WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic reading room

  1. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

  2. 22 CFR 171.4 - Electronic reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic reading room. 171.4 Section 171.4... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.4 Electronic reading room. The Department has established a... public reading room. This site also contains information on accessing records under the FOIA and the...

  3. 32 CFR 296.6 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 296.6 Section 296.6 National... Reading room. (a) The NRO shall provide a reading room equipped with hard copy and electronic records as required in the “Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996”. The NRO Reading Room is located...

  4. 39 CFR 3004.12 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 3004.12 Section 3004.12 Postal... Reading room. (a) The Commission maintains a public reading room at its offices (901 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20268-0001) and an electronic reading room at http://www.prc.gov. The public...

  5. 32 CFR 701.6 - Reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading rooms. 701.6 Section 701.6 National... Reading rooms. The FOIA requires that (a)(2) records created on or after 1 November 1996, be made available electronically (starting 1 November 1997) as well as in hard copy, in the FOIA reading room for...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading rooms... Freedom of Information Act § 1301.2 Public reading rooms. TVA maintains a public electronic reading room through its Web site at http://www.tva.gov. This electronic reading room contains the records that the...

  7. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  8. 32 CFR 701.35 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 701.35 Section 701.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.35 Reading room. Location where (a)(2...

  9. 19 CFR 103.1 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading rooms. 103.1 Section 103.1 Customs... reading rooms. Each office listed below will maintain a public reading room or public reading area where... Angeles Street, Los Angeles, California 90012. The reading rooms are open to the public during regular...

  10. 45 CFR 612.2 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public reading room. 612.2 Section 612.2 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.2 Public reading room. (a) The Foundation maintains a public reading room... reading room records. (b) Information about FOIA and Privacy at NSF and copies of frequently requested...

  11. 22 CFR 303.5 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public reading room. 303.5 Section 303.5 Foreign... Public reading room. (a) The Peace Corps will maintain a public reading room at its headquarters at 1111... records will be made available in the public reading room: (1) All final public opinions, including...

  12. 13 CFR 102.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading rooms. 102.2... Disclosure of Information § 102.2 Public reading rooms. (a) SBA maintains a public reading room in the... described in paragraph (a) of this section are available in the SBA Online Reading Room at http://www.sba...

  13. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under the...

  14. 45 CFR 1602.5 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public reading room. 1602.5 Section 1602.5 Public... DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1602.5 Public reading room. (a) The Corporation will maintain a public reading room its office at 3333 K St. NW., Washington, DC, 20007. This room...

  15. 32 CFR 806.11 - FOIA reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FOIA reading rooms. 806.11 Section 806.11... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.11 FOIA reading rooms. Each FOIA office will arrange for a reading room where the public may inspect releasable records. You do not need to co-locate the reading...

  16. 36 CFR 1600.2 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public reading room. 1600.2... Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 1600.2 Public reading room. (a) The Foundation maintains a public reading room that contains the records that the FOIA requires to be made regularly available for...

  17. 25 CFR 517.2 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public reading room. 517.2 Section 517.2 Indians NATIONAL... PROCEDURES § 517.2 Public reading room. Records that are required to be maintained by the Commission shall be available for public inspection and copying at 1441 L Street, NW., Suite 9100 Washington, DC. Reading room...

  18. 12 CFR 505.2 - Public Reading Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Reading Room. 505.2 Section 505.2 Banks....2 Public Reading Room. OTS will make materials available for review on an ad hoc basis when..., or you may visit the Public Reading Room at 1700 G Street, NW., by appointment only. (Please identify...

  19. 40 CFR 1601.12 - Public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public reading room. 1601.12 Section... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Administration § 1601.12 Public reading room. (a) The CSB maintains a public reading room that contains the records that the FOIA requires to be made...

  20. 29 CFR 70.4 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public reading rooms. 70.4 Section 70.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS General § 70.4 Public reading rooms... this section are available through public reading rooms, and, to the extent indicated in this paragraph...

  1. 39 CFR 265.5 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public reading rooms. 265.5 Section 265.5 Postal... reading rooms. The Library of the Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW, Washington, DC 20260-1641, serves as public reading room for the materials which are listed in paragraphs (a)(2), (3), (4...

  2. 33 CFR 52.81 - Reading room and index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room and index. 52.81... FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Public Access to Decisions § 52.81 Reading room and index. After deleting only so much personal information as is necessary to prevent an unwarranted...

  3. 32 CFR 724.812 - Responsibilities of the Reading Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that cannot be accomplished. (b) Correspondence relating to matters under the cognizance of the Reading... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Reading Room. 724.812... DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Procedures of Naval Discharge Review Board § 724.812 Responsibilities of the Reading...

  4. Federal Reading Rooms for Risk Management Plans (RMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Rooms, listed here by state, are open to the public by either appointment or walk-in. You may access Off-Site Consequence Analysis (scenarios) portions of RMPs, and take notes but not remove or reproduce materials.

  5. 28 CFR 16.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... quarterly, with respect to newly included records. (b) The Department maintains public reading rooms or... Naturalization Service—425 I Street, NW., Washington, DC; (9) Office of Justice Programs—in Room 5430, 810...

  6. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and Drug Administration operates two public reading rooms. The Freedom of Information Staff's Public Reading Room is...

  7. Policies and Services in the Reading Room | Dunlop | ESARBICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and scanning of photographs and documents and in the use of portable digital devices for copying of photographs and documents. Further study is necessary on the use of gloves in the reading room and the use of personal scanners and digital cameras. A more in-depth study is necessary in order to standardise charges

  8. Data and Extended Functions of a Reading Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading is the main way in which people acquire information; the function of a paper information reading room is to understand public habits, create an environment, and make a "readers' space" to link users with information. In English, the word "information" is used to indicate the Chinese word " ." This word has several meanings in English: news, intelligence, knowledge, report, speech, lecture, notice, service platform, inform, tell, [computer] information. It is clear that "information" is a word with a wide range of connotations. According to Wang (1986, "information is a signal from the universe that is combined with a media substance. Information is from a substance, but it is not the substance where it is from. It is a new substance, a combination of medium and signal. Such change occurred in the twinkling of an eye" (Wang, 2005. In this paper, we discuss the meaning of information and present ideas about how paper-oriented reading rooms have become digital and how digital reading rooms can be extended to cybercafés, TV, radios, and telephones.

  9. 6 CFR Appendix B to Part 5 - Public Reading Rooms of the Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Reading Rooms of the Department of... Department of Homeland Security maintain public reading rooms as follows: 1. Former components of the... Security) does not maintain a conventional public reading room. Records that are required to be in the...

  10. Supported Text in Electronic Reading Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark A.; Anderson-Inman, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Defines "electronic books," and shares examples of prior research on the use of such environments to improve the reading fluency and comprehension of students with reading difficulties. Presents a taxonomy of the types of supportive resources that have emerged from efforts to design and research the use of electronic books, and presents…

  11. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  12. 36 CFR 1250.12 - What types of records are available in NARA's FOIA Reading Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....html. (d) For paper copies of the index to these materials write the NARA FOIA Officer at the address... available in NARA's FOIA Reading Room? 1250.12 Section 1250.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... records are available in NARA's FOIA Reading Room? (a) NARA makes available for public inspection and...

  13. 10 CFR 1703.103 - Requests for board records available through the public reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... thereof; and (11) Annual reports to Congress in which the Board's operations during a past fiscal year are... reading room. 1703.103 Section 1703.103 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1703.103 Requests for board records available through the public reading room. (a) A...

  14. 5 CFR 2604.201 - Public reading room facility and Web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURE REPORTS FOIA Public Reading Room Facility and Web Site; Index Identifying Information for the... FOIA and Public Records Guide and OGE's annual FOIA reports, are also available via OGE's Web site... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading room facility and Web site...

  15. Reading Rooms of Russian Province in 1920s as Transmitters of Soviet Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim P. Nikolashin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article features regional aspects of reading room activities in the 1920s as transmitters of Soviet values. Authors analyze forms and methods of work of this type of socio-cultural institutions, study specifics of relationship of countrymen. The conducted analysis allows speaking about positive impact by reading rooms on evolution of a country life.

  16. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its reading...

  17. PEOPLE PERCEPTION TOWARDS PUBLIC READING ROOM SERVICE OF CITY GARDEN IN SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surabaya as Literacy City has been starting in National Education Day 2 May 2014 and also rising their features and facility like Public reading room, Library and Mobile Library. And we also Concern with some worst Realty about literacy System in Surabaya, such as had been Close some library in Shoping Center in Surabaya, like in Cito Mall, Royal Plaza and Kapas Krampung Plaza cause some problem in operasional System have causing other problem can disturb many achievement of Surabaya as Literacy City. We have should to continue it for another Public Reading Room in Surabaya can’t be like another Closed public reading room. And we must to minimalize it with Resources learning  through the efforts of reviewing public reading room of the service as an essential element in an information centre. In order to show better utilization of the future for the public after the assessment is the primary focus of our study was to determine the extent to which the services at the general public reading room so that the future can be used as a positive response for public reading room. The method used is quantitative approach with the method of data collection in the form of an explanatory through observation, literature, and the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents in all four public reading room in park city of Surabaya. Overall from 4 to place our study showed that the frequency of public perception in total into the bad category based on indicators of Vincent theory who leads a balanced way of internal and external factors. It shows that the public reading room services that already exist is still considered very less than the maximum and the indication of the need for an increase in the promotion, facilities and innovation program for the future.

  18. The Body Not in the Room: Reading Gossip as Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bush

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It can be useful to return to some fundamentals when thinking about what gives gossip its power, whether words spoken aloud or words that spread and leave their indelible traces throughout the digital realm. As a novelist and storyteller, I’d like to employ some lines of thought about what we do when we read fiction in order to consider gossip as an act of creative reading. Gossip, like a gift, depends on being received by someone, is defined by the intention to be received. Current fMRI studies have shown the empathetic capacities generated in individuals after reading works of fiction. I want to consider what happens when we imagine something about someone else, and how the engaged creativity of the recipient is essential to the act of gossiping.

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of Primary Sources during Close Reading in Social Studies: A Case Study of Middle School Resource Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using primary sources to support close reading in social studies among students with disabilities in grade 7 middle school resource rooms. The setting is a middle school in a suburban school district located in Western New York. Two resource rooms of 10 students with reading or writing difficulties were…

  20. Media discourse on Split reading rooms and libraries in Dalmatian periodicals (1862 - 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the media discourse on reading rooms and libraries as a historical phenomenon that describes the role and place of reading rooms and libraries in Dalmatia in the 60ties of the 19th century and World War I. The papers in Dalmatian newspapers from that period, as materialized forms of discourse, answer many important questions related to the history of Croatian librarianship: how were the reading rooms and libraries established and what crucial concept determined their role and place in a particular period in history. The paper presents the historical concept, conditions in which the discourse occurred, discourse types and functions, conceptual structure, and transformation processes towards new discourse practices. The discourse analysis has shown that the reading rooms and libraries are cultural artifacts strongly influenced by the social context. Two stages in the development of discourse have been identified: in the first stage the discourse takes a considerable role in metaphorical games and construction of mythical structures - ethnic identity, national unity and language community. On the conceptual level the role of reading rooms and libraries is recognized in the deconstruction of traditional relations - they are a territorially separate, exclusive place of symbolic production, creation of new social structures and cultural values. In that context, the activities of libraries are underrepresented compared to other activities of reading rooms. The second stage, which started in the 90ies of the 19th century, is marked by discourse multiplication, differentiation of library organization structure and function from other functions of culture, and the strong influence of new discourse. The media discourse presents the change of conceptual structures, in which the role and place of libraries is interpreted in the context of the role of knowledge and education in meeting society goals in the situation of social

  1. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  2. Reading Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Robin Hood foundation has teamed with architects to ensure that New York City's 650 schools have comprehensive and modern libraries. Offers brief descriptions of the first six library designs resulting from this public-private partnership. (EV)

  3. Increasing operating room efficiency through electronic medical record analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaallah, A F; Elzamzamy, O M; Phelps, A L; Ranganthan, P; Vallejo, M C

    2016-05-01

    We used electronic medical record (EMR) analysis to determine errors in operating room (OR) time utilisation. Over a two year period EMR data of 44,503 surgical procedures was analysed for OR duration, on-time, first case, and add-on time performance, within 19 surgical specialties. Maximal OR time utilisation at our institution could have saved over 302,620 min or 5,044 hours of OR efficiency over a two year period. Most specialties (78.95%) had inaccurately scheduled procedure times and therefore used the OR more than their scheduled allotment time. Significant differences occurred between the mean scheduled surgical durations (101.38 ± 87.11 min) and actual durations (108.18 ± 102.27 min; P efficiency and increase OR time utilisation.

  4. Computer modeling and design of diagnostic workstations and radiology reading rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2000-05-01

    We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.

  5. Experience using radio frequency laptops to access the electronic medical record in exam rooms.

    OpenAIRE

    Dworkin, L. A.; Krall, M.; Chin, H.; Robertson, N.; Harris, J.; Hughes, J.

    1999-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente, Northwest, evaluated the use of laptop computers to access our existing comprehensive Electronic Medical Record in exam rooms via a wireless radiofrequency (RF) network. Eleven of 22 clinicians who were offered the laptops successfully adopted their use in the exam room. These clinicians were able to increase their exam room time with the patient by almost 4 minutes (25%), apparently without lengthening their overall work day. Patient response to exam room computing was ove...

  6. Do women read poster displays on breast cancer in waiting rooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Sajadian, Akram

    2004-12-01

    This study reports data from a survey carried out in the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer (ICBC) to examine whether women read poster displays in waiting rooms and whether they would have any suggestions to improve posters and thus meet their informational needs. Five specially designed posters were displayed in waiting rooms in the ICBC. The content of posters was related to risk factors, early detection, signs and symptoms, and prevention of breast cancer. During a 3 month period a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all attendees and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Overall, 850 women were given the questionnaire and 777 completed questionnaires (91 per cent) were returned. The mean age of the women was 37.0 years (SD = 10.7) and they mostly had secondary education (47 per cent). In all, 691 women (86 per cent) reported that they had seen the posters and 620 (80 per cent) said that they had read the displays. The vast majority of the women reported that posters were readable (89 per cent) and understandable (80 per cent). However, 25 per cent of the respondents indicated that materials on the displays created more questions rather than answering their questions and some reported that they became upset (26 per cent) or felt anxiety (42 per cent) while reading the posters. Finally, 218 women (28 per cent) had suggestions to improve posters, of whom 110 (50 per cent) believed that the posters should be simpler. The study findings suggest that despite the limitations of posters as a means of health communication, their use in public places may be useful but consideration should be given to the content of the poster displays to prevent anxiety.

  7. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Henry L; Roth, Daniel B; Fine, Howard F; Prenner, Jonathan L; Modi, Kunjal K; Feuer, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims . To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods . A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF), iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF), Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM) and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA). Results . Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0), iPad2 at 12PF (209.1), Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3), Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7), and printed book at 12PF (176.8). Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions . Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  8. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF, iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF, Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA. Results. Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0, iPad2 at 12PF (209.1, Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3, Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7, and printed book at 12PF (176.8. Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions. Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  9. Readers and formation of citizenships in Mexico. Observations about the National Program of Reading Rooms of Conaculta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vizcarra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on the current state of the Reading Rooms in Mexico. It comes from a diagnosis made by the Centre for Cultural Research–Museum of the Autonomous University of Baja California, during the year 2009, at the request of the National Council for Culture and the Arts (Conaculta. The primary objective was to develop an exercise for the identification, characterization and analysis of certain constituent aspects of the Reading Rooms in the country, in order to establish more effective cultural development strategies and plans. That is, who are the promoters of reading in Mexico, where are located, what are conditions engaged in their work and what are their experiences in this area. The text focuses on the problem of the mediators of rooms, users, and the contexts in which these actors operate.

  10. The Effects of Reading Strategy Instruction via Electronic Storybooks on EFL Young Readers' Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu-Ju; Chen, Shu-Hui; Wey, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Shu-Chu

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of web-based applications and the use of multimedia in school make learning and teaching through the Internet a popular method in education (Ferdig, 2005). To keep in line with the trend, the purpose of the study was to explore the effects of reading strategy instruction via electronic storybooks on EFL elementary school students'…

  11. Adoption of an integrated radiology reading room within a urologic oncology clinic: initial experience in facilitating clinician consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S; Recht, Michael P

    2014-05-01

    The authors describe their initial experience in implementing an integrated radiology reading room within a urologic oncology clinic, including the frequency and nature of clinician consultations and the perceived impact on patient management by clinicians. A radiology reading room was established within an office-based urologic oncology clinic in proximity to the surgeon's work area. A radiologist was present in this reading room for a 3-hour shift each day. The frequency and nature of consultations during these shifts were recorded. Also, the clinic's staff completed a survey assessing perceptions of the impact of the integrated reading room on patient management. One hundred two consultations occurred during 57 included dates (average, 1.8 consultations per shift): 52% for review of external cases brought in by patients on discs, 43% for review of internal cases, and 5% for direct review by the radiologist of imaging with patients. The maximum number of consultations during a single shift was 8. All of the clinic's urologists indicated that >90% of consultations benefited patient care. The clinicians indicated tendencies to view consultations as affecting management in the majority of cases, to be more likely to seek consultation for outside imaging when the radiologist was on site, and to be less likely to repeat outside imaging when the radiologist was on site. The integrated reading room within the clinic has potential to improve the quality of care, for instance by facilitating increased review of outside imaging studies and thereby potentially reducing duplicate ordering and by enabling occasional direct image review with patients by radiologists. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoherence Assisted Single Electron Trapping at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalawany, Ahmed; Leuenberger, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we theoretically investigate electron transport in heterostructure semiconductor nanowire (NW). We develop a new mechanism to trap an electron in a quantum dot (QD) by means of decoherence. There are six QDs in the NW. Bias voltage (Vb) is applied across the NW and gate voltage (Vg) is applied to the auxiliary QD to control single charge tunneling. The single electron dynamics along the NW is calculated by means of the generalized master equation based on the tight binding model taking into account electron LO phonon interaction (ELOPI) and thermal broadening inside the QDs. It is shown that the decoherence, which is in the pico-second (ps) regime, speeds up the trapping of the electron in the central QD with probability of 70% in less than 2 ps. Our results can be used for the implementation of high temperature single photon source (SPS) or single electron transistor (SET). We acknowledge support from NSF (Grant No. ECCS-0725514), DARPA/MTO (Grant No. HR0011-08-1-0059), NSF (Grant No. ECCS-0901784), AFOSR (Grant No. FA9550-09-1-0450), and NSF (Grant No. ECCS-1128597).

  13. Are sound abatement measures necessary in the cytology reading room? A study of auditory distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, A; Watt, A; Perham, N

    2017-09-07

    Listening to music and other auditory material during microscopy work is common practice among cytologists. While many cytologists would claim several benefits of such activity, research in other fields suggests that it might adversely affect diagnostic performance. Using a cross-modal distraction paradigm, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory stimulation on the visual interpretation of cell images. Following initial training, 34 participants undertook cell interpretation tests under four auditory conditions (liked music, disliked music, speech and silence) in a counterbalanced repeated-measures study. Error rate, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, criterion and response time were measured for each condition. There was no significant effect of auditory stimulation on the accuracy or speed with which cell images were interpreted, mirroring the results of a previous visual distraction study. To the extent that the experiment reflects clinical practice, listening to music or other forms of auditory material whilst undertaking microscopy duties is unlikely to be a source of distraction in the cytopathology reading room. From a cognitive perspective, the results are consistent with the notion that high focal-task engagement may have blocked any attentional capture the sound may otherwise have produced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  15. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  16. Room temperature 2D electron gas at the (001)-SrTiO3 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara; Mathieu, Claire; Copie, Olivier; Feyer, Vitaliy; Schneider, Claus M.; Barrett, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Functional oxides and phenomena such as a 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces represent potential technological breakthroughs for post-CMOS electronics. Non-invasive techniques are required to study the surface chemistry and electronic structure, underlying their often unique electrical properties. The sensitivity of photoemission electron microscopy to chemistry and electronic structure makes it an invaluable tool for probing the near surface region of microscopic regions and domains of functional materials. We present results demonstrating a room temperature 2DEG at the (001)-SrTiO3 surface. The 2DEG is switched on by soft X-ray irradiation.

  17. Critical reading of a text through its electronic supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O’Halloran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A by-product of new social media platforms is an abundant textual record of engagements – billions of words across the world-wide-web in, for example, discussion forums, blogs and wiki discussion tabs. Many of these engagements consist of commentary on a particular text and can thus be regarded as supplements to these texts. The larger purpose of this article is to flag the utility value of this electronic supplementarity for critical reading by highlighting how it can reveal particular meanings that the text being responded to can reasonably be said to marginalise and / or repress. Given the potentially very large size of social media textual product, knowing how to explore these supplements with electronic text analysis software is essential. To illustrate the above, I focus on how the content of online discussion forums, explored through electronic text analysis software, can be used to assist critical reading of the texts which initiate them. The paper takes its theoretical orientations from the textual intervention work of Rob Pope together with themes in the work of the philosopher, Jacques Derrida.

  18. Gargamelle in the West Area - control room for the external electronic detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Four electronic detectors complementing Gargamelle were installed in 1977, among them the external muon identifier (EMI), consisting of two arrays of multiwire proportional chambers separated by an iron wall (see Annual Report 1977 p. 84). The photo shows the control room close to the West Gargamelle Hall (Bld. 185).

  19. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the ... N C Mohapatra2. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  20. A 2.5-2.7 THz Room Temperature Electronic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Alain; Mehdi, Imran; Lin, Robert; Siles, Jose Vicente; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich; Bertrand, Thomas; Ward, John

    2011-01-01

    We report on a room temperature 2.5 to 2.7 THz electronic source based on frequency multipliers. The source utilizes a cascade of three frequency multipliers with W-band power amplifiers driving the first stage multiplier. Multiple-chip multipliers are utilized for the two initial stages to improve the power handling capability and a sub-micron anode is utilized for the final stage tripler. Room temperature measurements indicate that the source can put out a peak power of about 14 microwatts with more than 4 microwatts in the 2.5 to 2.7 THz range.

  1. [Design and Implementation of a Mobile Operating Room Information Management System Based on Electronic Medical Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baozhen; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Xianwen

    2015-06-01

    A mobile operating room information management system with electronic medical record (EMR) is designed to improve work efficiency and to enhance the patient information sharing. In the operating room, this system acquires the information from various medical devices through the Client/Server (C/S) pattern, and automatically generates XML-based EMR. Outside the operating room, this system provides information access service by using the Browser/Server (B/S) pattern. Software test shows that this system can correctly collect medical information from equipment and clearly display the real-time waveform. By achieving surgery records with higher quality and sharing the information among mobile medical units, this system can effectively reduce doctors' workload and promote the information construction of the field hospital.

  2. Room-temperature gas sensing through electronic coupling between tin oxide nanocrystal and carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.; Ocola, L.; Chen, J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2009-01-01

    A new gas-sensing platform for low-concentration gases (NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO) comprises discrete SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals uniformly distributed on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The resulting hybrid nanostructures are highly sensitive, even at room temperature, because their gas sensing abilities rely on electron transfer between the nanocrystals and the CNTs.

  3. High-energy electron-induced damage production at room temperature in aluminum-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. W.; Cheng, L. J.; Jaworowski, A.; Karins, J. P.; Lee, Y. H.; Lindstroem, L.; Mooney, P. M.; Oehrlen, G.; Wang, K. L.

    1979-01-01

    DLTS and EPR measurements are reported on aluminum-doped silicon that was irradiated at room temperature with high-energy electrons. Comparisons are made to comparable experiments on boron-doped silicon. Many of the same defects observed in boron-doped silicon are also observed in aluminum-doped silicon, but several others were not observed, including the aluminum interstitial and aluminum-associated defects. Damage production modeling, including the dependence on aluminum concentration, is presented.

  4. Once upon a Time: Parent-Child Dialogue and Storybook Reading in the Electronic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Mahajan, Neha; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Collins, Molly Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Early experiences with books predict later reading success, and an interactive shared reading style called "dialogic reading" is especially beneficial to emergent literacy. Electronic console (EC) books, CD-rom books, and e-book apps are designed to teach preschoolers preliteracy skills, but research has yet to systematically explore the…

  5. The Impact of Electronic Educational Technology on Ninth Grade At-Risk Reading Students: A Quantitative Investigation of Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Darcel

    2010-01-01

    Over 50% of American public school students read below average literacy levels. Recent research suggests that oral and print-based high school curriculum instruction require an infusion of electronic educational technology (EET), such as computer programs, online instruction, electronic thesaurus, and other devices, to better serve student need…

  6. Room scatter effects in Total Skin Electron Irradiation: Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Borzov, Egor; Daniel, Shahar; Bar-Deroma, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Total Skin Electron Irradiation (TSEI) is a complex technique which usually involves the use of large electron fields and the dual-field approach. In this situation, many electrons scattered from the treatment room floor are produced. However, no investigations of the effect of scattered electrons in TSEI treatments have been reported. The purpose of this work was to study the contribution of floor scattered electrons to skin dose during TSEI treatment using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. All MC simulations were performed with the EGSnrc code. Influence of beam energy, dual-field angle, and floor material on the contribution of floor scatter was investigated. Spectrum of the scattered electrons was calculated. Measurements of dose profile were performed in order to verify MC calculations. Floor scatter dependency on the floor material was observed (at 20 cm from the floor, scatter contribution was about 21%, 18%, 15%, and 12% for iron, concrete, PVC, and water, respectively). Although total dose profiles exhibited slight variation as functions of beam energy and dual-field angle, no dependence of the floor scatter contribution on the beam energy or dual-field angle was found. The spectrum of the scattered electrons was almost uniform between a few hundred KeV to 4 MeV, and then decreased linearly to 6 MeV. For the TSEI technique, dose contribution due to the electrons scattered from the room floor may be clinically significant and should be taken into account during design and commissioning phases. MC calculations can be used for this task. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. 77 FR 55813 - Transition of DOE-ID Public Reading Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Library at 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401, beginning September 1, 2012. Access to documents will also be electronically accessible through the World Wide Web. For direction in accessing documents electronically through the World Wide Web, please refer to the Idaho Operations FOIA Web site...

  8. Room-Temperature-Processable Wire-Templated Nanoelectrodes for Flexible and Transparent All-Wire Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Lee, Yeongjun; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-04-25

    Sophisticated preparation of arbitrarily long conducting nanowire electrodes on a large area is a significant requirement for development of transparent nanoelectronics. We report a position-customizable and room-temperature-processable metallic nanowire (NW) electrode array using aligned NW templates and a demonstration of transparent all-NW-based electronic applications by simple direct-printing. Well-controlled electroless-plating chemistry on a polymer NW template provided a highly conducting Au NW array with a very low resistivity of 7.5 μΩ cm (only 3.4 times higher than that of bulk Au), high optical transmittance (>90%), and mechanical bending stability. This method enables fabrication of all-NW-based electronic devices on various nonplanar surfaces and flexible plastic substrates. Our approach facilitates realization of advanced future electronics.

  9. Re-thinking Reading in the Context of a New Wave of Electronic Reading Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Andreas

    We are currently witnessing a new wave of digital reading devices that will probably significantly change the way we read and publish. This is not the first digital revolution of aspects of cultural production and perception. This paper compares the previous digital revolutions of the music, film and publishing industries and attempts a prognosis of coming changes in the way we will work with digital texts. As a conclusion a new notion of interface design for the emerging reading ecology is proposed.

  10. Enhanced room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of the dilute bismuthide InGaBiAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmo, Pernell; Zhong, Yujun; Attia, Peter; Bomberger, Cory; Cheaito, Ramez; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Zide, Joshua

    2012-11-01

    We report room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of Si-doped In0.52Ga0.48BiyAs1-y with varying Bi concentrations. These films were grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that low Bi concentrations are optimal in improving the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric power factor, possibly due to the surfactant effects of bismuth. We observed a reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing Bi concentration, which is expected because of alloy scattering. We report a peak ZT of 0.23 at 300 K.

  11. Parent-Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  12. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children. PMID:28559858

  13. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Strouse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures and three-dimensional (replica objects formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  14. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  15. Nanostructured Ferrite Based Electronic Nose Sensitive to Ammonia at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. GAWAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Manganese and Nickel doped Zinc Ferrite powder (Mn0.3Ni0.3Zn0.4Fe2O4 was synthesized by autocatalytic thermal decomposition technique. The average crystallite size in the material powder was found to be of 10 – 13 nm. Characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction studies, Transmission electron microscopy, Infra-Red spectroscopy, etc, were employed to study the average particle size, phase and composition of the ferrite. Thick films of Mn0.3Ni0.3Zn0.4Fe2O4 were prepared by screen printing technique. These films were observed to be sensitive to 10 ppm NH3 at room temperature. The effects of surface microstructure, operating temperature, gas concentrations, etc., on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery times of the sensor in the presence of NH3 and other gases were studied and discussed.

  16. Electron transport and room temperature single-electron charging in 10 nm scale PtC nanostructures formed by electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Z. A. K.; Jones, M. E.; Wang, C.; Scotuzzi, M.; Hagen, C. W.

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructures of platinum-carbon nanocomposite material have been formed by electron-beam induced deposition. These consist of nanodots and nanowires with a minimum size ∼20 nm, integrated within ∼100 nm nanogap n-type silicon-on-insulator transistor structures. The nanodot transistors use ∼20 nm Pt/C nanodots, tunnel-coupled to Pt/C nanowire electrodes, bridging the Si nanogaps. Room-temperature single-electron transistor operation has been measured, and single-electron current oscillations and ‘Coulomb diamonds’ observed. In nanowire transistors, the temperature dependence from 290 to 8 K suggests that the current is a combination of thermally activated and tunnelling transport of carriers across potential barriers along the current path, and that the Pt/C is p-type at low temperature.

  17. Writing and reading in the electronic health record: an entirely new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Lopp, Lauri

    2013-02-05

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are structured, distributed documentation systems that differ from paper charts. These systems require skills not traditionally used to navigate a paper chart and to produce a written clinic note. Despite these differences, little attention has been given to physicians' electronic health record (EHR)-writing and -reading competence. This study aims to investigate physicians' self-assessed competence to document and to read EHR notes; writing and reading preferences in an EHR; and demographic characteristics associated with their perceived EHR ability and preference. Fourteen 5-point Likert scale items, based on EHR system characteristics and a literature review, were developed to measure EHR-writing and -reading competence and preference. Physicians in the midwest region of the United States were invited via e-mail to complete the survey online from February to April 2011. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted to provide validity and reliability of the instrument. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to pursue answers to the research questions. Ninety-one physicians (12.5%), from general and specialty fields, working in inpatient and outpatient settings, participated in the survey. Despite over 3 years of EHR experience, respondents perceived themselves to be incompetent in EHR writing and reading (Mean = 2.74, SD = 0.76). They preferred to read succinct, narrative notes in EHR systems. However, physicians with higher perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence had less preference toward reading succinct (r= - 0.33, pwriting and -reading competence was strongly related to their EHR navigation skills (r=0.55, pWriting and reading EHR documentation is different for physicians. Maximizing navigation skills can optimize non-linear EHR writing and reading. Pedagogical questions remain related to how physicians and medical students are able to retrieve correct information effectively and to understand

  18. [The reading speed of adolescent with low vision used electronic visual aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenjian; Su, Jinyu; Zheng, Lian; Huang, Yihong; Lin, Shouwu; Chen, Shuihua; Lu, Shaorong; Hu, Jianmin

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the reading speed of adolescents with different causes of low vision using electronic visual aids. The screening of 10 young students from Quanzhou Blind School could read Chinese N5 print by different optical aids. After their refractive correction and ophthalmic examination, the reading speeds with Chinese N5 print were measured using various optical and electronic visual aids. The reading speed of (34.36±5.06) word / min by electronic visual aids performed faster than that of (18.50±6.54) word / min by optical visual aids in 10 young students with low vision (Preading speed of young people with low vision due to different causes had no direct linear correlation with their near visual acuity(P>0.05). The electronic visual aids more significantly improve the reading speed of young people with low vision than the optical visual aids did. The reading speed of young people with low vision is not relevant to their near visual acuity induced by different causes.

  19. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10)-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10)-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED) array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10)-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be extended to more industrial areas, even

  20. Direct Writing of Flexible Electronics through Room Temperature Liquid Metal Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn10-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. Methods The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. Results The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn10-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED) array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. Conclusions The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be

  1. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. METHODS: The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. RESULTS: The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized

  2. Installation and Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Read-Out Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, G

    2008-01-01

    The cryostats of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter system are installed in the ATLAS cavern since several years. Following this, an effort to install and commission the front-end and back-end read-out electronics as well as the timing, trigger and control electronics (infrastructure, crates, and boards) has been ongoing and is finished now, in time for the cavern closure. Following cautious procedures and with continuous testing-campaigns of the electronics at each step of the installation advancemen...

  3. The ALICE silicon pixel detector read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, Marian; Burns, M; Cali, I; Ceresa, S; Kluge, A; Torcato de Matos, C; Morel, M; Riedler, P; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Sándor, L; Stefanini, G

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD contains 10 million pixels segmented in 120 detector modules (half staves), which are connected to the offdetector electronics with bidirectional optical links. Raw data from the on-detector electronics are sent to 20 FPGA-based processor cards (Routers) each carrying three 2-channel linkreceiver daughter-cards. The routers process the data and send them to the ALICE DAQ system via the ALICE detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring is performed via the VME interface of the routers. This paper describes the detector readout and control via the off-detector electronics.

  4. Room temperature formation of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at crystalline complex oxide interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Bovet, N.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Well-controlled sub-unit-cell layer-bylayer epitaxial growth of spinel alumina is achieved at room temperature on a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrate. By tailoring the interface redox reaction, 2D electron gases with mobilities exceeding 3000 cm 2 V−1 s−1 are achieved...

  5. Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bari N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative, correlational prediction study was performed to determine the relationship between English language learner (ELL) use of electronic media and reading proficiency in a large urban middle school in Texas. The predictor variables were viewing television programs in English, viewing television programs in Spanish, using a computer for…

  6. Time-Motion Analysis of Clinical Nursing Documentation During Implementation of an Electronic Operating Room Management System for Ophthalmic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S.; Brown, Anna S.; Yackel, Thomas R.; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design. PMID:24551402

  7. Time-motion analysis of clinical nursing documentation during implementation of an electronic operating room management system for ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S; Brown, Anna S; Yackel, Thomas R; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design.

  8. Writing and reading in the electronic health record: an entirely new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Lopp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic health records (EHRs are structured, distributed documentation systems that differ from paper charts. These systems require skills not traditionally used to navigate a paper chart and to produce a written clinic note. Despite these differences, little attention has been given to physicians’ electronic health record (EHR-writing and -reading competence. Purposes: This study aims to investigate physicians’ self-assessed competence to document and to read EHR notes; writing and reading preferences in an EHR; and demographic characteristics associated with their perceived EHR ability and preference. Methods: Fourteen 5-point Likert scale items, based on EHR system characteristics and a literature review, were developed to measure EHR-writing and -reading competence and preference. Physicians in the midwest region of the United States were invited via e-mail to complete the survey online from February to April 2011. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted to provide validity and reliability of the instrument. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to pursue answers to the research questions. Results: Ninety-one physicians (12.5%, from general and specialty fields, working in inpatient and outpatient settings, participated in the survey. Despite over 3 years of EHR experience, respondents perceived themselves to be incompetent in EHR writing and reading (Mean = 2.74, SD = 0.76. They preferred to read succinct, narrative notes in EHR systems. However, physicians with higher perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence had less preference toward reading succinct (r= − 0.33, p<0.001 and narrative (r= − 0.36, p<0.001 EHR notes than physicians with lower perceived EHR competence. Physicians’ perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence was strongly related to their EHR navigation skills (r=0.55, p<0.0001. Conclusions: Writing and reading EHR documentation is different for physicians. Maximizing

  9. Time-Resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Theoretical Investigations of Metal-Free Room-Temperature Triplet Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hideto; Retegan, Marius; Schmitt, Lisa; Höger, Sigurd; Neese, Frank; Schiemann, Olav

    2017-09-20

    Utilization of triplets is important for preparing organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency. Very recently, both electrophosphorescence and electrofluorescence could be observed at room temperature for thienyl-substituted phenazines without any heavy metals ( Ratzke et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. , 2016 , 7 , 4802 ). It was found that the phosphorescence efficiency depends on the orientation of fused thiophenes. In this work, the thienyl-substituted phenazines are investigated in more detail by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quantum chemical calculations. Spin dynamics, zero-field splitting constants, and electron-spin structures of the excited triplet states for the metal-free room-temperature triplet emitters are correlated with phosphorescence efficiency. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations clearly show that the electron spin density distributions of the first excited triplet states are strongly affected by the molecular geometry. For the phosphorescent molecules, the electron spins are localized on the phenazine unit, in which the sulfur atom of the fused thiophene points upward. The electron spins are delocalized onto the thiophene unit just by changing the orientation of the fused thiophenes from upward to downward, resulting in the suppression of phosphorescence. Time-resolved EPR measurements and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations demonstrate that the electron spins delocalized onto the thiophene unit lead to the acceleration of nonradiative decays, in conjunction with the narrowing of the singlet-triplet energy gap.

  10. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  11. SU-E-I-21: Effect of Different Fluorescent Lights with Various Colors of a Reading Room on Chromaticity of LCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Y; Akamine, H; Awamoto, S; Nakamura, Y; Morishita, J

    2012-06-01

    To examine variation of chromaticity of LCD in different types of fluorescent lights in a reading room. A color LCD (RX320, antiglare type, 450 cd/m 2 , three-megapixel, Eizo Nanao), and a monochrome LCD (G31-S, anti glare type, 450 cd/m 2 , three-megapixel, Eizo Nanao) were used in this study. The chromaticity in grayscale images with eighteen luminance levels were measured under five types of fluorescent lights with different color spectrums (Daylight: 6,700 K, Natural white: 5,000 K, White: 4,200 K, Warm white: 3,500 K, Light bulb: 3,000 K) by using a colorimeter (CS-200: KONICA MINOLTA). The chromaticity of LCDs was measured at various ambient lighting conditions (a dark room, 36, and 300 lux) and different types of fluorescent lights. The chromaticity of LCDs measured under ambient lights was changed from that measured in a dark room. The chromaticity of LCDs varied with different types of fluorescent lights. As illuminance of the room increased, variations in chromaticity at relatively lower luminance levels increased. The direction of changes in chromaticity shifted to the color for each fluorescent light. Fluorescent lights having different color spectra affect the chromaticity of LCDs. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P PANDA and N C MOHAPATRA*. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India. £Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. Email: ncmphy123@hotmail.com. MS received 18 January 2003; accepted 21 June 2003. Abstract. Room temperature Compton profiles of ...

  13. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic

  14. Room-temperature electronically-controlled ferromagnetism at the LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Feng; Huang, Mengchen; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Bark, Chung-Wung; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2014-09-25

    Reports of emergent conductivity, superconductivity and magnetism have helped to fuel intense interest in the rich physics and technological potential of complex-oxide interfaces. Here we employ magnetic force microscopy to search for room-temperature magnetism in the well-studied LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system. Using electrical top gating to control the electron density at the oxide interface, we directly observe the emergence of an in-plane ferromagnetic phase as electrons are depleted from the interface. Itinerant electrons that are reintroduced into the interface align antiferromagnetically with the magnetization at first screening and then destabilizing it as the conductive regime is approached. Repeated cycling of the gate voltage results in new, uncorrelated magnetic patterns. This newfound control over emergent magnetism at the interface between two non-magnetic oxides portends a number of important technological applications.

  15. Limitations to the room temperature mobility of two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Himmetoglu, Burak; Kajdos, Adam P.; Moetakef, Pouya; Cain, Tyler A.; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We analyze and compare the temperature dependence of the electron mobility of two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO{sub 3}. The contributions of electron-electron scattering must be taken into account to accurately describe the mobility in both cases. For uniformly doped, three-dimensional electron liquids, the room temperature mobility crosses over from longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-scattering-limited to electron-electron-scattering-limited as a function of carrier density. In high-density, two-dimensional electron liquids, LO phonon scattering is completely screened and the mobility is dominated by electron-electron scattering up to room temperature. The possible origins of the observed behavior and the consequences for approaches to improve the mobility are discussed.

  16. Electron Stimulated Molecular Desorption of a NEG St 707 at Room Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, F; Laurent, Jean Michel

    2001-01-01

    Electron stimulated molecular desorption (ESD) from a NEG St 707 (SAES GettersTM) sample after conditioning and after saturation with isotopic carbon monoxide2,13C18O, has been studied on a laboratory setup. Measurements were performed using an electron beam of 300 eV kinetic energy, with an average electron intensity of 1.6 1015 electrons s-1. The electrons were impinging on the 15 cm2 target surface at perpendicular incidence. It is found that the desorption yields h (molecules/electron) of the characteristic gases in an UHV system (hydrogen, methane, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide) for a fully activated NEG as well as for a NEG fully saturated with 13C18O are lower than for OFHC copper baked at 120oC. A small fraction only of the gas which is required to saturate the getter surface can be re-desorbed and thus appears to be accessible to ESD.

  17. Mechanistic elucidation of C-H oxidation by electron rich non-heme iron(IV)-oxo at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sujoy; Dey, Aniruddha; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-10-04

    Non-heme iron(IV)-oxo species form iron(III) intermediates during hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) from the C-H bond. While synthesizing a room temperature stable, electron rich, non-heme iron(IV)-oxo compound, we obtained iron(III)-hydroxide, iron(III)-alkoxide and hydroxylated-substrate-bound iron(II) as the detectable intermediates. The present study revealed that a radical rebound pathway was operative for benzylic C-H oxidation of ethylbenzene and cumene. A dissociative pathway for cyclohexane oxidation was established based on UV-vis and radical trap experiments. Interestingly, experimental evidence including O-18 labeling and mechanistic study suggested an electron transfer mechanism to be operative during C-H oxidation of alcohols (e.g. benzyl alcohol and cyclobutanol). The present report, therefore, unveils non-heme iron(IV)-oxo promoted substrate-dependent C-H oxidation pathways which are of synthetic as well as biological significance.

  18. Current Analysis and Modeling of Fullerene Single-Electron Transistor at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem Hosseini, Vahideh; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Afrang, Saeid; Ismail, Razali

    2017-07-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are interesting electronic devices that have become key elements in modern nanoelectronic systems. SETs operate quickly because they use individual electrons, with the number transferred playing a key role in their switching behavior. However, rapid transmission of electrons can cause their accumulation at the island, affecting the I- V characteristic. Selection of fullerene as a nanoscale zero-dimensional material with high stability, and controllable size in the fabrication process, can overcome this charge accumulation issue and improve the reliability of SETs. Herein, the current in a fullerene SET is modeled and compared with experimental data for a silicon SET. Furthermore, a weaker Coulomb staircase and improved reliability are reported. Moreover, the applied gate voltage and fullerene diameter are found to be directly associated with the I- V curve, enabling the desired current to be achieved by controlling the fullerene diameter.

  19. Ab initio structure determination of nanocrystals of organic pharmaceutical compounds by electron diffraction at room temperature using a Timepix quantum area direct electron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genderen, E. van; Clabbers, M. T. B. [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands); Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Das, P. P. [Nanomegas SPRL, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, B 1080, Brussels (Belgium); Stewart, A. [Department of Physics and Energy, Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Nederlof, I. [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands); Amsterdam Scientific Instruments, Postbus 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barentsen, K. C. [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands); Portillo, Q. [Nanomegas SPRL, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, B 1080, Brussels (Belgium); Centres Científics i Tecnològics de la Universitat de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Carrer de Lluís Solé i Sabaris, 1-3, Barcelona (Spain); Pannu, N. S. [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands); Nicolopoulos, S. [Nanomegas SPRL, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, B 1080, Brussels (Belgium); Gruene, T., E-mail: tim.gruene@psi.ch [Biology and Chemistry, Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Abrahams, J. P., E-mail: tim.gruene@psi.ch [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands); Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Biology and Chemistry, Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-02-05

    A specialized quantum area detector for electron diffraction studies makes it possible to solve the structure of small organic compound nanocrystals in non-cryo conditions by direct methods. Until recently, structure determination by transmission electron microscopy of beam-sensitive three-dimensional nanocrystals required electron diffraction tomography data collection at liquid-nitrogen temperature, in order to reduce radiation damage. Here it is shown that the novel Timepix detector combines a high dynamic range with a very high signal-to-noise ratio and single-electron sensitivity, enabling ab initio phasing of beam-sensitive organic compounds. Low-dose electron diffraction data (∼0.013 e{sup −} Å{sup −2} s{sup −1}) were collected at room temperature with the rotation method. It was ascertained that the data were of sufficient quality for structure solution using direct methods using software developed for X-ray crystallography (XDS, SHELX) and for electron crystallography (ADT3D/PETS, SIR2014)

  20. Upgrade possibilities for continuous wave rf electron guns based on room-temperature very high frequency technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannibale, F.; Filippetto, D.; Johnson, M.; Li, D.; Luo, T.; Mitchell, C.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Wells, R.; Byrd, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The past decade was characterized by an increasing scientific demand for extending towards higher repetition rates (MHz class and beyond) the performance of already operating lower repetition rate accelerator-based instruments such as x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and microscopy (UEM) instruments. Such a need stimulated a worldwide spread of a vibrant R&D activity targeting the development of high-brightness electron sources capable of operating at these challenging rates. Among the different technologies pursued, rf guns based on room-temperature structures resonating in the very high frequency (VHF) range (30-300 MHz) and operating in continuous wave successfully demonstrated in the past few years the targeted brightness and reliability. Nevertheless, recently proposed upgrades for x-ray FELs and the always brightness-frontier applications such as UED and UEM are now requiring a further step forward in terms of beam brightness in electron sources. In this paper, we present a few possible upgrade paths that would allow one to extend, in a relatively simple and cost-effective way, the performance of the present VHF technology to the required new goals.

  1. Upgrade possibilities for continuous wave rf electron guns based on room-temperature very high frequency technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sannibale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade was characterized by an increasing scientific demand for extending towards higher repetition rates (MHz class and beyond the performance of already operating lower repetition rate accelerator-based instruments such as x-ray free electron lasers (FELs and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED and microscopy (UEM instruments. Such a need stimulated a worldwide spread of a vibrant R&D activity targeting the development of high-brightness electron sources capable of operating at these challenging rates. Among the different technologies pursued, rf guns based on room-temperature structures resonating in the very high frequency (VHF range (30–300 MHz and operating in continuous wave successfully demonstrated in the past few years the targeted brightness and reliability. Nevertheless, recently proposed upgrades for x-ray FELs and the always brightness-frontier applications such as UED and UEM are now requiring a further step forward in terms of beam brightness in electron sources. In this paper, we present a few possible upgrade paths that would allow one to extend, in a relatively simple and cost-effective way, the performance of the present VHF technology to the required new goals.

  2. Computational Search for Two-Dimensional MX2 Semiconductors with Possible High Electron Mobility at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishuo Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neither of the two typical two-dimensional materials, graphene and single layer MoS 2 , are good enough for developing semiconductor logical devices. We calculated the electron mobility of 14 two-dimensional semiconductors with composition of MX 2 , where M (=Mo, W, Sn, Hf, Zr and Pt are transition metals, and Xs are S, Se and Te. We approximated the electron phonon scattering matrix by deformation potentials, within which long wave longitudinal acoustical and optical phonon scatterings were included. Piezoelectric scattering in the compounds without inversion symmetry is also taken into account. We found that out of the 14 compounds, WS 2 , PtS 2 and PtSe 2 are promising for logical devices regarding the possible high electron mobility and finite band gap. Especially, the phonon limited electron mobility in PtSe 2 reaches about 4000 cm 2 ·V - 1 ·s - 1 at room temperature, which is the highest among the compounds with an indirect bandgap of about 1.25 eV under the local density approximation. Our results can be the first guide for experiments to synthesize better two-dimensional materials for future semiconductor devices.

  3. Photodetachment, electron cooling, and recombination, in a series of neat aliphatic room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins i Domenech, Francesc; Healy, Andrew T; Blank, David A

    2015-08-14

    Transient absorption following photodetachment of a series of neat methyl-alkyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amides at 6.20 eV was measured with sub-picosecond time resolution in the visible and near-IR portions of the spectrum. This series spans the onset of structuring in the liquids in the form of polarity alternation. Excitation promotes the electron into a delocalized state with a very large reactive radius. Strong transient absorption is observed in the visible spectrum with a ∼700 fs lifetime, and much weaker, long-lived absorption is observed in the near-IR spectrum. Absorption in the visible is shown to be consistent with the hole, and absorption in the near-IR is assigned to the free solvated electron. Yield of free electrons is estimated at ∼4%, is insensitive to the size of the cation, and is determined in less than 1 ps. Solvation of free electrons depends strongly on the size of the cation and correlates well with the viscosity of the liquid. In addition to radiolytic stability of the aliphatic cations, ultrafast, efficient recombination of separated charge in NTf2 (-) based ionic liquids following photo-excitation near the band-gap may prevent subsequent reactive damage associated with anions.

  4. Quality of Book-Reading Matters for Emergent Readers: An Experiment with the Same Book in Regular or Electronic Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2002-01-01

    An adult read to 12 children from a regular paper book. Twenty-four children explored a similar electronic book. For half of this group, the electronic book was with and for half without restrictions on games. Regular book format was more supportive of learning story content and phrasing; both formats supported internalization of features of…

  5. Electronics for the CMS muon drift tube chambers the read-out minicrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Oller, Juan Carlos; Willmott, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    On the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experimentat the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory, the drift tube chambers are responsible for muon detection and precise momentum measurement. In this paper the first level of the read out electronics for these drift tube chambers is described. These drift tube chambers will be located inside the muon barrel detector in the so-called minicrates (MCs), attached to the chambers. The read out boards (ROBs) are the main component of this first level data acquisition system, and they are responsible for the time digitalization related to Level 1 Accept (L1A) trigger of the incoming signals from the front-end electronics, followed by a consequent data merging to the next stages of the data acquisition system. ROBs' architecture and functionality have been exhaustively tested, as well as their capability of operation beyond the expected environmental conditions inside the CMS detector. Due to the satisfactory results obtained, final production of ROBs and their a...

  6. Defect-tolerant single-electron charging at room temperature in metal nanoparticle decorated biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, C.A.; Clarke, L.; Wybourne, M.N. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mooster, J.L.; Hutchison, J.E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-01-16

    Gold nanoparticles assembled on a biopolymer template between metal electrodes on an insulating substrate are shown to exhibit unambiguous single electron charging effects that are found to depend on the nanoparticle properties and the geometrical contraints imposed by the biopolymer. The results support the idea of using nanoparticles in conjunction with biomolecular organization to produce nanoscale systems with defect-tolerant current-voltage behavior. (orig.)

  7. Room-Temperature Processed Nb2O5as the Electron-Transporting Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xufeng; Yuan, Jianyu; Liu, Dongyang; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yannan; Chen, Si; Wu, Haihua; Jin, Feng; Wu, Fupeng; Shi, Guozheng; Tang, Xun; Zheng, Jiawei; Liu, Shengzhong Frank; Liu, Zhike; Ma, Wanli

    2017-07-12

    In this work, we demonstrate high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs), using room-temperature sputtered niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). Widely spread ETL-like TiO 2 often requires high-temperature (>450 °C) sintering, which is not desired for the fabrication of flexible devices. The amorphous Nb 2 O 5 (labeled as a-Nb 2 O 5 ) ETL, without any heat treatment, can give a best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.1% for planar PSCs. Interestingly, the crystalline Nb 2 O 5 (labeled as c-Nb 2 O 5 ), with high-temperature (500 °C) annealing, results in a very similar PCE of 17.2%, indicating the great advantage of a-Nb 2 O 5 in energy saving. We thus carried out a systematical investigation on the properties of the a-Nb 2 O 5 film. The Hall effect measurements indicate both high mobility and conductivity of the a-Nb 2 O 5 film. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements define the Fermi levels of a-Nb 2 O 5 and c-Nb 2 O 5 as -4.31 and -4.02 eV, respectively, which allow efficient electron extraction at the Nb 2 O 5 /perovskite interface, regardless of the additional heat treatment on Nb 2 O 5 film. Benefitting from the low-temperature process, we further demonstrated flexible PSCs based on a-Nb 2 O 5 , with a considerable PCE of 12.1%. The room-temperature processing and relatively high device performance of a-Nb 2 O 5 suggest a great potential for its application in optoelectrical devices.

  8. Stable Magnetic Skyrmion States at Room Temperature Confined to Corrals of Artificial Surface Pits Fabricated by a Focused Electron Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; So, Yeong-Gi; Kohno, Yuji; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Shibata, Naoya

    2018-02-14

    Stable confinement of elemental magnetic nanostructures, such as a single magnetic domain, is fundamental in modern magnetic recording technology. It is well-known that various magnetic textures can be stabilized by geometrical confinement using artificial nanostructures. The magnetic skyrmion, with novel spin texture and promise for future memory devices because of its topological protection and dimension at the nanometer scale, is no exception. So far, skyrmion confinement techniques using large-scale boundaries with limited geometries such as isolated disks and stripes prepared by conventional microfabrication techniques have been used. Here, we demonstrate an alternative technique confining skyrmions to artificial nanostructures (corrals) built from surface pits fabricated by a focused electron beam. Using aberration-corrected differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, we directly visualized stable skyrmion states confined at a room temperature to corrals made of artificial surface pits on a thin plate of Co 8 Zn 8 Mn 4 . We observed a stable single-skyrmion state confined to a triangular corral and a unique transition into a triple-skyrmions state depending on the perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, we made an array of stable single-skyrmion states by using concatenated triangular corrals. Artificial control of skyrmion states with the present technique should be a powerful way to realize future nonvolatile memory devices using skyrmions.

  9. Reading in the Digital Age: Using Electronic Books as a Teaching Tool for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning readers' motivation to read and the texts they choose to read impact on their literacy achievement and willingness to engage with reading activities in the primary years of schooling. This study investigated the eBook reading experiences of eight grade 1 students. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software…

  10. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.fr [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Falvard, A. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  11. A Novel Read-Out Electronics Design Based on 1-Bit Sigma-Delta Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhixiang; Huang, Qiu; Gong, Zheng; Su, Zhihong; Moses, William W.; Xu, Jianfeng; Peng, Qiyu

    2017-02-01

    The conventional front-end electronics for PET imaging consist of an energy circuit and a timing circuit. A single channel in front-end electronics typically requires several amplifiers, an ADC and a TDC. In this paper, we present a novel front-end electronic design using 1-bit sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) modulation and an FPGA. The new design requires only one analog amplifier per channel. The output of the analog amplifier is read directly by the FPGA. Both the energy and timing calculation are implemented in FPGA firmware. The scope of this paper is to introduce the novel design in detail and to evaluate its performance in energy and dark current measurements. Simulink simulations were performed to validate the design with ideal components. A one-channel prototype circuit was built to assess the design with real components. The prototype circuit was tested with different input signals, including test pulses, pulse signals from a PMT detector, DC current signals and dark current signals from an SiPM sensor. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the method is inherently stable and has excellent accuracy and linearity in energy and dark current measurements. The prototype analog board was built with discrete components cost about $0.5 in total. The power consumption was about 20 mW. We conclude that the new method provides a cost-efficient and power-efficient way to accurately measure the energies of analog pulses and dark currents from detectors. The timing performance of this method is currently under evaluation.

  12. Using an Electronic Perioperative Documentation Tool to Identify Returns to Operating Room (ROR) in a Tertiary Care Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Robert R; Dhanorker, Sarah R; Ostendorf, Christopher L; Ntekpe, Mfonabasi; Mudundi, Raghu V; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Deschamps, Claude

    2017-03-01

    The metric "Unplanned returns to operating room (ROR)" is being tracked in surgical quality dashboards; 70% of unplanned RORs may be related to surgical complications. With increasing regionalization of trauma and complex surgical care at tertiary care academic centers, it is unclear if a simple ROR metric is a valid assessment of surgical quality at such centers. A real-time electronic tool was used to identify all RORs-planned and unplanned-in a high-volume, high-complexity academic surgical practice at Mayo Clinic-Rochester within 45 days of the index operation. Analysis by ROR type and indication was performed. During the analysis period (June 2014-February 2015) 44,031 operations were performed, with 5,552 subsequent RORs (13%). Of all RORs, 51% (n = 2,818) were planned staged returns, 29% (n = 1,589) were unrelated, 15% (n = 830) were unplanned and 6% (n = 315) were planned because of previous complications. Overall, unplanned reoperations were uncommon (n = 830, 2% of all operations). The most common indications for unplanned RORs included "other" (32%, n = 266), bleeding related (24%, n = 198) and wound complications (20%, n = 166). In a high-volume, high-complexity academic surgical practice, RORs occurred after 13% of cases. Unplanned returns were infrequent and usually were associated with complications; most RORs were planned staged or unrelated returns. A simple ROR metric that does not consider planned/unrelated returns is likely not a valid surgical quality measure. Electronic tools designed specifically to identify in real-time RORs, associated indication, and clinical validation should provide more reliable data for public reporting and quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P system implementation was associated with worsening of intraoperative nursing documentation time especially in shorter procedures. However, it is possible to implement an EHR OR management system without serious negative impacts on surgical volume and staffing requirements.

  14. I'm Ready for My Close-up Now: Electronic Portfolios and How We Read Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios allow students to include video, images, hyperlinks, and audio, along with written texts, to create varied and comprehensive representations of what they have accomplished. Such collections of information also change the ways that teachers and students choose to present themselves and the ways that we read these presentations…

  15. Do Students Using Electronic Books Display Different Reading Comprehension and Motivation Levels than Students Using Traditional Print Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Casey L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of electronic books on the reading comprehension of middle and high school students was examined using an experimental posttest-only control-group design. A convenience sample of 140 randomly assigned middle and high school English students at an independent school in eastern North Carolina participated. Half of the students used…

  16. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  17. Electronic identification of cattle: interference in the reading of ceramic bolus transponders in the presence of ruminal magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ferri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors assess the reading performances of electronic transponders encased in ceramic boluses, utilised as identification (ID instruments for production ruminants, and the possible influence of the magnet, which is located in the fore-stomach of ruminants. Research has been conducted in free-range Friesian dairy herds in the Teramo Province. The use of the electronic bolus to identify cattle appears to provide better guarantees than the traditional methods used and meets the requirements of identifying individual animals at the farm level. Results demonstrate how the presence of both the magnet and the ceramic bolus, equipped with a transponder, makes it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to read the code. However, the electronic ID system is the best instrument currently available. The authors confirm the validity of this method and highlight some problems that still need to be solved.

  18. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  19. 22 CFR 503.9 - Electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Annual report on FOIA activities. Reports on FOIA activities are submitted each fiscal year to the Department of Justice, and are due by February 1 of every year. The BBG's report will be available both in... foreseeable harm to any interest protected by an FOIA exemption. (3) Electronic reading room. The room...

  20. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  1. Four Year Old Children's Acquisition of Print Knowledge during Electronic Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyu; Levy, Betty Ann

    2009-01-01

    The experiment reported here explored the importance of engaging 4-year-old children's interest in the print itself during storybook reading. We explored the effect of computer animation of the print in order to draw the child's attention to each word as it was read. We also investigated the influence of illustrating that not all visual displays…

  2. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  3. Strong evidence for d-electron spin transport at room temperature at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Ryo; Ando, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Weiler, Mathias; Klingler, Stefan; Huebl, Hans; Shikoh, Eiji; Shinjo, Teruya; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    A d-orbital electron has an anisotropic electron orbital and is a source of magnetism. The realization of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) embedded at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface surprised researchers in materials and physical sciences because the 2DEG consists of 3d-electrons of Ti with extraordinarily large carrier mobility, even in the insulating oxide heterostructure. To date, a wide variety of physical phenomena, such as ferromagnetism and the quantum Hall effect, have been discovered in this 2DEG system, demonstrating the ability of d-electron 2DEG systems to provide a material platform for the study of interesting physics. However, because of both ferromagnetism and the Rashba field, long-range spin transport and the exploitation of spintronics functions have been believed difficult to implement in d-electron 2DEG systems. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of room-temperature spin transport in a d-electron-based 2DEG at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, where the spin relaxation length is about 300 nm. Our finding, which counters the conventional understandings of d-electron 2DEGs, highlights the spin-functionality of conductive oxide systems and opens the field of d-electron spintronics.

  4. Nanoporous gold synthesized by plasma-assisted inert gas condensation: room temperature sintering, nanoscale mechanical properties and stability against high energy electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrauch, S.; Wagner, C.; Suckfuell, C.; Lotnyk, A.; Knolle, W.; Gerlach, J. W.; Mayr, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    With a plasma assisted gas condensation system it is possible to achieve high-purity nanoporous Au (np-Au) structures with minimal contaminations and impurities. The structures consist of single Au-nanoparticles, which partially sintered together due to their high surface to volume ratio. Through electron microscopy investigations a porosity  >50% with ligament sizes between 20–30 nm was revealed. The elastic modulus of the np-Au was determined via peak force quantitative nanomechanical mapping and resulted in values of 7.5  ±  1.5 GPa. The presented structures partially sintered at room temperature, but proved to be stable to electron irradiation with energies of 7 MeV up to doses of 100 MGy. The electron irradiation stability opens the venue for electron assisted functionalization with biomolecules.

  5. Educational Electronic Books for Supporting Emergent Literacy of Kindergarteners At-Risk for Reading Difficulties--What Do We Know so Far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the authors' findings regarding the electronic book's (e-book's) support of emergent reading among kindergarten-aged children at-risk for reading difficulties. All the studies involved use of educational e-books specially designed by the authors to promote literacy among young children in the 5-6 age group. The review focuses…

  6. Práticas de leitura em meio eletrônico/Reading practices in electronic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Santiago Bufrem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute a relação livro universitário, leitor e tecnologias, para caracterizar como os estudantes percebem as possibilidades de leitura promovidas pelo livro eletrônico. Busca entender as práticas desse leitor em relação ao novo formato do livro, analisando inicialmente um referencial teórico, para fundamentar a investigação empírica. Aplica um questionário a um conjunto de estudantes, procurando identificar características como freqüência de leitura e tempo a ela dedicado, práticas de leitura, de acordo com o suporte, os dispositivos, o gênero e o acesso. Observa que a leitura é realizada pela maioria dos estudantes na própria tela do computador, ou após a impressão do conteúdo em papel, o que corrobora afirmações obtidas na literatura. Quanto aos aparelhos de leitura, a maioria não os conhece e aqueles que conhecem não os adquiriram. Sobre o tempo destinado à leitura, ratifica o que já se tem sido constatado em pesquisas sobre essa prática, ou seja, o estudante lê pouco, em média 6,5 horas por semana entre os mestrandos e 3,67 entre os graduandos, índice relacionado a todos os tipos de leitura e suporte, em papel ou eletrônico. Conclui que embora ainda não utilizado com freqüência e até pouco apreciado, o livro eletrônico é objeto de expectativas de aperfeiçoamento evidentes, enquanto editoras inovam e criam serviços e produtos compatíveis à evolução desse campo, procurando atender a demanda pelos formatos alternativos de publicação. This work discusses the relation among university book, reader and technologies, with the aim of identify how students perceive the reading possibilities fostered by the electronic book. It seeks to understand this reader’s practices towards the new book format, initially analyzing a theoretical reference, to ground the empirical survey. It submits a questionnaire to a group of students, trying to identify characteristics such as reading frequency and time spent in

  7. Electrical Control, Read-out and Initialization of Single Electron Spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiei, M.

    2013-01-01

    An electron, in addition to its electric charge, possesses a small magnetic moment, called spin. The spin of an electron can point parallel (spin-up) or antiparallel (spin-down) to the magnetic field. These two states are analogous to zero and one of the logical bit in current digital electronic

  8. Digital Literature: Finding New Ways to Motivate Students to Read Brazilian Literature Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vania Soares; Lima, Vera; Silva, Rejane; Silva, Willy; Soares, Ana Carolina; de Sousa, Aline

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative and qualitative study is aimed to diagnose and promote the use of new technologies in teaching literature reading in Public (State) Schools, assessing materials accessibility and computer skills. The research consisted of three distinct steps: (1) A survey to detect teachers' and students' computer skills, their use of computers…

  9. Hypoxia Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  10. Intraoperative radiotherapy in the theatre room with electron beams: technical and dosimetric description of Sordina LIAC accelerator; Radioterapia intraoperatoria en quirofano con haces de electrones: descripcion tecnica y dosimetrica del acelerador dedicado Sordina LIAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Ayala Lazaro, R.; Gomez Cores, S.; Garcia Hernandez, M. J.; Polo Cezon, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    n this work we show our experience during the commissioning of a mobile electron-beam accelerator dedicated to intraoperative radiation therapy in the theatre room. The linac is a Sordina LIAC 12 MeV model with a hard-docking applicator system. We describe the linac, the measurement methods and the specific dosimetry. The dosimetric behavior is also discussed. Differences with other applicator systems can be explained from the particular head design of the linac. (Author)

  11. Electron standing waves on the GaN(0001)-pseudo (1 × 1) surface: a FT-STM study at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G F; Liu, Y; Qi, Y; Jia, J F; Xue, Q K; Weinert, M; Li, L

    2010-10-29

    We report the direct imaging of standing waves on a GaN(0001)-pseudo (1 × 1) metallic surface, which consists of two atomic Ga layers with the top layer incommensurate. Two types of periodic oscillation are observed by scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. The longer wavelength standing waves are due to electron scattering by dislocation-induced steps and two-dimensional InN islands. The localized shorter wavelength waves are attributed to a structural transition of the incommensurate Ga bilayer to a tetrahedral Ga bilayer after the growth of the InN islands.

  12. Wood, Flour, Journal: How the Electronic Turn Has Affected the Way Journals are Found, Used, and Read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Garrett

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The repercussions of the recent dramatic shift in journal publication from a print to a digital platform – a shift termed by the author “the electronic turn” - are far-reaching. Delivered originally as a part of a panel discussion, this essay marks out the profound changes around journal content: how academic libraries purchase it, in how they provide access to it, and in how people use it. Factors contributing to the process include the growth of technological capacity, new publishing models, economic necessity, user preference, and changes in the way people prefer to read. The “electronic turn” is viewed as at the same time unavoidable and calling for corresponding changes in the mindsets of libraries, of publishers, and of researchers.

  13. Electron stimulated molecular desorption of a non-evaporable Zr-V-Fe alloy getter at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, Frederic; Laurent, Jean Michel

    2002-01-01

    Electron stimulated molecular desorption (ESD) from a non-evaporable getters (NEG) St 707 registered trademark (SAES Getters trademark ) sample after conditioning and after saturation with isotopic carbon monoxide (cf. nomenclature in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 1994), **1**3C**1**8O, has been studied on a laboratory setup. Measurements were performed using an electron beam of 300 eV kinetic energy, with an average electron intensity of 1.6 multiplied by 10**1**5 electrons s**-**1. The electrons were impinging on the 15 cm **2 target surface at perpendicular incidence. It is found that the desorption yields eta (molecules/electron) of the characteristic gases in an UHV system (hydrogen, methane, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide) for a fully activated NEG as well as for a NEG fully saturated with **1**3C**1**8O are lower than for OFHC copper baked at 120 degree C. A small fraction only of the gas which is required to saturate the getter surface can be re-desorbed and thus appears to be ...

  14. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  15. Density dependence of electron-spin polarization and relaxation in intrinsic GaAs at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, L H; Chen, K; Wen, J H; Lin, W Z; Lai, T S, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Zhongshan (Sen Yat-Sen) University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

    2009-07-07

    Time-resolved circularly polarized pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the carrier-density dependence of the electron-spin polarization and spin relaxation dynamics in bulk intrinsic GaAs near the bottom of the conduction band. The experimental result shows that the initial degree of the electron-spin polarization is less than 0.5, and both the initial degree of spin polarization and the spin relaxation time decrease with increasing carrier densities. The simulation calculation shows that the band-gap renormalization effect has a significant influence on the initial degree of spin polarization, but it is not the physical origin of the decrease in the electron-spin polarization. Contrarily, the initial degree of spin polarization can be greatly enhanced by the band-gap renormalization effect for carrier densities above 3.5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. In intrinsic GaAs, both the D'yakonov-Perel' and the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms play an important role. The Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism becomes stronger with the increase in the carrier density, and becomes dominant at high carrier density.

  16. Density dependence of electron-spin polarization and relaxation in intrinsic GaAs at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, L. H.; Chen, K.; Wen, J. H.; Lin, W. Z.; Lai, T. S.

    2009-07-01

    Time-resolved circularly polarized pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the carrier-density dependence of the electron-spin polarization and spin relaxation dynamics in bulk intrinsic GaAs near the bottom of the conduction band. The experimental result shows that the initial degree of the electron-spin polarization is less than 0.5, and both the initial degree of spin polarization and the spin relaxation time decrease with increasing carrier densities. The simulation calculation shows that the band-gap renormalization effect has a significant influence on the initial degree of spin polarization, but it is not the physical origin of the decrease in the electron-spin polarization. Contrarily, the initial degree of spin polarization can be greatly enhanced by the band-gap renormalization effect for carrier densities above 3.5 × 1017 cm-3. In intrinsic GaAs, both the D'yakonov-Perel' and the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms play an important role. The Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism becomes stronger with the increase in the carrier density, and becomes dominant at high carrier density.

  17. An Active Reading Intervention for the Electronic Career Development Course (eCDC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isreal, Kenith R.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic books have rapidly moved through the entertainment community and are rapidly making their way into the academic environment. Public and private schools, libraries and training organizations use eBooks for research and instruction. This study sought to enhance the learning habits of students taking self-paced correspondence courses…

  18. Theoretical Phase Diagram for the Room-Temperature Electron-Hole Liquid in Photoexcited Quasi-Two-Dimensional Monolayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Avinash; Kemper, Alexander F

    2017-12-12

    Strong correlations between electrons and holes can drive the existence of an electron-hole liquid (EHL) state, typically at high carrier densities and low temperatures. The recent emergence of quasi-two-dimensional (2D) monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provides ideal systems to explore the EHL state since ineffective screening of the out-of-plane field lines in these quasi-2D systems allows for stronger charge carrier correlations in contrast to conventional 3D bulk semiconductors and enables the existence of the EHL at high temperatures. Here we construct the phase diagram for the photoinduced first-order phase transition from a plasma of electron-hole pairs to a correlated EHL state in suspended monolayer MoS2. We show that the quasi-2D nature of monolayer TMDCs and the ineffective screening of the out-of-plane field lines allow for this phase transition to occur at and above room temperature, thereby opening avenues for studying many-body phenomena without the constraint of cryogenics.

  19. Room- and low-temperature assessment of pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAS high-electron-mobility transistor structures by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilperez, J. M.; Sanchez-Rojas, J. L.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; David, J. P. R.; Reddy, M.; Hill, G.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J.

    1994-11-01

    The use of room- and low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for the assessment of n-type pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistor stransitor structures is reported. We describe a method to determine the InAs mole fraction x, the channel layer thickness L, and the confined two-dimensional electron gas density (n(sub s)), based on the comparison between the PL transitions and the recombination energies derived from self-consistent calculations of the subband structure. A detailed analysis of the optical transitions and their dependence on the Fermi level position and temperature is performed. It is shown that, in real devices, the high sensitivity of the recombination energies and intensities on small changes of the parameters x, L, and n(sub s) allows us to detect deviations from their nominal structural parameters within the uncertainty of the molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. The present assessment procedure has been applied to a significant number of samples, and it has been backed by independent measurements of these parameters by more sophisticated techniques such as Shubnikov-de Haas and PL excitation in standard and gated samples, and by physical techniques like transmission electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy.

  20. Electronic medical record analysis of emergency room visits and hospitalizations in individuals with epilepsy and mental illness comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Welter, Elisabeth; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Perzynski, Adam T; Einstadter, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition that significantly increases risk of injury and premature death. Rates of mental illness are also disproportionately high in those with epilepsy, which can be attributed in part to the stress and stigma associated with epilepsy. Psychiatric conditions generally complicate the management of epilepsy, and understanding how psychiatric comorbidity affects use of crisis-based health resources could inform care approaches that help improve epilepsy care. To better understand effects of psychiatric comorbidity on epilepsy burden, we conducted a 5-year retrospective analysis of data from a large safety-net healthcare network and compared the occurrence of negative health events (NHEs), defined as emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, among individuals with epilepsy and mental illness (E-MI) vs. those with epilepsy alone (E). Electronic health record (EHR) data from a large Midwestern U.S. safety-net healthcare system were queried to identify a study population of adults ≥18years with a diagnosis of epilepsy, with or without mental illness. We assessed demographic and clinical characteristics for each of the 5years and compared NHEs between subgroups with E-MI vs. E. An additional analysis focused on those individuals who remained in the healthcare system over the entire 5-year study time frame (January, 2010 to December, 2014). Annual and cumulative NHE counts and hospital length of stay for individuals with E-MI and E were assessed, as were hospital discharge diagnoses. The number (approximately 2000) and demographic characteristics of individuals with epilepsy who received care each year of the study period was relatively consistent. In 2014, mean age of individuals with epilepsy was 48 (range: 18-95), 48.2% were women, 51.5% were White, 37.9% were African-American, and 8.6% were Hispanic. In 2014, there were 1616 (78.6%) individuals in the subgroup with E and 439 (21.4%) in the subgroup with E-MI. Most

  1. Recovery Room

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before 1950's, patients were usually cared for in an ill-defined postoperative unit or on the hospital ward. Patients were frequently transferred from the operating room directly to the ward where they were placed close to the nursing station. In 1947 the. Anesthesia Study Commission of the Philadelphia. Country Medical ...

  2. Recovery Room

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical Journal of Zambia, Volume 36 Number 3 (2009). 132. Department of Anaesthesia, University Teaching Hospital ... nursing shortage, stimulated widespread development of recovery rooms. This article summarizes .... Singapore Med J.1997; 38(5): 200-204. 11. Feeley TW, Macario A. Chapter 71: The postanesthesia ...

  3. Enhancing the Performance of Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Using Room-Temperature-Processed Ga-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles as the Electron Transport Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Sheng

    2017-04-19

    Colloidal ZnO nanoparticle (NP) films are recognized as efficient electron transport layers (ETLs) for quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with good stability and high efficiency. However, because of the inherently high work function of such films, spontaneous charge transfer occurs at the QD/ZnO interface in such a QD-LED, thus leading to reduced performance. Here, to improve the QD-LED performance, we prepared Ga-doped ZnO NPs with low work functions and tailored band structures via a room-temperature (RT) solution process without the use of bulky organic ligands. We found that the charge transfer at the interface between the CdSe/ZnS QDs and the doped ZnO NPs was significantly weakened because of the incorporated Ga dopants. Remarkably, the as-assembled QD-LEDs, with Ga-doped ZnO NPs as the ETLs, exhibited superior luminances of up to 44 000 cd/m2 and efficiencies of up to 15 cd/A, placing them among the most efficient red-light QD-LEDs ever reported. This discovery provides a new strategy for fabricating high-performance QD-LEDs by using RT-processed Ga-doped ZnO NPs as the ETLs, which could be generalized to improve the efficiency of other optoelectronic devices.

  4. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubin, Markus; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Kroll, Thomas; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Löchel, Heike; Fuller, Franklin D; Sierra, Raymond G; Quevedo, Wilson; Weniger, Christian; Rehanek, Jens; Firsov, Anatoly; Laksmono, Hartawan; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glownia, James M; Krzywinski, Jacek; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J; Minitti, Michael P; Dakovski, Georgi L; Koroidov, Sergey; Kawde, Anurag; Kanady, Jacob S; Tsui, Emily Y; Suseno, Sandy; Han, Zhiji; Hill, Ethan; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S; Agapie, Theodor; Messinger, Johannes; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Bergmann, Uwe; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6-15 mmol/l) with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5) in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l) at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  5. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kubin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6–15 mmol/l with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5 in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Emissions from Arc Discharge Production: Classification of Particle Types with Electron Microscopy and Comparison with Direct Reading Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Linus; Isaxon, Christina; Nilsson, Patrik T; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Messing, Maria E; Rissler, Jenny; Skaug, Vidar; Gudmundsson, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Hedmer, Maria; Pagels, Joakim

    2016-05-01

    An increased production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is occurring worldwide. In parallel, a growing concern is emerging on the adverse effects the unintentional inhalation of CNTs can have on humans. There is currently a debate regarding which exposure metrics and measurement strategies are the most relevant to investigate workplace exposures to CNTs. This study investigated workplace CNT emissions using a combination of time-integrated filter sampling for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and direct reading aerosol instruments (DRIs). Field measurements were performed during small-scale manufacturing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using the arc discharge technique. Measurements with highly time- and size-resolved DRI techniques were carried out both in the emission and background (far-field) zones. Novel classifications and counting criteria were set up for the SEM method. Three classes of CNT-containing particles were defined: type 1: particles with aspect ratio length:width >3:1 (fibrous particles); type 2: particles without fibre characteristics but with high CNT content; and type 3: particles with visible embedded CNTs. Offline sampling using SEM showed emissions of CNT-containing particles in 5 out of 11 work tasks. The particles were classified into the three classes, of which type 1, fibrous CNT particles contributed 37%. The concentration of all CNT-containing particles and the occurrence of the particle classes varied strongly between work tasks. Based on the emission measurements, it was assessed that more than 85% of the exposure originated from open handling of CNT powder during the Sieving, mechanical work-up, and packaging work task. The DRI measurements provided complementary information, which combined with SEM provided information on: (i) the background adjusted emission concentration from each work task in different particle size ranges, (ii) identification of the key procedures in each work task that lead to emission peaks, (iii

  7. 32 CFR 518.9 - Reading room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clearly unwarranted invasions of privacy, or competitive harm to business submitters. In appropriate cases... information concerning munitions, equipment, systems, and intelligence activities. (4) (a)(2)(D) records...

  8. Room-Temperature Coherent Optical Phonon in 2D Electronic Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite as a Possible Cooling Bottleneck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Guo, Liang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Jia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dou, Letian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Peidong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A hot phonon bottleneck may be responsible for slow hot carrier cooling in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite, creating the potential for more efficient hot carrier photovoltaics. In room-temperature 2D electronic spectra near the band edge, we observe in this paper amplitude oscillations due to a remarkably long lived 0.9 THz coherent phonon population at room temperature. This phonon (or set of phonons) is assigned to angular distortions of the Pb–I lattice, not coupled to cation rotations. The strong coupling between the electronic transition and the 0.9 THz mode(s), together with relative isolation from other phonon modes, makes it likely to cause a phonon bottleneck. Finally, the pump frequency resolution of the 2D spectra also enables independent observation of photoinduced absorptions and bleaches independently and confirms that features due to band gap renormalization are longer-lived than in transient absorption spectra.

  9. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  10. History and modern applications of nano-composite materials carrying GA/cm2 current density due to a Bose-Einstein Condensate at room temperature produced by Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing for many extraordinary novel technical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Hans W. P.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing and early applications of this technology led to the possible use of a novel nanogranular material “Koops-GranMat®” using Pt/C and Au/C material. which carries at room temperature a current density > 50 times the current density which high TC superconductors can carry. The explanation for the characteristics of this novel material is given. This fact allows producing novel products for many applications using Dual Beam system having a gas supply and X.Y.T stream data programming and not using GDSII layout pattern control software. Novel products are possible for energy transportation. -distribution.-switching, photon-detection above 65 meV energy for very efficient energy harvesting, for bright field emission electron sources used for vacuum electronic devices like amplifiers for HF electronics, micro-tubes, 30 GHz to 6 THz switching amplifiers with signal to noise ratio >10(!), THz power sources up to 1 Watt, in combination with miniaturized vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, IR to THz detectors, EUV- and X-Ray sources. Since focusing electron beam induced deposition works also at low energy, selfcloning multibeam-production machines for field emitter lamps, displays, multi-beam - lithography, - imaging, and - inspection, energy harvesting, and power distribution with switches controlling field-emitter arrays for KA of currents but with < 100 V switching voltage are possible. Finally the replacement of HTC superconductors and its applications by the Koops-GranMat® having Koops-Pairs at room temperature will allow the investigation devices similar to Josephson Junctions and its applications now called QUIDART (Quantum interference devices at Room Temperature). All these possibilities will support a revolution in the optical, electric, power, and electronic technology.

  11. Optimisation of the Read-out Electronics of Muon Drift-Tube Chambers for Very High Background Rates at HL-LHC and Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Gadow, Philipp; Ecker, Katharina; Fink, David; Fras, Markus; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Müller, Felix; Richter, Robert; Schmid, Clemens; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Zhao, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    In the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and sMDT chambers with half of the tube diameter of the MDTs are used for precision muon track reconstruction. The sMDT chambers are designed for operation at high counting rates due to neutron and gamma background irradiation expected for the HL-LHC and future hadron colliders. The existing MDT read-out electronics uses bipolar signal shaping which causes an undershoot of opposite polarity and same charge after a signal pulse. At high counting rates and short electronics dead time used for the sMDTs, signal pulses pile up on the undershoot of preceding background pulses leading to a reduction of the signal amplitude and a jitter in the drift time measurement and, therefore, to a degradation of drift tube efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to further increase the rate capability of sMDT tubes, baseline restoration can be used in the read-out electronics to suppress the pile-up effects. A discrete bipolar shaping circuit with baseline...

  12. Electron-quasihole duality and second-order differential equation for Read-Rezayi and Jack wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estienne, B.; Bernevig, B.A.; Santachiara, R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the quasihole wave functions of the non-Abelian Read-Rezayi quantum-Hall states which are given by the conformal blocks of the minimal model WAk−1(k+1,k+2) of the WAk−1 algebra. By studying the degenerate representations of this conformal field theories, we derive a second-order

  13. Validation of the Read Out Electronics for the CMS Muon Drift Chambers at Tests Beam in CERN/GIF

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, C; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; Marin, J; Oller, J C; Willmott, C

    2002-01-01

    Part of the readout system for the CMS muon drift chambers has been tested in test beams at CERN/GIF. Read Out Board (ROB) and HPTD have been validated with signals from a real muon beam, with an structure and flux similar to LHC operating conditions and using one of the chambers produced in CIEMAT already located in the test beam area under normal gas and voltage conditions. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Does long time spending on the electronic devices affect the reading abilities? A cross-sectional study among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Shao, Shanshan; Zhou, Jie; Ke, Juntao; Kong, Rui; Guo, Shengnan; Zhang, Jiajia; Song, Ranran

    2014-12-01

    Home literacy environment (HLE) is one of most important modifiable risk factors to dyslexia. With the development in technology, we include the electronic devices usage at home, such as computers and televisions, to the definition of HLE and investigate its impact on dyslexia based on the on-going project of Tongji's Reading Environment and Dyslexia Study. The data include 5063 children, primary school students (grade 3-grade 6), from a middle-sized city in China. We apply the principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the large dimension of variables in HLE, and find the first three components, denoted as PC1, PC2 and PC3, can explain 95.45% of HLE information. PC1 and PC2 demonstrate strong positive association with 'total time spending on electronic devices' and 'literacy-related activity', respectively. PC3 demonstrates strong negative association with 'restrictions on using electronic devices'. From the generalized linear model, we find that PC1 significantly increases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.018-1.070), while PC2 significantly decreases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 0.839, 95% CI: 0.795-0.886). Therefore, reducing the total time spending on electronic devices and increasing the literacy-related activity would be the potential protective factors for dyslexic children in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  16. Thermal Improvement and Stability of Si3N4/GeNx/p- and n-Ge Structures Prepared by Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma Nitridation and Sputtering at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Izumi, Kohei; Otani, Yohei; Ishizaki, Hiroki; Ono, Toshiro

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports on the thermal improvement of Si3N4/GeNx/Ge structures. After the Si3N4 (5 nm)/GeNx (2 nm) stacks were prepared on Ge substrates by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering at room temperature, they were thermally annealed in atmospheric N2 + 10% H2 ambient at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. It was demonstrated that the electronic properties of the GeNx/Ge interfaces were thermally improved at temperatures of up to 500 °C with a minimum interface trap density (Dit) of ˜1×1011 cm-2 eV-1 near the Ge midgap, whereas the interface properties were slightly degraded after annealing at 600 °C with a minimum Dit value of ˜4×1011 cm-2 eV-1.

  17. Reading Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  18. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  19. Trap behaviours characterization of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by room-temperature transient capacitance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the trap behaviours in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs are investigated using transient capacitance measurement. By measuring the transient gate capacitance variance (ΔC with different pulse height, the gate pulse induced trap behaviours in SiNX gate dielectric layer or at the SiNX/AlGaN interface is revealed. Based on the results, a model on electron traps in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is proposed. The threshold voltage (Vth instability in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is believed to be correlated with the presence of these traps in SiNX gate dielectric layer or at the SiNX/AlGaN interface. Furthermore, trap density before and after step-stress applied on drain electrode is quantitatively analyzed based on ΔC measurement.

  20. Spatial Reading System for Individuals with Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Elglaly, Yasmine Nader Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this research we introduce a novel reading system that enables Individuals with Blindnessor Severe Visual Impairment (IBSVI) to have equivalent spatial reading experience to theirsighted counterparts, in terms of being able to engage in different reading strategies e.g.scanning, skimming, and active reading. IBSVI are enabled to read in a self-paced mannerwith spatial access to the original layout of any electronic text document. This systemrenders text on iPad-type devices, and reads alou...

  1. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  2. Paperless Braille Reading: A Preliminary Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M.; Ashcroft, S. C.

    The study involving three blind elementary school, six blind high school, and four blind college students was designed to establish oral reading rates and oral reading error rates for Ss reading conventional braille volumes and brailled materials with the Digi-cassette, an electronic braille reading and writing machine. Data suggested several…

  3. Inactivation of the conserved open reading frame ycf34 of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 interferes with the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Thomas; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Bernát, Gábor; Sobotka, Roman; Reijerse, Edward J; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole; Wilde, Annegret

    2012-11-01

    Ycf34 is a hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame that is present in the chloroplast genomes of several non-green algae. Ycf34 homologues are also encoded in all sequenced genomes of cyanobacteria. To evaluate the role of Ycf34 we have constructed and analysed a cyanobacterial mutant strain. Inactivation of ycf34 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 showed no obvious phenotype under normal light intensity growth conditions. However, when the cells were grown under low light intensity they contained less and smaller phycobilisome antennae and showed a strongly retarded growth, suggesting an essential role of the Ycf34 polypeptide under light limiting conditions. Northern blot analysis revealed a very weak expression of the phycocyanin operon in the ycf34 mutant under light limiting growth in contrast to the wild type and to normal light conditions. Oxygen evolution and P(700) measurements showed impaired electron flow between photosystem II and photosystem I under these conditions which suggest that the impaired antenna size is most likely due to a highly reduced plastoquinone pool which triggers regulation on a transcriptional level. Using a FLAG-tagged Ycf34 we found that this protein is tightly bound to the thylakoid membranes. UV-vis and Mössbauer spectroscopy of the recombinant Ycf34 protein demonstrate the presence of an iron-sulphur cluster. Since Ycf34 lacks homology to known iron-sulphur cluster containing proteins, it might constitute a new type of iron-sulphur protein implicated in redox signalling or in optimising the photosynthetic electron transport chain. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray Free Electron Laser Determination of Crystal Structures of Dark and Light States of a Reversibly Photoswitching Fluorescent Protein at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. M. Hutchison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The photochromic fluorescent protein Skylan-NS (Nonlinear Structured illumination variant mEos3.1H62L is a reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein which has an unilluminated/ground state with an anionic and cis chromophore conformation and high fluorescence quantum yield. Photo-conversion with illumination at 515 nm generates a meta-stable intermediate with neutral trans-chromophore structure that has a 4 h lifetime. We present X-ray crystal structures of the cis (on state at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and the trans (off state at a limiting resolution of 1.55 Angstrom from serial femtosecond crystallography experiments conducted at SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA at 7.0 keV and 10.5 keV, and at Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS at 9.5 keV. We present a comparison of the data reduction and structure determination statistics for the two facilities which differ in flux, beam characteristics and detector technologies. Furthermore, a comparison of droplet on demand, grease injection and Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN injection shows no significant differences in limiting resolution. The photoconversion of the on- to the off-state includes both internal and surface exposed protein structural changes, occurring in regions that lack crystal contacts in the orthorhombic crystal form.

  5. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Howard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H...H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  6. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically associated with other data and which is intended by the user to serve as a signature;. The suggested new definition for an electronic signature reads as follows: 'electronic signature' means a sound, symbol or process that is (i) uniquely linked to the ...

  7. Our Urban Living Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Our Urban Living Room is an exhibition and a book, created by Cobe. The theme is based on Cobe’s ten years of practice, grounded in social livability and urban democracy, and our aim to create buildings and spaces that invite Copenhageners to use and define them; as an extended living room, where...... the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...

  8. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  9. Real-time virtual room acoustic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Johnson, Jan; Johnson, Troge; Johnson, Marty

    2003-10-01

    A realistic virtual room acoustic simulation has been implemented on a PC-based computer in near real-time. Room acoustics are calculated by the image source method using realistic absorption coefficients for a variety of realistic surfaces and programmed in MATLAB. The resulting impulse response filters are then applied in near real-time using fast convolution DSP techniques using data being read from a CD-ROM. The system was implemented in a virtual acoustic room facility. Optimizations have been performed to retain the realistic virtual room effect while minimizing computations through limited psycho-acoustic testing. In general, realistic anechoic to reverberant virtual rooms have been re-created with six 8192 coefficient filters. To provide realistic simulations, special care must be taken to accurately reproduce the low frequency acoustics. Since the virtual room acoustic facility was not totally anechoic (as are most anechoic chambers), inverse filters were applied to compensate for over-amplified acoustics at frequencies below 350 Hz.

  10. Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Fosgerau, Anders; Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk

    1999-01-01

    The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented.......The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented....

  11. Operating room manager game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Nieberg, T.

    2007-01-01

    The operating room (OR) department of a hospital forms the heart of the organization, where the single largest cost is incurred. This document presents and reports on the “Operating Room Manager Game,” developed to give insight into managing a large hospital's OR department at various levels of

  12. Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…

  13. The Virtual Dressing Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Gao, Yi; Petersson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a usability and user experience test of a virtual dressing room. First, we motivate and introduce our recent developed prototype of a virtual dressing room. Next, we present the research and test design grounded in related usability and user...... experience studies. We give a description of the experimental setup and the execution of the designed usability and user experience test. To this end, we report interesting results and discuss the results with respect to user-centered design and development of a virtual dressing room....

  14. RILIS laser room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  15. RILIS laser room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  16. Room for caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    rooms such as a view of nature or natural light entering the room are often neglected in caring for these patients. Method A phenomenological-hermeneutic study design was applied and data was collected through multiple qualitative interviews combined with observations at a teaching hospital in Denmark......) Experiencing inner peace and an escape from negative thoughts, (ii) Experiencing a positive mood and hope and (iii) Experiencing good memories. Conclusion Our findings highlight aesthetic sensory impressions in the form of nature sights and natural light in the patient room as a powerful source of well...

  17. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amita [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  18. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  19. Bilingual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  20. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p...

  1. Operating Room Telephone Microbial Flora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Jason; Shinn, Antoinette M; Bivens, Ava

    2005-01-01

    ...) could be found on telephones in the Operating Room (OR). A total of 26 cultures were taken from telephones within 14 operating rooms and two sub-sterile rooms at a large, teaching, medical center...

  2. ISOLDE target zone control room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  3. Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Åkerstedt, Henrik; The ATLAS collaboration; Drake, Gary; Anderson, Kelby; Bohm, Christian; Oreglia, Mark; Tang, Fukun

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links, will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new read-out system will be installed in one slice of ...

  4. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  5. Digital Operating Room assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geudon, A.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Operating Room (OR) is a complex environment, where a large variety of patients and diseases can be treated and many unexpected events occur (such as emergency surgeries and unexpected progress of procedures). In practice, OR assistants support OR processes as well as they can, in order to

  6. Rooms with a View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Peter; Berry, Millard, III

    2006-01-01

    When well-designed and integrated into a campus living or learning space, an atrium can function as the heart and spirit of a building, connecting interior rooms and public spaces with the outside environment. However, schools and universities should seek technological and HVAC solutions that maximize energy efficiency. This article discusses how…

  7. Operating room rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, J. Theresia; Hurink, Johann L.; Hartholt, W.; van den Akker, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other

  8. The Virtual Dressing Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of recent developments and future perspectives, addressing the problem of creating a virtual dressing room. First, we review the current state-of-the-art of exiting solutions and discuss their applicability and limitations. We categorize the exiting solutions into thr...

  9. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...

  10. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  11. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form of di...

  12. A stable room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Shuya; Xu, Shaomao; Agrawral, Akanksha; Choudhury, Snehashis; Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-01-01

    .... Rechargeable sodium-sulfur batteries able to operate stably at room temperature are among the most sought-after platforms because such cells take advantage of a two-electron-redox process to achieve...

  13. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  14. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  15. Reading Disorders:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  16. Intercomparison of dispersed radiation readings among film dosimetry, electronic and OSL with X-rays for low dose; Intercomparacion de lecturas de radiacion dispersa entre dosimetria film, electronica y OSL con rayos X para dosis bajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andisco, D. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Medicina, Paraguay 2155, C1121AAA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, S. [CONICET, Saavedra 15, C1083ACA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bourel, V.; Schmidt, L. [Universidad Favaloro, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Solis 453, C1078AAI, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Risio, C., E-mail: dandisco@fmed.uba.ar [Universidad de Belgrano, Facultad de Ingenieria, Zabala 1837, C1426DQG, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    One of the personal dosimetry methods more used for several decades is the dosimetry type film, characterized to possess readings with certain margin of trust. Today other methods exist that many times are presupposed more reliable due to the nature of the detection like the electronic dosimeters or the OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dosimetry. With the purpose of comparing different methods and to can determining the existent differences among each method has been carried out an intercomparison assay. The different dosimeters have been exposed to dispersed radiation generated by a Hemodynamics equipment of the type -arch in C- and a dispersing system of the primary beam. Film dosimeters have been used; OSL (In Light), OSL (Nano Dots) and Electronic with the purpose of knowing and to valorize the existent differences among its readings. Always, the intercomparison exercises have demonstrated to be an useful tool when establishing the measurement capacity and the quality of the results emitted by the laboratories of personal dosimetry services. Also, this type of assays allows obtaining quality indicators of the laboratory performance and they are habitual part of the procedures for accreditation of the same ones. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence is a technology that has grown in Argentina so much in the area of personal dosimetry as in dosimetry in vivo (radiotherapy area). In this intercomparison study, the answers corresponding to each technology were looked for oneself irradiation of the disperse type, that is to say, of very low energy. (Author)

  17. 6 CFR 5.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., at least quarterly, with respect to newly included records. (b) The Department components maintain... Team: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20535-0001; (11) Office of Domestic Preparedness, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice...

  18. Material Specific Design for Room Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O.-Paul; Ofe, Uko; Oriaku, Chijioke; Asiegbu, Dan; Oguzi, Emeka

    2012-02-01

    The transition temperature, Tc, of superconductors has been increased sevenfold from 23K in Nb3Ge to 164K in Hg-1223. A further two-fold increase would get us to above room temperature superconductivity. Studying high temperature superconductors (HTSCs), we have developed a formula that expresses Tc in terms of electronegativity, valence electrons, Ne, atomic number, Z, formula mass and a coupling constant, Ko. We observe an increasing linear relationship between Tc and Ko. Ko also correlates with formula mass and atomic number and the number of atoms in the compound. By our formula, Hg-1223 has Ko = 70. We propose, using our design algorithm, that room temperature superconductivity may be realized in a system with ko = 160; electronegativity = 2.5, Ne/Sqrt Z = 0.8. We proceed to show combinations of oxides and elements that will yield the required parameters for synthesizing reproducible room temperature superconductivity.

  19. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  20. Room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rod arrays have exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetic behaviour with the remanence of 0.926 × 10-3 emu/cm3. We suggest that the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons (such as the electrons of Cu2+ ions) and conductive electrons is the cause of room-temperature ferromagnetism.

  1. [Virtual room of gastroenterology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Osvaldo Mateo; Fittipaldi, Mónica Elsa; Henderson, Eduardo; Krabshuis, Justus Hendrik

    2010-12-01

    The amount of published information and its continuing growth can no longer be managed by an individual searcher. One of today's great challenges for the academic researcher and clinician is to find a relevant scientific article using bibliographic search strategies. We aimed to design and build a Virtual Room of Gastroenterology (VRG) generating real-time automated search strategies and producing bibliographic and full text search results. These results update and complement with the latest evidence the Clinical Guideline Program of the World Gastroenterology Organisation. The HTML driven interface provides a series of pre-formulated MeSH based search strategies for each Aula. For each topic between 10 and 20 specific terms, qualifiers and subheadings are identified. The functionality of the VRG is based on the PubMed's characteristic that allows a search strategy to be captured as a web address. The VRG is available in Spanish and English, and the access is free. There are 28 rooms currently available. All together these rooms provide an advanced bibliographic access using more than 900 pre-programmed MeSH driven strategies. In a further very recent development some of the topics of VRG now allow cascade based searches. These searches look at resource sensitive options and possible ethnic difference per topic. The VRG allows significant reductions in time required to design and carry out complex bibliographic searches in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology and endoscopy. The system updates automatically in real-time thus ensuring the currency of the results.

  2. Planets in a Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, l.; Aloisi, F.; De Angelis, I.

    2017-09-01

    Teaching planetary science using a spherical projector to show the planets' surfaces is a very effective but usually very expensive idea. Whatsmore, it usually assumes the availability of a dedicated space and a trained user. "Planets in a room" is a prototypal low cost version of a small, spherical projector that teachers, museum, planetary scientists and other individuals can easily build and use on their own, to show and teach the planets The project of "Planets in a Room" was made by the italian non-profit association Speak Science with the collaboration of INAF-IAPS of Rome and the Roma Tre University (Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica). This proposal was funded by the Europlanet Outreach Funding Scheme in 2016. "Planets in a room" will be presented during EPSC 2017 to give birth to the second phase of the project, when the outreach and research community will be involved and schools from all over Europe will be invited to participate with the aim of bringing planetary science to a larger audience.

  3. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  4. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  5. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  6. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  7. Making room for volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  8. Room Temperature Curing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    UJ LU LU LU UJ LU W -Q U "O 26 -- - -■- — ■ ■- ■ MBti ^L. IIIIIIII.IHI.I|.UHI,IW’I»;I.!I"IT,U» mpwi«ŕ "^Wl be 190,000 psi which is consistent...was added to the mixture. After 1 hour benzene and water were added and the mixture was stirred until the salt was dissolved. The organic ...for 15 minutes and then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was extracted with two 100 ml portions of water. The organic layer was dried (MgS04

  9. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-01-01

    A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation....

  10. The Future Training Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbian, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    Looks at some of the electronic learning technology that has already been developed and will become common for training, including robots, lucid dreaming, tele-immersion, human interface technology, among others. (JOW)

  11. The Effect of Four Different Approaches to Parent-Child Reading on Young Chinese Children’s Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Forty families with four- to five-year-old Chinese children were chosen as experiment participants and equally divided into four groups for an eight-week parent-child reading experiment in different reading modes. (1) Groups A, B, and C read one of three kinds of Chinese-English audio bilingual picture books respectively: touch reading books, electronic books, and printed books + CDs, 30 minutes per day with their parents in the approach of Early Synchronous Bilingual Reading (ESBR). After th...

  12. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  13. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  14. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  15. Room to Groove?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    . As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about...... the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.......The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors...

  16. Binaural room simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, H.; Blauert, Jens; Pompetzki, W.

    1991-01-01

    In every-day listening the auditory event perceived by a listener is determined not only by the sound signal that a sound emits but also by a variety of environmental parameters. These parameters are the position, orientation and directional characteristics of the sound source, the listener's position and orientation, the geometrical and acoustical properties of surfaces which affect the sound field and the sound propagation properties of the surrounding fluid. A complete set of these parameters can be called an Acoustic Environment. If the auditory event perceived by a listener is manipulated in such a way that the listener is shifted acoustically into a different acoustic environment without moving himself physically, a Virtual Acoustic Environment has been created. Here, we deal with a special technique to set up nearly arbitrary Virtual Acoustic Environments, the Binaural Room Simulation. The purpose of the Binaural Room Simulation is to compute the binaural impulse response related to a virtual acoustic environment taking into account all parameters mentioned above. One possible way to describe a Virtual Acoustic Environment is the concept of the virtual sound sources. Each of the virtual sources emits a certain signal which is correlated but not necessarily identical with the signal emitted by the direct sound source. If source and receiver are non moving, the acoustic environment becomes a linear time-invariant system. Then, the Binaural Impulse Response from the source to a listener' s eardrums contains all relevant auditory information related to the Virtual Acoustic Environment. Listening into the simulated environment can easily be achieved by convolving the Binaural Impulse Response with dry signals and representing the results via headphones.

  17. Room temperature C(sp2)–H oxidative chlorination via photoredox catalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc03010j Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Photoredox catalysis has been developed to achieve oxidative C–H chlorination of aromatic compounds using NaCl as the chlorine source and Na2S2O8 as the oxidant. The reactions occur at room temperature and exhibit exclusive selectivity for C(sp2)–H bonds over C(sp3)–H bonds. The method has been used for the chlorination of a diverse set of substrates, including the expedited synthesis of key intermediates to bioactive compounds and a drug. PMID:29147528

  18. Equivalence of Screen versus Print Reading Comprehension Depends on Task Complexity and Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schroeders, Ulrich; Lenhard, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    As reading and reading assessment become increasingly implemented on electronic devices, the question arises whether reading on screen is comparable with reading on paper. To examine potential differences, we studied reading processes on different proficiency and complexity levels. Specifically, we used data from the standardization sample of the…

  19. Tablet vs. paper: The effect on learners' reading performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare primary school 5th-class students’ electronic text reading performance, reading speed and reading comprehension with tablet PCs and printed books. This study examined a sample of 20 students. The students were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and a treatment group. The control group students read ordinary printed books, and the students in the treatment group read the same text on an electronic tablet PC display. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used for the study. Qualitative data were collected on the reading speed and reading comprehension skills for both groups of students. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the groups in reading speed or the level of reading comprehension. Students’ opinions on tablet PCs and recommendations for future studies are also discussed.

  20. More room for ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To meet the needs of the new ISOLDE experiments, a new extension has been added to the facility's Building 170. The new extension to Building 170. Moving around the ISOLDE hall was almost like an obstacle course until now. The facility's Building 170 simply didn't have an inch to spare and the ISOLDE team's need to set up new experiments, whose installation could have created difficulties from the safety point of view, only exacerbated the problem. "We had ambitious plans to develop new experiments but no room for them", says Mats Lindroos, ISOLDE's technical coordinator. The only solution was to extend the existing building". This was how a new building saw the light of day. Measuring 24 metres long, 20 metres wide and 12 metres high, it is an extension to the existing Building 170 and should be ready for use this year. The new structure makes use of the existing infrastructure, with part of the end wall of Building 170 being kept as a support for steel platforms. The top of this wall had to be cut away ...

  1. Evaluation of Interference of Cellular Phones on Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Preena; Shankargouda, Swapnil; Dicksit, Daniel DevaPrakash; Mahdey, Haydar Majeed; Muzaffar, Danish; Arora, Shelly

    2016-04-01

    Use of mobile phone has been prohibited in many hospitals to prevent interference with medical devices. Electromagnetic radiation emitted from cellular phones might interfere with electronic working length determination. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of a smart phone (Samsung Galaxy Note Edge) on working length determination of electronic apex locators (EALs) Propex II and Rootor. Fifteen intact, non-carious single-rooted teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Visually, working length was determined by using a #15 K-file under stereomicroscope (×20). The effect of cellular phones on electronic working length (EWL) was determined under 2 experimental settings: (1) in a closed room with poor signal strength and (2) in a polyclinic set up with good signal strength and 5 conditions: (1) electronically, without cellular phone in room; (2) electronically, with cellular phone in physical contact with EAL; (3) electronically, with mobile phone in physical contact with EAL and in calling mode for a period of 25 seconds; (4) electronically, mobile phone placed at a distance of 40 cm from the EAL; and (5) electronically, mobile phone placed at a distance of 40 cm and in calling mode for a period of 25 seconds. The EWL was measured 3 times per tooth under each condition. Stability of the readings was scored from 1 to 3: (1) good stability, (2) stable reading after 1 attempt, and (3) stable reading after 2 attempts. The data were compared by using analysis of variance. The EWL measurements were not influenced by the presence of cellular phone and could be determined under all experimental conditions. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that mobile phones do not interfere with the EWL determination. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  3. Madness in Sartre's "The Room"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, E.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Room," part of his short story collection, The Wall (1938), Jean-Paul Sartre investigates madness as an alternative way of bourgeois life and thus takes a stand in the contemporary debate on the existential status of mental illness. "The Room" is a case-study of a "limit situation," as well

  4. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The aim...... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology. Subjects...... a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of six...

  5. Desenvolvimento e calibração de um tensiômetro eletrônico de leitura automática Development and calibration of an electronic tensiometer for automatic reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adunias S. Teixeira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e calibração de tensiômetro de leitura automática, sendo o tensiômetro de mercúrio utilizado como padrão de comparação. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Mecânica e Eletrônica do Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola da UFC. Esse equipamento difere do tensiômetro tradicional por substituir o manômetro de mercúrio por sensor de pressão. Tal dispositivo gera uma saída com valor de até no máximo 4,5 volts. O tensiômetro eletrônico é conectado a uma placa de aquisição de dados (DAQ contendo um microprocessador, conversor analógico/digital (ADC e saída serial, sendo tal placa ligada a um microcomputador. A bancada de ensaio constituiu-se de três caixas plásticas preenchidas com solo de textura franco- arenosa. Os dados foram coletados durante um mês e as equações geradas foram do tipo Count = offset + apsim, em que psim representa o potencial matricial fornecido pelo tensiômetro de mercúrio (kPa e count a saída digial do ADC, com valores adimensionais de 0 a 4.095. Foram obtidos os valores máximo e mínimo de offset de 348,572 e 261,026, e de coeficiente angular de 36,675 kPa-1 e 34,421 kPa-1. Os resultados da regressão linear simples indicaram a existência de regressão a menos de 0,1% de significância e valores de coeficientes de correlação nunca inferiores a 0,9994.This paper presents the development and calibration of a tensiometer for automatic reading where mercury has been replaced by an electronic pressure sensor called the electronic tensiometer. The conventional mercury tensiometer was used as a standard for calibration. Calibration trials were conducted at the Mechanics and Electronics Laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Engineering at Ceará Federal University, Brazil. The electronic tensiometer outputs a maximum 4.5 volts and is connected to a data acquisition system (DAQ composed of a microprocessor, a 12-bit analog to digital

  6. "Vidas secas": a (hyperintertextual reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Maria Dutra Bandoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work conducts a reflection on the notions of hypertext from a few updated views of Vidas Secas by Graciliano Ramos. Our purpose is to carry out the reading of an art object, dissociating hypertext from the idea of a device enabled only by electronic media. Thus, we show that hypertext is also manifested in printed texts, and postulate that literary language can be a manifestation of hypertextuality. Finally, we perform an intertextual reading of the book, seeking to highlight the dialogue between this and other works by representative Brazilian authors.

  7. How professionals read online documents to formulate recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; van der Geest, Thea

    2003-01-01

    Professionals often read with the purpose of formulating a judgment based on what they have read. Increasingly, the documents to be used are available electronically. This adds to the complexity of the task. In the presented study, seven participants read two sets of articles that were used to

  8. A Call to Embrace Social Reading in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Social reading can broadly be described as the experience surrounding the reading of electronic books, more commonly known as eBooks. Utilising eTextbooks and social reading at a university offers some powerful potential to engage students and help them succeed in their studies. A broad overview of the current landscape and recent initiatives…

  9. Tablet vs. Paper: The Effect on Learners' Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan; Akcayir, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare primary school 5th-class students' electronic text reading performance, reading speed and reading comprehension with tablet PCs and printed books. This study examined a sample of 20 students. The students were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and a treatment group. The control group students…

  10. Room-temperature mobility above 2200 cm{sup 2}/V·s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Persson, Ingemar; Nilsson, Daniel; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Palisaitis, Justinas; Forsberg, Urban; Persson, Per O. Å.; Janzén, Erik [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-22

    A high mobility of 2250 cm{sup 2}/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

  11. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  12. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  13. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  14. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  15. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  16. Returning to Reading: An Online Course in French Offers a Snapshot of L2 Reading Habits and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Carolyn; Parnell, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    With todays' students spending increasing amounts of time involved in online activities, there is a growing need to study their online reading habits. Indeed, it is not only students' out-of-class engagement with electronic media that calls for increased attention to the reading skill, in general, and online reading, in particular, but it is also…

  17. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  18. A largely diffuse small room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenburg, George; D'Antonio, Peter

    2005-09-01

    An 8 m×10 m rectangular room is described that will have broad bandwidth diffusion completely covering 5 of its 6 surfaces, i.e., all walls and ceiling surfaces. The dimensions of the room were optimized for minimal standard deviation of the modal response. The wall surfaces are treated with a large prime, single period, number theoretic diffusor 1.2 m deep that wraps around the entire room. The ceiling consists of a 12×13 low frequency diffusor 2 m deep, which is further treated with mid-high frequency diffusors to form a nested, diffractal surface. These surfaces will be described further and illustrated. The room is intended to be deployed as a monitor room for mixing surround sound. It is hoped that the unique combination of a reduced number of specular surfaces and very neutral, wide-band ambience will improve localization (particularly for virtual sources) and offer greater support for (and speed up) the balancing/mixing of multitrack sources. The perceived effectiveness of the diffusor in the ceiling, particularly in the 2 low octaves will be described. The room will also be used as a massively diffuse recording room for various musical formats.

  19. In the LEAR control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  20. Reading charts in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of logarithmic reading charts has sparked interest in standardized reading performance analyses. Such reading charts have been developed according to the standards of the International Council of Ophthalmology. The print size progression in these calibrated charts is in accordance with the mathematical background of EN ISO 8596. These reading charts are: the Bailey-Lovie Word Reading Chart, the Colenbrander English Continuous Text Near Vision Cards, the Oculus Reading Probe II, the MNREAD Charts, the SKread Charts, and the RADNER Reading Charts. The test items used for these reading charts differ among the charts and are standardized to various extents. The Bailey-Lovie Charts, MNREAD Charts, SKread Charts, and RADNER Charts are also meant to measure reading speed and allow determination of further reading parameters such as reading acuity, reading speed based on reading acuity, critical print size, reading score, and logMAR/logRAD ratio. Such calibrated reading charts have already provided valuable insights into the reading performance of patients in many research studies. They are available in many languages and thus facilitate international communication about near visual performance. In the present review article, the backgrounds of these modern reading charts are presented, and their different levels of test-item standardization are discussed. Clinical research studies are mentioned, and a discussion about the immoderately high number of reading acuity notations is included. Using the logReading Acuity Determination ([logRAD] = reading acuity equivalent of logMAR) measure for research purposes would give reading acuity its own identity as a standardized reading parameter in ophthalmology.

  1. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information

  2. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  3. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adrian Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001, heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C. The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE. Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C exhibited the formation of ~5–8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001 crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge–Ge dimers on Ge(001. The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed.

  4. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, George Adrian; Stoflea, Laura Elena; Tanase, Liviu Cristian; Bucur, Ioana Cristina; Răduţoiu, Nicoleta; Vasiliu, Florin; Mercioniu, Ionel; Kuncser, Victor; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail

    2013-12-27

    We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001), heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C). The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C) exhibited the formation of ~5-8 nm diameter Mn₅Ge₃ and Mn11Ge₈ agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001) crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm) deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge-Ge dimers on Ge(001). The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed.

  5. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  6. Plato, Wilde, and Woolf: the poetics of homoerotic "intercourse" in A Room of One's Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanita, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article places Woolf in the context of homoerotic literary ancestry. It suggests that the overall argument in A Room of One's Own owes a debt to Wilde's 1891 pamphlet The Soul of Man under Socialism. It also examines Woolf's controversial meditation on male-female collaboration and intercourse in A Room, and suggests a homoerotic reading of this meditation, drawing on images and ideas of literary transmission and creation from Plato's Symposium.

  7. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  8. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid nitration of electron rich phenols using Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O in glacial acetic acid at room temperature was observed with good yield. The method allows nitration of phenols without oxidation, and isolation of nitration product in a rapid and simple way. The described method is selective for phenols.

  9. A Patchwork Paper: What Paediatricians Should Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper honours a paediatrician whose career has been patchwork but distinguished, with many facets. It is a light-hearted look at the printed (infinitely preferable to the electronic) word. Although the obvious response is "read everything I have written", this would only drive down the stores of Prozac. Read the scientific literature of course. The oldie reads to stay one jump ahead on the ward round. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews rely on the judgement of others, so should be regarded with suspicion. Do your own research, and do not rely on the thoughts of other people. Read beyond PubMed. "There is more in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than is dreamed of in your PubMed" (Shakespeare). Read the giants of the past. Richard Asher has so much to teach. What are the seven sins of medicine, and how many have you committed? Asher is top read of the talk. Learn from the mistakes of the past. Your patient comes first. Read how the medical profession covered up the death of Steve Biko and never compromise with patient safety and your integrity. Finally, remember thou art mortal - read a real book for pleasure. Kindle reading must be like making love to an inflatable doll (not that I have done either). Choose what you relax with; for me, PG Wodehouse, Jane Austen, Billy Bunter and Wisden. Who said and why: 'Madam, under similar circumstances I would have kicked the Archangel Gabriel!'. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Designing switchable polarization and magnetization at room temperature in an oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, P.; Pitcher, M. J.; Alaria, J.; Niu, H.; Borisov, P.; Stamenov, P.; Claridge, J. B.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit long-range order of atomic-scale electric or magnetic dipoles that can be switched by applying an appropriate electric or magnetic field, respectively. Both switching phenomena form the basis of non-volatile random access memory, but in the ferroelectric case, this involves destructive electrical reading and in the magnetic case, a high writing energy is required. In principle, low-power and high-density information storage that combines fast electrical writing and magnetic reading can be realized with magnetoelectric multiferroic materials. These materials not only simultaneously display ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, but also enable magnetic moments to be induced by an external electric field, or electric polarization by a magnetic field. However, synthesizing bulk materials with both long-range orders at room temperature in a single crystalline structure is challenging because conventional ferroelectricity requires closed-shell d0 or s2 cations, whereas ferromagnetic order requires open-shell dn configurations with unpaired electrons. These opposing requirements pose considerable difficulties for atomic-scale design strategies such as magnetic ion substitution into ferroelectrics. One material that exhibits both ferroelectric and magnetic order is BiFeO3, but its cycloidal magnetic structure precludes bulk magnetization and linear magnetoelectric coupling. A solid solution of a ferroelectric and a spin-glass perovskite combines switchable polarization with glassy magnetization, although it lacks long-range magnetic order. Crystal engineering of a layered perovskite has recently resulted in room-temperature polar ferromagnets, but the electrical polarization has not been switchable. Here we combine ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature in a bulk perovskite oxide, by constructing a percolating network of magnetic ions with strong superexchange interactions within a structural scaffold

  11. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  12. Operating room central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamam, Rola

    2017-01-01

    The operating room is a place of surgical intervention with its accompanying bodily and cognitive strain on the performers. Stress in the operating room may lead to the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy as reported hereby in a retina surgeon and is labeled as operating room central serous chorioretinopathy. The same operator performed the optical coherence tomography scans on one retina surgeon. A masked observer estimated the maximal height of the subretinal fluid. Central serous chorioretinopathy recurred four times over a 1-year period 1 -2 days after a stressful day in the operating room, especially when cases were done under topical or subtenon anesthesia for cataract surgery, vitreous surgery or combined surgeries with complex ocular and medical problems and inability for anesthesia team to intervene. Stress management allowed resolution of subretinal fluid between 3 and 4 weeks. Adopting this strategy, no further attacks were documented by optical coherence tomography for 5 years. (1) This is one of a few optical coherence tomography documentation of resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy within 3-4 weeks of its occurrence and its recurrence induced by stress in the operating room; (2) Unassisted topical anesthesia required in patients with complex medical and ocular problems causes more cognitive stress than when surgery is carried under assisted local or general anesthesia (partly due to unexpected ocular or bodily movements); and (3) the available evidence suggests that those overcommitted surgeons (type A personality) may very well be most susceptible to burnout and central serous chorioretinopathy.

  13. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  14. [Working conditions in operating rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułagowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get acquainted with the opinions of the nursing staff on working conditions at their workplace. The study was carried out in a group of 398 nurses working in various kinds of operating rooms at 11 public hospitals. A questionnaire was used as a major tool of this study. The questionnaires were filled in by 259 operating room nurses (circulating nurses) and 139 nurse-anesthetists. The collected data show that working conditions in operating rooms do not ensure safety of the nursing staff at work. The main sources of problems are: work organization, technical factors, work equipment, work space, knowledge of hazards and strenuous factors among nurses, ways of preventing and/or limiting them. These elements are serious occupational risk factors influencing the work process and health status of nurses.

  15. Knowledge of Deaths in Hotel Rooms Diminishes Perceived Value and Elicits Guest Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M; Curtin, Emma R; Jong, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Guest deaths are an inevitable aspect of the hospitality industry. In Study 1, participants read a vignette in which the previous guest died of natural causes, suicide, or homicide. Those who learned of a death (a) saw the room as less valuable, (b) opted to stay in a more basic room in which no death occurred, despite both rooms being offered for free, and (c) anticipated feeling uneasy when imagining an overnight stay. In Study 2, we investigated the persistence of this bias. Perceived room value and anticipatory well-being can be expected to return to baseline levels only many years after the death event. Similar to "stigmatized properties" in real estate, these data confirm an irrational and recalcitrant cognitive bias surrounding consumers' views of death-affected hotel rooms.

  16. Automatic document reading system for technical drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, JennKwei; Fang, Ming

    2001-12-01

    The reading of technical drawings is a complex task for automatic document processing. In this paper we present a system for reading textual descriptions from technical drawings, which provides capabilities for converting paper-based documents into an electronic archiving database system. The proposed system consists of four major processing elements: form learning, form localization, optical character recognition (OCR), and result verification. The algorithms of each element are dedicated to solve the practical problems in reading technical drawing documents. Among them, form localization and OCR are the key processes for automation. Experimental results have shown the feasibility and efficiency of our approaches.

  17. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  18. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome…

  19. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  20. [A scientific reading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D

    1999-09-01

    To provide high quality services, nursing professionals must be prepared to update their knowledge constantly. To achieve this, various methods are available such as courses, conferences and research projects. All of these methods share one essential intellectual activity, scientific reading. Scientific reading is a complex and demanding activity that requires more than basic reading skills. Many nurses find it boring and arduous, probably because it gives them no pleasure, but especially because they lack a method. In this article, the author proposes a scientific reading method consisting of three stages: an overview approach to the text, a superficial reading, and an in-depth reading of the text. This method is simple, easy to use, and entirely appropriate for scientific reading. The author hopes that this method will give more nurses the desire to read and use scientific literature in the practice of their profession.

  1. Thermal plumes in ventilated rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter; Nielsen, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a displacement ventilation system involves determination of the flow rate in the thermal plumes. The flow rate in the plumes and the vertical temperature gradient influence each other, and they are influenced by many factors. This paper shows some descriptions of these effects. Free...... to be the only possible approach to obtain the volume flow in: thermal plumes in ventilated rooms....

  2. Kids’ rooms as plus territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida

    2006-01-01

    they domesticate, capture territories and places. What do our children do to get place, space and rooms, which belong to them? How do they do home? ?To home oneself? can be understood as a self-technology or a tactic (de Certeau, 1984), a tactic to make space around oneself on the places one stay. A way to commit...

  3. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  4. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  5. Transition Room Program, 1967 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Leonard E.

    The Transition Room Program of the Pittsburgh Schools was defined and evaluated by the staff, the administration, and a program evaluator from the Office of Research. The definition included general objectives, anticipated outcomes, student criteria and characteristics, staff qualifications and functions, media, student activities, and staff…

  6. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...... using the boundary element method where absorption is incorporated. An example is given where the geometry of a room is defined by four design modes. The room geometry is optimised to get a uniform sound pressure....

  7. Reading sentences in Serbian: Effects of alphabet and reading mode in self-paced reading task

    OpenAIRE

    Vejnović Dušan; Jovanović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of alphabet (Cyrillic vs. Latin) and reading mode (silent reading vs. reading aloud) on sentence reading speed in Serbian. Entire-sentence and single-word reading times were obtained from the moving window paradigm in the self-paced sentence reading task. Sentences printed in Latin took less time for reading than sentences printed in Cyrillic and silent reading was more rapid than reading aloud. Single-word processing results followed the pattern observe...

  8. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  9. Reading to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  10. Time for Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  11. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  12. Reading for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Peter

    Designed to give parents an overview of reading and some suggestions on how they can help their children, this guide has been used in parent classes and workshops throughout Illinois since 1976. The nine sections of the guide cover the following areas: a general definition of reading, some causes of reading difficulty, various techniques used in…

  13. Perceptual Issues in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    Perception has become an important term in recent literature on reading problems and their solutions. However, the relationship between perception and reading has not been clarified. Tests of visual perception often focus on skills such as copying geometric designs which have little or nothing to do with reading skills or readiness. Researchers…

  14. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  15. Reading as a Whole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Constance

    Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats…

  16. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  17. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  18. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  19. Reading in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Nancy

    In a bilingual education program, reading should be introduced in the child's stronger language. Reading in the second language should be delayed until the child has become fully literate in the first language. Ideally that point should be determined for each child individually. The relative emphasis given to reading in each language is based on…

  20. Macbeth in the Resource Room: Students with Learning Disabilities Study Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Sue

    1995-01-01

    A Shakespearean play was taught in a resource room with students with learning disabilities in grades 10 through 12, in a manner that took advantage of the students' learning differences. Questions about "Macbeth" were developed and investigated before reading the play. The experience increased self-esteem and academic motivation. (SW)

  1. Tablet computers versus optical aids to support education and learning in children and young people with low vision: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial, CREATE (Children Reading with Electronic Assistance To Educate)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael D Crossland; Rachel Thomas; Hilary Unwin; Seelam Bharani; Vijaya K Gothwal; Ana Quartilho; Catey Bunce; Annegret Dahlmann-Noor

    2017-01-01

    .... New 'assistive' technologies such as tablet computers can display text in enlarged font, read text out to the user, allow speech input and conversion into typed text, offer document and spreadsheet...

  2. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  3. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ; Gonca DEMİRTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple s...

  4. The Journey toward Literacy Begins in Infancy: The Reach out and Read Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jean Ciborowski; Forman, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Reach Out and Read is an evidence-based nonprofit organization that promotes early literacy and school readiness in pediatric exam rooms throughout the United States by giving new books to children and advice to parents about the importance of reading aloud. The program began in 1989 at what was then called Boston City Hospital, and is now known…

  5. Using CSL with Special Education and Reading Resource Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Barbara Carter

    1993-01-01

    Describes the experiences of an elementary school resource room teacher in Staten Island (New York) in using community service learning (CSL) with special education and reading resource students. Students planned and carried out a cupcake sale to benefit UNICEF. Parent participation was an important part of the process. (SLD)

  6. Braille Reading Is Less Efficient Than Visual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    The reading performances of fifteen blind readers and fifteen sighted readers were compared by evaluating the reading performances of each reader reading at instructional level from Lippincott's "Basic Reading Series" and from Form A of the "Gray Oral Reading Test." Nine matched pairs of subjects read at grade one first reader level and six pairs…

  7. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  8. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  9. Space Brightness Evaluation for a Daylit Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maruyama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems for lighting design is how to reduce an electric energy. One way to solve this problem is use of daylight, but little is known how to perceive a brightness of a room illuminated by daylight come in through a window and artificial light. Although the horizontal illuminance increases because of daylight, we would not perceive the room as bright as brightness estimated by the illuminance. The purpose of this study is to measure the space brightness for daylit room and to propose a evaluation method. The experiment was conducted with a couple of miniature office rooms, standard room and test room. Test room has several types of windows and standard room has no window. Subject was asked to evaluate the brightness of the test room relative to the standard room with method of magnitude estimation. It was found that brightness of daylit room did not increase simply with horizontal illuminance. Subject perceived a daylit room darker than a room illuminated only by the artificial light even if horizontal illuminance of these room was same. The effect of daylight on space brightness would vary with the window size and intensity of daylight or artificial light.

  10. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  11. Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms

    OpenAIRE

    El Gharbi, Najla; Benzaoui, Ahmed; Bennacer, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The hospital is the place where we find simultaneously people whose health state is weakened, or vulnerable, and pathogenic micro-organisms able to worsen their health. Because these, the quality of the air in hospital must be in conformity with precise criteria in the buildings such everyday usage, and in particular in the buildings where some risk of specific pollution exist as in operating rooms. In this paper, we present a modelisation and three dimensional numeric...

  12. Library rooms or Library halls

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-01-01

    Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with tw...

  13. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  14. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  15. Judith Shakespeare – Undead or Alive? On Kajsa Dahlberg’s Artist Book A Room of One’s Own / A Thousand Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Trine Friis

    2015-01-01

    This short essay conducts a reading of Kajsa Dahlberg's artist book A Room of One's Own / A Thousand Libraries, which compiles all underlinings and marginal notes made by readers of library copies of the Swedish translation of Virginia Woolf's essay, 'A Room of One's Own', over half a century. Ri...

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  17. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  18. Training for developing reading comprehension and reading for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribac, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a readed text is the aim of reading at school. A reader reads to understand the meaning of a readed text and possibly use acquired informations in new sizuations. Student books and other written material is commonly used at schools. Reading comprehension difficulties lead toward loweer grades and consequently, to learning insuccess. Among students whit reading comprehension difficulties are some whit lacks in specific learning areas, such as difficulties at reading and writt...

  19. Measuring Loudspeaker Distortion and Room Reverberation Time Using a Speakerphone

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsson, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis project was carried out during the spring semester of 2016 at the company Limes Audio. The company specializes in making software, electronics, industrial design and mechanics with the aim to improve audio quality in loudspeaking communication systems. The performance of audio conferencing systems may degrade if there are distortions, or if the acoustical properties of the room are unfavorable. To ensure that the system works optimally, any unwanted effects must first be id...

  20. The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989.

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world.

  1. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  2. Clean room technology in surgery suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The principles of clean room technology and the criteria for their application to surgery are discussed. The basic types of surgical clean rooms are presented along with their advantages and disadvantages. Topics discussed include: microbiology of surgery suites; principles of laminar airflow systems, and their use in surgery; and asepsis and the operating room.

  3. Auditory modelling for assessing room acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorp Schuitman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The acoustics of a concert hall, or any other room, are generally assessed by measuring room impulse responses for one or multiple source and receiver location(s). From these responses, objective parameters can be determined that should be related to various perceptual attributes of room acoustics.

  4. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  5. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  6. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...... not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow...... and develop the children’s initiative....

  7. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  8. Patient doses and occupational exposure in a hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, C; Pérez-García, H; Agulla, M; Torres, R; Miguel, D; Del Castillo, A; Flota, C M; Alonso, D; de Frutos, J; Vaquero, C

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the radiation exposure to patients and workers in a new vascular hybrid operating room during X-ray-guided procedures. During one year, data from 260 interventions performed in a hybrid operating room equipped with a Siemens Artis Zeego angiography system were monitored. The patient doses were analysed using the following parameters: radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose. Staff radiation exposure and ambient dose equivalent were also measured using direct reading dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose were, on average, 19:15min, 67Gy·cm(2), 0.41Gy and 0.23Gy, respectively. Although the contribution of the acquisition mode was smaller than 5% in terms of the radiation time, this mode accounted for more than 60% of the effective dose per patient. All of the worker dose measurements remained below the limits established by law. The working conditions in the hybrid operating room HOR are safe in terms of patient and staff radiation protection. Nevertheless, doses are highly dependent on the workload; thus, further research is necessary to evaluate any possible radiological deviation of the daily working conditions in the HOR. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  10. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  11. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  12. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  13. 電子童書之互動程度對三年級與五年級兒童閱聽成效之影響 The Impact of Interactive Levels of Electronic Children’s Books on Children’s Reading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 互動程度對電子書閱聽成效之影響力未有定論。本研究期望了解不同互動程度對不同性別、年級兒童閱聽電子童書之成效所造成的影響。本研究設計為一2×2×3之三因子獨立樣本實驗,以基隆某國小159名三年級與152名五年級學童為研究樣本;採用現有網路電子童書修改後為刺激物,操控無、低、高三種互動程度。藉由實驗與問卷了解不同互動程度是否影響不同年級與性別之參與者的閱聽成效。研究結果發現:一、年齡與互動程度交互影響整體閱聽成效,低互動能加強三年級的閱聽成效;二、低互動增強三年級圖像記憶表現,高互動則造成干擾;三、高互動在任何條件下皆未帶來任何顯著的助益;四、女生有較良好的整體閱聽成效表現;五、具備電腦設備與網路經驗正面影響閱聽成效,而電子書的閱聽經驗則否;六、電子書的閱讀經驗有巨大的區域性差異。This research studies shows different impact of interactive levels of electronic children’s book (ECB on reading effect for children with different age and gender. The high interactive function of ECB seem to enrich the reader’s sensory experiences, but learning obstacles could hide behind the attractive functions. The debates of influence from interactivity in ECB still remain. This research was achieved through a 2×2×3 three-factorial individual experiment and a questionnaire. In total, there were 159 third graders and 152 fifth graders recruited from Keelong City for this research. The stimuli were images modified from an online electronic book to control three interactive levels, which were “no interactivity”, “low in interactivity”, and “high interactive” levels. The participants answered a series of questions after watching and/or playing with one of the stimuli. The results suggest: 1. There was significant interaction between the

  14. Library rooms or Library halls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with two or three naves, like churches, reflecting thus the spiritual value of the books contained there. Next to that inspiring function, library rooms had also the task of representing the entire logical and conceptual universe of human knowledge in a figurative way, including for this purpose also the and Kunst- und Wunderkammern, namely the collections of natural, artficial objects, and works of art. The importance of library rooms and their function was understood already in the early decades of the seventeenth century, as underlined in the treatise, Musei sive Bibliothecae tam privatae quam publicae Extructio, Instructio, Cura, Usus, written by the Jesuit Claude Clément and published in 1635. Almost the entire volume is dedicated to the decoration and ornamentation of the Saloni, and the function of the library is identified exclusively with the preservation and decoration of the collection, neglecting more specifically bibliographic aspects or those connected to library science. The architectural structure of the Saloni was destined to change in relation to two factors, namely the form of books, and the sources of light. As a consequence, from the end of the sixteenth century – or perhaps even before if one considers the fragments of the Library of Urbino belonging to Federico da Montefeltro – shelves and cabinets have been placed no longer in the center of the room, but were set against the walls. This new disposition of the furniture, surmounted by

  15. Reading apps for children: Readability from the design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Wasan Abdulwahab; Husni, Husniza

    2017-10-01

    Electronic reading for young children opens new avenues especially with the advance of modern reading devices. The readability of mobile learning applications has received extensive attention by the designers and developers. The reason for such concern is due to its importance in determining usability related issues especially in the design context for children. In many cases, children find it difficult to interact with mobile reading apps. This is because apps for reading and for entertainment require different features. As such, this study sets out three objectives: 1) to evaluate five reading apps for young children from design perspectives; 2) to examine the readability for current existing mobile apps for reading and 3) to propose and evaluate mobile apps UI guideline for readability. Readability indices, observation and interview were conducted on 6 - 8 years old students. The obtained result showed that certain reading apps provide better reading experience for children than others. Some of the reasons are mostly related to the design characteristics embedded within the app. In addition, the use of animation was found to stimulate children reading experience as it is believed to offer the interactivity elements to gain their interest and willingness to read. These findings are believed to provide the recommendations and insights for designers of reading apps for children.

  16. Dedicated orthopedic operating room unit improves operating room efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Travis J; Gad, Bishoy V; Klika, Alison K; Mounir-Soliman, Loran S; Gerritsen, Ryan L; Barsoum, Wael K

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of dedicated orthopedic operating rooms (OR) on minimizing time spent on perioperative processes to increase OR throughput in total knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. The use of a dedicated orthopedic unit that included 6 ORs with staff allocated only for those ORs was compared to the use of a traditional staffing model. After matching to simulate randomization, each group consisted of 422 procedures. The dedicated orthopedic unit improved average anesthesia controlled time by 4 minutes (Poperative time by 7 minutes (P=.004) and turnover time by 8 minutes (P<.001). An overall improvement of 19 minutes per procedure using the dedicated unit was observed. Utilizing a dedicated orthopedic unit can save time without increasing adverse events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reading and writing single-atom magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Paul, William; Willke, Philip; Choi, Taeyoung; Greber, Thomas; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Lutz, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    The single-atom bit represents the ultimate limit of the classical approach to high-density magnetic storage media. So far, the smallest individually addressable bistable magnetic bits have consisted of 3-12 atoms. Long magnetic relaxation times have been demonstrated for single lanthanide atoms in molecular magnets, for lanthanides diluted in bulk crystals, and recently for ensembles of holmium (Ho) atoms supported on magnesium oxide (MgO). These experiments suggest a path towards data storage at the atomic limit, but the way in which individual magnetic centres are accessed remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the reading and writing of the magnetism of individual Ho atoms on MgO, and show that they independently retain their magnetic information over many hours. We read the Ho states using tunnel magnetoresistance and write the states with current pulses using a scanning tunnelling microscope. The magnetic origin of the long-lived states is confirmed by single-atom electron spin resonance on a nearby iron sensor atom, which also shows that Ho has a large out-of-plane moment of 10.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons on this surface. To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible.

  18. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  19. Reading, Writing, and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Vicki A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how secondary-school content-area teachers can improve student comprehension of text material by incorporating reading and writing strategies into their classroom instruction. Illustrates relationships among reading, writing, and understanding. Suggests framework for staff-development program. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  20. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  1. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  2. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  3. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  4. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  5. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time Print A A A What's in this article? ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  6. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  7. Novel Reading Maturity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol

    Designed to assess the maturity level of the novels which students read, the Novel Reading Maturity Scale (NRMS) is based on the notion that fiction of high quality is characterized by a number of themes or topics. The list of 22 topics in NRMS came from a survey of several guides on books for teenagers. To explore the reliability of the scale,…

  8. Read across the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carl A., II; Satterlee, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project between several year-round elementary schools in Indianapolis (Indiana) to promote reading, based on the National Education Association's campaign using Dr. Seuss books. Discusses planning with library media specialists, activities that included writing about reading, volunteers and funding, and evaluation. (LRW)

  9. Television and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  10. Effective Beginning Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the National Reading Panel is too narrow in its presentation of scientifically valid reading research. Presents a sample of practices that enjoy support but were ignored by the panel and qualitative research that was out of bounds because of the methodological guidelines of the panel. Concludes that most of the cutting edge of the…

  11. READING--A THINKING PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAUFFER, RUSSELL G.

    IN ORDER TO TEACH READING AS A THINKING PROCESS, TEACHERS SHOULD BELIEVE THAT CHILDREN CAN THINK AND CAN BE TAUGHT TO READ CRITICALLY, EVEN AT A VERY YOUNG AGE. THREE ASPECTS OF THE READING-THINKING PROCESS INCLUDE DECLARATION OF PURPOSES, REASONING, AND JUDGMENT. THE NATURE OF THE PURPOSES DETERMINES WHAT IS TO BE READ AND HOW IT IS TO BE READ.…

  12. Design and Development of a Relative Humidity and Room Temperature Measurement System with On Line Data Logging Feature for Monitoring the Fermentation Room of Tea Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.

  13. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  14. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  15. To Read or Not to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    primary purpose of raising the literacy of Navy recruits who have difficulty absorbing military training because of a readingl dis- ability. TIhe desired...intelligent decisions, and read with a high jegree of understanding. Navy school curricula are designed to teach the skil !. needed to operate, maintain

  16. Neutron spectrometry and determination of neutron ambient dose equivalents in different LINAC radiotherapy rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Morales, E.; Amgarou, K. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Terron, J.A. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. E- 41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Rosello, J.; Brualla, L. [ERESA, Avda. Tres Cruces s/n. E-46014 Valencia (Spain); Nunez, L. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital. Puerta de Hierro. E-28222 Majadahonda (Spain); Colmenares, R. [Serv. de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hosp. Ramon y Cajal, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Particulas. Univ. de Santiago. E-15782 Santiago de Compostela. Spain (Spain); Hartmann, G.H. [DKFZ E0400 Im Neuenheimer Feld 280. D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany) (Germany); Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. E- 41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Dpto. de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica. Universidad de Sevilla. E-41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Fernandez, F. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11 E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    A project has been set up to study the effect on a radiotherapy patient of the neutrons produced around the LINAC accelerator head by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above {approx}8 MeV. These neutrons may reach directly the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalised, scattering all over the treatment room and affecting the patient as well, contributing to peripheral dose. Spectrometry was performed with a calibrated and validated set of Bonner spheres at a point located at 50 cm from the isocenter, as well as at the place where a digital device for measuring neutrons, based on the upset of SRAM memories induced by thermal neutrons, is located inside the treatment room. Exposures have taken place in six LINAC accelerators with different energies (from 15 to 23 MV) with the aim of relating the spectrometer measurements with the readings of the digital device under various exposure and room geometry conditions. The final purpose of the project is to be able to relate, under any given treatment condition and room geometry, the readings of this digital device to patient neutron effective dose and peripheral dose in organs of interest. This would allow inferring the probability of developing second malignancies as a consequence of the treatment. Results indicate that unit neutron fluence spectra at 50 cm from the isocenter do not depend on accelerator characteristics, while spectra at the place of the digital device are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry.

  17. Microscopic origin of read current noise in TaOx-based resistive switching memory by ultra-low temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Cai, Yimao; Liu, Yefan; Fang, Yichen; Yu, Muxi; Tan, Shenghu; Huang, Ru

    2016-04-01

    TaOx-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) attracts considerable attention for the development of next generation nonvolatile memories. However, read current noise in RRAM is one of the critical concerns for storage application, and its microscopic origin is still under debate. In this work, the read current noise in TaOx-based RRAM was studied thoroughly. Based on a noise power spectral density analysis at room temperature and at ultra-low temperature of 25 K, discrete random telegraph noise (RTN) and continuous average current fluctuation (ACF) are identified and decoupled from the total read current noise in TaOx RRAM devices. A statistical comparison of noise amplitude further reveals that ACF depends strongly on the temperature, whereas RTN is independent of the temperature. Measurement results combined with conduction mechanism analysis show that RTN in TaOx RRAM devices arises from electron trapping/detrapping process in the hopping conduction, and ACF is originated from the thermal activation of conduction centers that form the percolation network. At last, a unified model in the framework of hopping conduction is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of both RTN and ACF noise, which can provide meaningful guidelines for designing noise-immune RRAM devices.

  18. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  19. Low-field magnetocurrent above 200% in a spin-valve transistor at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anil Kumar, P.S.; Jansen, R.; van 't Erve, O.M.J.; Vlutters, R.; de Haan, P.; Lodder, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A spin-valve transistor (SVT) that employs hot electrons is shown to exhibit a huge magnetotransport effect at room temperature in small magnetic fields. The SVT is a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid structure in which hot electrons are injected into a NiFe/Au/Co spin valve, and collected on the

  20. The monitoring system of the ATLAS muon spectrometer read out driver

    CERN Document Server

    Capasso, Luciano

    My PhD work focuses upon the Read Out Driver (ROD) of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The ROD is a VME64x board, designed around two Xilinx Virtex-II FPGAs and an ARM7 microcontroller and it is located off-detector, in a counting room of the ATLAS cavern at the CERN. The readout data of the ATLAS’ RPC Muon spectrometer are collected by the front-end electronics and transferred via optical fibres to the ROD boards in the counting room. The ROD arranges all the data fragments of a sector of the spectrometer in a unique event. This is made by the Event Builder Logic, a cluster of Finite State Machines that parses the fragments, checks their syntax and builds an event containing all the sector data. In the presentation I will describe the Builder Monitor, developed by me in order to analyze the Event Builder timing performance. It is designed around a 32-bit soft-core microprocessor, embedded in the same FPGA hosting the Builder logic. This approach makes it possible to track the algorithm execution in the field. ...

  1. Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = −1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = −0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

  2. The impact of reading self-efficacy and task value on reading comprehension scores in different item formats

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2011-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published as Solheim, O.J. (2011) The Impact of Reading Self-Efficacy and Task Value on Reading Comprehension Scores in Different Item Formats. Reading Psychology , 32(1), pp. 1-27. The article is available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02702710903256601#.UuJ9frSUlaQ. It has been hypothesized that students with low self-efficacy will struggle with complex reading tasks in assessment situations. In this study we examined whether per...

  3. Room acoustics for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, R; Duquesnoy, A J

    1980-12-01

    This article deals with the combined effects of noise and reverberation on the speech-reception threshold for sentences. It is based on a series of current investigations on: (1) the modulation-transfer function as a measure of speech intelligibility in rooms, (2) the applicability of this concept to hearing-impaired persons, and (3) hearing loss for speech in quiet and in noise as a function of age. It is shown that, generally, in auditoria, classrooms, etc. the reverberation time T, acceptable for normal-hearing listeners, has to be reduced to (0.75)DT in order to be acceptable for elderly subjects with a hearing loss of D dB for speech in noise; for listening conditions as in lounges, restaurants, etc. the corresponding value is (0.82)DT.

  4. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  5. Reading Engagement: A Comparison between E-Books and Traditional Print Books in an Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Brown, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Electronic books (e-books) are gaining popularity for personal reading. Options for access to a large selection of book titles and "anytime/anywhere" reading choices have added to the increased use of e-books. For this study, 22 third-grade students completed satisfaction surveys and reading comprehension tests on three separate reading…

  6. E-Book and Printed Book Reading in Different Contexts as Emergent Literacy Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: We present 3 studies that focused on preschoolers' electronic book (e-book) reading in different contexts aimed at supporting children's early literacy. In Study 1 we researched the impact of children's age and number of independent readings on phonological awareness and word reading. We found that all age groups benefited from…

  7. Microsaccades during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norick R Bowers

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1 a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2 an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  8. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  9. Microsaccades during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Norick R; Poletti, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1) a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2) an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  10. Reading between eye saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-07-30

    Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  11. Titanium nitride room-temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Iu.G., E-mail: morozov@ism.ac.ru [Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Academician Osipyan Street, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Belousova, O.V. [Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Academician Osipyan Street, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Belyakov, O.A. [Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk, 68 Bol' shevistskaya Street, 430005 (Russian Federation); Parkin, I.P., E-mail: i.p.parkin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Materials Chemistry Research Centre, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Sathasivam, S. [Department of Chemistry, Materials Chemistry Research Centre, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Kuznetcov, M.V., E-mail: maxim1968@mail.ru [All-Russian Research Institute on Problems of Civil Defense and Emergencies of Emergency Control Ministry of Russia (EMERCOM), 7 Davidkovskaya Street, Moscow, 121352 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-05

    Cubic and near-spherical TiN nanoparticles ranging in average size from 20 to 125 nm were prepared by levitation-jet aerosol synthesis through condensation of titanium vapor in an inert gas flow with gaseous nitrogen injection. The nanoparticles were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET measurements, UV–Vis, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. Room-temperature ferromagnetism with maximum magnetization up to 2.5 emu/g was recorded for the nanoparticles. The results indicate that the observed ferromagnetic ordering was related to the defect Ti–N structures on the surface of nanoparticles. This suggestion is in good correlation with the measured spectroscopical data. - Highlights: • Levitation-jet aerosol synthesis of TiN nanoparticles (NPs). • SEM, XRD, BET, UV–vis, FT-IR, Raman, XPS and magnetic characterization of the NPs. • Correlation between optical and XPS measurements data and maximum magnetization of the NPs.

  12. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Attention and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  14. [A single blood pressure reading during check-up for hypertension leads to a change in management more often than multiple readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbersen, R; Smits, P; Lenders, J W; Thien, T

    1994-01-29

    To define the number of blood pressure readings necessary during a patient's visit to serve as a correct reference for patient management. Observational study. Outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. In a period of 30 months blood pressure was measured in 250-300 patients with hypertension during 1008 patients' visits. All readings were done by the same physician in the same room with the same system, after the patients had been submitted to at least 10 minutes of supine rest. Three readings were taken simultaneously with a mercury sphygmomanometer and (via a Y-connector) with a semiautomatic oscillometric method. Blood pressure readings of 932 visits were available for further analysis. Both methods gave similar results for the mean of each reading and for the combination of 2 or 3 readings. Based on the first diastolic reading alone instead of the mean of 3 readings, 25% of the patients would have been subjected to different patient management. On the basis of the first two readings II% would have been treated differently. No definite recommendation can be made for the ideal number of blood pressure readings per visit, but with only 1 or 2 readings, 11-25% of the subjects would have been submitted to different management.

  15. From Baltic rooms to conference rooms: my jouney with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    From time spent in murky, mosquito-filled mangrove swamps searching for fiddler crabs, to being transported off ships in webbed "man-baskets" on inky-black winter mornings to sample sea ice, to teaching rooms full of students the benefits of information organization, the wonders of science have long shaped my career path. Regardless of surroundings, the driving factor has always been a desire to learn new skills, then try to figure out how to use them to make work easier or more efficient for myself and hopefully others. Somewhere along the way, I've switched from doing it primarily for my "own" research projects, to a focus on helping others with theirs. Like many in this field, my route to a career in data science has influenced how I do my work. Along the way I've carried skills with me but also learned a few things that have made my journey both practical and fun. In this presentation, I'll discuss a few key factors that contribute to my current efforts as a data curation specialist in a research library, including communication (translation of "library" concepts to "science" concepts and vice versa), flexibility (ability to accomodate ideas, pace and values of those I'm working with), and prioritization (learning to balance what's valuable to researchers with principles important to libraries, curators, repositories, archives and other groups with which I interact).

  16. The effect of nail polish on pulse oximetry readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Akin Korhan, Esra; Dizer, Berna

    2014-04-01

    Pulse oximeters utilise the pulsatile nature of arterial blood flow to distinguish it from venous flow and estimate oxygen saturation in arterial blood. Pulse oximetry is primarily used in hospital wards, emergency rooms, intensive care units, operating rooms and home care. The objective of this study is to determine whether the use of nail polish of various colours have an effect on oximeter readings of oxygen saturation value. The sample group of this study is comprised of 40 healthy women. In the first phase of the study, readings were taken on left and right hand fingers, with no nail polish, to determine any differences in oxygen saturation value. In the second phase of the study, 10 different colours of nail polish, namely dark red, yellow, dark blue, green, purple, brown, white, metallic, black and pink, of the same brand were applied. Readings were recorded once oxygen saturation values on the screen became stable. Number and percentage distributions along with Wilcoxon signed ranks and Friedman test were used in the analysis of data. Only red nail polish did not yield statistically significant reading results. We conclude that different nail polish colours cause a clinically significant change in pulse oximeter readings in healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting Reverberant Room-to-Room Radio Channel by Using Graphs and Rays in Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Yang; Pedersen, Troels; Gan, Mingming

    This paper proposes a hybrid modeling approach for prediction of the room-to-room radio propagation channel. The model combines ray tracing with propagation graph. The propagation graph vertices are obtained at each room by ray tracing with the assumption that the receive antenna (or transmit...... and being compared with the measured data. The results show that the proposed modeling works with the simplest parameter settings, i.e. assuming no propagation from room containing receive antenna to room containing transmit antenna, ray tracing applied separately in each room only involves mechanism...

  18. Operating room metrics score card-creating a prototype for individualized feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Gimlich, Robert; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    The balance between reducing costs and inefficiencies with that of patient safety is a challenging problem faced in the operating room suite. An ongoing challenge is the creation of effective strategies that reduce these inefficiencies and provide real-time personalized metrics and electronic feedback to anesthesia practitioners. We created a sample report card structure, utilizing existing informatics systems. This system allows to gather and analyze operating room metrics for each anesthesia provider and offer personalized feedback. To accomplish this task, we identified key metrics that represented time and quality parameters. We collected these data for individual anesthesiologists and compared performance to the overall group average. Data were presented as an electronic score card and made available to individual clinicians on a real-time basis in an effort to provide effective feedback. These metrics included number of cancelled cases, average turnover time, average time to operating room ready and patient in room, number of delayed first case starts, average induction time, average extubation time, average time to recovery room arrival to discharge, performance feedback from other providers, compliance to various protocols, and total anesthetic costs. The concept we propose can easily be generalized to a variety of operating room settings, types of facilities and OR health care professionals. Such a scorecard can be created using content that is important for operating room efficiency, research, and practice improvement for anesthesia providers.

  19. Zn-Mn-O: Ferromagnet at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Dušan D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor Zn-Mn-O crystallites were synthesized by a solid state reaction method starting from the thermal decomposition of the appropriate oxalates. Samples were thermally treated in air at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900°C. The nominal concentrations of manganese werex = 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.10. The samples were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction method, magnetization measurements and by electron paramagnetic resonance. X-ray diffractgrams show a dominant wurtzite structure of Zn-Mn-O. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Zn-Mn-O samples with manganese concentrations x ≤ 0.04, thermally treated at low temperature (500°C. The saturation magnetiza­tion for the sample with x = 0.01 was 0.05 μB/Mn. The room temperature ferromagnetism seems to be due to the diffusion of Zn into the Mn-oxides grains.

  20. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  1. Hydrogen-incorporation stabilization of metallic VO2(R) phase to room temperature, displaying promising low-temperature thermoelectric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Feng, Feng; Feng, Jun; Dai, Jun; Peng, Lele; Zhao, Jiyin; Yang, Jinlong; Si, Cheng; Wu, Ziyu; Xie, Yi

    2011-09-07

    Regulation of electron-electron correlation has been found to be a new effective way to selectively control carrier concentration, which is a crucial step toward improving thermoelectric properties. The pure electronic behavior successfully stabilized the nonambient metallic VO(2)(R) to room temperature, giving excellent thermoelectric performance among the simple oxides with wider working temperature ranges.

  2. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  3. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders may have other learning disabilities, too, including problems with writing or numbers . Visit learning disabilities for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain- ...

  4. Idioms and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter

    1974-01-01

    Presents the results of a study designed to determine whether idioms cause difficulty for students in the reading and understanding of prose, concluding that methods of teaching idioms should be explored. (RB)

  5. Reading Victorian Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dunstan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This introduction reflects on reading sculpture in Victorian culture, and in Victorian studies. How did the Victorians read sculpture? How should we read it today? What might a sculpture connote in different contexts: the home, the street, the gallery, the colony? How broadly should we define what we describe as ‘Victorian sculpture’, in light of nineteenth-century industrial and technological innovation? For the Victorians, as for modern readers of Victorian sculpture, legibility remains a prime preoccupation when addressing these questions. This introduction suggests that Victorian sculpture’s resistance to reading renders it fertile ground for revisiting and reinterpreting individual works, their creators, textual responses to them, and the greater significance of their cumulative cultural imprint.

  6. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  7. Efficiency in Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Students' Competency in Reading Printed and Digital Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Erol

    2013-01-01

    In this study, survey model was used, for investigating the effect of printed and electronic texts on the reading comprehension levels of teacher candidates. While dependent variable of the research comprises the levels of understanding of the teacher candidates, independent variable comprises the departments of the teacher candidates, types of…

  8. Editorial: Summer Reading 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo by Flickr user Moyan_Brenn (CC BY 2.0 Editors from In The Library With The Lead Pipe are taking a break from our regular schedule to share our summer reading favs. Tell us what you’ve been reading these last few months in the comments! Hugh It is, of course, winter where I live. This makes […

  9. Reading on LCD vs e-Ink displays: effects on fatigue and visual strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Bochud, Yves; Bergamin, Per; Wurtz, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    Most recently light and mobile reading devices with high display resolutions have become popular and they may open new possibilities for reading applications in education, business and the private sector. The ability to adapt font size may also open new reading opportunities for people with impaired or low vision. Based on their display technology two major groups of reading devices can be distinguished. One type, predominantly found in dedicated e-book readers, uses electronic paper also known as e-Ink. Other devices, mostly multifunction tablet-PCs, are equipped with backlit LCD displays. While it has long been accepted that reading on electronic displays is slow and associated with visual fatigue, this new generation is explicitly promoted for reading. Since research has shown that, compared to reading on electronic displays, reading on paper is faster and requires fewer fixations per line, one would expect differential effects when comparing reading behaviour on e-Ink and LCD. In the present study we therefore compared experimentally how these two display types are suited for reading over an extended period of time. Participants read for several hours on either e-Ink or LCD, and different measures of reading behaviour and visual strain were regularly recorded. These dependent measures included subjective (visual) fatigue, a letter search task, reading speed, oculomotor behaviour and the pupillary light reflex. Results suggested that reading on the two display types is very similar in terms of both subjective and objective measures. It is not the technology itself, but rather the image quality that seems crucial for reading. Compared to the visual display units used in the previous few decades, these more recent electronic displays allow for good and comfortable reading, even for extended periods of time. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Analysis of Operating Room Efficiency in a Burn Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Tarik D; Imran, Jonathan B; Clark, Audra; Arnoldo, Brett A; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2017-05-04

    Many operating room (OR) processes can limit productivity. Surprisingly, little has been done to identify which OR processes limit downstream activities. Here, the authors aimed to review their burn OR procedures to determine if and where inefficiencies exist. Data for all operations performed in a dedicated burn OR from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016 were reviewed in the electronic medical records of our public, teaching hospital. The total time spent was allocated into the following components: induction (patient in room to end of induction), preparation (end of induction to procedure start), procedure (procedure start to procedure end), exit (procedure end to patient out of room), and turnover (patient out of room to next patient in room). Operative times and work relative value units generated were summarized. A total of 1033 cases were performed. Mean ± SD times for each component in minutes were induction (12.4 ± 7.4), preparation (32.1 ± 15.4), procedure (68.21 ± 42.0), exit (14.7 ± 11.0), turnover (50.5 ± 30.0), and total aggregation of components (155.8 ± 65.4). Procedure, turnover, and preparation were the 3 largest time components of an operation in decreasing order (39, 29, and 18%). Mean work relative value units per month was 1749.4 ± 411.9. Average work relative value units per OR hour was 11.7 ± 8.5. The time spent doing procedures comprises about 40% of the total operational time in a burn OR. Other than the procedure itself, the second and third largest component of an operation were turnover and preparation time, respectively.

  11. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a book, magazine, a sheet of paper etc to a blind person. To achieve that, a Raspberry pi board, a light sensor, OpenCV computer vision library, Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition library, eSpeak Text-to-Speech Synthesizer (TTS library are integrated, which is enables the blind person to hear a narration from text on a book, magazine, a sheet etc.

  12. Child-Centered Reading Intervention: See, Talk, Dictate, Read, Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…

  13. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  14. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  15. Reconsidering Children's Readings: Insights into the Reading Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Poonam; Feathers, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the complex reading processes of two primary grade struggling readers. It provides a more complete picture of the readers' use of all parts of a text, verbal and visual, to construct meaning during reading. The oral reading data show that students used various linguistic strategies to read words, and the eye-tracking data…

  16. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  17. Binocular advantages in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-03

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  19. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  20. Electronic Paper Turns the Page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than the electronic book, the technology that is most likely to transform reading and writing will be electronic paper (e-paper). Traces the evolution of e-paper from its prototype created by Xerox PARC's Nick Sheridon in 1975 to the E Ink/Lucent e-paper made from e-ink and plastic transistors. Highlights future…

  1. Comparison of Microbial Contamination Levels Among Hospital Operating Rooms and Industrial Clean Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Martin S.; Puleo, John R.; Marshall, James H.; Oxborrow, Gordon S.

    1968-01-01

    Microbial contamination in industrial clean rooms was compared quantitatively and qualitatively with that of hospital operating rooms. The number of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms which accumulated on stainless-steel strips exposed for periods up to 21 weeks to the intramural air of four operating rooms was at least 1 log higher than the accumulation on strips exposed in four clean rooms, and was essentially the same as that found in two factory areas. Volumetric air samplings showed that there were significantly higher numbers of airborne viable particles per cubic foot of air in operating rooms than in industrial clean rooms. In contrast to clean rooms, where most of the airborne contaminants were those associated with human hair, skin, and respiratory tract, the hospital operating rooms showed a very high level of microorganisms associated with dust and soil. Images Fig. 4 PMID:5649862

  2. Reading Attitudes as a Predictor of Latino Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further research. Prior research has found a significant correlation between affective components of reading and reading comprehension, even after controlling...

  3. READING FOR YOUTH INTEREST DURING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia, MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and images conquer them permanently and irrevocably even children from the earliest age. For instance, I can say that as they grow departs books. So many young people arrive at teens refuse to read a book, even electronically. Children considered mandatory reading something imposed by adults and tries to escape, finding other concerns. They also have no motivation, the universe discovered through books hardly seems interesting, which is, in their opinion, obsolete. The environment in which I work led me to satisfy my curiosity namely that of finding out to what extent reading is among the priorities of young people today. This research considers the study of attitudes, behaviors, opinions and intentions of young people their interest in reading, be it physical or books in electronic format. Then I directed a questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Management Marketing in Economic Affairs Rm. Valcea. For example, we chose a target group of young people aged between 18 and 25 years.

  4. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  5. The Many Fibers of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…

  6. Reading and the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

  7. Analyzing Student Difficulties in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    According to this paper, a good reading teacher is able to analyze problems faced by students in reading and remediate that which is necessary. The paper stresses that the reading teacher needs to be a good observer of student reading habits to notice where to intervene to improve the skills and attitudes of the reader. It discusses diagnosis and…

  8. Effective interventions for reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

    1992-06-01

    A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested.

  9. In Defense of Reading Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

  10. What Is a Reading Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

  11. When Do Children Read Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ours, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  12. Increasing operating room efficiency through parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David M; Sokal, Suzanne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Berger, David L

    2006-01-01

    Because of rising costs and shrinking reimbursements, hospitals must continually find ways to improve efficiency and productivity. This study attempts to increase caseloads in ambulatory surgery operating rooms while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. In most hospitals, patients move through their operative day in a linear fashion, starting at registration and finishing in the recovery room. Given this pattern, only 1 patient may occupy the efforts of the operating room team at a time. By processing patients in a parallel fashion, operating room efficiency and patient throughput are increased while costs remain stable. Patients undergoing hernia repairs under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group received their local anesthesia in the operating room at the start of the surgery. The experimental group patients received their local anesthesia in the induction room by the surgeon while the operating room was being cleaned and set up. While operative time for the control group and the experimental group were nearly identical, the turnover time and the induction time were significantly shorter for the experimental group. The cumulative reduction in time during the operative day was sufficient to allow the addition of new operative cases. This study demonstrates a system of increasing operating room efficiency by changing patient flow rather than simply working to streamline existing steps. This increase in efficiency is not associated with the expansion of hospital budgets or a decrease in patient safety or satisfaction.

  13. Recovery room nurses' knowledge regarding postoperative airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recovery room nurses should have the knowledge and skill to identify and manage postoperative airway emergencies in adult patients. Aim: To determine the knowledge of recovery room nurses regarding postoperative airway emergencies in adult patients in private hospitals in Northern Gauteng. Methods: A ...

  14. The One-Room Schoolhouse Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elaine Pouletsos

    1979-01-01

    Though their physical settings are different, students in open classrooms share much in common with their predecessors in one-room schoolhouses. The most striking similarity between the open classroom and the one-room schoolhouse is in the flexible student teacher relationships and intimacy and mutual support among students. (Author/GC)

  15. PASSWORD: Organizing Exits from the Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda K.

    1990-01-01

    The article offers a classroom management technique, PASSWORD, that facilitates the smooth transition of handicapped students from the resource room to the regular class. Students are each asked a "code question," usually a review question, the answer to which is the password for leaving the resource room. (DB)

  16. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...

  17. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  18. Observation of Quantum-Size Effects at Room Temperature on Metal Surfaces With STM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avouris, P; Lyo, I W

    1994-05-13

    Surface steps act as confining barriers for electrons in metal-surface states. Thus, narrow terraces and small single-atom-high metal islands act as low-dimensional, electron-confining structures. In sufficiently small structures, quantum-size effects are observable even at room temperature. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is used to image the probability amplitude distributions and discrete spectra of the confined states. Examination of the electronic structure of the steps provides evidence for electron-density smoothing and the formation of step-edge states. Estimates of the electron-confining barriers are obtained.

  19. Reading problems in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W G; Love, R J

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-five aphasic subjects who were 1 year or longer post onset of brain injury were given a battery of reading tests which was composed of recognition and oral reading tests for letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs, and comprehension tests for sentences and paragraphs. Results indicated a residual reading disorder or alexia in all subjects, with comprehension tests producing the highest error rate, oral reading tests second, and then recognition tests. Reading ability was found to be related to overall language skill, level of education, and oral reading ability. Results are discussed in light of current theories of reading and future research needs.

  20. Reliability of estimating the room volume from a single room impulse response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuster, M.

    2008-01-01

    The methods investigated for the room volume estimation are based on geometrical acoustics, eigenmode, and diffuse field models and no data other than the room impulse response are available. The measurements include several receiver positions in a total of 12 rooms of vastly different sizes and

  1. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model for room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  2. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model in room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  3. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  4. Ergonomics in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janki, Shiromani; Mulder, Evalyn E A P; IJzermans, Jan N M; Tran, T C Khe

    2017-06-01

    Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands. There were 127 respondents. Fifty-six surgeons currently suffer from musculoskeletal complaints, and 30 have previously suffered from musculoskeletal complaints with no current complaints. Frequently reported localizations were the neck (39.5 %), the erector spinae muscle (34.9 %), and the right deltoid muscle (18.6 %). Most of the musculoskeletal complaints were present while operating (41.8 %). Currently, 37.5 % uses medication and/or therapy to reduce complaints. Of surgeons with past complaints, 26.7 % required work leave and 40.0 % made intraoperative adjustments. More surgeons with a medical history of musculoskeletal complaints have current complaints (OR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.9-19.6). There were no significant differences between surgeons of different operating techniques in localizations and frequency of complaints, or work leave. Despite previous various ergonomic recommendations in the operating room, the current study demonstrated that musculoskeletal complaints and subsequent work absence are still present among surgeons, especially among surgeons with a positive medical history for musculoskeletal complaints. Even sick leave was necessary to fully recover. There were no significant differences in reported complaints between surgeons of different operating techniques. Almost half of the respondents with complaints made intraoperative ergonomic adjustments to prevent future complaints. The

  5. Perceptual effects in auralization of virtual rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Mendel; Larsson, Pontus; Vastfjall, Daniel; Torres, Rendell R.

    2002-05-01

    By using various types of binaural simulation (or ``auralization'') of physical environments, it is now possible to study basic perceptual issues relevant to room acoustics, as well to simulate the acoustic conditions found in concert halls and other auditoria. Binaural simulation of physical spaces in general is also important to virtual reality systems. This presentation will begin with an overview of the issues encountered in the auralization of room and other environments. We will then discuss the influence of various approximations in room modeling, in particular, edge- and surface scattering, on the perceived room response. Finally, we will discuss cross-modal effects, such as the influence of visual cues on the perception of auditory cues, and the influence of cross-modal effects on the judgement of ``perceived presence'' and the rating of room acoustic quality.

  6. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  7. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  8. The psychophysiology of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Reading Development in European Portuguese: Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luís; Verhaeghe, Arlette; Marques, Catarina; Araújo, Luísa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated direct and indirect effects between oral reading fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension across reading development in European Portuguese. Participants were 329 children attending basic education, from grade 1 to grade 6. The results of path analyses showed that text reading fluency is much more dependent on the…

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO prepared by microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clear room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in ZnO powders prepared by microemulsion. The O vacancy (VO clusters mediated by the VO with one electron (F center contributed to the ferromagnetism, while the isolated F centers contributed to the low temperature paramagnetism. Annealing in H2 incorporated interstitial H (Hi in ZnO, and removed the isolated F centers, leading to the suppression of the paramagnetism. The ferromagnetism has been considered to originate from the VO clusters mediated by the Hi, leading to the enhancement of the coercivity. The ferromagnetism disappeared after annealing in air due to the reduction of Hi.

  11. Single-atom reversible recording at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Lin, Rong

    2001-01-01

    A single hydrogen atom can be reversibly switched between two symmetric sites on a silicon dimer at the surface of Si(100) using a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). This is a model binary switch for silicon-based atom-scale reversible data storage at room temperature. In this paper we...... is of crucial importance. With our equipment it was possible to create a row of four switches in a controlled way.(Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)....

  12. High room temperature optical polarization due to spin-valley coupling in monolayer WS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Hanbicki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We prepare single-layer WS2 films such that the photoluminescence is from either the neutral exciton or the negatively charged trion. While the neutral exciton emission has zero polarization at room temperature, we observe a room temperature optical polarization in excess of 40% for the trion. Using an applied gate voltage, we can modulate the electron density, and subsequently the polarization of the trion emission continuously from 20-40%. Both the polarization and the emission energy monotonically track the gate voltage with the emission energy increasing by 45 meV. We discuss the role electron capture by the exciton has on suppressing the intervalley scattering process.

  13. Tablet computers versus optical aids to support education and learning in children and young people with low vision: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial, CREATE (Children Reading with Electronic Assistance To Educate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Michael D; Thomas, Rachel; Unwin, Hilary; Bharani, Seelam; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Quartilho, Ana; Bunce, Catey; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2017-06-21

    Low vision and blindness adversely affect education and independence of children and young people. New 'assistive' technologies such as tablet computers can display text in enlarged font, read text out to the user, allow speech input and conversion into typed text, offer document and spreadsheet processing and give access to wide sources of information such as the internet. Research on these devices in low vision has been limited to case series. We will carry out a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility of a full RCT of assistive technologies for children/young people with low vision. We will recruit 40 students age 10-18 years in India and the UK, whom we will randomise 1:1 into two parallel groups. The active intervention will be Apple iPads; the control arm will be the local standard low-vision aid care. Primary outcomes will be acceptance/usage, accessibility of the device and trial feasibility measures (time to recruit children, lost to follow-up). Exploratory outcomes will be validated measures of vision-related quality of life for children/young people as well as validated measures of reading and educational outcomes. In addition, we will carry out semistructured interviews with the participants and their teachers. NRES reference 15/NS/0068; dissemination is planned via healthcare and education sector conferences and publications, as well as via patient support organisations. NCT02798848; IRAS ID 179658, UCL reference 15/0570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  15. Device for improving quantification of reading acuity and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexl, Alois K; Schlögel, Horst; Wolfbauer, Michael; Grabner, Günther

    2010-09-01

    To present a new device, the Salzburg Reading Desk (SRD), for the standardized testing of reading acuity and reading speed at a subjectively convenient reading distance (best distance). First, in a systematic experimental setup, testing for validity and reliability was performed at 450 simulated reading distances (90 different test situations, each repeated 5 times) between 16 and 70 cm. The distance read-outs by the SRD software were correlated to the distances measured with a meter ruler. Second, reading distance and reading speed of 27 naturally emmetropic and presbyopic patients were evaluated using the log-scaled Radner Reading Charts implemented in the SRD. In the experimental setup, an overall mean difference of the SRD distance read-out-compared to a standard distance measurement with a meter ruler-of 0.08±0.13 cm was observed. In the presbyopic patients, overall mean reading distance was 49.74±4.43 cm. Patients were able to read with their own subjectively convenient reading distance. A constant mean reading speed of sentences with bigger typeface (between 152.4±22.6 words/minute [wpm] and 157.3±15.8 wpm) was found, but reading speed gradually diminished over time when reading sentences with smaller typeface. The SRD seems to be a valid and reliable device for testing reading acuity at the best reading distance in an experimental setup as well as in clinical use in presbyopic patients. The SRD may be used whenever a detailed comparison of different methods for correcting presbyopia is required. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  17. [Reading research articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie.

  18. Therapeutic effects of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín HIDALGO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading is an act that requires isolation and loneliness, which allows rewriting the narratives through the identification between the reader and the character, the involvement in the fact narrated and singular recreation by every single reader. The act of reading allows stepping aside from reality. The reading as well as the writing perform the therapeutic effect of helping to understand the illness and to know experiences of others patients that can be useful for the accompaniment, overcoming and/or making decisions. There is not a concrete literary that could be universally recommend to every patient, but all the genre can be useful to some patient. However, poetry, novel and autobiographies are frequently referred as the manuscripts that provide help and consolation.

  19. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani; Mojtaba Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) and Guided Reading (GR) on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. T...

  20. Prior listening in rooms improves speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandewie, Eugene; Zahorik, Pavel

    2010-07-01

    Although results from previous studies have demonstrated that the acoustic effects of a single reflection are perceptually suppressed after repeated exposure to a particular configuration of source and reflection, the extent to which this dynamic echo suppression might generalize to speech understanding in room environments with multiple reflections and reverberation is largely unknown. Here speech intelligibility was measured using the coordinate response measure corpus both with and without prior listening exposure to a reverberant room environment, which was simulated using virtual auditory space techniques. Prior room listening exposure was manipulated by presenting either a two-sentence carrier phrase that preceded the target speech, or no carrier phrase within the room environment. Results from 14 listeners indicate that with prior room exposure, masked speech reception thresholds were on average 2.7 dB lower than thresholds without exposure, an improvement in intelligibility of over 18 percentage points on average. This effect, which is shown to be absent in anechoic space and greatly reduced under monaural listening conditions, demonstrates that prior binaural exposure to reverberant rooms can improve speech intelligibility, perhaps due to a process of perceptual adaptation to the acoustics of the listening room.

  1. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ``fair to good`` using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Working in operating rooms, an unhealthy existance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejger, V; Burm, A G; Spierdijk, J

    1975-01-01

    A literature survey indicates that some complaints occur relatively frequently among anesthetists and nurses working in operating rooms. Pollution of the air in the operating rooms by anesthetic gases is often considered as a possible cause. On account of this the degree of pollution has been determined. Concentrations of nitrous oxide and halothane were measured using an infrared absorption spectrophotometer. In each room the concentrations were measured at several different sites. In naturally ventilated operating rooms the concentrations increased steadily during operation. The measured values lied mostly between 1500 and 3000 ppm (vol/vol) for nitrous oxide and between 15 and 35 ppm for halothane. In mechanically ventilated operating rooms where no recirculation is applied a constant level was found some time after the beginning of an operation. The concentrations varied from about 100 to 500 ppm for nitrous oxide and from 1 to 5 ppm for halothane. In naturally ventilated operating rooms the anesthetic gases were rather homogeneously spread, while in mechanically ventilated rooms there was an inhomogeneous distribution. Scavenging of waste anesthetics is recommended.

  3. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-30

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  4. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10-3 S cm-1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  5. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  6. Repeated readings using audiotaped material enhances oral reading in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, R; Humphreys, R

    1989-02-01

    The method of repeated readings using audiotaped material was implemented in the present study by having poor readers aged 9-13 years listen to and read audiotaped stories until the passages could be read fluently without the tape. A same-age control group with similar reading difficulties was given an alternative reading program that was similar to that received by the experimental group (with respect to creative writing, spelling, phonics, and vocabulary development), but which differed in terms of passage reading exercises (controls read from basal readers, whereas the experimental group did repeated readings of audiotaped material). Only students in the repeated readings of audiotaped material group showed a significant effect of treatment on oral reading, whereas controls showed significantly larger gains in word attack skills. There were no between-group differences in silent reading, a close comprehension test, or isolated word recognition. The pattern of findings suggested that repeated readings of audiotaped material enhances oral reading ability of students with reading difficulties, but the effects of treatment do not generalize to a wide range of reading measures.

  7. Electronic Collaboration Logbook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    At FNAL, we developed an Electronic Collaboration Logbook (ECL) application which is used by about 20 different collaborations, experiments and groups at FNAL. ECL is the latest iteration of the project formerly known as Control Room Logbook (CRL). We have been working on mobile (IOS and Android) clients for ECL. We will present history, current status and future plans of the project, as well as design, implementation and support solutions made by the project.

  8. Radiative control of dark excitons at room temperature by nano-optical antenna-tip Purcell effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Jiang, Tao; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus B.

    2018-01-01

    Excitons, Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs, are elementary photo-excitations in semiconductors that can couple to light through radiative relaxation. In contrast, dark excitons (XD) show anti-parallel spin configuration with generally forbidden radiative emission. Because of their long lifetimes, these dark excitons are appealing candidates for quantum computing and optoelectronics. However, optical read-out and control of XD states has remained challenging due to their decoupling from light. Here, we present a tip-enhanced nano-optical approach to induce, switch and programmably modulate the XD emission at room temperature. Using a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) WSe2 on a gold substrate, we demonstrate 6 × 105-fold enhancement in dark exciton photoluminescence quantum yield achieved through coupling of the antenna-tip to the dark exciton out-of-plane optical dipole moment, with a large Purcell factor of ≥2 × 103 of the tip-sample nano-cavity. Our approach provides a facile way to harness excitonic properties in low-dimensional semiconductors offering new strategies for quantum optoelectronics.

  9. Donor attention to reading materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Osmond, L; Choquet, K; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory predonation reading materials inform donors about risk factors for transmissible disease, possible complications of donation and changes to the donation process. We aimed to assess the attention to predonation reading materials and factors which may affect attention. A national survey in 2008 of 18,108 blood donors asked about self-assessed attention to reading the materials. In face-to-face interviews, 441 donors completed additional questions about reading the materials and a literacy test. Qualitative interviews of 27 donors assessed their approach to reading. In the national survey, most of the first-time donors said they read all or most of the materials (90.9% first-time vs. 57.6% repeat donors, P reading them carefully (P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read, most knew that donors are informed of positive transmissible disease test results (97.1%, 95.5, 98.0 P > 0.05), but fewer recalled seeing the definition of sex (77.2%, 56.9, 24.2 P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read were compared (P > 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that donors are reluctant to read any more than necessary and decide based on perceived importance or relevance. Attention to predonation reading materials tends to be better among first-time donors. The effectiveness is limited by low motivation to read, especially for repeat donors, as well as poor literacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Nanoscale structural modulation and enhanced room-temperature multiferroic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shujie; Huang, Yan; Wang, Guopeng; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Knize, Randy J.; Lu, Yalin

    2014-10-01

    's net contribution to the enhanced intrinsic multiferroic properties at room temperature was confirmed by quantifying and deducting the contribution from the existing impurity phase using derivative thermo-magneto-gravimetry measurements (DTMG). Significantly, this new AMT effect may be caused by a possible coupling contribution from co-existing NSM phases, indicating a potential method for realizing multiferroic materials that function at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03542a

  11. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  12. Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmura, Y; Sakai, J; Yoshinaka, H; Shirao, K

    1999-03-01

    To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.

  13. TEACHER CANDIDATES’ VIEWS ON E-BOOKS AND SCREEN READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin AKKAYA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is a necessity to make use of information technologies in creating, distributing and accessing information resources. The electronic resources as products of the developing information technologies include bibliographical text databases, e-journals, e-books, open achieves and web sites. Today, Many printed material can be accesssed by electronically in readers. Furthermore, e-books have been increasingly preferred as a mode of reading because of its advantages such as portability, storage and rich content. Individuals who want to sustain their development on this mode of reading prefer screen reading. Because reading has become a necessity because of the developing information technologies. This study aimed to examine the views of students studying Turkish language teaching at an education faculty on e-books and screen reading. Action research, one of the qualitative research design, was used during the research. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Whereas 40.7% of the ones who have taken part in this study have expressed not knowing anything about e-books, 57.8% of the participants have claimed they have knowledge about the issue of e-books. 55.3% of the participants consider that e-books contribute to the habit of reading. 73% of the participants have expressed that they have no knowledge about screen reading.

  14. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience...

  15. Reading about Real Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  16. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    . Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  17. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  18. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  19. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gough, Michael; Glickman, Theodore S

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  20. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  1. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  2. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  3. Reading Community: Writing Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Katherine K.

    Reading the speeches each year of the program chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication gives the reader a concrete notion of how the field has been perceived and constructed by these leaders in composition. The more recent articles also construct a surprisingly unified and stable identity for the field which is premised on…

  4. Assessment Problems in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.

    The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…

  5. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  6. Reading: Interactions with Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-23

    served the patron, he got a big tip . (4b). After the bartender served the patron, he left a big tip . They found that reading times for the matrix...the filler available at the gap site. (5). The journalists interviewed the skier that the waitress from the village accused of the crime. In the

  7. Reading through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Madhavi Gayathri; Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play) and…

  8. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  9. Model Reading Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Nancy; Dworkin, Yehoash

    The 1978 Summer Reading Institute, which served 58 Washington, D.C., elementary school children, is described in this paper. Major characteristics of the program model are first identified, along with elements that were added to the model in the preplanning stage. Numerous aspects of the program are then described, including the make-up of the…

  10. Intervention for Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Kamhi, Alan G.

    1987-01-01

    The article provides specific suggestions of how speech language pathologists can use their language expertise in intervention with reading-disabled students. Strategies appropriate for use in individual therapy are discussed and the importance of collaboration with classroom teachers and learning disabilities specialists is stressed. (Author/DB)

  11. Near room temperature ferromagnetism of copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XueYan; Zheng, JianBang; Chen, Lei; Qiao, Kai; Xu, JiaWei; Cao, ChongDe

    2015-11-01

    We reported near room temperature ferromagnetism of α-CuPc films without and with light Ni-doping. Two samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the absence of other ferromagnetic impurities. The α-CuPc film exhibited ferromagnetic hysteresis with saturation magnetization of ∼6.77 emu/cm3 and coercivity of ∼96 Oe at 280 K, while that of the Ni-doped α-CuPc film are ∼0.69 emu/cm3 and ∼113 Oe, respectively. Through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the origin of the ferromagnetism arise from Cu 3d states and N 2s2p electronic spin polarization, as well as p-d exchange coupling interactions, and spin-unbalanced electronic structure of C 2p induced by the π-π interactions.

  12. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  13. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Characterization and Performance

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  14. When to use the emergency room - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency room - child; Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be permanently disabled, it is an emergency. Call 911 to have the ...

  15. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  16. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  17. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  18. The Use of Extensive Reading in Teaching Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdila, Raihani

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates benefits of using extensive reading in teaching reading and as well as students' attitudes toward it. A case study design as a part of qualitative research was employed in this study. The data were collected through classroom observation, questionnaire and interview. The participants of this study were a class of second graders in one of the public junior high schools in Bandung. The findings reveal that extensive reading was beneficial in teaching reading. There are fi...

  19. The Advanced Photon Source main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasky, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.

  20. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  1. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  2. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  3. Physics escape room as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Alpár István Vita; Sárközi, Zsuzsa

    2017-12-01

    Escape rooms have flourished in the last decade. These are adventure games in which players work together to solve puzzles using hints, clues and a strategy to escape from a locked room. In many cases they use different phenomena related to physics. Hence the idea of using escape rooms in science centers or even in classroom activities. Escape rooms are designed for one single team of players, the method is more suitable for activities in a science centre. In our paper, we show that escape rooms' puzzle solving methods could be used in physics classroom activities as well, taking into account that several teams have to work together in the same room/place. We have developed an educational escape game for physics of fluids, as this topic is left out from the Romanian high-school curriculum. We have tried out our game during the project week called "Şcoala altfel" ("school in a different way") and in a physics camp for gifted students. We present the designed physics escape game and the results.

  4. Clinic exam room design: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freihoefer, Kara; Nyberg, Gary; Vickery, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to deconstruct various design qualities and strategies of clinic exam rooms, and discuss how they influence users' interaction and behavior in the space. Relevant literature supports the advantages and disadvantages of different design strategies. Annotated exam room prototypes illustrate the design qualities and strategies discussed. Advancements in technology and medicine, along with new legislative policies, are influencing the way care providers deliver care and ultimately clinic exam room designs. The patient-centered medical home model has encouraged primary care providers to make patients more active leaders of their health plan which will influence the overall functionality and configuration of clinic exam rooms. Specific design qualities discussed include overall size, location of doors and privacy curtains, positioning of exam tables, influence of technology in the consultation area, types of seating, and placement of sink and hand sanitizing dispensers. In addition, future trends of exam room prototypes are presented. There is a general lack of published evidence to support design professionals' design solutions for outpatient exam rooms. Future research should investigate such topics as the location of exam tables and privacy curtains as they relate to patient privacy; typical size and location of consultation table as it relates to patient connection and communication; and placement of sinks and sanitization dispensers as they relate to frequency and patterns of usage. Literature review, outpatient, technology, visual privacy.

  5. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  6. Reading for Real: Our Year with Reading Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    When Patricia Ross' high school students at the Phoenix Day School for the Deaf buddied up with elementary school students to improve their reading skills, amazing things happened. As they read to them, Ross' students, who were part of the 2012-2013 Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies program, increased their reading scores and forged…

  7. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  8. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  9. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  10. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  11. Clarifying Differences between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter; Pearson, P. David; Paris, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    The terms "reading skill" and "reading strategy" are central to how we conceptualize and teach reading. Despite their importance and widespread use, the terms are not consistently used or understood. This article examines the current and historical uses of the terms, defines them, and describes their differences, similarities, and relationships.…

  12. The Relationship between Reading Comprehension Strategies and Reading Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Fatma Susar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between levels of reading comprehension strategy use, reading attitudes, and the amount of reading per year among elementary school students. The study was conducted with 1316 students (649 girls and 667 boys) attending the fourth and fifth grades of 15 elementary schools in Denizli, Turkey.…

  13. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  14. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  15. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  16. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  17. Pleasure Reading Cures Readicide and Facilitates Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…

  18. Reading by Design: Two Case Studies of Digital Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…

  19. Tunable room-temperature ferromagnet using an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Aigu L.

    2015-06-23

    Magnetic materials have found wide application ranging from electronics and memories to medicine. Essential to these advances is the control of the magnetic order. To date, most room-temperature applications have a fixed magnetic moment whose orientation is manipulated for functionality. Here we demonstrate an iron-oxide and graphene oxide nanocomposite based device that acts as a tunable ferromagnet at room temperature. Not only can we tune its transition temperature in a wide range of temperatures around room temperature, but the magnetization can also be tuned from zero to 0.011 A m2/kg through an initialization process with two readily accessible knobs (magnetic field and electric current), after which the system retains its magnetic properties semi-permanently until the next initialization process. We construct a theoretical model to illustrate that this tunability originates from an indirect exchange interaction mediated by spin-imbalanced electrons inside the nanocomposite. © 2015 Scientific Reports.

  20. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  1. Integrating Cultural Pluralism through Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2003-01-01

    Provides practical suggestions for teachers to integrate cultural pluralism in three reading strategies: (1) reading workshops; (2) writing workshops; (3) language experience approaches that make a valuable contribution to students of all cultural backgrounds. (Author/VWL)

  2. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  3. Using acoustic information to perceive room size: effects of blindness, room reverberation time, and stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Pardhan, Shahina; Cirstea, Silvia; Moore, Brian C J

    2013-01-01

    Blind participants greatly rely on sound for spatial information regarding the surrounding environment. It is not yet established whether lack of vision to calibrate audition in far space affects blind participants' internal spatial representation of acoustic room size. Furthermore, blind participants may rely more on farthest distance estimates to sound sources compared with sighted participants when perceiving room size. Here we show that judgments of apparent room size and sound distance are correlated, more so for blind than for sighted participants. Sighted participants judged a reverberant virtual room to be larger for speech than for music or noise stimuli, whereas blind participants did not. The results suggest that blindness affects the use of room reverberation for distance and room-size judgments.

  4. The uncertainty room: strategies for managing uncertainty in a surgical waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anne M; Lammers, John C

    2012-01-01

    To describe experiences of uncertainty and management strategies for staff working with families in a hospital waiting room. A 288-bed, nonprofit community hospital in a Midwestern city. Data were collected during individual, semistructured interviews with 3 volunteers, 3 technical staff members, and 1 circulating nurse (n = 7), and during 40 hours of observation in a surgical waiting room. Interview transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative techniques. The surgical waiting room represents the intersection of several sources of uncertainty that families experience. Findings also illustrate the ways in which staff manage the uncertainty of families in the waiting room by communicating support. Staff in surgical waiting rooms are responsible for managing family members' uncertainty related to insufficient information. Practically, this study provided some evidence that staff are expected to help manage the uncertainty that is typical in a surgical waiting room, further highlighting the important role of communication in improving family members' experiences.

  5. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  6. Perceptual Optimization of Room-In-Room Reproduction with Spatially Distributed Loudspeakers

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Julian; van de Par, Steven

    2014-01-01

    It is often desirable to reproduce a specific room-acoustic scene, e.g. a concert hall in a playback room, in such a way that the listener has a plausible and authentic spatial impression of the original sound source including the room acoustical properties. In this study a perceptually motivated approach for spatial audio reproduction is developed. This approach optimizes the spatial and monaural cues of the direct and reverberant sound separately. More specifically, the (monaural) spectral ...

  7. So Much to Read, So Little Time: How Do We Read, and Can Speed Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Masson, Michael E J; Potter, Mary C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The prospect of speed reading--reading at an increased speed without any loss of comprehension--has undeniable appeal. Speed reading has been an intriguing concept for decades, at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959. It has recently increased in popularity, with speed-reading apps and technologies being introduced for smartphones and digital devices. The current article reviews what the scientific community knows about the reading process--a great deal--and discusses the implications of the research findings for potential students of speed-reading training programs or purchasers of speed-reading apps. The research shows that there is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds (e.g., from around 250 to 500-750 words per minute) while still being able to understand the text as well as if they read at normal speed. If a thorough understanding of the text is not the reader's goal, then speed reading or skimming the text will allow the reader to get through it faster with moderate comprehension. The way to maintain high comprehension and get through text faster is to practice reading and to become a more skilled language user (e.g., through increased vocabulary). This is because language skill is at the heart of reading speed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  9. Teaching Content Is Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Every two years the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), "the Nation's Report Card," reports the nation's average reading and math scores in grades 4 and 8. Despite the strong focus on reading under the 2001 No Child Left Behind law, the recent 2009 reading scores were not statistically different from those of 2007, which…

  10. Teaching Reading: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalister, John

    2014-01-01

    In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…

  11. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  12. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  13. Reading Aloud in EFL Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailani, Taiseer Zaid

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the functions of reading aloud and gives reasons for its practice in the foreign-language classroom. Suggests a dual approach for practicing both reading aloud and silent reading. Although specific focus is on English-language teaching in the Arab world, findings are relevant to foreign-language teaching in other countries as well.…

  14. Low hydrogen content silicon nitride films deposited at room temperature with a multipolar ECR plasma source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isai, I.G.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans; Woerlee, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon nitride layers with very low hydrogen content (less than 1 atomic percent) were deposited at near room temperature, from N2 and SiH4, with a multipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The influences of pressure and nitrogen flow rate on physical and electrical properties were studied in

  15. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  16. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  17. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 67, No. 2. — journal of. August 2006 physics pp. 331–340. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline Ag1−xCuxI system using DC polarization technique∗ .... 0.15, 0.25 were synthesized by mechanical grinding in a 6 agate mortar and pestle for 5 h at room temperature in an ...

  18. Optimizing speed reading practice for reading fluency: How many Speed Reading exercises should you do per class?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuisting, Bjorn; Dalton, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Speed Reading has been demonstrated to be an important element in an L2 Reading course for improving reading fluency. However research has not been published on how many sessions of Speed Reading should be done in each class. Is one Speed Reading session enough, or do two per class produce dramatically better gains in reading speed? Does any differential gain remain after controlling for the quantity of Speed Reading text? Examining reading speed gains from two equivalent class samples, the f...

  19. Robots who read grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Macklin-Cordes, Jayden L.; Blackbourne, Nathaniel L.; Bott, Thomas J.; Cook, Jacqueline; Mark Ellison, T.; Hollis, Jordan; Kirlew, Edith E.; Richards, Genevieve C.; Zhao, Sanle; Round, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Robots who read grammarsJayden L. Macklin-Cordes, Nathaniel L. Blackbourne, Thomas J. Bott, Jacqueline Cook, T. Mark Ellison, Jordan Hollis, Edith E. Kirlew, Genevieve C. Richards, Sanle Zhao, Erich R. RoundPoster presented at CoEDL Fest 2017, Alexandra Park Conference Centre, Alexandra Headlands, QLD, Australia. Hosted by the University of Queensland. 6 February 2017.AbstractLinguistic typology has yet to undergo a computational revolution like that seen in other scientific endeavours. Never...

  20. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.