-8.0 when the Ni(2+)/Zn(2+) molar ratio ≥ 1 where molar fraction of trivalent metal in the wastewaters was 0.2-0.4, otherwise ZnO, hydrozincite, or amorphous precipitate was observed. In the case of LDH formation, the residual concentration of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+) in the treated wastewaters was very low, about 2-3, ∼2, and ∼1 mg/L, respectively, at 20-80 °C and pH of 6.0-8.0, indicating the effective incorporation of heavy metal ions into the LDH matrix. Furthermore, the obtained LDH materials were used to adsorb azoic dye GR, with the maximum adsorption amount of 129-134 mg/g. We also found that the obtained LDHs catalyzed more than 65% toluene to decompose at 350 °C under ambient pressure. Thus the current research has not only shown effective recovery of heavy metal ions from the electroplating wastewaters in an environmentally friendly process but also demonstrated the potential utilization of recovered materials.

  4. Removal of cobalt, chromium, copper, iron and nickel cations from electroplating waste water by apatite ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargar-Razi, M.; Yahyaabadi, S. [Azad Univ. Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In this investigation, the adsorption behavior of natural phosphate rock and it's concentrate with respect to Fe{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} has been studied, in order to consider its application to purity of electroplating waste water pollution. The batch mehtod has been employed, using metal concentrations in solution ranging from 2 ppm to 40 ppm with mixing process. The effect of pH, concentration of heavy metals and times (10-20 min) is considered. The results of their removal performance in 40 ppm concentration, pH = 8 and 10 minutes are obtained as Cr{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate rock and the sequence can be given as Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate concentrate. It was found that the adsorption phenomena depend on charge density and hydrated ion diameter. The same results show that maximum adsorption in PH = 4.5 and 7 for concentrate. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm constants corresponding to adsorption capacity were found to be as Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} for phosphate soil and Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate concentrate. Sorption of metallic cations are considered in pH 4.5, 7 and 8. The results show that phosphate rock and its concentrate have great potential to remove cations of heavy metal species from electroplating waste water. (orig.)

  5. Structural, optical and magnetic studies of CuFe2O4, MgFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal/solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Jessyamma; Mathew, M. Jacob

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we report the structural, optical and magnetic studies of three spinel ferrites namely CuFe2O4, MgFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 prepared in an autoclave under the same physical conditions but with two different liquid medium and different surfactant. We use water as the medium and trisodium citrate as the surfactant for one method (Hydrothermal method) and ethylene glycol as the medium and poly ethylene glycol as the surfactant for the second method (solvothermal method). The phase identification and structural characterization are done using XRD and morphological studies are carried out by TEM. Cubical and porous spherical morphologies are obtained for hydrothermal and solvothermal process respectively without any impurity phase. The optical studies are carried out using FTIR and UV-Vis reflectance spectra. In order to elucidate the nonlinear optical behaviour of the prepared nanomaterial, open aperture z-scan technique is used. From the fitted z-scan curves nonlinear absorption coefficient and the saturation intensity are determined. The magnetic characterization of the samples is performed at room temperature using vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The M-H curves obtained are fitted using theoretical equation and the different components of magnetization are determined. Nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization are obtained for MgFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 prepared under solvothermal reaction. The magnetic hyperfine parameters and the cation distribution of the prepared materials are determined using room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy. The fitted spectra reveal the difference in the magnetic hyperfine parameters owing to the change in size and morphology.

  6. Diode Laser Welding/Brazing of Aluminum Alloy to Steel Using a Nickel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Joining Al alloy to steel is of great interest for application in the automotive industry. Although a vast number of studies have been conducted to join Al to steel, the joining of Al to steel is still challenging due to the formation of brittle Fe–Al intermetallic compounds. In this work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar Al/steel joints with and without a nickel coating are comparatively investigated. A homogenous reaction layer composed of FeZn10 and Fe2Al5 is formed at the interface in the joints without Ni coating, and the joint facture load is only 743 N. To prevent the formation of brittle Fe2Al5, Ni electroplated coating is applied onto a steel surface. It has been shown that a nonhomogeneous reaction layer is observed at the interfacial region: Ni5Zn21 is formed at the direct irradiation zone, while Al3Ni is formed at the fusion zone root. The microhardness of the interfacial layer is reduced, which leads to the improvement of the joint mechanical properties. The average fracture load of the Al/Ni-coated steel joints reaches 930 N. In all of the cases, failure occurs at the Ni coating/fusion zone interface.

  7. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  8. A study of the formation of Cr-surface alloyed layer on structural alloy steel by Co2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Han, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve wear and erosion-resistances of a structural alloy steel (SNCM 8) during heat-cycling, chromium-alloyed layers were produced on the surface by irradiating Co 2 laser. Specimens were prepared either by electroplating of hard-chromium or coating of chromium powders on the steel followed by the laser treatment. Index values, which related the depth and the width of the alloyed layers to the scanning speed of laser, for both samples are experimentally measured. At a fixed scanning speed, while both samples resulted in a similar depth of the alloyed layers, the chromium powder coated specimen showed larger width of the alloyed layer than the chromium electroplated one. The hardness values of the alloyed layers in both samples were slightly lower than that of the martensitic region beneath the alloyed layers. But they are considerably higher than those of steel matrices. Regardless of the prior treatments before laser irradiation, distributions of chromium were fairly uniform throughout the alloyed layers. (Author)

  9. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Koda, K.; Eguchi, K.; Morimura, T.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-04-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  10. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yanai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  11. Evaluation of a low-cost adsorbent for removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater of an electroplating factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisco W; Sousa, Marcelo James; Oliveira, Isadora R N; Oliveira, André G; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Fechine, Pierre B A; Neto, Vicente O S; de Keukeleire, Denis; Nascimento, Ronaldo F

    2009-08-01

    In this study, sugar cane residue or bagasse was used for removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater of an electroplating factory located in northeast Brazil. Prior acid treatment increased the adsorption efficacies in batch wise experiments. The microstructure of the material before and after the treatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Column operations showed that removals of Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from wastewater (in the absence of cyanide) were 95.5%, 96.3.0%, and 97.1%, respectively. Regeneration of the adsorbent obtained in acid indicated that the efficiencies decreased only after the fourth cycle of re-use. Acid-treated sugar cane bagasse can be considered a viable alternative to common methods to remove toxic metal ions from aqueous effluents of electroplating industries.

  12. Rapid determination of chromium(VI) in electroplating waste water by use of a spectrophotometric flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong; Fu, Dayou; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Jigang

    2008-11-01

    A new rapid and sensitive FI method is reported for spectrophotometric determination of trace chromium(VI) in electroplating waste water. The method is based on the reaction of Cr(VI) with sodium diphenylamine sulfonate (DPH) in acidic medium to form a purple complex (lambda(max) = 550 nm). Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve is linear in the range 0.04-3.8 microg ml(-1) at a sampling rate of 30 h(-1). The detection limit of the method is 0.0217 microg ml(-1), and the relative standard deviation is 1.1% for eight determinations of 2 microg ml(-1) Cr(VI). The proposed method was applied to the determination of chromium in electroplating waste water with satisfactory results.

  13. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating; Obtencao de pigmentos ceramicos a partir de residuo de galvanoplastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, A. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), SP (Brazil); Aguiar, B.M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K., E-mail: kniesscl@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (EMC/UFSC), SC (Brazil). Depto de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  14. Evaluation of electrodeposited Mn-Co protective coatings on Crofer 22 APU steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Interconnects used in Solid Oxide Cells stacks require protective coatings to lower their parabolic rate constant and block chromium evaporation (on the air side). In this work four different protective coatings on steel are evaluated for their high temperature corrosion resistance and electrical...... conductivity. A commercial electroplating process was used for the preparation of coatings with different Mn/Co ratios on Crofer 22 APU steel. Oxidation of samples was performed in air at 800°C for 1000 hours. Postmortem analysis of the coated samples was performed by scanning electron microscopy and x......-ray diffractomettry. Based on the results, influence of the Co/Mn ratio on the resulting corrosion properties are discussed. Parabolic rate constant of the coated samples is the lowest for the MnCo sample, whereas electrical resistance is the lowest for the Co sample, which has a corrosion rate similar to the not-coated...

  15. Experimental Investigation of Surface Color Changes in Vacuum Evaporation Process for Gold-like Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the environmental pollution caused by the three wastes during the process of electroplating of gold-like film on stainless steel, in this paper, the "vacuum evaporation and annealing" composite technologies were adopted to evaporate gold-like film in 16 stainless steel 304 substrates, and electronic color cards and color software were also used for analyzing the color and luster of the gold-like film. Experiments shows that the negative pressure, annealing temperature and mass fraction of the double copper alloys have influence on preparation of imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film, the annealing temperature has significant effects on imitation in assaying the fineness of gold film.

  16. PHOTOCATALYTIC REMOVAL OF TR I- AND HEXA-VALENT CHROMIUM IONS FROM CHROME-ELECTROPL ATING WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul; Chulaluck Changul

    2017-01-01

    A novel technique based on photocatalysis was applied to eliminate chromium ions, a toxic hazardous environmental pollutant. The photoreduction of each species of chromium (total, hexavalent, and trivalent chromiums) from chrome-electroplating wastewater was investigated using a titanium dioxide suspension under irradiation by a low-pressure mercury lamp. The initial concentration of total chromium was 300 mg/l. The applied conditions were the direct photocatalytic reduction process at pH 3.6...

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of orange (Citrus reticulata) peel in the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rim A

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.

  18. Nickel electroplating on copper pre-activated Al alloy in the electrolyte containing PEG1000 as an additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie; Wang, Jinwei; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-06-01

    Ni coatings are prepared on Cu-pretreated anodic Al alloy by electroplating technique in environment-friendly electrolytes with PEG1000 as an additive. Some defects like pores, cracks and even uncovered areas are observed for the sample of the Cu-pretreated anodic Al alloy, and these defects seem to be remedied with the following Ni electroplating as observed from their SEM images; while the covering effect of Ni onto the Cu layer is rather limited as judged by their corrosion current data of polarization test. After adding PEG1000 in the Ni electroplating electrolyte, the obtained coating surfaces are seen smoother and thicker; and most of the tiny particles are seen closely packed together with some bigger particles on them. The diffusion of nickel particles into copper layer are confirmed by the line and mapping mode of EDS element analysis for the Ni-Cu composite coating. Their much lower corrosion current density ( I corr) and higher micro-hardness support the fact that the addition of PEG1000 in Ni plating electrolyte has a function of promoting the refinement of Ni particles and the formation of more compacter, thicker and smoother Ni-Cu composite coating.

  19. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  20. Influence of carbonation on the acid neutralization capacity of cements and cement-solidified/stabilized electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanyuan; Zhang, Lina; Ke, Yujuan; Hills, Colin; Kang, Yanming

    2009-02-01

    Portland cement (PC) and blended cements containing pulverized fuel ash (PFA) or granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were used to solidify/stabilize an electroplating sludge in this work. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of the hydrated pastes increased in the order of PC > PC/GGBS > PC/PFA. The GGBS or PFA replacement (80 wt%) reduced the ANC of the hydrated pastes by 30-50%. The ANC of the blended cement-solidified electroplating sludge (cement/sludge 1:2) was 20-30% higher than that of the hydrated blended cement pastes. Upon carbonation, there was little difference in the ANC of the three cement pastes, but the presence of electroplating sludge (cement/sludge 1:2) increased the ANC by 20%. Blended cements were more effective binders for immobilization of Ni, Cr and Cu, compared with PC, whereas Zn was encapsulated more effectively in the latter. Accelerated carbonation improved the immobilization of Cr, Cu and Zn, but not Ni. The geochemical code PHREEQC, with the edited database from EQ3/6 and HATCHES, was used to calculate the saturation index and solubility of likely heavy metal precipitates in cement-based solidification/stabilization systems. The release of heavy metals could be related to the disruption of cement matrices and the remarkable variation of solubility of heavy metal precipitates at different pH values.

  1. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  3. A Green Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Biosensor for In Situ Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Liu, Man-Hai; Kuo, Jui-Ling; Chang, Yung-Chu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2017-10-27

    The extensive use of Cr(VI) in many industries and the disposal of Cr(VI)-containing wastes have resulted in Cr(VI)-induced environmental contamination. Cr(VI) compounds are associated with increased cancer risks; hence, the detection of toxic Cr(VI) compounds is crucial. Various methods have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite and cannot provide real-time toxicity monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an eco-friendly and self-sustaining device that has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Exiguobacterium aestuarii YC211, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, salt-tolerant, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into an MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of E. aestuarii YC211 was not affected by the surrounding environment (pH 5-9, 20-35 °C, coexisting ions, and salinity of 0-15 g/L). The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 98.3 ± 1.5 mW/m² at 1500 Ω. A good linear relationship ( r ² = 0.997) was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (2.5-60 mg/L) and the voltage output. The developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater that is generated from different electroplating units within 30 min with low deviations (-6.1% to 2.2%). After treating the actual electroplating wastewater with the MFC, the predominant family in the biofilm was found to be Bacillaceae (95.3%) and was further identified as the originally inoculated E. aestuarii YC211 by next generation sequencing (NGS). Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents from different electroplating units, and it can potentially help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations.

  4. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  5. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  6. Electroplated contacts and porous silicon for silicon based solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholostov, Konstantin, E-mail: kholostov@diet.uniroma1.it [Department of information engineering, electronics and telecommunications, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Serenelli, Luca; Izzi, Massimo; Tucci, Mario [Enea Casaccia Research Centre Rome, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Balucani, Marco [Department of information engineering, electronics and telecommunications, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Rise Technology S.r.l., Lungomare Paolo Toscanelli 170, 00121 Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Uniformity of the Ni–Si interface is crucial for performance of Cu–Ni contacts on Si. • Uniformly filled PS is the key to obtain the best performance of Cu–Ni contacts on Si. • Optimization of anodization and electroplating allows complete filling of PS layer. • Highly adhesive and low contact resistance Cu–Ni contacts are obtained on Si. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-layer metallization for silicon based solar cells is presented. The metallization consists of thin nickel barrier and thick copper conductive layers, both obtained by electrodeposition technique suitable for phosphorus-doped 70–90 Ω/sq solar cell emitter formed on p-type silicon substrate. To ensure the adhesion between metal contact and emitter a very thin layer of mesoporous silicon is introduced on the emitter surface before metal deposition. This approach allows metal anchoring inside pores and improves silicon–nickel interface uniformity. Optimization of metal contact parameters is achieved varying the anodization and electrodeposition conditions. Characterization of contacts between metal and emitter is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, specific contact resistance and current–voltage measurements. Mechanical strength of nickel–copper contacts is evaluated by the peel test. Adhesion strength of more than 4.5 N/mm and contact resistance of 350 μΩ cm{sup 2} on 80 Ω/sq emitter are achieved.

  7. Translocation of metals in pea plants grown on various amendment of electroplating industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa; Chandrayan, Sudarshana; Rai, Vivek; Bhattacharyya, A K; Ramanathan, A L

    2008-07-01

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to observe the effects of acidic sludge addition to the soils on bioavailability and uptake of heavy metals in different parts of pea plant as well as its influence on the growth of that plant. It is observed from our result the abundances of total and bio-available heavy metals in sludge vary as follows: Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Sludge applications increased both the total metals, DTPA-extractable metals and total N in the soils. On the other hand lime application has decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals with no change in total N in sludge amended soils. Organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)>0.7) with the low translocation efficiency of pea plants. The value of translocation factor from shoot to seed was found to be smaller than root to shoot of pea plants. Our study thus shows that pea plants were found to be well adapted to the soil amended with 10% sludge with 0.5% lime treatment, minimizing most of the all metal uptake in the shoot of that plant. So, on the basis of the present study, possible treatment may be recommended for the secure disposal of acidic electroplating sludge.

  8. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  9. [Nose disease caused by occupational exposure to chromium in the electroplating industry: cytomorphological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, I; Gariboldi, L M; Gabrielli, M; Baldo, D; Romanelli, A; Tuberti, E; Magnani, F

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six workers were studied (9 chrome-platers exposed to chromium dioxide and 17 workers exposed to metallic chromium dust) in order to investigate the macroscopic and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to water-soluble hexavalent chromium or to metallic chromium dust in the electroplating industry and the role of different valencies in the onset of nasal disease. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that hexavalent chromium, which has strong oxidative power, induces more noticeable toxic effects on tissues and mucous membranes than other compounds. The correlation between the degree of local toxic effects and the chemical state of chromium was demonstrated in both the macro- and the microscopic investigations and in particular in the cytological examinations: cases of atypia were found only in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Evidence of atypia raises the question of whether hexavalent chromium may act as a carcinogenic agent on the rhinosinusal mucosa. For this reason, the introduction of cytological nasal examination in health surveillance programmes for this category of workers acquires considerable importance. Sample collection from the nasal mucosa by brushing is the method of choice since it is simple, non-invasive and gives good diagnostic results.

  10. Compatibility of copper-electroplated cells with Metal Wrap Through module materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    As part of the European FP7 RandD project 'Cu-PV', the compatibility of copper-electroplated metal wrapthrough (MWT) cells with conductive adhesives has been investigated. The objectives of this project include to reduce, by the use of copper plating, the amount of silver utilized in cell manufacturing, and to demonstrate the compatibility of high-power n-type back-contact module technology with copper-plated cells. The overall goal is to reduce the impact on the environment of cell and module manufacture. MWT module technology as developed by ECN uses conductive adhesive to make the interconnection between cells and a conductive backsheet foil. These adhesives have been proved to result in very reliable modules in the case of cells with fired silver metallization. To determine the compatibility of conductive adhesive with copper-plated cells, component tests were performed, followed by the manufacture of modules with copperplated cells and conductive adhesive interconnections. Climate chamber testing of these modules showed that the adhesive is compatible with the copper-plated cells. The next steps include further optimization of the plating process and additional testing at the module level.

  11. Removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejiao Tong; Renkou Xu

    2013-01-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(Ⅱ)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola,rice,soybean and peanut straws was investigated.The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(Ⅱ) from the effluent,mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation,and neutralized its acidity.The removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ) by the biochars followed the order:peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char >> a commercial activated carbonaceous material,which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars.The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ)by biochars.Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from it.The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400℃ for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment,and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  12. Effect of nickel introduced by electroplating on pyrocarbon deposition of carbon-fiber preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yancai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the deposition rate and microstructure of pyrocarbon, nickel was introduced by electroplating on carbon fibers and used as a catalyst during the deposition of pyrocarbon at 1000 °C using methane as a precursor gas. The distribution of nickel catalyst and the microstructure of pyrocarbon were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Raman micro-spectrometry. Results show that nano-sized nickel particles could be well distributed on carbon fibers and the pyrocarbon deposited catalytically had a smaller d002 value and a higher graphitization degree compared with that without catalyst. In addition, the deposition rate of pyrocarbon in each hour was measured. The deposition rate of pyrocarbon in the first hour was more than 10 times when carbon cloth substrates were doped with nickel catalysts as compared to the pure carbon cloths. The pyrocarbon gained by rapid deposition may include two parts, which are generation directly on the nickel catalyst and formation with the carbon nanofibers as crystal nucleus.

  13. 3D electroplated inductors with thickness variation for improved broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-Guoo Tseng, Victor; Bedair, Sarah S.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The performance of an RF spiral inductor is based on the balance between ohmic losses in the outer turns and eddy current losses dominant in the inner turns where the magnetic field is the strongest. In this work, air-core spiral inductors with winding trace thicknesses decreasing towards the center are demonstrated, achieving quality factor improvement over a wide frequency range compared to uniform thickness inductors. A custom 3D copper electroplating process was used to produce spiral inductors with varying winding thicknesses in a single plating step, with patterned gaps in a seed layer used to create delays in the vertical plating. The fabricated center-lowered coil inductors were 80 nH within a one square millimeter area with thickness varying from 60 µm to 10 µm from outer to inner winding. Within the 16 MHz-160 MHz range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to have a maximum to minimum quality factor improvement of 90%-10% when compared to uniform thickness inductors with thicknesses ranging from 60 µm to 10 µm. Compared to the 20 µm uniform thickness inductor which has the optimal performance among all uniform thickness inductors in this frequency range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to achieve a maximum quality factor improvement of 20% at the edge frequencies of 16 MHz and 160 MHz, and a minimum quality factor improvement of 10% near the geometric mean center frequency of 46 MHz.

  14. One-step electroplating porous graphene oxide electrodes of supercapacitors for ultrahigh capacitance and energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2015-01-01

    An electroplating method was used for the first time to synthesize 3D porous graphene oxide (PGO) architectures, exhibiting ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrodes of supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated the porous structures which promoted the stability and alleviated the stacking of the graphene oxide layers. As investigated in a three-electrode supercapacitor cell, PGO electrodes exhibited the maximum capacitance and energy of 973 F · g −1 and 98.4 Wh · Kg −1 , which are better than current reports and comparable to batteries. At 4 A · g −1 for high-power applications, PGO electrodes reached a capacitance, energy, and power density of 493 F · g −1 , 49.9 Wh · Kg −1 , and 1700 W · Kg −1 , and they retained ∼97.83% of capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge processes. Furthermore, when the PGO was bent exaggeratedly, it still displayed identical properties, which is of important significance for supporting wearable devices. (paper)

  15. One-step electroplating porous graphene oxide electrodes of supercapacitors for ultrahigh capacitance and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2015-02-06

    An electroplating method was used for the first time to synthesize 3D porous graphene oxide (PGO) architectures, exhibiting ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrodes of supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated the porous structures which promoted the stability and alleviated the stacking of the graphene oxide layers. As investigated in a three-electrode supercapacitor cell, PGO electrodes exhibited the maximum capacitance and energy of 973 F · g(-1) and 98.4 Wh · Kg(-1), which are better than current reports and comparable to batteries. At 4 A · g(-1) for high-power applications, PGO electrodes reached a capacitance, energy, and power density of 493 F · g(-1), 49.9 Wh · Kg(-1), and 1700 W · Kg(-1), and they retained ∼97.83% of capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge processes. Furthermore, when the PGO was bent exaggeratedly, it still displayed identical properties, which is of important significance for supporting wearable devices.

  16. Electroplating Gold-Silver Alloys for Spherical Capsules for NIF Double-Shell Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandarkar, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Horwood, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stadermann, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions, a design based on gradients of high and mid Z materials could potentially be more robust than single element capsule systems. To that end, gold and silver alloys were electroplated on 2.0 mm diameter surrogate brass spheres using a new flow–based pulsed plating method specifically designed to minimize surface roughness without reducing plating rates. The coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white light interferometry for surface topography, and by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine near-surface gold and silver compositions. The alloy range attainable was 15 to 85 weight percent gold using 1:1 and 1:3 silver to gold ratio plating baths at applied potentials of -0.7 volts to -1.8 volts. This range was bounded by the open circuit potential of the system and hydrogen evolution, and in theory could be extended by using ionic liquids or aprotic solutions. Preliminary gradient trials proved constant composition alloy data could be translated to smooth gradient plating, albeit at higher gold compositions.

  17. A Sandwich HIV p24 Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Direct Gold Electroplating-Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is a severe communicable immune deficiency disease caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV. The analysis laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is a crucial aspect of controlling AIDS. The p24 antigen, the HIV-1 capsid protein, is of considerable diagnostic interest because it is detectable several days earlier than host-generated HIV antibodies following HIV exposure. We present herein a new sandwich HIV p24 immunosensor based on directly electroplating an electrode surface with gold nanoparticles using chronoamperometry, which greatly increased the conductivity and reversibility of the electrode. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal showed a linear relationship with the concentration of p24, ranging from 0.01 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL (R > 0.99, and the detection limit was 0.008 ng/mL. Compared with ELISA, this method increased the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude (the sensitivity of ELISA for p24 is about 1 ng/mL. This immunosensor may be broadly applied to clinical samples, being distinguished by its ease of use, mild reaction conditions, guaranteed reproducibility, and good anti-interference ability.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainger, Poonam Ahlawat; Dhankhar, Rajesh; Sainger, Manish; Kaushik, Anubha; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals concentrations of (Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni) were determined in plants and soils contaminated with electroplating industrial effluent. The ranges of total soil Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni concentrations were found to be 1443-3240, 1376-3112, 683-2228, 263-374 and 234-335 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Metal accumulation, along with hyperaccumulative characteristics of the screened plants was investigated. Present study highlighted that metal accumulation in different plants varied with species, tissues and metals. Only one plant (Amaranthus viridis) accumulated Fe concentrations over 1000 mg kg⁻¹. On the basis of TF, eight plant species for Zn and Fe, three plant species for Cu and two plant species for Ni, could be used in phytoextraction technology. Although BAF of all plant species was lesser than one, these species exhibited high metal adaptability and could be considered as potential hyperaccumulators. Phytoremediation potential of these plants can be used to remediate metal contaminated soils, though further investigation is still needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A sandwich HIV p24 amperometric immunosensor based on a direct gold electroplating-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Jia, Liyong; Li, Bo; Situ, Bo; Liu, Qinlan; Wang, Qian; Gan, Ning

    2012-05-18

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe communicable immune deficiency disease caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). The analysis laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is a crucial aspect of controlling AIDS. The p24 antigen, the HIV-1 capsid protein, is of considerable diagnostic interest because it is detectable several days earlier than host-generated HIV antibodies following HIV exposure. We present herein a new sandwich HIV p24 immunosensor based on directly electroplating an electrode surface with gold nanoparticles using chronoamperometry, which greatly increased the conductivity and reversibility of the electrode. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal showed a linear relationship with the concentration of p24, ranging from 0.01 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL (R > 0.99), and the detection limit was 0.008 ng/mL. Compared with ELISA, this method increased the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude (the sensitivity of ELISA for p24 is about 1 ng/mL). This immunosensor may be broadly applied to clinical samples, being distinguished by its ease of use, mild reaction conditions, guaranteed reproducibility, and good anti-interference ability.

  20. Optimizing the recovery of copper from electroplating rinse bath solution by hollow fiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Kürşad Oğuz; Kul, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to recover and remove copper from industrial model wastewater solution by non-dispersive solvent extraction (NDSX). Two mathematical models were developed to simulate the performance of an integrated extraction-stripping process, based on the use of hollow fiber contactors using the response surface method. The models allow one to predict the time dependent efficiencies of the two phases involved in individual extraction or stripping processes. The optimal recovery efficiency parameters were determined as 227 g/L of H2SO4 concentration, 1.22 feed/strip ratio, 450 mL/min flow rate (115.9 cm/min. flow velocity) and 15 volume % LIX 84-I concentration in 270 min by central composite design (CCD). At these optimum conditions, the experimental value of recovery efficiency was 95.88%, which was in close agreement with the 97.75% efficiency value predicted by the model. At the end of the process, almost all the copper in the model wastewater solution was removed and recovered as CuSO4.5H2O salt, which can be reused in the copper electroplating industry.

  1. Measurement of the Cupric Ion Concentration Variation near Electrodes in the Copper Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The heat fluxes to the side wall imposed at the upper metallic layer, are known to increase with the reduction of layer height. This 'Focusing effect' is varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. The heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. When the electroplating system is adopted as the mass transfer system, in order to simulate the different temperature conditions of top and side walls, an electrical resistance was attached to the top wall so that it is mimics hotter wall condition. Because the quantitative temperature conditions according to the electrical resistance were unknown, the methodology development is necessary. The electrical resistance was adopted to the top plate. But the quantitative temperature conditions depending on the electrical resistance were unknown. In order to overcome the limitations of mass transfer, this work tried to measure the cupric ion concentration. The methods of concentration measurement are RGB, Brightness, ICP, PIV, and Interferometry. The key of RGB, Brightness and PIV method is the clear images of the concentration boundary layer corresponding the thermal boundary layer of heat transfer. The results for ICP method can be got by taking the trace sample of a solution, accurately. The formation of patterns in the interferometry is very important. The characteristics of the interference pattern depend on the nature of the light source, the precise orientation of the mirrors, etc. The methodology of concentration measurement is still under development stage.

  2. Characteristics of electroplated Ni thick film on the PN junction semiconductor for beta-voltaic battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Young; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a {sup 63}Ni plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 Å were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup -2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased. The results showed that the optimum surface shape was obtained at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2} in seed layer with thickness of 500 Å, 20 mA cm{sup -2} of 1000 Å. Also, pure Ni deposit was well coated on a PN junction semiconductor without any oxide forms. Using the line width of (111) in XRD peak, the average grain size of the Ni thick firm was measured. The results showed that the average grain size was increased as the thickness of seed layer was increased.

  3. Characteristics of electroplated Ni thick film on the PN junction semiconductor for beta-voltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Young; Son, Kwang Jae

    2014-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a 63 Ni plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 Å were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm -2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased. The results showed that the optimum surface shape was obtained at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 in seed layer with thickness of 500 Å, 20 mA cm -2 of 1000 Å. Also, pure Ni deposit was well coated on a PN junction semiconductor without any oxide forms. Using the line width of (111) in XRD peak, the average grain size of the Ni thick firm was measured. The results showed that the average grain size was increased as the thickness of seed layer was increased

  4. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  5. Fabrication of Metallic Microneedle by Electroplating and Sharpening of it by Electrochemical Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Takaoki, Yutaka; Izumi, Hayato; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato; Aoyagi, Seiji

    Aiming at the use in low-invasive medical treatments, this paper reports a fabrication of metallic microneedle, which has a three-dimensionally sharp tip. Compared to a silicon or polymer needle which we previously proposed, a metallic needle has toughness to evade breakage. Even if it is broken, it does not become small pieces thanks to its ductility, which increases the safety for a human body. A nickel needle was fabricated using electroplating, followed by sharpening it by electrochemical etching. A smooth tip surface is obtained due to electrochemical etching reactions. Sharpness and smoothness of the tip are effective for easy insertion in the viewpoint of large stress concentration and small friction, respectively. An experiment of inserting the fabricated needle into an artificial skin of silicone rubber was carried out. The resistance force during insertion was much reduced compared to that of commercial stainless needle (23 G: shank diameter 650 µm). Although a fabricated metallic needle was inserted and pulled-out for several times, it was not broken in any trial. By changing the angle between object surface and needle axis, the insertion experiments were carried out. Fabricated nickel needle was not broken for any angle, while silicon needle was broken in case the angle is small, i.e., the needle is much inclined from normal direction of the surface, which ensures the safety of metallic microneedle to human body in the viewpoint of breakage.

  6. Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of NiSi films with electroplated Ni(W) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yuhang; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an electroplating method to deposited Ni, crystalline NiW(c-NiW), amorphous NiW (a-NiW) films on P-type Si(1 0 0) were used to form Ni-silicide (NiSi) films. After annealed at various temperatures, sheet resistance of Ni/Cu, c-NiW/Cu and a-NiW/Cu was measured to observe the performance of those diffusion barrier layers. With W added in the barrier layer, the barrier performance was improved. The results of XRD and resistance measurement of the stacked Si/Ni(W)/Cu films reveal that Cu atom could diffuse through Ni barrier layer at 450 deg. C, could diffuse through c-NiW at 550 deg. C, but could hardly diffuse through a-NiW barrier layer. c-NiW layer has a better barrier performance than Ni layer, meanwhile the resistance is lower than a-NiW layer.

  7. Measurement of the Cupric Ion Concentration Variation near Electrodes in the Copper Electroplating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin

    2016-01-01

    The heat fluxes to the side wall imposed at the upper metallic layer, are known to increase with the reduction of layer height. This 'Focusing effect' is varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. The heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy concept. When the electroplating system is adopted as the mass transfer system, in order to simulate the different temperature conditions of top and side walls, an electrical resistance was attached to the top wall so that it is mimics hotter wall condition. Because the quantitative temperature conditions according to the electrical resistance were unknown, the methodology development is necessary. The electrical resistance was adopted to the top plate. But the quantitative temperature conditions depending on the electrical resistance were unknown. In order to overcome the limitations of mass transfer, this work tried to measure the cupric ion concentration. The methods of concentration measurement are RGB, Brightness, ICP, PIV, and Interferometry. The key of RGB, Brightness and PIV method is the clear images of the concentration boundary layer corresponding the thermal boundary layer of heat transfer. The results for ICP method can be got by taking the trace sample of a solution, accurately. The formation of patterns in the interferometry is very important. The characteristics of the interference pattern depend on the nature of the light source, the precise orientation of the mirrors, etc. The methodology of concentration measurement is still under development stage.

  8. The effects of silver coating on friction coefficient and shear bond strength of steel orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Valiollah; Anoush, Keivan; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Rahmatei, Manuchehr; Tavanafar, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Aims of the present study was to measure frictional resistance between silver coated brackets and different types of arch wires, and shear bond strength of these brackets to the tooth. In an experimental clinical research 28 orthodontic brackets (standard, 22 slots) were coated with silver ions using electroplate method. Six brackets (coated: 3, uncoated: 3) were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The amount of friction in 15 coated brackets was measured with three different kinds of arch wires (0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in Nickel-Titanium [Ni-Ti]) and compared with 15 uncoated steel brackets. In addition, shear bond strength values were compared between 10 brackets with silver coating and 10 regular brackets. Universal testing machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the amount of friction between the wires and brackets. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis with t-test. SEM and AFM results showed deposition of a uniform layer of silver, measuring 8-10 μm in thickness on bracket surfaces. Silver coating led to higher frictional forces in all the three types of arch wires, which was statistically significant in 0.019 × 0.025-in SS and 0.018-in Ni-Ti, but it did not change the shear bond strength significantly. Silver coating with electroplating method did not affect the bond strength of the bracket to enamel; in addition, it was not an effective method for decreasing friction in sliding mechanics. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  10. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterostructured ZnFe2O4/Fe2TiO5/TiO2 Composite Nanotube Arrays with an Improved Photocatalysis Degradation Efficiency Under Simulated Sunlight Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Kun; Wang, Kunzhou; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xinqing; Fan, Qingbo; Courtois, Jérémie; Liu, Yuliang; Tuo, Xianguo; Yan, Minhao

    2018-03-01

    To improve the visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TONTAs), ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) nanocrystals were perfused into pristine TONTA pipelines using a novel bias voltage-assisted perfusion method. ZFO nanocrystals were well anchored on the inner walls of the pristine TONTAs when the ZFO suspensions (0.025 mg mL-1) were kept under a 60 V bias voltage for 1 h. After annealing at 750 °C for 2 h, the heterostructured ZFO/Fe2TiO5 (FTO)/TiO2 composite nanotube arrays were successfully obtained. Furthermore, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ when solid solution reactions occurred at the interface of ZFO and the pristine TONTAs. Introducing ZFO significantly enhanced the visible light absorption of the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs relative to that of the annealed TONTAs. The coexistence of type I and staggered type II band alignment in the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs facilitated the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, thereby improving the efficiency of the ZFO/FTO/TONTAs for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue when irradiated with simulated sunlight. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). V. Microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of Bacillus subtilis in simulated electroplating wash wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Abe, Masahiko; Ohba, Naoki; Uchida, Masayoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This short article examines the microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of aqueous solutions contaminated by Bacillus subtilis microorganisms using UV and vacuum-UV radiation emitted from a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL), a device containing a Hg/Ar gas-fill that was proposed recently for use in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Results of the disinfection are compared with those obtained from UV radiation emitted by a low-pressure electrode Hg lamp and by an excimer lamp. Also examined is the disinfection of B. subtilis aqueous media that contained Au3+ or Ni2+ ions, species often found in the treatment of electroplating wash wastewaters.

  13. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  14. Methods of forging steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pečoler, Primož

    2014-01-01

    The following work presents processes of steel forming, challenges when forging steel, forming machines suitable for forging and which choice of machine is most suitable for forging. We can separate steel forming to free forging and drop forging. Free forging can be divided to hand forging and machine forging. The correct choice of furnaces is also very important. We must reach correct temperature in the furnace for raw steel to melt with less scalings. In diploma I mentioned some machine...

  15. Prospects of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of world steel production is considered as well as the development strategy of metallurgy industry in the Russian Federation through to 2020. The main factors determining the conservation of steel as perspective material for industry are given: energy expenses on production, the well-proven recirculation technology, the capability of changing steel properties in wide range, temperature range of operation. The conclusion is made that in the immediate future steel will not lose its importance [ru

  16. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  17. Effect of tungsten (W) on structural and magnetic properties of electroplated NiFe thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R.; Devaki, P.; Premkumar, P. S.; Selvambikai, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline NiFe and NiFeW thin films were carried out from ammonium citrate bath at a constant current density and controlled pH of 8 by varying the bath temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the electrodeposited NiFe and NiFeW soft magnetic thin films were studied by using SEM and EDAX. The SEM micrographs of the films coated at higher electrodeposited bath temperature have no micro cracks and also the films have more uniform surface morphology. The existence of crystalline nature of the coated films were analysed by XRD. The presence of predominant peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern (compared with JCPDS data) reveal that the average crystalline size was in the order of few tens of nano meters. The magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization and magnetic flux density have been calculated from vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The VSM result shows that the NiFeW thin film synthesised at 70 °C exhibit the lower coercivity with higher saturation magnetization. The hardness and adhesion of the electroplated films have been investigated. Reasons for variation in magnetic properties and structural characteristics are also discussed. The electroplated NiFe and NiFeW thin films can be used for Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) applications due to their excellent soft magnetic behaviour.

  18. Investigation on the evolution of microstructure and texture of electroplated Ni–Ti composite coating by Rietveld method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuantao, E-mail: zhaoyuantao@sjtu.edu.cn; Cai, Fei, E-mail: caifei32@126.com; Wang, Chengxi, E-mail: sjtucxw@sjtu.edu.cn; Chai, Ze, E-mail: zechaisjtu@163.com; Zhu, Kaiyuan, E-mail: xrd125@163.com; Xu, Zhou, E-mail: xuzhou@sjtu.edu.cn; Jiang, Chuanhai, E-mail: chjiang-sjtu@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Ni–Ti composite coatings were prepared by electroplating. • Morphology and Ti content of Ni–Ti coatings were studied upon SEM and EDXS. • Microstructures of Ni–Ti coatings were studied upon the Rietveld method. • The texture of Ni–Ti coatings was studied upon the pole figure. - Abstract: Rietveld refinement was utilized to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of the Ni–Ti composite coatings electroplated at different applied current densities. Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of the coatings. Relative texture coefficients (RTC) and measured pole figures were utilized to investigate the texture evolution of the coatings. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from a colonial structure to a polyhedral one. And the incorporated Ti content decreased with increasing applied current density. As the applied current density increased, the crystallite sizes increased and their distribution got less uniform, and the microstrain and dislocation density decreased. The results of simulated pole figures obtained from Rietveld refinement illustrated that the texture of the coatings changed from no obvious texture to a strong [2 0 0] fiber texture with increasing applied current density. The texture evolution obtained from simulated pole figures was confirmed by the result of RTC and the measured pole figures. The evolutions of the microstructure and texture were derived from the change of the applied current density and incorporated Ti content in the Ni–Ti composite coatings.

  19. Electrochemical kinetic performances of electroplating Co–Ni on La–Mg–Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Tao, Yang; Ke, Dandan; Ma, Yufei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Han, Shumin, E-mail: hanshm@ysu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Co–Ni composite coating was prepared by electroplating. • The alloy treated at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} has superior kinetic performances. • The Co–Ni layer accelerates the charge transfer rate on the surface of the alloy. - Abstract: Electroplating Co–Ni treatment was applied to the surface of the La{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.48} alloy electrodes in order to improve the electrochemical and kinetic performances. The Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the electrodes were plated with a homogeneous Co–Ni alloy film. The alloy coating significantly improved the high rate dischargeability of the alloy electrode, and the HRD value increased to 57.5% at discharge current density 1875 mA/g after the Co–Ni-coating. The exchange current density I{sub 0}, the limiting current density I{sub L} and the oxidation peak current also increased for the coated alloy. The improvement of overall electrode performances was attributed to an enhancement in electro-catalytic activity and conductivity at the alloy surface, owing to the precipitation of the Co–Ni layer.

  20. BIOSORPTION OF Cr(VI FROM SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER USING THE FRUIT SHELL OF GULMOHAR (Delonix regia: APPLICATION TO ELECTROPLATING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attimodde Girirajanna Devi Prasad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of Cr(VI from synthetic solutions and electroplating wastewater using the fruit shell of gulmohar has been investigated in a batch system. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of Cr(VI on the biosorption process were studied. The complete removal of Cr(VI was observed at pH < 3.0. Studies indicated that both biosorption and bioreduction were involved in the removal of Cr(VI. The sorption equilibrium exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum biosorption capacity of fruit shell of gulmohar to remove Cr(VI was 12.28 mg/g. A kinetic model of pseudo-second order provided a good description of the experimental data as compared to a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The sorption rate was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of Cr(VI and biomaterials dosage. The study showed that the abundant and inexpensive fruit shell of gulmohar biosorbent has a potential application in the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating wastewater and its conversion into less or non-toxic Cr (III.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Ni Spines Grown on the Surface of Cubic Boron Nitride Grains by Electroplating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yanghai; Zhao, Jianbo; Chen, Jingbo; Jiang, Yuanli

    2016-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is widely applied in cutting and grinding tools. cBN grains plated by pure Ni and Ni/SiC composite were produced under the same conditions from an additive-free nickel Watts type bath. The processed electroplating products were characterized by the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermoanalysis (TG-DTA). Due to the presence of SiC particles, there are some additional nodules on the surface of Ni/SiC plated cBN compared with the pure Ni plated cBN. The unique morphology of Ni/SiC plated cBN should attain greater retention force in resin bond. Moreover, the coating weight of cBN grains could be controlled by regulating the plating time. cBN grains with 60% coating weight possess the optimum grinding performance due to their roughest and spiniest surface. In addition, Ni spines plated cBN grains show good thermal stability when temperature is lower than 464 °C. Therefore, the plated cBN grains are more stable and suitable for making resin bond abrasive tools below 225 °C. Finally, the formation mechanism of electroplating products is also discussed. PMID:28773283

  2. Enhanced nitrogen removal from electroplating tail wastewater through two-staged anoxic-oxic (A/O) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmei; Zhu, Chunyan; Huang, Bin; Yan, Qun; Zhang, Guangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Consisted of anaerobic (ANA), anoxic-1 (AN1), aerobic-1 (AE1), anoxic-2 (AN2), aerobic-2 (AE2) reactors and sediment tank, the two-staged A/O process was applied for depth treatment of electroplating tail wastewater with high electrical conductivity and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen. It was found that the NH 4 + -N and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.11% and 83.00%, respectively. Besides, the short-term salinity shock of the control, AE1 and AE2 indicated that AE1 and AE2 have better resistance to high salinity when the concentration of NaCl ranged from 1 to 10g/L. Meanwhile, it was found through high-throughput sequencing that bacteria genus Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Thauera, which are capable of nitrogen removal, were enriched in the two-staged A/O process. Moreover, both salt-tolerant bacteria and halophili bacteria were also found in the combined process. Therefore, microbial community within the two-staged A/O process could be acclimated to high electrical conductivity, and adapted for electroplating tail wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient selective catalytic reduction of NO by novel carbon-doped metal catalysts made from electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Jingyi; Xu, Yunfeng; Su, Huimin; Li, Xiaoman; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Qian, Guangren; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-10-07

    Electroplating sludges, once regarded as industrial wastes, are precious resources of various transition metals. This research has thus investigated the recycling of an electroplating sludge as a novel carbon-doped metal (Fe, Ni, Mg, Cu, and Zn) catalyst, which was different from a traditional carbon-supported metal catalyst, for effective NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This catalyst removed >99.7% NO at a temperature as low as 300 °C. It also removed NO steadily (>99%) with a maximum specific accumulative reduced amount (MSARA) of 3.4 mmol/g. Gas species analyses showed that NO removal was accompanied by evolving N2 and CO2. Moreover, in a wide temperature window, the sludge catalyst showed a higher CO2 selectivity (>99%) than an activated carbon-supported metal catalyst. Structure characterizations revealed that carbon-doped metal was transformed to metal oxide in the sludge catalyst after the catalytic test, with most carbon (2.33 wt %) being consumed. These observations suggest that NO removal over the sludge catalyst is a typical SCR where metals/metal oxides act as the catalytic center and carbon as the reducing reagent. Therefore, our report probably provides an opportunity for high value-added utilizations of heavy-metal wastes in mitigating atmospheric pollutions.

  4. Studies on influence of zinc immersion and fluoride on nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziping; Yu Gang; Ouyang Yuejun; He Xiaomei; Hu Bonian; Zhang Jun; Wu Zhenjun

    2009-01-01

    The effect of zinc immersion and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were mainly investigated in nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D. The state of zinc immersion, the composition of zinc film and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were explored from the curves of open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization, the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the patterns of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Results show that the optimum zinc film mixing small amount of Mg(OH) 2 and MgF 2 is obtained by zinc immersion for 30-90 s. The corrosion potential of magnesium alloy substrate attached zinc film will be increased in nickel plating bath and the quantity of MgF 2 sandwiched between magnesium alloy substrate and nickel coating will be reduced, which contributed to produce nickel coating with good performance. Fluoride in nickel plating bath serves as an activator of nickel anodic dissolution and corrosion inhibitor of magnesium alloy substrate. 1.0-1.5 mol dm -3 of F - is the optimum concentration range for dissolving nickel anode and protecting magnesium alloy substrate from over-corrosion in nickel plating bath. The nickel coating with good adhesion and high corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy AZ91D is obtained by the developed process of nickel electroplating. This nickel layer can be used as the rendering coating for further plating on magnesium alloys.

  5. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  6. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  7. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suksabye, Parinda [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pracha-Utit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, Paitip [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)], E-mail: paitip.thi@kmutt.ac.th; Nakbanpote, Woranan [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo.8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60 cm) and flow rate (10-30 ml min{sup -1}). At 0.05 C{sub t}/C{sub 0}, the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40 mg cm{sup -3} or 137.91 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} coir pith for the flow rates of 10 ml min{sup -1} and 14.05 mg cm{sup -3} or 118.20 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} coir pith for the flow rates of 30 ml min{sup -1}. At the highest bed depth (60 cm) and the lowest flow rate (10 ml min{sup -1}), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47 mg Cr(VI) g{sup -1} adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2 M HNO{sub 3} after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, {alpha}-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR)

  8. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2008-01-01

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60 cm) and flow rate (10-30 ml min -1 ). At 0.05 C t /C 0 , the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40 mg cm -3 or 137.91 mg Cr(VI) g -1 coir pith for the flow rates of 10 ml min -1 and 14.05 mg cm -3 or 118.20 mg Cr(VI) g -1 coir pith for the flow rates of 30 ml min -1 . At the highest bed depth (60 cm) and the lowest flow rate (10 ml min -1 ), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47 mg Cr(VI) g -1 adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2 M HNO 3 after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, α-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR)

  9. Biosorption of Cr (VI) ions from electroplating industrial effluent using immobilized Aspergillus niger biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, S; Dhankhar, R

    2008-09-01

    A fungus, Aspergillus niger was chemically treated with 0.1 M H2SO4 and 0.1 N NaOH to form biosorbent and it was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The biosorption capacity of immobilized biosorbents for Cr (VI) was found to depend on pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial concentration of Cr (VI). The maximum uptake of Cr (VI) was 92.5, 95.9 and 98.4 mg respectively at a pH of 1.5 and with an increase in pH up to 10.5 the metal uptake decreased gradually up to 38.75, 50.19 and 65.28 mg respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents. Increase in biosorbent dose up to 1 g of biomass and contact time up to 60 min resulted in an increase in biosorption from 19.6, 15.6 and 26.1 mg at a biosorbent dose of 0.1 g 100 ml(-1) to 92.45, 95.7 and 98.52 mg at a biosorbent dose of 1.0 g 100 ml(-1) and then further increase in adsorbent dose and contact time did not resulted in more Cr (VI) adsorption by per unit weight of biosorbent. The value of Kad (adsorption rate constant) revealed the pseudo-first order nature of biosorption. The percentage metal uptake by the biosorbent was found to decrease upto 62.33, 52.67 and 83.5 percent respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents at the 300 mgl(-1) Cr (VI) ion concentration. The resulted data was found to fit well in Langmuir model of adsorption isotherm with a high value of correlation coefficient. The value of Qmax, b (Langmuir constants), R(L) (separation factor) and delta G (Gibb's free energy) revealed the favourable nature of adsorption. The biosorbed metal was eluted from the biosorbent by using 0.1 M H2SO4 as elutant. Immobilized biosorbent can be reused for five consecutive biosorption/desorption cycles without apparent loss of efficiency after its reconditioning. The biosorbent was found to perform well in the electroplating industrial effluent.

  10. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60cm) and flow rate (10-30ml min(-1)). At 0.05 C(t)/C(0), the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40mg cm(-3) or 137.91mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 10ml min(-1) and 14.05mg cm(-3) or 118.20mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 30ml min(-1). At the highest bed depth (60cm) and the lowest flow rate (10mlmin(-1)), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47mg Cr(VI)g(-1) adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2M HNO(3) after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR).

  11. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  12. The influence of heavy metals on the polymorphs of dicalcium silicate in the belite-rich clinkers produced from electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Shih, Pai-Haung; Chiang, Li-Choung; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Lu, Hsing-Cheng; Chang, Juu-En

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to utilize an electroplating sludge for belite-rich clinker production and to observe the influence of heavy metals on the polymorphs of dicalcium silicate (C(2)S). Belite-rich clinkers prepared with 0.5-2% of NiO, ZnO, CuO, and Cr(2)O(3) were used to investigate the individual effects of the heavy metals in question. The Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method was employed to determine the weight fractions of gamma-C(2)S and beta-C(2)S in the clinkers, and their microstructures were examined by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that nickel, zinc, and chromium have positive effects on beta-C(2)S stabilization (Cr(3+)>Ni(2+)>Zn(2+)), whereas copper has a negative effect. The addition of up to 10% electroplating sludge did not have any negative influence on the formation of C(2)S. It was observed that gamma-C(2)S decreased while beta-C(2)S increased with a rise in the addition of the electroplating sludge. Moreover, nickel and chromium mainly contributed to stabilizing beta-C(2)S in the belite-rich clinkers produced from the electroplating sludge.

  13. Standard Test Method for Electronic Measurement for Hydrogen Embrittlement From Cadmium-Electroplating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an electronic hydrogen detection instrument procedure for measurement of plating permeability to hydrogen. This method measures a variable related to hydrogen absorbed by steel during plating and to the hydrogen permeability of the plate during post plate baking. A specific application of this method is controlling cadmium-plating processes in which the plate porosity relative to hydrogen is critical, such as cadmium on high-strength steel. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statement, see Section 8. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  14. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  15. Cr(VI) adsorption from electroplating plating wastewater by chemically modified coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-07-15

    Coir pith samples were chemically modified by grafting with acrylic acid for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater. The presence of acrylic acid on the coir pith surface was verified by a scanning electron microscope with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The carbonyl groups (C==O) from the carboxylic acids (COOH) increased on the coir pith surface after grafting with acrylic acid. In addition, the thermal stability of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith also improved. The optimum conditions for grafting the acrylic acid on the coir pith consisted of 2 M acrylic acid and 0.00125 M ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, as an initiator). The maximum Cr(VI) removal (99.99 ± 0.07%) was obtained with the following conditions: a 1.3% (w/v) dosage of acrylic acid-grafted coir pith, a system pH of 2, a contact time of 22 h, a temperature of 30 °C, a particle size of <150 μm and an initial Cr(VI) of 1,171 mg l(-1). At system pH of 2, Cr(VI) in the HCrO(4)(-) form can be adsorbed with acrylic acid-grafted coir pith via an electrostatic attraction. The adsorption isotherm of 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith exhibited a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was 196.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent, whereas for coir pith without grafting, the maximum Cr(VI) removal was 165.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent. The adsorption capacity of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith for Cr(VI) was higher compared to the original coir pith. This result was due to the enhancement of the carbonyl groups on the coir pith surface that may have involved the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The X-ray absorption near edged structure (XANES) and desorption studies suggested that most of the Cr(III) that presented on the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was due to the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) on the adsorbent surface. FTIR

  16. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  17. PHOTOCATALYTIC REMOVAL OF TR I- AND HEXA-VALENT CHROMIUM IONS FROM CHROME-ELECTROPL ATING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique based on photocatalysis was applied to eliminate chromium ions, a toxic hazardous environmental pollutant. The photoreduction of each species of chromium (total, hexavalent, and trivalent chromiums from chrome-electroplating wastewater was investigated using a titanium dioxide suspension under irradiation by a low-pressure mercury lamp. The initial concentration of total chromium was 300 mg/l. The applied conditions were the direct photocatalytic reduction process at pH 3.65 and the indirect photocatalytic reduction with added hole scavengers at the same solution pH. Results from both processes were comparatively discussed. Result show that chromium was not efficiently removed by direct photoreduction. In contrast, with the adding of hole scavengers, which were formate ions, the photoreduction of chromium was very favorable. Both hexavalent and trivalent chromiums were efficiently removed. The photocatalytic mechanism is purposed in this study.

  18. Trichloroethylene (TCE) in tree cores to complement a subsurface investigation on residential property near a former electroplating facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Kathy M

    2016-10-01

    Tree cores were collected and analyzed for trichloroethylene (TCE) on a private property between a former electroplating facility in Asheville, North Carolina (USA), and a contaminated wetland/spring complex. TCE was detected in 16 of 31 trees, the locations of which were largely consistent with a "plume core" delineated by a more detailed subsurface investigation nearly 2 years later. Concentrations in tree cores and nearby soil borings were not correlated, perhaps due to heterogeneities in both geologic and tree root structure, spatial and temporal variability in transpiration rates, or interferences caused by other contaminants at the site. Several tree cores without TCE provided evidence for significantly lower TCE concentrations in shallow groundwater along the margins of the contaminated spring complex in an area with limited accessibility. This study demonstrates that tree core analyses can complement a more extensive subsurface investigation, particularly in residential or ecologically sensitive areas.

  19. Reduction of energy consumption of selected subprocesses in electroplating. Reduktion af energiforbrug ved delprocesser i galvanisk overfladebehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, I.K.

    1989-07-01

    The process of electroplating involves a relatively high niveau of energy consumption. Potentials for reduction of energy consumption are investigated and measurements taken from existing processes are taken and commented upon. It is recommended that the temperature should be lowered in relation to as many processes as possible, processes such as degreasing, nickel and chrome baths. Cold sealing of anodized components could be utilized. Baths that have to be heated should be insulated, but more significant reduction can be achieved by covering the fluid surfaces. It is important that ventilation systems run at the lowest possible volume and should be kept clean and turned down when the workers have gone home. Integrated heating systems are also recommended. (AB).

  20. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  1. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Hagen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers.

  3. Reduction of chromate from electroplating wastewater from pH 1 to 2 using fluidized zero valent iron process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-S.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Li, C.-W.; Chai, P.-H.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Fluidized zero valent iron (ZVI) process was conducted to reduce hexavalent chromium (chromate, CrO 4 2- ) to trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) from electroplating wastewater due to the following reasons: (1) Extremely low pH (1-2) for the electroplating wastewater favoring the ZVI reaction. (2) The ferric ion, produced from the reaction of Cr(VI) and ZVI, can act as a coagulant to assist the precipitation of Cr(OH) 3(s) to save the coagulant cost. (3) Higher ZVI utilization for fluidized process due to abrasive motion of the ZVI. For influent chromate concentration of 418 mg/L as Cr 6+ , pH 2 and ZVI dosage of 3 g (41 g/L), chromate removal was only 29% with hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 1.2 min, but was increased to 99.9% by either increasing HRT to 5.6 min or adjusting pH to 1.5. For iron species at pH 2 and HRT of 1.2 min, Fe 3+ was more thermodynamically stable since oxidizing agent chromate was present. However, if pH was adjusted to 1.5 or 1, where chromate was completely removed, high Fe 2+ but very low Fe 3+ was present. It can be explained that ZVI reacted with chromate to produce Fe 2+ first and the presence of chromate would keep converting Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . Therefore, Fe 2+ is an indicator for complete reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(III). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to exam the remained species at pH 2. ZVI, iron oxide and iron sulfide were observed, indicating the formation of iron oxide or iron sulfide could stop the chromate reduction reaction

  4. In vitro study on porous silver scaffolds prepared by electroplating method using cellular carbon skeleton as the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, M.; Wang, X.; Zhou, H.M.; Li, L.; Nie, F.L.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Porous silver scaffolds, with the porosity ranging from 68% to 81% and the apparent density ranging from 0.4 to 1 g⋅cm −3 were prepared by electroplating method using cellular carbon skeleton as the substrate. The microstructure, mechanical property, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of the prepared porous silver scaffold were studied. The present porous silver scaffolds had a highly three-dimensional trabecular porous structure with the porosity and the apparent density close to that of the cancellous bone. Furthermore, the mechanical property such as elastic modulus and yield strength of the porous silver scaffolds were lower than that of commercial available porous Ti and porous Ti alloys but much closer to that of the cancellous bone and porous Ta. In addition, study of in vitro behavior showed that the porous silver scaffold possessed significant antibacterial capability of inhibition of bacterial proliferation and adherence against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and little cytotoxicity to Mg-63 cell line and NIH-3T3 cell line. Consequently, the porous silver scaffolds prepared by electrodeposition possess a promising application for bone implants. - Highlights: ► Porous Ag scaffolds were produced by electroplating Ag on cellular carbon skeleton. ► Porous Ag scaffolds have the porosity 68–81% and the apparent density 0.4–1 g⋅cm −3 . ► The mechanical property of porous Ag is close to cancellous bone and porous Ta. ► Porous Ag inhibits the proliferation and adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  5. Visualization of Two Phase Natural Convection Flow in a Vertical Pipe using the Sulfuric Acid - Copper Sulfate Electroplating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohk, Seung-Min; Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation.

  6. Stabilized copper plating method by programmed electroplated current: Accumulation of densely packed copper grains in the interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Li-Chi; Hsu, Li-Hsuan; Brahma, Sanjaya; Huang, Bo-Chia; Liu, Chun-Chu; Lo, Kuang-Yao, E-mail: kuanglo@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Actual Cu interconnect experiences many times of annealing and then cause the stress. • Stack Cu grains with varying grain size successively to enhance packed density. • XRD and PBR analyze the residual stress of local and average area of plated Cu film. • High packed Cu grain with stable stress proved by texture of Cu(1 1 1) and Cu(2 0 0). - Abstract: In this work, we programmed the plating current to stack the different size of copper (Cu) grain and analyzed the relation between the sequence of different Cu grain size and the stability of the residual stress. The residual stress was measured with varying times of annealing process in order to reach the purpose of simulating the actual Cu interconnect process. We found that varied plating strategy will make different stabilization condition of residual stress through the proof of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical parallel beams reflection (PBR) method. The accumulation of Cu grains, formed by Cu grain with successive variation in grain size, would enhance the packing density better than only single grain size in the finite space. The high density of the grain boundary in the electroplated Cu film will be eliminated through annealing process and it will help to suppress the void formation in further interconnect process. The electroplated Cu film with the plating current of saw tooth wave can soon reach a stable tensile stress through annealing since the Cu grains with high packing density will be quickly eliminated to approach the minimum of the strain energy which reflects to variation in the texture of Cu (2 0 0). The result of this work illustrates the importance of how to stack different size of Cu grain, for achieving a densely packed Cu film which close to the Cu bulk.

  7. Effect of cloric acid concentration on corrosion behavior of Ni/Cr coated on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiati, Resetiana Dwi; Sugiarti, Eni; Thosin, K. A. Zaini

    2018-05-01

    Corrosion is one of the causes of metal degradation. Carbon steel (Fe) is easy to corrode in the extreme environment. Coating on carbon steel is required to improve corrosion resistance owing to protection or hindrance to extreme environmental conditions. In this present work, carbon steel was coated by electroplating techniques for nickel and pack cementation for chrome. The corrosion rate test was performed by Weight Loss method on FeNiCr, FeNi, FeCr and uncoated Fe as comparator which was dyed in 37% HCl and 25% HCl which had previously been measured dimension and mass. The immersion test result of FeNiCr and FeNi specimen were better than FeCr and uncoated Fe in terms of increasing corrosion resistance. The corrosion rate for 56 hours in 37% HCl for FeNiCr was 1.592 mm/y and FeNi was 3.208 mm/y, FeCr only lasted within 32 hours with corrosion rate was 6.494 mm/y. Surface of the sample after the corrosion test there was pitting, crevice corrosion and alloy cracking caused by chloride. The higher the concentration of HCl the faster the corrosion rate.

  8. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  9. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  10. RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF AN ALLOYING OF THE FUSED COATINGS RECEIVED FROM THE SUPERFICIAL ALLOYED WIRE BY BORON WITH IN ADDITIONALLY APPLIED ELECTROPLATED COATING OF CHROME AND COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stefanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on distribution of chrome and copper in the fused coating received from the superficial alloyed wire by boron with in additionally applied electroplated coating of chrome and copper were executed. The structure of the fused coating consists of dendrites on which borders the boride eutectic is located. It is established that the content of chrome in dendrites is 1,5– 1,6 times less than in the borid; distribution of copper on structure is uniformed. Coefficients of digestion of chrome and copper at an argon-arc welding from a wire electrode with electroplated coating are established. The assimilation coefficient for chrome is equal to 0,9–1,0; for copper – 0,6–0,75.

  11. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  12. Electrochemical behaviors of Janus Green B in through-hole copper electroplating: An insight by experiment and density functional theory calculation using Safranine T as a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; An, Maozhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using Safranine T as a comparison to study the mechanism of JGB in the through-hole electroplating. ► Quantum chemical calculation is employed to analysis electronic properties and orbital information of levelers in the present paper. ► Finding out the probable reactive site for the adsorption of JGB on the copper surface. ► Offering some theoretical information to design and synthesize new additives for electroplating. -- Abstract: Janus Green B (JGB) and Safranine T (ST) were used as levelers in the through-hole (TH) copper electroplating experiments. Although JGB and ST have a similar part in the structure, the results indicate that JGB is an effective leveler used for TH electroplating whereas ST is not. A uniform plating is obtained using 1 ppm JGB as a leveler. In contrast, ST could not increase the value of uniformity power (UP). Electrochemical behaviors of JGB and ST were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and galvanostatic measurements using rotating disk electrode (RDE). JGB could effectively affect the cathodic polarization. However, the addition of ST changed the cathodic polarization weakly. Quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to obtain some electronic properties and orbital information. The calculations on frontier molecular orbital suggested that the electron donating ability of JGB was higher than that of ST, which gave rise to stronger adsorption of JGB on the cathodic surface and stronger inhibition of copper electrodeposition on the cathode. Furthermore, the results of frontier molecular orbital and Fukui function distributions showed that the N=N region or aminoazobenzene region of JGB was the probable reactive site for the adsorption of JGB on the copper surface

  13. Decarburisation Effect on Hardened Strip Steel Fastening Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli JAASON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is widely used for high reliability fastening components such as buckles and brackets. The current study focuses on mass production of safety components which are fineblanked from sheet metal, austempered and chromium electroplated. Electroplating together with stamping defects may lead to unexpected brittle failure of the component. It is widely known that during austenitisation, decarburisation could avoid brittle failure and, therefore, slight decarburisation is recommended. There is little information how much mass production is influenced by decarburisation and where the limits are. The current study has two goals. The first one focuses on the extent of decarburisation effect on the part properties, and the second aims to find the optimum furnace setting for the product type used in the study. Also, it is necessary to choose a reliable decarburisation control method for austempered components. The effect on material grades was analyzed by using three steel alloys with carbon content of 0.37 wt.%, 0.47 wt.% and 0.62 wt.%. The specimens were austempered to hardness 45 – 51 HRC under endothermic protective atmosphere. To gain different decarburisation levels, two gas set-ups were used. Infrared gas analyzer was used to measure CO and CO2 content in the furnace gas. Three characteristics of the specimens were evaluated: hardness, rupture strength and brittleness. The depth of the decarburisation was determined by three different approaches according to standard EN ISO 3887. Based on the results, the spectrographic method is the most reliable for determining the depth of decarburisation. This study reveals that higher surface decarburisation has a positive effect on the ductility and no effect on the rupture strength of the component. The material with carbon content of 0.62 wt.% is the most sensitive to decarburisation. During mass production, the inaccuracy of hardness measuring raises which results in the inaccuracy of

  14. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  15. Development of a Low-Cost TiO2/CuO/Cu Solar Cell by using Combined Spraying and Electroplating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rokhmat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is proposed to develop a low-cost TiO2/CuO/Cu based solar cell. The cell is made by employing a lower grade (technical grade of TiO2 as the active material. CuO powder is synthesized using a wet chemical method and mixed with TiO2 powder to give impurity to the TiO2. A layer of TiO2/CuO is then deposited onto fluorin-doped tin oxide (FTO by spraying. Copper particles are grown on the spaces between the TiO2 and/or CuO particles by electroplating for more feasible electron migration. The TiO2/CuO/Cu solar cell is finalized by sandwiching a polymer electrolyte between the film and the counter electrode. Current-voltage measurement was performed for various parameters, such as the molarity of NaOH for producing CuO particles, the weight ratio of CuO over TiO2, and the current in the electroplating process. A highest efficiency of 1.40% and a fill factor of 0.37 were achieved by using this combined spray and electroplating method.

  16. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  17. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  18. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    system components to be built. Figure la shows the machine design . PSC-2012 Page 94 Glue Application Sheet Transfer Feed Elevator Figure la...Department of Defense such as cleats, ejection chutes , control arms, muzzle brakes, mortar components, clevises, tow bar clamps, ammo conveyor elements...Foundry and the members of Steel Founders’ Society of America. Abstract Weapon system designers and builders need advanced steel casting technology

  19. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  20. Image analysis for maintenance of coating quality in nickel electroplating baths--real time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; van den Berg, F; Ostra, M; Ubide, C

    2011-11-07

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to extract analytical information from images acquired with a flatbed scanner and make use of this information for real time control of a nickel plating process. Digital images of plated steel sheets in a nickel bath are used to follow the process under degradation of specific additives. Dedicated software has been developed for making the obtained results accessible to process operators. This includes obtaining the RGB image, to select the red channel data exclusively, to calculate the histogram of the red channel data and to calculate the mean colour value (MCV) and the standard deviation of the red channel data. MCV is then used by the software to determine the concentration of the additives Supreme Plus Brightner (SPB) and SA-1 (for confidentiality reasons, the chemical contents cannot be further detailed) present in the bath (these two additives degrade and their concentration changes during the process). Finally, the software informs the operator when the bath is generating unsuitable quality plating and suggests the amount of SPB and SA-1 to be added in order to recover the original plating quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efeito do tipo de revestimento na soldagem a ponto de aços galvanizados Effect of coating type on spot welding of galvanized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcélio Anício da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os aços galvanizados são cada vez mais utilizados pela indústria automobilística devido à sua excelente resistência à corrosão e boa trabalhabilidade. A soldagem a pontos por resistência de aços galvanizados apresenta o inconveniente de um maior desgaste dos eletrodos quando comparada com a soldagem de aços não revestidos. Este é causado pela reação do zinco com o cobre do eletrodo, formando uma liga Zn-Cu (latão que diminui a vida útil do eletrodo. No presente trabalho, foram feitos testes de soldagem a ponto utilizando aços livres de intersticiais (IF, revestidos por imersão a quente com zinco puro (GI e liga Zn-Fe (GA. Foram determinados os campos de soldabilidade dinâmicos e a vida útil dos eletrodos para juntas formadas pelas combinações GA/GA, GI/GI e GA/GI. O estudo do campo de soldabilidade dinâmica mostrou que os valores de corrente necessários para a obtenção de uma solda adequada aumentam mais rapidamente para a junta de materiais GI/GI e este efeito foi associado com a maior contaminação do eletrodo pelo Zn do revestimento. Por sua vez, a soldagem da junta GA/GI apresenta taxas de variação desta corrente um pouco maiores do que a da junta GA/GA, mas menores que a da junta GI/GI. Em geral, a junta GA/GI apresentou resultados nos testes de soldagem mais próximos dos da junta GA/GA em comparação com os testes com a junta GI/GI. Isto mostra a influência positiva, do revestimento GA, no aumento do número de pontos de solda, mesmo quando a junta é constituída de aços com dois tipos de revestimentos diferentes (GA e GI.Steels coated with zinc and zinc-iron alloys are being increasingly used by the car industry due to their excellent corrosion resistance and good workability. Spot welding of coated steels has the disadvantage of increasing electrodes wear when compared to uncoated steels. Such wear is caused by the reaction of the zinc coating with the copper of the electrode forming an alloy Zn

  2. Failure behavior of ITO diffusion barrier between electroplating Cu and Si substrate annealed in a low vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Chien, C.M.; Liu, W.L.; Chen, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A structure of Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si was first formed and then annealed at various temperatures for 5 min in a rapid thermal annealing furnace under 10 -2 Torr pressure. In Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si structure, the ITO(10 nm) film was coated on Si substrate by sputtering process and the Cu film was deposited on ITO film by electroplating technique. The various Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si samples were characterized by a four-point probe, a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, and a transmission electron microscope. The results showed that when the annealing temperature increases near 600 deg. C the interface between Cu and ITO becomes unstable, and the Cu 3 Si particles begin to form; and when the annealing temperature increases to 650 deg. C, a good many of Cu 3 Si particles about 1 μm in size form and the sheet resistance of Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si structure largely increases.

  3. Microstructure Evolution and Protrusion of Electroplated Cu-Filled Through-Silicon Vias Subjected to Thermal Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; An, Tong; Qin, Fei; Chen, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSVs) have become an important technology for three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) packaging. Protrusion of electroplated Cu-filled vias is a critical reliability issue for TSV technology. In this work, thermal cycling tests were carried out to identify how the microstructure affects protrusion during thermal cycling. Cu protrusion occurs when the loading temperature is higher than 149°C. During the first five thermal cycles, the grain size of Cu plays a dominant role in the protrusion behavior. Larger Cu grain size before thermal cycling results in greater Cu protrusion. With increasing thermal cycle number, the effect of the Cu grain size reduces and the microstrain begins to dominate the Cu protrusion behavior. Higher magnitude of microstrain within Cu results in greater protrusion increment during subsequent thermal cycles. When the thermal cycle number reaches 25, the protrusion rate of Cu slows down due to strain hardening. After 30 thermal cycles, the Cu protrusion stabilizes within the range of 1.92 μm to 2.09 μm.

  4. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  5. The use of a rotating cylinder electrode to recover zinc from rinse water generated by the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlalcuatzi, Sairi; Nava, José L

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the application of a laboratory scale rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) to recover zinc from rinse water generated by the electrolytic zinc process (initially 1,300, 4,400, 50, 20 mg L(-1) of Zn(II), Fe(III), Ag(I) and Cr(VI), respectively, at pH 2), although it is also applicable to other electroplating industries. Experimental results demonstrated the convenience of the removal of ferric ions, as (Fe(OH)(3(s))) by a pH adjustment to 4, before zinc electro recovery on the RCE. The generation of smooth zinc deposits on the RCE was obtained at Reynolds numbers within the range of 15,000 ≤ Re ≤ 124,000 and limiting current densities (J(L)) in the interval of -4.8 to -13 mA cm(-2). The zinc recovery reached a conversion of 67% in 90 min of electrolysis for Re = 124,000 and J = -13 mA cm(-2), 21% current efficiency, and energy consumption of 9.5 kWh m(-3). The treated solution can be recycled back through the same rinsing process.

  6. Influences of the current density on the performances of the chrome-plated layer in deterministic electroplating repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Shen, X. M.; Yang, X. C.; Xiong, Y.; Jiang, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Deterministic electroplating repair is a novel method for rapidly repairing the attrited parts. By the qualitative contrast and quantitative comparison, influences of the current density on performances of the chrome-plated layer were concluded in this study. The chrome-plated layers were fabricated under different current densities when the other parameters were kept constant. Hardnesses, thicknesses and components, surface morphologies and roughnesses, and wearability of the chrome-plated layers were detected by the Vickers hardness tester, scanning electron microscope / energy dispersive X-ray detector, digital microscope in the 3D imaging mode, and the ball-milling instrument with profilograph, respectively. In order to scientifically evaluate each factor, the experimental data was normalized. A comprehensive evaluation model was founded to quantitative analyse influence of the current density based on analytic hierarchy process method and the weighted evaluation method. The calculated comprehensive evaluation indexes corresponding to current density of 40A/dm2, 45A/dm2, 50A/dm2, 55A/dm2, 60A/dm2, and 65A/dm2 were 0.2246, 0.4850, 0.4799, 0.4922, 0.8672, and 0.1381, respectively. Experimental results indicate that final optimal option was 60A/dm2, and the priority orders were 60A/dm2, 55A/dm2, 45A/dm2, 50A/dm2, 40A/dm2, and 65A/dm2.

  7. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values.

  8. Genetic characterization, nickel tolerance, biosorption, kinetics, and uptake mechanism of a bacterium isolated from electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rajendran, P

    2015-04-01

    Electroplating industries in Madurai city produce approximately 49,000 L of wastewater and 1200 L of sludge every day revealing 687-5569 ppm of nickel (Ni) with other contaminants. Seventeen Ni-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from nutrient-enriched effluents. Among them one hyper Ni accumulating strain was scored and identified as Bacillus cereus VP17 on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Equilibrium data of Ni(II) ions using the bacterium as sorbent at isothermal conditions (37 °C) and pH 6 were best adjusted by Langmuir (R(2) = 0.6268) and Freundlich models (R(2) = 0.9505). Experimental validation reveals Ni sorption takes place on a heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent, and predicted metal sorption capacity is 434 ppm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the biosorption kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9963 and 0.3625). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the bacterial strain with and without Ni(II) ion reveals the biosorption mechanism. The results conclude possibilities of using B. cereus VP17 for Ni bioremediation.

  9. A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

    2010-05-07

    Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test. (paper)

  11. The Effect of Surfactant Content over Cu-Ni Coatings Electroplated by the sc-CO₂ Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Sánchez, Jorge; Cheng, Hsiang-Yun

    2017-04-19

    Co-plating of Cu-Ni coatings by supercritical CO₂ (sc-CO₂) and conventional electroplating processes was studied in this work. 1,4-butynediol was chosen as the surfactant and the effects of adjusting the surfactant content were described. Although the sc-CO₂ process displayed lower current efficiency, it effectively removed excess hydrogen that causes defects on the coating surface, refined grain size, reduced surface roughness, and increased electrochemical resistance. Surface roughness of coatings fabricated by the sc-CO₂ process was reduced by an average of 10%, and a maximum of 55%, compared to conventional process at different fabrication parameters. Cu-Ni coatings produced by the sc-CO₂ process displayed increased corrosion potential of ~0.05 V over Cu-Ni coatings produced by the conventional process, and 0.175 V over pure Cu coatings produced by the conventional process. For coatings ~10 µm thick, internal stress developed from the sc-CO₂ process were ~20 MPa lower than conventional process. Finally, the preferred crystal orientation of the fabricated coatings remained in the (111) direction regardless of the process used or surfactant content.

  12. Wafer-level hermetic thermo-compression bonding using electroplated gold sealing frame planarized by fly-cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Muhammad Salman Al; Hirano, Hideki; Frömel, Jörg; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel wafer-level hermetic packaging technology for heterogeneous device integration is presented. Hermetic sealing is achieved by low-temperature thermo-compression bonding using electroplated Au micro-sealing frame planarized by single-point diamond fly-cutting. The proposed technology has significant advantages compared to other established processes in terms of integration of micro-structured wafer, vacuum encapsulation and electrical interconnection, which can be achieved at the same time. Furthermore, the technology is also achievable for a bonding frame width as narrow as 30 μm, giving it an advantage from a geometry perspective, and bonding temperatures as low as 300 °C, making it advantageous for temperature-sensitive devices. Outgassing in vacuum sealed cavities is studied and a cavity pressure below 500 Pa is achieved by introducing annealing steps prior to bonding. The pressure of the sealed cavity is measured by zero-balance method utilizing diaphragm-structured bonding test devices. The leak rate into the packages is determined by long-term sealed cavity pressure measurement for 1500 h to be less than 2.0× {{10}-14} Pa m3s-1. In addition, the bonding shear strength is also evaluated to be higher than 100 MPa.

  13. A fast laser alloying process for the selective electroplating of metal on SiO2 and polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malba, V.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new laser direct-write process for patterning of metal on multichip modules. The process involves the laser modification of the non-conductive surface of a seed multilayer, converting it to a conductive surface, which can be electroplated with metal. The seed multilayer is composed of a TiW adhesion layer, onto which a Au film is sputtered, followed by an a-Si layer, which forms the non-conductive surface. The laser modifies the surface by alloying (or mixing) the Si and Au to form the conductive surface. This laser process has been shown to be capable of writing speeds of 2.5 m/s. With a silicon dioxide interlevel dielectric layer, the process works over a large range of laser power (P max /P min ∼ 5). A polyimide interlevel dielectric layer can be used without damage or loss of adhesion, although the process margin is substantially reduced (P max /P min ∼ 2)

  14. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  15. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  16. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  17. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  18. National steel tries wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudak, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, National Steel felt the need to take the next step to make its Detroit-based division, Great Lakes Steel, more competitive in the world flat-rolled steel market. In 1988, Great Lakes Steel started flowing natural gas through the first fully litigated bypass (Competitive Sourcing Option) of a local distribution company. In 1989, the second connection with the new supply route for gas transportation, Panhandle Eastern had started flowing and the LDC, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. (MichCon) had pulled out their piping previously serving the plants. Since we had been able to structure a fully reliable supply route, storage and balancing program for gas in the face of such strong opposition by the LDC, the author felt it was time to attack the next singularly sourced major commodity, electricity. Electricity, at this major integrated steel plant, represented approximately 7% of plant cost yearly. Yet being monopolized, Great Lakes Division (GLD) could not multiple source this commodity like it does with its other 93% of costs, except for labor (25% of the 93%). Multiple sourcing is done to bring competitive pressure to suppliers and to diversify supplies and protect plant operation in the event of failure by one supplier. This paper describes National Steel's strategy to reduce the cost of power, at the minimum of capital costs, the most expedient way possible, that does not sacrifice any major long-term potential cost improvements. The results show that competitively priced power is available across the mid-west, at prices well below many state regulated electric utilities, for at least 5 to 15 years, but with major obstacles in obtaining transmission access

  19. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  20. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  1. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  2. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  3. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  5. Electro-migration of heavy metals in an aged electroplating contaminated soil affected by the coexisting hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Zhuang, Luwen; Tong, Lizhi; Lo, Irene M C; Qiu, Rongliang

    2012-02-01

    Cr(VI) was often reported to oxidize soil organic matter at acidic environments due to its high ORP, probably thus changing cationic metal species bound to soil organic matter, and influencing their electro-migration patterns. However, such an effect on the electro-migration was not confirmed in most previous studies. Therefore, this study applied a fixed voltage direct current field on an aged electroplating contaminated clayed soil, with a special interest in the direct or indirect influence of Cr(VI) on the electro-migration of other coexisting metals. After 353 h electrokinetic process, 81% of Zn, 53% of Ni and 22% of Cu in the original soil were electro-migrated into the electrolyte, and most of the remaining concentrated near the cathode. The Cr(VI) oxidized some soil organic matter along its migration pathway, with a pronounced reaction occurred near the anode at low pHs. The resulting Cr(III) reversed its original movement, and migrated towards the cathode, leading to the occurrence of a second Cr concentration peak in the soil. Metal species analyses showed that the amount of metals bound to soil organic matter significantly decreased, while a substantial increase in the Cr species bound to Fe/Mn (hydro-)oxides was observed, suggesting an enhancement of cationic metal electro-migration by the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). However, the Cr(VI) may form some stable lead chromate precipitates, and in turn demobilize Pb in the soil, as the results showed a low Pb removal and an increase in its acid-extractable and residual fractions after electrokinetic remediation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Copper stabilization in beneficial use of waterworks sludge and copper-laden electroplating sludge for ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Siu-Wai; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-06-01

    A promising strategy for effectively incorporating metal-containing waste materials into a variety of ceramic products was devised in this study. Elemental analysis confirmed that copper was the predominant metal component in the collected electroplating sludge, and aluminum was the predominant constituent of waterworks sludge collected in Hong Kong. The use of waterworks sludge as an aluminum-rich precursor material to facilitate copper stabilization under thermal conditions provides a promising waste-to-resource strategy. When sintering the mixture of copper sludge and the 900 °C calcined waterworks sludge, the CuAl2O4 spinel phase was first detected at 650 °C and became the predominant product phase at temperatures higher than 850 °C. Quantification of the XRD pattern using the Rietveld refinement method revealed that the weight of the CuAl2O4 spinel phase reached over 50% at 850 °C. The strong signals of the CuAl2O4 phase continued until the temperature reached 1150 °C, and further sintering initiated the generation of the other copper-hosting phases (CuAlO2, Cu2O, and CuO). The copper stabilization effect was evaluated by the copper leachability of the CuAl2O4 and CuO via the prolonged leaching experiments at a pH value of 4.9. The leaching results showed that the CuAl2O4 phase was superior to the CuAlO2 and CuO phases for immobilizing hazardous copper over longer leaching periods. The findings clearly indicate that spinel formation is the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper sludge with aluminum-rich waterworks sludge, and suggest a promising and reliable technique for reusing both types of sludge waste for ceramic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, F.; Yin, L.; Borgesen, P.; Andala, D.; Dimitrov, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

  8. Alloying behaviour of electroplated Ag film with its underlying Pd/Ti film stack for low resistivity interconnect metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Hirokazu; Miyata, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alloying behavior of Ag/Pd/Ti film stack was studied by annealing at 400-800 °C. • The Ag film resistivity decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • Formation of the Pd-Ti intermetallics was found to be dominant over Ag-Pd alloying. • The excess Ti was consumed to form Ti oxides, which inhibited Ti alloying with Ag. -- Abstract: In this paper, viability of electroplated Ag film into device application was studied. Alloying behavior of the Ag film with its underlying Pd(50 nm)/Ti(100 nm) film stack was investigated with respect to heat treatment at different temperatures from 400 °C to 800 °C in an argon ambient. After annealing at 400 °C, the electrical resistivity of the Ag film increased due to Pd alloying with Ag. Formation of Pd–Ti intermetallic phases became dominant over Ag–Pd alloying with increasing annealing temperature, leading to the resistivity decrease of the Ag film. The resistivity of the 800 °C annealed Ag film approached that of its as-plated Ag film. The excess Ti atoms which were not consumed to form the intermetallic phases with the Pd atoms migrated to the Ag film surface to form Ti oxides along the Ag grain boundaries on the topmost film surface. The Ag/Pd/Ti film stack has been confirmed to maintain the resistivity of the Ag film at as-plated low levels after high temperature annealing. This paper also discusses process integration issues to enable the Ag metallization process for future scaled and three dimensionally chip stacked devices

  9. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  11. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  12. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  13. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  14. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  15. Characterization of room temperature recrystallization kinetics in electroplated copper thin films with concurrent x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treger, Mikhail; Noyan, I. C. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States); Witt, Christian [GlobalFoundries, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Cabral, Cyril; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Rosenberg, Robert [State University of New York, the University at Albany, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Eisenbraun, Eric [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2013-06-07

    Concurrent in-situ four-point probe resistivity and high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to characterize room temperature recrystallization in electroplated Cu thin films. The x-ray data were used to obtain the variation with time of the integrated intensities and the peak-breadth from the Cu 111 and 200 reflections of the transforming grains. The variation of the integrated intensity and resistivity data with time was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. For both 111-textured and non-textured electroplated Cu films, four-point probe resistivity measurements yielded shorter transformation times than the values obtained from the integrated intensities of the corresponding Cu 111 reflections. In addition, the JMAK exponents fitted to the resistivity data were significantly smaller. These discrepancies could be explained by considering the different material volumes from which resistivity and diffraction signals originated, and the physical processes which linked these signals to the changes in the evolving microstructure. Based on these issues, calibration of the resistivity analysis with direct structural characterization techniques is recommended.

  16. Electroplating chromium on CVD SiC and SiCf-SiC advanced cladding via PyC compatibility coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Caen; Kemery, Craig; Katoh, Yutai

    2018-05-01

    Electroplating Cr on SiC using a pyrolytic carbon (PyC) bond coat is demonstrated as an innovative concept for coating of advanced fuel cladding. The quantification of coating stress, SEM morphology, XRD phase analysis, and debonding test of the coating on CVD SiC and SiCf-SiC is shown. The residual tensile stress (by ASTM B975) of electroplated Cr is > 1 GPa prior to stress relaxation by microcracking. The stress can remove the PyC/Cr layer from SiC. Surface etching of ∼20 μm and roughening to Ra > 2 μm (by SEM observation) was necessary for successful adhesion. The debonding strength (by ASTM D4541) of the coating on SiC slightly improved from 3.6 ± 1.4 MPa to 5.9 ± 0.8 MPa after surface etching or machining. However, this improvement is limited due to the absence of an interphase, and integrated CVI processing may be required for further advancement.

  17. Effect of cathode vibration and heat treatment on electromagnetic properties of flake-shaped diatomite coated with Ni–Fe alloy by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Mingming; Li, Huiqin; Huang, Weihua; Xu, Guangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, flake-shaped diatomite particles were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the ferromagnetic functional fillers by way of electroplating Ni–Fe alloy method. The effects of cathode vibration frequency on the content of Ni–Fe alloy in the coating and the surface morphologies of the coatings were evaluated. The electromagnetic properties of the coated diatomite particles before and after heat treatment were also investigated in detail. The results show that the core-shell flake-shaped diatomite particles with high content of Ni–Fe alloy and good surface qualities of the coatings can be obtained by adjusting cathode vibration frequency. The coated diatomite particles with heat treatment filled paraffin wax composites exhibit a superior microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties compared to the non-heat treated samples. Additionally, the peaks of reflection loss are found to be able to shift to lower frequency by the heat treatment process, which indicates the heat treatment can adjust microwave absorbing frequency band. - Highlights: • We used the diatomite particles as template to fabricate the flake-shaped ferromagnetic fillers. • The diatomite particles were deposited pure magnetic Ni–Fe alloy by electroplating methods. • The coated diatomite particles were lightweight ferromagnetic fillers. • The composites containing coated diatomite particles with heat treatment exhibited great potential in the field of electromagnetic absorbing

  18. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of total Cr in wastewaters of Cr electroplating factories in the I.organize industry region (Kayseri, Turkey) by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Selehattin; Türe, Melike; Sadikoglu, Murat; Duran, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The wastewater pollution in industrial areas is one of the most important environmental problems. Heavy metal pollution, especially chromium pollution in the wastewater sources from electroplating, dyeing, and tannery, has affected the life on earth. This pollution can affect on all ecosystems and human health directly or by food chain. Therefore, the determination of total chromium in this study is of great importance. In this study, accurate, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and low-cost technique for the direct determination of total Cr in wastewater samples collected from the some Cr electroplating factories in March 2008 by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been developed. The analysis of a given sample is completed in about 15 min by this technique applied. As the result of the chromium analysis, the limit of quantification for the total Cr were founded to be over the limit value (0.05 mg L(-1); WHO, EPA, TSE 266, and inland water quality classification) as 1,898.78+/-0.34 mg/L at station 1 and 3,189.02+/-0.56 mg/L at station 2. The found concentration of total Cr has been determined to be IV class quality water according to the inland water classification. In order to validate the applied method, recovery studies were performed.

  20. THE EFFECT OF IRON ION TO THE REMOVAL OF NICKEL ION FROM ELECTROPLATING WASTEWATER USING DOUBLE CHAMBER ELECTRODEPOSITION CELL (DCEC REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Djaenudin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society demands industrial technology advances to produce products that have high durability and long utilization lives. Materials made from ferrous metal become a solution to meet these industry needs. Ferrous metal is corrosive and it requires more care to support the performance. Electroplating or metal coating applied to iron or nickel solves this problem. In the production process, the usage of nickel is only 30%-40% and the remaining 60-70% is wasted through effluent. Nickel is a toxic heavy metal that can cause cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of iron concentration on nickel metal removal in electroplating wastewater using an insulated electrolytic reactor double chamber electrodeposition cell (DCEC. The result of this study shows that any ratio variation of iron concentration to nickel gives varying impacts on nickel removal efficiency, electric current efficiency, and specific energy. On the fourth variation, the iron ratio of 1.29% removed 83.1% nickel (the highest removal efficiency at the cost of 20.687 kWh / kg specific energy. The number is extremely high for energy needs. On the other hand, the variation of iron ratio of 1.73% consumpting only 15.067 kWh / kg, the lowest specific energy needs, resulted in the lowest removal efficiency of 63.6%.

  1. Assessment of in vitro cyto/genotoxicity of sequentially treated electroplating effluent on the human hepatocarcinoma HuH-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Umesh Chandra; Das, Mihir Tanay; Sauran, Swati; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-03-01

    The present study compares in vitro toxicity of electroplating effluent after the batch treatment process with that obtained after the sequential treatment process. Activated charcoal prepared from sugarcane bagasse through chemical carbonization, and tolerant indigenous bacteria, Bacillus sp. strain IST105, were used individually and sequentially for the treatment of electroplating effluent. The sequential treatment involving activated charcoal followed by bacterial treatment removed 99% of Cr(VI) compared with the batch processes, which removed 40% (charcoal) and 75% (bacteria), respectively. Post-treatment in vitro cyto/genotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT test and the comet assay in human HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. The sequentially treated sample showed an increase in LC50 value with a 6-fold decrease in comet-assay DNA migration compared with that of untreated samples. A significant decrease in DNA migration and an increase in LC50 value of treated effluent proved the higher effectiveness of the sequential treatment process over the individual batch processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of cathode vibration and heat treatment on electromagnetic properties of flake-shaped diatomite coated with Ni–Fe alloy by electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Mingming, E-mail: lan_mingming@163.com; Li, Huiqin; Huang, Weihua; Xu, Guangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, flake-shaped diatomite particles were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the ferromagnetic functional fillers by way of electroplating Ni–Fe alloy method. The effects of cathode vibration frequency on the content of Ni–Fe alloy in the coating and the surface morphologies of the coatings were evaluated. The electromagnetic properties of the coated diatomite particles before and after heat treatment were also investigated in detail. The results show that the core-shell flake-shaped diatomite particles with high content of Ni–Fe alloy and good surface qualities of the coatings can be obtained by adjusting cathode vibration frequency. The coated diatomite particles with heat treatment filled paraffin wax composites exhibit a superior microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties compared to the non-heat treated samples. Additionally, the peaks of reflection loss are found to be able to shift to lower frequency by the heat treatment process, which indicates the heat treatment can adjust microwave absorbing frequency band. - Highlights: • We used the diatomite particles as template to fabricate the flake-shaped ferromagnetic fillers. • The diatomite particles were deposited pure magnetic Ni–Fe alloy by electroplating methods. • The coated diatomite particles were lightweight ferromagnetic fillers. • The composites containing coated diatomite particles with heat treatment exhibited great potential in the field of electromagnetic absorbing.

  3. Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flaviane Vilela; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

    2010-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of a new chelating material derived from wood sawdust, Manilkara sp., and not only the use of a new support, but also a chemically modified sugarcane bagasse synthesized in our previous work to remove Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions and electroplating wastewater. The first part describes the chemical modification of wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse using ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) as modifying agent in order to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into these materials. The obtained materials such as the modified sugarcane bagasse, EB, and modified wood sawdust, ES were then characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and CHN. The second part evaluates the adsorption capacity of Zn(2+) by EB and ES from aqueous single metal solutions and real electroplating wastewater, which concentration was determined through direct titration with EDTA and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Adsorption isotherms were developed using Langmuir model. Zn(2+) adsorption capacities were found to be 80 mg/g for ES and 105 mg/g for EB whereas for the industrial wastewater these values were found to be 47 mg/g for ES and 45 mg/g for EB. Zn(2+) adsorption in the wastewater was found to be lower than in Zn(2+) spiked solution due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions, mainly Ca(2+) and Cl(-) that were present in the wastewater. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by Cryptococcus sp. VITGBN2 and its application on Zn(II) removal from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Geetanjali; Das, Nilanjana

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the role of biosurfactant produced by yeast for the removal of Zn(II) ions from electroplating wastewater. The yeast species isolated from CETP, Vellore, Tamilnadu was identified as Cryptococcus sp.VITGBN2, based on molecular techniques, and was found to be potent producer of biosurfactant in mineral salt media containing vegetable oil as additional carbon source. Chemical structure of the purified biosurfactant was identified as acidic diacetate sophorolipid through GC-MS analysis. Interaction of Zn(II) ions with biosurfactant was monitored using FT-IR, SEM and EDS analysis. Zn (II) removal at 100 mg l(-1) concentration was 84.8% compared were other synthetic surfactants (Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphate), yeast mediated biosurfactant showed enhanced Zn (II) removal in batch mode. The role of biosurfactant on Zn(II) removal was evaluated in column mode packed with biosurfactant entrapped in sodium alginate beads. At a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) and bed height of 12 cm, immobilized biosurfactant showed 94.34% Zn(II) removal from electroplating wastewater. The present study confirmed that Zn(II) removal was biosurfactant mediated. This is the first report establishing the involvement of yeast mediated biosurfactant in Zn(II) removal from wastewater.

  5. Steel for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A steel contains, in percent by weight, the following constituents: carbon from 0.13 to 0.18, silicon from 0.17 to 0.37, manganese from 0.30 to 0.60, chromium from 1.7 to 2.4, nickel from 1.0 to 1.5, molybdenum from 0.5 to 0.7, vanadium from 0.05 to 0.12, aluminium from 0.01 to 0.035, nitrogen from 0.05 to 0.012, copper from 0.11 to 0.20, arsenic from 0.0035 to 0.0055, iron and impurities, the balance. This steel is preferable for use in the manufacture of nuclear reactors. 1 table

  6. Advances in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Saibaba, Saroja; Sivaprasad, P.V.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a broad spectrum of topics spanning the entire life cycle of stainless steel-from alloy design and characterization to engineering design, fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, quality assurance of components, in-service performance assessment, life prediction and finally failure analysis of materials and components. The contents provide useful feedback for further developments aimed at effective utilization of this class of materials. The book comprises articles that bring out contemporary developments in stainless steels and is thematically classified into the following sections. 1. Component design, modelling and structural integrity, 2. Manufacturing technology, 3. Property evaluation, 4. Alloy development and applications, 5. NDE methods, 6. Corrosion and surface modification. The book commences with articles on component design and structural integrity, thus opening up the areas of challenge for researchers and academia. The articles in the book relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  8. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  9. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  10. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  11. Steele Richardson Olszewski syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree S Gokhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease and its plus syndromes are an important cause of morbidity in the geriatric age group. Its plus syndromes show a myriad of clinical features characterized by progressive symptoms. Here we present a 65-year-old woman with progressive "Parkinsonian-like features," i.e., mask-like face, slowness of all movements and tendency to fall, and difficulty in eye movements, leading to the diagnosis of Steele Richardson Olszewski Syndrome or progressive supranuclear palsy.

  12. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  13. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  14. The bulk composition and leaching properties of electroplating sludge prior/following the solidification/stabilization by calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikulic, Nenad; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Posedi, Mario; Kampic, Stefica; Medunic, Gordana

    2009-10-01

    Eighteen samples of electroplating sludge were taken from three vertical profiles of waste storage pond of the zinc plating facility. Dry matter and organic matter content, pH value, bulk concentrations and leachate composition were determined. A sludge sample with the highest zinc value in the leachate was treated with calcium oxide (10% to 70%) and the obtained solidificate was repeatedly tested. There were found significant variations of all measured parameters among the profiles of untreated waste. Dry matter content varied from 125 to 455 mgg(-1), organic matter varied from 94.3 to 293.9 mgg(-1), and pH value varied from 3.42 to 5.90 (mean 4.34). Iron content ranged from 38.4 to 191.4 mgg(-1) (mean 136 mgg(-1); RSD 0.25), while zinc ranged from 10.9 to 58.2 mgg(-1) (mean 33.4 mgg(-1); RSD 0.38). According to its DIN38414-S4 leachate composition, this material was not suitable for landfilling of inert waste since zinc and nickel mean values were 10 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, and maximum values 27 and 2.5 times higher, respectively, compared to the upper permissible limit. Maximum values of Cr(VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the DIN38414-S4 leachate were 0.183 mgL(-1), 34.085 mgL(-1), 1.052 mgL(-1), 0.829 mgL(-1) and 107.475 mgL(-1)L, respectively. Following the solidification/stabilization procedure with CaO (sample/CaO = 90/10), concentrations of Cr(VI), Fe, Cu and Zn were reduced 92, 44, 66 and 57 times, respectively, compared to the untreated sample. The addition of 50% of CaO into the sludge reduced zinc and nickel concentrations 79 and 45 times, respectively, in the DIN38414-S4 leachate of the solidified waste compared to the original sludge, thereby converting an hazardous waste into the inert material suitable for landfilling or reuse in the construction processes.

  15. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  16. Enhancing the wettability of high aspect-ratio through-silicon vias lined with LPCVD silicon nitride or PE-ALD titanium nitride for void-free bottom-up copper electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; Zeijl, H. van; Wien, W.H.A.; Pham, H.T.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Erwin Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, R.M.C.M. van de; Voogt, F.C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  17. Enhancing the Wettability of High Aspect-Ratio Through-Silicon Vias Lined with LPCVD Silicon Nitride or PE-ALD Titanium Nitride for Void-Free Bottom-Up Copper Electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; van Zeijl, H.; Wien, W. H. A.; Pham, H. T. M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.; R. van de Sanden,; Voogt, F. C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  18. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  19. Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene composite coating on stainless steel as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu. [Laboratory of Fuel Cells, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Ming; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian [Laboratory of Fuel Cells, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Hongfeng; Hou, Zhongjun; Ming, Pingwen [Sunrise Power Co., Ltd., Dalian 116025 (China)

    2008-08-01

    Forming a coating on metals by surface treatment is a good way to get high performance bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In our research, Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was electrodeposited with silver-gilt solution of nicotinic acid by a bi-pulse electroplating power supply on 316 L stainless steel bipolar plate of PEMFC. Surface topography, contact angle, interfacial conductivity and corrosion resistance of the bipolar plate samples were investigated. Results showed that the defects on the Ag-PTFE composite coating are greatly reduced compared with those on the pure Ag coating fabricated under the same condition; and the contact angle of the Ag-PTFE composite coating with water is 114 , which is much bigger than that of the pure Ag coating (73 ). In addition, the interfacial contact resistance of the composite coating stays as low as the pure Ag coating; and the bipolar plate sample with composite coating shows a close corrosion resistance to the pure Ag coating sample in potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests. Coated 316 L stainless steel plate with Ag-PTFE composite coating exhibits well hydrophobic characteristic, less defects, high interfacial conductivity and good corrosion resistance, which shows a great potential of the application in PEMFC. (author)

  20. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  1. Investigation on localized corrosion of 304 stainless steel joints brazed using Sn-plated Ag alloy filler in NaCl aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Li, Shuai; Peng, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Novel AgCuZnSn filler metal with high Sn contents was prepared from BAg50CuZn filler metal by a process of electroplating and thermal diffusion, and the prepared filler metal was applied to induction brazing of 304 stainless steel. The corrosion behavior of the brazed joints was evaluated based on localized corrosion analysis, the morphology of the joints were analyzed by SEM after immersion in a 3.5 vol% NaCl aqueous solution. The results indicated that corrosion groove occurred near the interface between the stainless steel base metal and the brazing seam. A wide range of defects such as holes and cracks appeared on the surface of the base metal, while the brazing seam zone almost no corrosion defects occur. With the increase of corrosion time, the corrosion rates of both the brazing seam and the base metal first exhibited an increasing trend, followed by a decreasing trend, and the corrosion rate of the base metal was slightly greater than that of the brazing seam. The corrosion potential of the brazing seam and 304 stainless steel were -0.7758 V and -0.7863 V, respectively.

  2. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  3. Development of phosphate rock integrated with iron amendment for simultaneous immobilization of Zn and Cr(VI) in an electroplating contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Ding, Zhenliang; Sima, Jingke; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop an amendment for simultaneous immobilization of Zn and Cr(VI) in an abandoned electroplating contaminated soil. Nature phosphate rock was first activated with oxalic acid (O-PR) and then combined with FeSO 4 or zero-valent iron (ZVI) for immobilization of Zn and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Finally, the optimized approach showing the highest immobilization ability in solution was applied in an electroplating contaminated soil. The O-PR combined with FeSO 4 was more effective in simultaneously removing Zn and Cr(VI) than the O-PR integrated with ZVI within the tested solution pH range of 5.5-8.5. Both O-PR with FeSO 4 and with ZVI removed over 95% of Zn from the solution; however, only 42-46% of Cr(VI) was immobilized by O-PR with ZVI, while O-PR with FeSO 4 almost precipitated all Cr(VI). Moreover, there were 75-95% Zn and 95-100% Cr(VI) remaining in the exhausted O-PR with FeSO 4 solid after toxicity characteristic leaching test (TCLP) while the exhausted O-PR with ZVI solid only retained 44-83% Zn and 32-72% Cr(VI). Zinc was immobilized mainly via formation of insoluble Fe-Zn phosphate co-precipitates, while iron-induced reduction of Cr(VI) into stable Cr(OH) 3 or Cr x Fe (1-x) (OH) 3 was responsible for Cr(VI) immobilization. Application of the O-PR integrated with FeSO 4 in the electroplating contaminated soil rapidly reduced the TCLP extractable Zn and Cr(VI) to below the standard limits, with decrease by 50% and 94%, respectively. This study revealed that combination of oxalic acid activated phosphate rock with FeSO 4 could be an effective amendment for remediation of Zn and Cr(VI) contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  5. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  6. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, T.; Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Michel, H.; Lebrun, J.P.; Hertz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution (γ N ) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs

  7. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic ... carbon–manganese or silicon–manganese steels, but stops after a reduction at ... growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration;.

  8. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  9. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manufacture of steel in south India by a crucible process at ... indicates that the production of wootz steel was almost on an industrial scale in ... in an Age of Design marked by ... The Russian Anasoff also studied the process of manufacturing.

  10. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  11. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth

  12. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  13. Electroplating technologies of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Hwnag, Sung Sik; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Dong Jin; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-12-01

    In localization of electrosleeving technique, there are some problems like the following articles. Firstly, Patents published by OHT have claimed Ni-P, Ni-B alloy plating and Mo, Mn Cr, W, Co as a pinning agent. Secondly, alloy platings have many restrictions. There are some method to get alloy plating in spite of the various restrictions. If current density increase above limiting current density in one of the metals, both of the metals discharge at the same time. The addition of surface active agent(sufactant) in the plating solution is one of the methods to get alloy plating. Alloy plating using pulse current easily controls chemical composition and structure of deposit. Ni-Fe alloy plating is known to exhibit anomalous type of plating behavior in which deposition of the less noble metal is favoured. Presence of hypophohphite ion can control the iron codeposition by changing the deposition mechanism. Hypophohphite suppresses the deposition of Fe and also promotes Ni. Composite plating will be considered to improve the strength at the high temperature. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer and suppress the grain growth rate at the high temperature. Addition of particle makes suface roughness high and fracture stress low at high temperature. But, selection of the kinds of particle and control of additives amount overcome the problems above

  14. Cadmium (Tank) Electroplating Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ASTM F519 HE: 75% NFS 200 hrs HRE : 45% NFS 150 hrs Threshold limit greater than /equal to LHE Cd (AMS 2417G) ASETS Defense Focused Workshop (2011...Test Specimens  Reporting Sustained/Threshold load (%NFS), Time to failure. HRE Testing Cd Zn-Ni IVD Al LHE Cd Re-Embrittlement Test Fluids:  DI...Hydrogen Embrittlement/ HRE ASTM F519 A5, Type 1.a.1 Brush Plating ASETS Defense Focused Workshop (2011) Luzmarie G. Santiago Materials Engineer Naval Air

  15. Electroplating offers embrittlement protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Thin copper electrodeposited layer protects metal parts in environments with which they may be incompatible. Originally developed for main engine of Space Shuttle where high strength nickle alloy bellows must operate in high-pressure hydrogen, technique protects nickel and is unaffected by forming process or subsequent heat treatment and preinstallation processing.

  16. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  17. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide semiconductors by a facile co-electroplating-annealing method and formation of ZnO/CuO pn heterojunctions with rectifying behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkdogan, Sunay; Kilic, Bayram

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a unique growth method and demonstrated the growth of CuO and ZnO semiconductor materials and the fabrication of their pn heterojunctions in ambient atmosphere. The pn heterojunctions were constructed using inherently p-type CuO and inherently n-type ZnO materials. Both p- and n-type semiconductors and pn heterojunctions were prepared using a simple but versatile growth method that relies on the transformation of electroplated Cu and Zn metals into CuO and ZnO semiconductors, respectively and is capable of a large-scale production desired in most of the applications. The structural, chemical, optical and electrical properties of the materials and junctions were investigated using various characterization methods and the results show that our growth method, materials and devices are quite promising to be utilized for various applications including but not limited to solar cells, gas/humidity sensors and photodetectors.

  19. Ternary blends containing demercurated lighting phosphor and MSWI fly ash as high-performance binders for stabilizing and recycling electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Wu, Chia-Teng; Wu, Chang-En; Hsieh, Lin-Huey; Li, Chang-Chien; Lain, Chi-Yuan; Chu, Wei

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the solidification and stabilization of electroplating sludge treated with a high-performance binder made from portland type-I cement, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, and lighting phosphor powder (called as cement-fly ash-phosphor binder, CFP). The highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the CFP-treated paste was 816 kg/cm(2) at a ratio of cement to fly ash to lighting phosphor powder of 90:5:5; the strength of this composition also fulfilled the requirement of a high-strength concrete (>460 kg/cm(2) at 28 days). The CFP-stabilized sludge paste samples passed the Taiwanese EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test and, therefore, could be used either as a building material or as a controlled low-strength material, depending on the sludge-to-CFP binder ratio.

  20. Facile Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film by One-Step Pulsed Hybrid Electrophoretic and Electroplating Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Wei; Thomas, Stuart R.; Hsu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Ze; Wang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Zhiming M.; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The use of costly and rare metals such as indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells has motivated research into the use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) as a suitable replacement due to its non-toxicity, abundance of compositional elements and excellent optical properties (1.5 eV direct band gap and absorption coefficient of ~104 cm−1). In this study, we demonstrate a one-step pulsed hybrid electrodeposition method (PHED), which combines electrophoretic and electroplating deposition to deposit uniform CZTS thin-films. Through careful analysis and optimization, we are able to demonstrate CZTS solar cells with the VOC, JSC, FF and η of 350 mV, 3.90 mA/cm2, 0.43 and 0.59%, respectively. PMID:26902556

  1. Biosynthesis of Cr(III) nanoparticles from electroplating wastewater using chromium-resistant Bacillus subtilis and its cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakalakshmi, A; Janaki, V; Shanthi, K; Kamala-Kannan, S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize Cr(III) nanoparticles using wastewater from electroplating industries and chromium-resistant Bacillus subtilis. Formation of Cr(III) nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at 300 nm. The size of the nanoparticles varied from 4 to 50 nm and energy dispersive spectroscopy profile shows strong Cr peak approximately at 4.45 and 5.2 keV. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized Cr(III) nanoparticle was studied using HEK 293 cells, and the cell viability was found to decrease with increasing concentration of Cr(III) nanoparticles.

  2. Direct production of carbon nanofibers decorated with Cu2O by thermal chemical vapor deposition on Ni catalyst electroplated on a copper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Vesaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  Carbon nanofibers (CNFs decorated with Cu2O particles were grown on a Ni catalyst layer deposited on a Cu substrate by thermal. chemical vapor deposition from liquid petroleum gas. Ni catalyst nanoparticles with different sizes were produced in an electroplating system at 35˚C. These nanoparticles provide the nucleation sites for CNF growth, removing the need for a buffer layer. High temperature surface segregation of the Cu substrate into the Ni catalyst layer and its exposition to O2 at atmospheric environment, during the CNFs growth, lead to the production of CNFs decorated with Cu2O particles. The surface morphology of the Ni catalyst films and grown CNFs over it was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of CNFs. The selected area electron diffraction pattern and electron diffraction studies show that these CNFs were decorated with Cu2O nanoparticles.

  3. N-type In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ thin films prepared by gas chalcogenization of metallic electroplated indium: Photoelectrochemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, J; Ortega, J

    1988-08-01

    Chalcogenization of electroplated metallic indium films onto Ti substrates has been carried out in a flowing stream of H/sub 2/S at about 350/sup 0/C for 1 h with a pretreatment of 3 h at 130/sup 0/C. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that ..beta..-In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ thin films were grown with a good crystalline quality. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the electrodes was accomplished in aqueous polysulphide solutions, and a energy gap of 2.00 eV was obtained. The flatband potential, V/sub fb/, in the same polysulphide couple was -1.0 V versus SCE. Behaviour of the thin film photocurrent with time was checked, and a photocorrosion reaction proposed.

  4. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  5. Magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance of FeCoNi/CuBe electroplated tubes with different features of field-annealing induced magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, R.; Chlenova, A.A.; Volchkov, S.O. [Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Lenin Ave. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Lenin Ave. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco BCMaterials (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The effect of field annealing (in direct (DC) or alternating current (AC) field) on the structure, magnetic properties and giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) of CuBe/ Fe{sub 19}Co{sub 17}Ni{sub 64} electroplated tubes was studied. The field and frequency dependences of total impedance and its real part were comparatively analyzed together with magnetization processes features. The GMI sensitivity with respect to an applied field was the subject of special attention in view of possible applications of these materials in small magnetic field sensors. The maximum GMI ratio depends strongly on the heat treatments. The DC field annealing leads to the highest total impedance GMI ratio (ΔZ/Z=250%) and real part of the total impedance GMI ratio (ΔR/R=640%), compared to as-cast and AC field annealed samples. The external field response of DC annealed samples presented a single peak GMI response as a consequence of a strong contribution of the longitudinal effective anisotropy. At the same time, the maximum obtained sensitivity of 13.5%/Oe for DC case is much lower compared to the highest sensitivity values obtained for as-prepared (28.6%/Oe) and DC field annealed (22.0%/Oe) tubes for the low frequency of 2.5 MHz. The weak dependence of ΔZ/Z ratio in the case of AC field annealed samples in the high frequency range is an important advantage for particular sensor applications. - Highlights: • CuBe/FeCoNi tubes were fabricated by electroplating. • The effect of field annealing on the structure, magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance was studied. • The maximum magnetoimpedance ( MI) ratio depends strongly on the heat treatments. • The DC field annealing leads to the highest total impedance MI ratio. • Transformation from one- to two-peaks MI curves was observed in the DC field annealed tubes.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite oxide formed by cathodic electroplating and anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joo-Hee; Kim, Tae-Yoo; Kim, Nam-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Hyoung; Park, Eun-Mi [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Su-Jeong, E-mail: suhsj@skku.ac.kr [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Materials and Process Research Center for IT, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We fabricate Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al film for high performance thin film capacitor. > The optimum condition of electrolyte composition will coat NbO{sub x} on Al without corrosion of Al during the cathodic electroplating. > Increasing annealing temperature will form Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} crystalline. > The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer will form between Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer and metal Al after anodizing and the thin film capacitor with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al improve dielectric properties. - Abstract: Al foil was coated with niobium oxide by cathodic electroplating and anodized in a neutral boric acid solution to achieve high capacitance in a thin film capacitor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the niobium oxide layer on Al to be a hydroxide-rich amorphous phase. The film was crystalline and had stoichiometric stability after annealing at temperatures up to 600 deg. C followed by anodizing at 500 V, and the specific capacitance of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite oxide was approximately 27% higher than that of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer. The capacitance was quite stable to the resonance frequency. Overall, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite oxide film is a suitable material for thin film capacitors.

  7. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  8. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  9. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  10. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  11. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  12. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  13. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  14. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  15. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  16. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  17. [The Steel factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R

    1997-01-01

    Mice bearing mutations at either of two loci, dominant White spotting(W) or Steel(Sl), exhibit development defects in hematopoietic, melanocytic and germ cells. Genetics studies have shown that the SI locus encodes the Steel factor (SF), which is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, the product of the W locus. SF is synthesized in membrane-bound form and can be processed to produce a soluble form. Cell-cell interaction is important in the production of normal blood cells in vivo and in vitro and in the cellular expansion of leukemic cells. We discuss here how SF decreases the requirements in cell interaction for blast colony formation in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and the presence of membrane-bound SF possibly contributes to the density-dependent growth of the AML blasts. We explain that SF is mainly a survival factor for hematopoietic cells, of little proliferative effect, which maintains CD34+ hematopoietic cells in an undifferentiated state. These properties would potentially allow the maintenance of hematopoietic cells in culture for the purpose of marrow purging or gene therapy. The activation of the c-kit signal transduction pathway may play a significant role in the development of many types of non-hematological malignancies by disrupting normal cell-cell interactions and allowing the growth of cancer cell populations. In summary, the properties of the SF indicate it has a role for survival signals during the process of normal differentiation, AML proliferation and in the maintenance of many c-kit+ tumors.

  18. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  19. A method for determination of X-ray elastic constants of materials showing non-linear sin2ψ diagrams and its application to Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the method and the experiment for the determination of the x-ray elastic constants of Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. For this material, the sin 2 ψ method is not adequate to use because this material shows severely curved sin 2 ψ diagrams. Therefore, a new method developed by the authors was explained first. This new method is effective for materials showing nonlinear sin 2 ψ diagrams. Secondly, the experiment was made on the application of this method to the Zn-Ni-alloy electroplate. And it was found out that the experimental data agreed well to the theory of this method. As a result, the following values were obtained as the x-ray elastic constants of the sample measured: (1+ν)/E=8.44 TPa -1 ν/E=2.02 TPa -1 (author)

  20. Austenitic stainless steel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Emmons, J.S.; Michaels, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical techniques applied to ultrasonic waveforms obtained from inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds are described. Experimental results obtained from a variety of geometric and defect reflectors are presented. Specifically, frequency analyses parameters, such as simple moments of the power spectrum, cross-correlation techniques, and adaptive learning network analysis, all represent improvements over conventional time domain analysis of ultrasonic waveforms. Results for each of these methods are presented, and the overall inspection difficulties of austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed