WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic pulse detectors

  1. Dead time of different neutron detectors associated with a pulsed electronics with current collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacconnet, Eugene; Duchene, Jean; Duquesne, Henry; Schmitt, Andre

    1968-01-01

    After having outlined that the development of fast neutron reactor physics, notably kinetics, requires highly efficient neutron detectors and pulse measurement chains able to cope with high counting rates, the authors report the measurement of dead time of various neutron detectors which are used in the experimental study of fast neutron reactors. They present the SAITB 1 electronic measurement set, its components, its general characteristics, the protected connection between the detector and the electronics. They present and report the experiment: generalities about detector location and measurements, studied detectors (fission chambers, boron counters), and report the exploitation of the obtained results (principle, data, high-threshold counting gain) [fr

  2. Power pulsing scheme for analog and digital electronics of the vertex detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The precision requirements of the vertex detector at CLIC impose strong limitations on the mass of such a detector (< 0.2% of a radiation length, Xo, per layer). To achieve such a low material budget, ultra-thin hybrid pixel detectors are foreseen, while the mass for cooling and services will be reduced by implementing a power pulsing scheme that takes advantage of the low duty cycle of the accelerator. The principal aim is to achieve significant power reduction without compromising the power integrity supplied to the front-end electronics. This report summarises the study of a power pulsing scheme to power the vertex barrel electronics of the future CLIC experiment. Its main goal is to describe in more detail what has been already presented in TWEPP conferences and other presentations. The report can therefore serve as an operator manual for future use and development of the system

  3. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  4. Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, C; Senesi, R; Gorini, G; Tardocchi, M; Bracco, A; Rhodes, N; Schooneveld, E M

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,gamma) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as gamma detector. A neutron energy window up to 90 eV, including four distinct resonance peaks, has been assessed. A net decrease of the intrinsic width of the 6.6 eV resonance peak has also been demonstrated employing the double difference spectrum technique, with two uranium foils of different thickness.

  5. First test of a power-pulsed electronics system on a GRPC detector in a 3-Tesla magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Caponetto, L; de la Taille, C; Dulucq, F; Kieffer, R; Laktineh, I; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Seguin-Moreau, N

    2012-01-01

    An important technological step towards the realization of an ultra-granular hadronic calorimeter to be used in the future International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments has been made. A 33X50 cm2 GRPC detector equipped with a power-pulsed electronics board offering a 1cm2 lateral segmentation was successfully tested in a 3-Tesla magnet operating at the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. An important reduction of power consumption with no deterioration of the detector performance is obtained when the power-pulsing mode is applied. This important result shows that ultra-granular calorimeters for ILC experiments are not only an attractive but also a realistic option.

  6. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  7. Examination of the spatial-response uniformity of a microchannel-plate detector using a pulsed high-voltage electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumot, D; Kroupp, E; Fisher, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe an alternative method to examine the spatial-response uniformity of a microchannel-plate (MCP) detector to a ∼ 1 ns pulse of soft x-rays. The examination was performed by illuminating the MCP surface with energetic electrons rather than with x-rays. It is shown that the MCP features similar, yet not identical, response to pulses of soft x-ray photons or energetic electrons, making such examinations much simpler and less expensive. The building of the electron-gun system is relatively easy and inexpensive, and in addition to verifying the spatial uniformity of the response of the MCP to incoming particles and radiation, it can be used to detect damaged areas on the detector. A comparison between the results obtained using the electron-gun with those obtained using a laser-produced-plasma x-ray source, demonstrating the reliability of the method, is presented

  8. Potential beneficial effects of electron-hole plasmas created in silicon sensors by XFEL-like high intensity pulses for detector development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is a compelling need for a high frame rate imaging detector with a wide dynamic range, from single x-rays/pixel/pulse to >10{sup 6} x-rays/pixel/pulse, that is capable of operating at both x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and 3rd generation sources with sustained fluxes of > 10{sup 11} x-rays/pixel/s [1, 2, 3]. We propose to meet these requirements with the High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) by (a) increasing the speed of charge removal strategies [4], (b) increasing integrator range by implementing adaptive gain [5], and (c) exploiting the extended charge collection times of electron-hole pair plasma clouds that form when a sufficiently large number of x-rays are absorbed in a detector sensor in a short period of time [6]. We have developed a measurement platform similar to the one used in [6] to study the effects of high electron-hole densities in silicon sensors using optical lasers to emulate the conditions found at XFELs. Characterizations of the employed tunable wavelength laser with picosecond pulse duration have shown Gaussian focal spots sizes of 6 ± 1 µm rms over the relevant spectrum and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude increase in available intensity compared to previous measurements presented in [6]. Results from measurements on a typical pixelated silicon diode intended for use with the HDR-PAD (150 µm pixel size, 500 µm thick sensor) are presented.

  9. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  10. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  11. Characterization of a microDiamond detector in high-dose-per-pulse electron beams for intra operative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Tonnetti, A; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Pimpinella, M; Ciccotelli, A; De Stefano, S; Felici, G; Marangoni, F

    2015-12-01

    To characterize a synthetic diamond dosimeter (PTW Freiburg microDiamond 60019) in high dose-per-pulse electron beams produced by an Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) dedicated accelerator. The dosimetric properties of the microDiamond were assessed under 6, 8 and 9 MeV electron beams by a NOVAC11 mobile accelerator (Sordina IORT Technologies S.p.A.). The characterization was carried out with dose-per-pulse ranging from 26 to 105 mGy per pulse. The microDiamond performance was compared with an Advanced Markus ionization chamber and a PTW silicon diode E in terms of dose linearity, percentage depth dose (PDD) curves, beam profiles and output factors. A good linearity of the microDiamond response was verified in the dose range from 0.2 Gy to 28 Gy. A sensitivity of 1.29 nC/Gy was measured under IORT electron beams, resulting within 1% with respect to the one obtained in reference condition under (60)Co gamma irradiation. PDD measurements were found in agreement with the ones by the reference dosimeters, with differences in R50 values below 0.3 mm. Profile measurements evidenced a high spatial resolution of the microDiamond, slightly worse than the one of the silicon diode. The penumbra widths measured by the microDiamond resulted approximately 0.5 mm larger than the ones by the Silicon diode. Output factors measured by the microDiamond were found within 2% with those obtained by the Advanced Markus down to 3 cm diameter field sizes. The microDiamond dosimeter was demonstrated to be suitable for precise dosimetry in IORT applications under high dose-per-pulse conditions. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Poisson-regularized inversion of Bremsstrahlung emission to extract full electron energy distribution functions from x-ray pulse-height detector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We measured Electron Energy Distribution Functions (EEDFs) from below 200 eV to over 8 keV and spanning five orders-of-magnitude in intensity, produced in a low-power, RF-heated, tandem mirror discharge in the PFRC-II apparatus. The EEDF was obtained from the x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) using a novel Poisson-regularized spectrum inversion algorithm applied to pulse-height spectra that included both Bremsstrahlung and line emissions. The XEDF was measured using a specially calibrated Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) pulse-height system with 125 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. The algorithm is found to out-perform current leading x-ray inversion algorithms when the error due to counting statistics is high.

  13. Using Poisson-regularized inversion of Bremsstrahlung emission to extract full electron energy distribution functions from x-ray pulse-height detector data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Swanson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured Electron Energy Distribution Functions (EEDFs from below 200 eV to over 8 keV and spanning five orders-of-magnitude in intensity, produced in a low-power, RF-heated, tandem mirror discharge in the PFRC-II apparatus. The EEDF was obtained from the x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF using a novel Poisson-regularized spectrum inversion algorithm applied to pulse-height spectra that included both Bremsstrahlung and line emissions. The XEDF was measured using a specially calibrated Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD pulse-height system with 125 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. The algorithm is found to out-perform current leading x-ray inversion algorithms when the error due to counting statistics is high.

  14. Circuit processing pulsed signals from nuclear detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfod Nielsen, H.

    1990-01-01

    A circuit for processing signals from a detector and occuring at random time intervals has a pulse-shaper, a delay and a processing circuit. The signal path is divided over part of its extent into parallel part-signal paths, each including an electronic switch and signal modifying circuits, a discriminator to detect a signal in the path and a control circuit for the switches and controlled by the discriminator being connected to the path ahead of the delay. The parallel paths are identical and the switch in each is ahead of the modifying circuits. When the discriminator detects a signal in the path the switch in on part path is made to conduct for at least as long as the duration of the signal as detected by the discriminator. The switches are preferable made to conduct cyclically. Processes increased number of signals, with quality of results not dependent on pulse rate and risk of errors substantially reduced. (au)

  15. Power pulsing schemes for vertex detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    The precision requirements of the vertex detector at CLIC impose strong limitations on the mass of such a detector ( < 0.2% of a radiation length, Xo, per layer). To achieve such a low mass, ultra-thin hybrid pixel detectors are foreseen, while the mass for cooling and services will be reduced by implementing a power-pulsing scheme that takes advantage of the low duty cycle of the accelerator. The principal aim is to achieve significant power reduction without compromising the power integrity supplied to the front-end electronics. A power-pulsing scheme is proposed for the analog electronics and its electrical features are discussed on the basis of measurements.

  16. Pile-up and defective pulse rejection by pulse shape discrimination in surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.; Kristiansson, P.

    1994-01-01

    A technique to reject pile-up pulses and defective tail pulses from surface barrier detectors by the use of pulse shape discrimination is demonstrated. The electronic implementation of the pulse shape discrimination is based upon the zero crossing technique and for data reduction multiparameter techniques are used. The characteristic τ value for pile-up rejection is shown to be less than 56 ns. Its effect on detection limits from tail reduction in Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and pile-up peak suppression is discussed. ((orig.))

  17. Two detector pulse neutron logging porosity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.J.

    1971-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for reducing the influence of borehole characteristics on earth formation porosity measurements. Measurements of this sort are accomplished with a borehole logging tool and comprises two neutron detectors spaced at different distances from a pulsed neutron generator. The thermal neutron decay time of the short-spaced detector identifies that portion of the time-dependent population that is most indicative of the formation porosity. Both detectors then register the portion of the neutron distribution so identified to produce two signals from which a ratio is computed that is related to the porosity of the formation. (auth)

  18. Calibration of a detector for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeser, L.R.; Hemmendinger, A.; Shunk, E.R.

    1978-02-01

    A plastic scintillator detector for measuring the strength of a pulsed neutron source is described and the problems of calibration and discrimination against x-ray background for both pulsed and steady-state detectors are discussed

  19. Pulsed current signals in capacitor type particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Pavlov, J

    2015-01-01

    The problem of pulsed current signals in capacitor type sensors, due to drifting surface charge domain is considered for the analysis of the operational characteristics in photo- and particle-detectors. In this article, the models of the formation of the pulsed currents have been analyzed in vacuum and dielectric filled capacitor-like detectors. Injected charge drift regimes such as Shockley-Ramo's-type (large charge drift) and free flight within Coulomb's force field (small charge drift) are discussed. It has been shown that solutions of the injected charge drift in the vacuum gap capacitor can be employed to emulate charge drift over free path in dynamic solution of the problem with scattering. Pulsed current signals and charge drift in the detectors of the capacitor filled with dielectric type have been analyzed, where the bipolar charge injection and various drift regimes appear. The bipolar carrier drift transformation to a monopolar one is considered, after either electrons or holes, injected within the material, reach the external electrode. The impact of the dynamic capacitance and load resistance in the formation of drift current transients is highlighted. It has been illustrated that the synchronous action of carrier drift, trapping, generation and diffusion can lead to a vast variety of possible current pulse waveforms

  20. Pulse shape discrimination performance of inverted coaxial Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, A.; Hult, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Marissens, G.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Wester, T.; Zuber, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the characterization of two inverted coaxial Ge detectors in the context of being employed in future 76Ge neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay experiments. It is an advantage that such detectors can be produced with bigger Ge mass as compared to the planar Broad Energy Ge (BEGe) or p-type Point Contact (PPC) detectors that are currently used in the GERDA and MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR 0 νββ decay experiments respectively. This will result in a lower background for the search of 0 νββ decay due to a reduction of detector surface to volume ratio, cables, electronics and holders which are dominating nearby radioactive sources. The measured resolution near the 76Ge Q-value at 2039 keV is 2.3 keV FWHM and their pulse-shape discrimination of background events are similar to BEGe and PPC detectors. It is concluded that this type of Ge-detector is suitable for usage in 76Ge 0 νββ decay experiments.

  1. Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  3. Origins of the residual pulse height deficit in propane-filled gas ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers-Dall, T.D.M.; Timmers, H.; Elliman, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the origins of the residual pulse height deficit in gas ionization detectors. It is motivated by the recent observation that the species dependence of gas detector response cannot be accounted for solely by considering the energy loss of the ions in the detector window and non-ionizing energy loss processes in the detector gas. It was found that the residual pulse height deficit is approximately proportional to the square of the ionization density. However, only a weak dependence of the residual deficit on gas pressure (in the range 70-120mbar) was observed. It is hypothesized that the residual pulse height deficit in gas ionization detectors results from the effect of multiple ionization of individual gas molecules at high ionization densities on the energy required to create an electron-ion pair

  4. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my; Yussup, N., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Instrumentation Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  5. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  6. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process

  7. Direct imaging detectors for electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A. R.; McMullan, G.

    2018-01-01

    Electronic detectors used for imaging in electron microscopy are reviewed in this paper. Much of the detector technology is based on the developments in microelectronics, which have allowed the design of direct detectors with fine pixels, fast readout and which are sufficiently radiation hard for practical use. Detectors included in this review are hybrid pixel detectors, monolithic active pixel sensors based on CMOS technology and pnCCDs, which share one important feature: they are all direct imaging detectors, relying on directly converting energy in a semiconductor. Traditional methods of recording images in the electron microscope such as film and CCDs, are mentioned briefly along with a more detailed description of direct electronic detectors. Many applications benefit from the use of direct electron detectors and a few examples are mentioned in the text. In recent years one of the most dramatic advances in structural biology has been in the deployment of the new backthinned CMOS direct detectors to attain near-atomic resolution molecular structures with electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). The development of direct detectors, along with a number of other parallel advances, has seen a very significant amount of new information being recorded in the images, which was not previously possible-and this forms the main emphasis of the review.

  8. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R

    2012-01-01

    A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

  9. Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Analysis of Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lei; Qingying LI

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity nuclear explosion caused by high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse through the antenna, metal cables, holes and other channels, coupled with very high energy into the electronic device, and cause serious threats. In this paper, the mechanism, waveform, coupling path and damage effect of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is analyzed, and the coupling mechanism of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is studied.

  10. Quantum dynamics of attosecond electron pulse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Peter

    2017-12-01

    If an electron beam is periodically modulated in velocity, for example by laser field cycles, it can transform upon further propagation into a train of attosecond or shorter electron pulses. Here, I investigate the quantum mechanics of such an approach by numerically solving the Schrödinger equation in the time domain. There is a limit for the shortest electron pulses that can be achieved, and it depends on simple relations between the electron energy, the laser period, and the modulation strength. These results allow to design future experiments and to compare the measured electron pulse shapes to their quantum limit.

  11. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The basic activities of the Department of Nuclear Electronics in 2006 were concentrated on the following areas: · studies of new scintillation techniques and their application to nuclear medicine and border monitoring, · contribution to FWVI European projects, · scientific contracts with European industry in respect to detection techniques · electronics for experiments in High Energy Physics, · development of γ-ray spectrometry apparatus, · development of new generation State of the Art USB based multi-channel analyzers supplied with Ethernet port and wireless connection, · development, investigation and production of silicon detectors, · normalization activities. Most of the scientific achievements of the Department were summarized in 27 publications (released or in press) and 8 submitted publications. The papers were published mainly in IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. and Nucl. Instr. Methods. Besides that, our scientists presented 20 contributions at international conferences - 6 presentations on IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging 2006 in San Diego, USA. Five invited talks were presented at International Conferences. Also normalization activities in preparation of the Polish versions of European Standards in the field of electronics were supported. In the study of new scintillation techniques, the tests of energy resolution and non-proportionality were carried out for LGSO and CsI(Tl) scintillators, and in the case of NaI(Tl) at reduced temperatures down to -40 o C It shows more precisely an interesting observation of dependences of energy resolution and non-proportionality on a shaping time constant of the amplifier for scintillators with the light pulse consisting of two components. Within the studies addressed to the BioCare European project, realized within FWVI, the proposition of a new common PET/CT detector was developed. The further study of detectors for a Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography was also performed. In the frame of

  12. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and Fe55 pulse height measurements using monitor detectors.

  13. Development of CRID [Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector] single electron wire detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Bean, A.; Bienz, T.

    1989-02-01

    We describe the R and D effort to define the design parameters, method of construction and experimental results from the single electron wire detectors. These detectors will be used for particle identification using the Cerenkov Ring Imaging techniques in the SLD experiment at SLAC. We present measurements of pulse heights for several gases as a function of gas gain, charge division performance on a single electron signal using both 7 μm and 33 μm diameter carbon wires, photon feedback in TMAE laden gas, average pulse shape, and its comparison with the predicted shape and cross-talk. In addition, we present results of wire aging tests, and other tests associated with construction of this unusual type of wire chamber. 12 refs., 9 figs

  14. APD detector electronics for the NSTX Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Long, D.L.; Renda, G.

    2000-01-01

    An electronics system has been installed and tested for the readout of APD detectors for the NSTX Thomson scattering system. Similar to previous designs, it features preamps with a fast and a slow output. The fast output uses pulse shaping to optimize sensitivity for the 8 nsec scattered light pulse while rejecting noise in the intrinsic plasma background. A low readout noise of approximately25 photoelectrons is achieved at an APD gain of 75. The design incorporates a number of features to provide flexibility for various modes of calibration

  15. Application of pulse shape discrimination in Si detector for fission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) with totally depleted transmission type Si surface barrier detector in reverse mount has been investigated to identify fission fragments in the presence of elastic background in heavy ion-induced fission reactions by both numerical simulation and experimental studies. The PSD method is ...

  16. Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushkin, Vladimir

    2004-06-01

    With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

  17. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The basic activities of the Department of Nuclear Electronics in 2007 were concentrated on the following areas: ·studies of new scintillation techniques and their application to nuclear medicine and border monitoring, ·contribution to the FWVI European projects, ·scientific contracts with European industry in respect to detection techniques ·electronics for experiments in High Energy Physics, ·development of γ-ray spectrometry apparatus, ·development of new generation State of the Art USB based multi-channel analysers supplied with Ethernet port and wireless connection, ·development, investigation and production of silicon detectors ·normalisation activities. Most of the scientific achievements of the Department were summarized in 24 publications (released or in press) and 8 submitted publications. The papers were published mainly in IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. and Nucl. Instr. Methods. Besides that, our scientists presented 20 contributions at international conferences - 7 presentations on IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging 2007 in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Also, normalization activities in preparation of Polish versions of European Standards in the field of electronics were supported. The study of new scintillation techniques covered measurements of non-proportionality of organic scintillators in comparison to BGO, a study of the light pulse decays of CsI(T1) at low energies and its relation to the non-proportionality and the summary of earlier measurements showing an influence of slow components of light pulses on the intrinsic resolution of scintillators. Within the studies addressed to the BioCare European project, realized within FWVI, studies analysing the influence of different parameters of fast photomultipliers and scintillators on time resolution of PET detectors for TOF PET were performed. The study was also supported by a contract with Photonis, France. Further study of the common PET/CT detector based on APD array was

  18. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given.

  19. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given

  20. Generation of Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Thongbai, Chitrlada; Kangrang, Nopadol; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Femtosecond electron and photon pulses become a tool of interesting important to study dynamics at molecular or atomic levels. Such short pulses can be generated from a system consisting of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator. The femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as sources to produce electromagnetic radiation of equally short pulses by choosing certain kind of radiation pruduction processes. At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (Thailand), we are especially interested in production of radiation in Far-infrared and X-ray regime. In the far-infrared wavelengths which are longer than the femtosecond pulse length, the radiation is emitted coherently producing intense radiation. In the X-ray regime, development of femtosecond X-ray source is crucial for application in ultrafast science.

  1. Some aspects of detectors and electronics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, F.S.

    1976-08-01

    Some of the less recognized and potentially important parameters of the electronics and detectors used in X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are discussed. Detector factors include window (dead-layer) effects, time-dependent background and excess background. Noise parameters of field-effect transistors and time-variant pulse shaping are also discussed

  2. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  3. Electronics for the Si detectors in APEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, P.R.; Betts, R.R.; Freer, M.

    1994-01-01

    APEX (ATLAS Positron EXperiment), a collaborative effort of ANL, FSU, MSU/NSCL, Princeton, Queen's, Rochester, Washington and Yale, is an experiment to study positron and electron production in very heavy ion collisions. The electrons and positrons are detected with two detector arrays, each consisting of 216 1 mm thick Si PIN diodes, and their energy and time-of-flight are measured. The number of detectors and limited space made it necessary to develop a system that could efficiently process and transfer signals from the detectors to the charge sensing ADC's and data readout electronics as well as monitor the condition of the detectors. The discussion will cover the electronics designed for the Si detectors, including the charge amplifier, ''Mother board'' for the charge amplifiers, 8 channel Shaper, 16 channel Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD), 16 channel Peak-to-FERA (PTF) and the integration of the CFD and PTF with Charge sensing ADC's. Function and performance of the individual modules as well as the system as a whole will be discussed

  4. Pulsed beam dosimetry using fiber-coupled radioluminescence detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to review and discuss the potential application of fiber-coupled radioluminescence detectors for dosimetry in pulsed MV photon beams. Two types of materials were used: carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) and organic plastic scintillators. Special consideration...... was given to the discrimination between radioluminescence signals from the phosphors and unwanted light induced in the optical fiber cables during irradiation (Cerenkov and fluorescence). New instrumentation for dose-per-pulse measurements with organic plastic scintillators was developed....

  5. Digital pulse shape discrimination of detector data using fuzzy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A.; Ramachandran, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.

    2011-01-01

    In accelerator based experiments, data acquisition is done by CAMAC, VME and other systems. The current trend is to digitize the pulse shapes and not just the peak heights of all the input channels, by means of Flash ADCs. In view of the large number of channels involved, this leads to unprecedented data volumes. Therefore, attempts to perform a first level of analysis in real time using algorithms implemented in FPGA have become important. In the present work, digital pulse shape discrimination using fuzzy clustering has been investigated. The attempt has been to devise general purpose PSD Techniques, loosely coupled with the characteristics of detector or particle type, for particle identification. The method is applicable to neutron-gamma discrimination for liquid scintillators and charged particles detected by Si detectors

  6. Electronic technology and the SLD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.D.; Dean, T.; Fox, M.J.; Freytag, D.; Gioumousis, A.; Haller, G.; Hoeflich, J.; Horelick, D.; Kang, H; Mazaheri, G.; Nelson, D.J.; Olsen, J.J.; Oxoby, G.; Paffrath, L.; Stiles, P.; Yim, A. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Bacchetta, N. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)); Bilei, G.M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)); Carpinelli, M.; Cast

    1990-06-01

    The SLD detector consists of five major subsystems, each with associated front-end electronics and an integrated FASTBUS control and data acquisition system. This paper highlights the choices among electronic technologies that have been developed for the SLD detector electronics. The common control, calibration, and data acquisition architectures are described. The functions of selected SLD integrated circuits, standard cells, gate arrays, and hybrids are summarized, and the integration of these functions into the common data acquisition path is described. Particular attention is directed to four areas of electronic technology developed for the SLD detector: the preamplifier hybrid designs are compared to their performance and implementation examined; the application of full custom CMOS digital circuits in SLD is compared to gate array and EPLD (electrically programmable logic device) implementations; the fiberoptic signal transmission techniques in SLD are examined and the data rates and link topology are presented; and finally, the packaging, power consumption, and cooling requirements for system functions resident inside the detector structure are explored. The rationale for the implementation choices in the SLD electronics is presented so that others might benefit from our experience.

  7. Electronic instrumentation system for pulsed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.

    1982-01-01

    An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)

  8. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.; Kobayasi, T.; Yosida, Y.; Ohkuma, J.; Okuda, S.; Suemine, S.

    1993-01-01

    For the picosecond pulsed electron beam of a linear accelerator a simple monitor using an electric connector has been developed which is constructed with SMA, BNC, N type electric connector through pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm or 100 mm). Under the measurement conditions of peak current (26A-900A) and narrow pulse width (Pw = 10 ps(FWHM), Pw = 30 ps(FWHM)), the following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (A) rise time is less than 25 ps (B) the amplitude of the monitor output pulse is proportional directly to the area of cross section of the electrode. (author)

  9. Electron emitter pulsed-type cylindrical IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Gu, Y.; Stubbers, R.; Zich, R.; Anderl, R.; Hartwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical version of the single grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device (termed the C-device) has been developed for use as a 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutron source for neutron activation analysis. The C-device employs a hollow-tube type cathode with similar anodes backed up by ''reflector'' dishes. The resulting discharge differs from a conventional hollow cathode discharge, by creating an explicit ion beam which is ''pinched'' in the cathode region. Resulting fusion reactions generate ∼10 6 neutron/s. A pulsed version is under development for applications requiring higher fluxes. Several pulsing techniques are under study, including an electron emitter (e-emitter) assisted discharge in a thorated tungsten wire emitter located behind a slotted area in the reflector dishes. Pulsing is initiated after establishing a low power steady-state discharge by pulsing the e-emitter current using a capacitor switch type circuit. The resulting electron jet, coupled with the discharge by the biased slot array, creates a strong pulse in the pinched ion beam. The pulse length/repetition rate are controlled by the e-emitter pulse circuit. Typical parameters in present studies are ∼30micros, 10Hz and 1-amp ion current. Corresponding neutron measurements are an In-foil type activation counter for time averaged rates. Results for a wide variety of operating conditions are presented

  10. Electronic Imaging in Astronomy Detectors and Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation describes the remarkable developments that have taken place in astronomical detectors and instrumentation in recent years – from the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1970 to the current era of very large telescopes, such as the Keck 10-meter telescopes in Hawaii with their laser guide-star adaptive optics which rival the image quality of the Hubble Space Telescope. Authored by one of the world’s foremost experts on the design and development of electronic imaging systems for astronomy, this book has been written on several levels to appeal to a broad readership. Mathematical expositions are designed to encourage a wider audience, especially among the growing community of amateur astronomers with small telescopes with CCD cameras. The book can be used at the college level for an introductory course on modern astronomical detectors and instruments, and as a supplement for a practical or laboratory class.

  11. Coherent pump pulses in Double Electron Electron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Claudia E.; Stoll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The recent introduction of shaped pulses to Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has led to significant enhancements in sensitivity through increased excitation bandwidths and improved control over spin dynamics. The application of DEER has so far relied on the presence of an incoherent pump channel to average out most undesired coherent effects of the pump pulse(s) on the observer spins. However, in fully coherent EPR spectrometers that are increasingly used to generate shaped pulses, the presence of coherent pump pulses means that these effects need to be explicitly considered. In this paper, we examine the effects of coherent rectangular and sech/tanh pump pulses in DEER experiments with up to three pump pulses. We show that, even in the absence of significant overlap of the observer and pump pulse excitation bandwidths, coherence transfer pathways involving both types of pulses generate spin echoes of considerable intensity. These echoes introduce artefacts, which, if not identified and removed, can easily lead to misinterpretation. We demonstrate that the observed echoes can be quantitatively modelled using a simple spin quantum dynamics approach that includes instrumental transfer functions. Based on an analysis of the echo crossing artefacts, we propose efficient phase cycling schemes for their suppression. This enables the use of advanced DEER experiments, characterized by high sensitivity and increased accuracy for long-distance measurements, on novel fully coherent EPR spectrometers. PMID:27339858

  12. Programmable pseudo-random detector-pulse-pattern generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putten, R. van der; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the design and realization of the digital part of the programmable pseudo-random detector pulse-pattern generator. For the design and realization use has been made of F-TTL and high speed special purpose ic's, in particular FAL's (15 ns). The design possibilities offered by the software for pro-gramming of the FAL's have been utilized as much as possible. In this way counters, registers and a state machine with extended control possibilities have been designed and an advanced 8 channel pulse generator has been developed which is controlled via the VME system bus. the generator possesses an internal clock oscillator of 16 MHZ. The moment when a pulse is generated can be adjusted with a step size of 250 ps. 2000 different periods (time windows) can be stored for generating a pattern. (author). 37 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, S., E-mail: sergiomr@usal.es; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ{sup 2} test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  14. Quantitative characterization of electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Rachel S; Yu, Zhiheng; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2013-12-01

    A new generation of direct electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) promises significant improvement over previous detectors in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). However, the performance of these new detectors needs to be carefully monitored in order to optimize imaging conditions and check for degradation over time. We have developed an easy-to-use software tool, FindDQE, to measure MTF and DQE of electron detectors using images of a microscope's built-in beam stop. Using this software, we have determined the DQE curves of four direct electron detectors currently available: the Gatan K2 Summit, the FEI Falcon I and II, and the Direct Electron DE-12, under a variety of total dose and dose rate conditions. We have additionally measured the curves for the Gatan US4000 and TVIPS TemCam-F416 scintillator-based cameras. We compare the results from our new method with published curves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  16. Digital Pulse Shape Analysis with Phoswich Detectors to Simplify Coincidence Measurements of Radioactive Xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty establishes a network of monitoring stations to detect radioactive Xenon in the atmosphere from nuclear weapons testing. One such monitoring system is the Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which uses a complex arrangement of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from the Xe isotopes of interest. The coincidence measurement is very sensitive, but the large number of detectors and photomultiplier tubes require careful calibration which makes the system hard to use. It has been suggested that beta-gamma coincidences could be detected with only a single photomultiplier tube and electronics channel by using a phoswich detector consisting of optically coupled beta and gamma detectors (Ely, 2003). In that work, rise time analysis of signals from a phoswich detector was explored as a method to determine if interactions occurred in either the beta or the gamma detector or in both simultaneously. However, this approach was not able to detect coincidences with the required sensitivity or to measure the beta and gamma energies with sufficient precision for Xenon monitoring. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to detect coincidences by pulse shape analysis of the signals from a BC-404/CsI(Tl) phoswich detector. Implemented on fast digital readout electronics, the algorithm achieves clear separation of beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, accurate measurement of both beta and gamma energies, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and light collection were performed to optimize design parameters for a replacement detector module for the ARSA system, obtaining an estimated coincidence detection efficiency of 82-92% and a background rejection rate better than 99%. The new phoswich/pulse shape analysis method is thus suitable to simplify the existing ARSA

  17. Pulse shape discrimination in helium-4 scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Ryan P., E-mail: rpkelley@ufl.edu; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2016-09-11

    Three algorithms were investigated for discriminating between neutrons and gamma rays in a pressurized {sup 4}He gas fast neutron detector: charge comparison, weighted integration, and neutron-gamma model analysis (NGMA). For each algorithm, a comprehensive pulse shape discrimination study was conducted using time-of-flight measurements, receiver operator characteristic curves, figure of merit performance measures, and a comparison of performance between {sup 252}Cf and PuBe mixed neutron/gamma sources. The NGMA method was found to have the best overall performance by both the figure of merit and the receiver operator characteristic curve. The results also illustrated the high gamma rejection efficiency of these detectors, which is desirable in a variety of neutron monitoring applications.

  18. Electron reconstruction with the ATLAS inner detector

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Thomas Martin

    The LHC will produce proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV . ATLAS is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, sensitive to a wide range of physics processes. The total LHC production cross-section is dominated by QCD and so the search for rare physics events requires that ATLAS is able to reconstruct and identify leptons with high efficiency and accuracy. Electrons are measured in two ATLAS sub-detectors: the inner tracker reconstructs the trajectories of all charged particles, providing an estimate of the momentum; while the energies of electrons are measured by the electromagnetic calorimeter. The baseline track fitter for the inner detector is the Kalman filter (KF). The KF is optimal only when all measurement errors and material interactions can be described by gaussian probability density functions. Electrons loose energy in matter predominantly through bremsstrahlung, which is a strongly non-gaussian process described by the Bethe-Heitler distribution. In this case, a non-linear ...

  19. Electron multiplier as a detector for soft x rays from synchrotron and laser plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Christopher J.; Dermody, Geraint; Khaleque, Naz I.; Michette, Alan G.; Pfauntsch, Slawka J.; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.

    1998-11-01

    An electron-tubes-LTD 129EM electron multiplier tube has been modified to act as a detector of soft x-rays. the first dynode was coated with 100 nm of CsI and the assembly was mounted in a small vacuum chamber with 100 nm thick silicon nitride entrance window. Initial tests show the detector is linear up to an input flux of approximately 1MHz on a synchrotron source and has proved effective in providing pulse height discrimination when used on a pulsed laser plasma source.

  20. Improving the position resolution of highly segmented HPGe detectors using pulse shape analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, Martina

    2002-01-01

    This work presents an approach for determining the interaction position of γ rays in highly segmented HPGe detectors. A precise knowledge of the interaction position enables the effective granularity of the detector to be substantially improved and a calibration of the detector response as a function of position to be performed. An improved position resolution is fundamental for the development of arrays of γ ray tracking detectors. The performance of a highly segmented germanium detector (TIGRE) has been characterised. TIGRE consists of a large volume coaxial high-purity n-type germanium crystal with a 24-fold segmented outer contact. Due to its high granularity and its fast electronics, TIGRE represents a unique example of a tracking detector, having low noise output signals, fast rise time and good energy resolution. In order to calibrate the response of the detector as a function of the interaction position, a dedicated scanning apparatus has been developed and the front surface of the detector has been scanned. The method developed for position determination is based on the digital analysis of the preamplifier signal, whose features are position dependent. A two-dimensional position resolution is accomplished by combining the radial position information, contained in the rise time of the pulse shape leading edge, with the azimuthal position information, carried by the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced in the spectator segments. Utilising this method, a position resolution of 0.6 mm, both radially and along the azimuthal direction, can be achieved in the most sensitive part of the detector. (author)

  1. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1-10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200-400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  2. On the response of electronic personal dosimeters in constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Margarete C.; Silva, Teogenes; Silva, Claudete R.E., E-mail: margaretecristinag@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2015-07-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) based on solid state detectors have widely been used but some deficiencies in their response in pulsed radiation beams have been reported. Nowadays, there is not an international standard for pulsed X-ray beams for calibration or type testing of dosimeters. Irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both the constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams were established in CDTN. Three different types of EPDs were tested in different conditions in similar ISO and IEC X-ray qualities. Results stressed the need of performing additional checks before using EPDs in constant potential or pulsed X-rays. (author)

  3. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Rivet, M.F.; Barbey, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chabot, M. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chbihi, A. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Cussol, D. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Edelbruck, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Frankland, J.D. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ.e Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopez, O. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2011-06-21

    Current pulses induced in a silicon detector by 10 different heavy ion species at known energies around 10 A MeV have been sampled in time at high frequency. Their individual average shapes are quite well reproduced by a fit procedure based on our recent charge carrier collection treatment which considers the progressive extraction of the electrons and holes from the high carrier density zone along the ionizing particle track. This region is assumed to present a supplementary dielectric polarization and consequently a disturbed electric field. The influence of the nature of the heavy ion on the values of the three fit parameters is analyzed.

  4. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  5. Acquisition and control command system for power pulsed detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R; Magniette, F

    2014-01-01

    A DAQ system is developed within the SiW-Ecal ILC collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture, compound of four parts. A detector interface (DIF) extracting data from front-end electronics and sending them as packets. Two levels of data concentration, control clock and fast command fanout. The two cards, named DCC and GDCC, use respectively FastEthernet and GigaEthernet. A software suite (named Calicoes) allows to control the DAQ and the detector chips and to acquire data from GigaEthernet. It also includes programs for decoding frontend readout to various formats, and also dispatching and aggregating data. Overall architecture, performance in test beam and prospects for use with hundreds of thousands channels are discussed.

  6. Design criteria for pulse transformers used in neutron detector pulse counting channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powler, E.P.

    1963-10-01

    The need for long cables between the detector and head amplifier in neutron pulse counting channels has led to the development of systems in which a transformer is used to 'match' the high impedance of a fission or proportional counter to the characteristic impedance of the cable. A further transformer can be used to match the cable to the input of a low noise pulse amplifier if this has a high impedance. This report is intended to give the designer sufficient information to optimise a system and predict the performance in terms of signal to noise ratio, resolving time and gain. Related problems are covered and include the use of balanced twin cables, the requirements of temperatures up to 500 deg. C and the need for high interference rejection. Two systems are described in some detail to emphasise the principles of design. (author)

  7. Pulse shape analysis for germanium detectors used in DM searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeev, I.R. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Drukier, A.K. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Welsh, D.J. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)); Klimenko, A.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)); Osetrov, S.B. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)); Smolnikov, A.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    Progress in Ge detector technology has resulted in ultralow backgrounds of less than 0.3 countskeV[sup -1]kg[sup -1]d[sup -1] at energies between 6 and 9keV and from 12 to 20keV. Between 4 and 6keV it is less than 2 countskeV[sup -1]kg[sup -1]d[sup -1]. Coupled with good energy resolution, 0.4keV FWHM at 10keV, this allows searches for DM particles with m[>=]qslant8GeV/c[sup 2].Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and acoustical pick-up are the main sources of background in the best Ge detectors. A PC-based on-line pulse shape analysis system is presented which permits rejection of large fraction of the EMI/acoustical background. The hardware uses a low cost, commercially available digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The software consists of about 40000 lines of code in Pascal and assembly language. We tested this system using a low radioactive background Ge-system at the Baksan observatory. For low energy events (<100keV) this system permits improvement in the background by about 20-30%. ((orig.))

  8. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The basic activities of the Department of Nuclear Electronics in 2005 were concentrated on following areas: · studies of new scintillation techniques and their application in nuclear medicine and border monitoring, · contribution to the FWVI European projects, · scientific contracts with European industry in respect to detection techniques · electronics for experiments in High Energy Physics, · development of γ-ray spectrometry apparatus, · development of new generation State of the Art USB based and PCI based multi-channel analysers, · development, investigation and production of silicon detectors · normalisation activities. Most of the scientific achievements of the Department were summarized in 24 publications (released or being in press) and 6 publications submitted. The papers were published mainly in IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. and Nucl. Instr. Methods. Besides that, our scientists presented 11 contributions at international conferences - 5 presentations on IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging 2005 in Puerto Rico. It should also be stressed that prof. M. Moszynski was honoured with the title of IEEE Fellow and M. Kapusta has received PhD degree. There also were normalization activities in preparation of polish versions of European Standards in the field of electronics Studies on new scintillation techniques were addressed mainly to their application in a nuclear medicine and a border monitoring, induced by the European projects, realized within FWVI. The study of new prospects for a Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography, carried out within BioCare project, strongly suggested that the time-of-flight PET, based on LSO crystals, is a realistic proposition for the further development. Moreover, the comparative study of several scintillators allowed selecting LaBr 3 crystal as a potential candidate to a common PET/CT detector. A comparative study of a large NaI(Tl) and BGO crystals allowed, in turn, selecting the 5''x 5''x 10'' Na

  9. The influence of anisotropic electron drift velocity on the signal shapes of closed-end HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailescu, L; Lieder, R M; Brands, H; Jaeger, H

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the anisotropy of the electron drift velocity in germanium crystals at high electric fields and low temperature, and its influence on the charge collection process in n-type, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors of closed-end, coaxial geometry. The electron trajectories inside HPGe detectors are simulated using a phenomenological model to calculate the dependence of the drift velocity on the angle between the electric field and the crystal orientation. The resulting induced currents and pulse shapes for a given detector geometry and preamplifier bandwidth are compared to experiment. Experimentally, the dependence of the pulse shapes on the conductivity anisotropy in closed-end HPGe detectors was observed. The experimental data on pulse shapes were obtained by sampling preamplifier signals of an encapsulated, hexaconical EUROBALL detector, which was irradiated by collimated sup 2 sup 2 Na and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am sources. The crystal orientation was measured by neutron reflection...

  10. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  11. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The basic activities of the Department of Nuclear Electronics in 2003 were concentrated on following areas: - studies of new scintillation techniques, - contribution to the big European projects, - scientific contracts with European industry in respect to detection techniques - electronics for experiments in High Energy Physics, - development, investigation and production of silicon detectors - development of γ-ray spectrometry apparatus, - development of new generation State of the Art PCI based and USB based multi-channel analysers, - technical support for the Institute as the whole with special emphasis on networking, - normalisation activities. Most of the scientific achievements of the Department were summarized in 18 publications (released or in press). These papers were published mainly in IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. and Nucl. Instr. and Methods. Besides that, our scientists presented 14 contributions at international conferences (such as IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium 2003 in Portland, USA or 3 th IEEE Real Time Conference in Montreal, Canada). Particularly, two papers were presented at IEEE NSS Conference in Portland presenting the first in-beam study of LSO/APD array detectors for PET in hadron therapy - this work was performed in the collaboration with FZR Rossendorf in Germany. Studies on new scintillation techniques were concentrated mainly on energy resolution investigations in scintillation detectors. The study of pure CsI and BGO at liquid nitrogen temperature showed some important observations concerning non-proportionality of the light yield versus energy of γ-quanta and intrinsic energy resolution of the scintillators. It suggested that a modification of scintillators by additional doping may improve their proportionality and in consequence, their energy resolution. The Department was involved in scientific collaborations with a number of international centers, such as CERN, the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, FZR

  12. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The basic activities of the Department of Nuclear Electronics were concentrated on the following areas: - studies of new scintillation techniques, - contribution to the big European projects, - electronics for experiments in High Energy Physics, - development, investigation and production of silicon detectors, - development of γ-ray spectrometry apparatus, - development of new generation state of the art PCI based multi-channel analysers, - technical support for the Institute as the whole with special emphasis on networking, - normalisation activities. Most of the scientific achievements concerning the Department were summarized in 20 publications (released or being in press). The papers were published mainly in IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. and Nucl. Instr. and Methods. Besides that, our scientists presented 6 contributions at international conferences (such as IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium 2002 in Norfolk, USA). The Department was involved in scientific collaborations with a number of international centers, such as CERN, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, FZR Rossendorf, IKF Juelich, GSI Darmstadt and companies as Advanced Photonix, Inc in California, Scionix in Holland and Photonis in France. The collaboration with High Energy Physics Department of our Institute was focused on LHCb experiment in CERN. In the studies of new scintillation techniques large area avalanche photodiodes were used successfully to tests numerous scintillators at liquid nitrogen temperature. The study of pure (undoped) NaI showed some intriguing effects dealing with non-proportionality of the light yield versus energy of γ-quanta and intrinsic energy resolution of the crystals, which may provide a deeper insight into origin of intrinsic resolution. A very high-energy resolution of 3.8% was measured for 662 keV γ-rays from a 137 Cs source. Moreover, very promising properties of pure NaI at room temperature were shown for the first time. The study of Hamamatsu avalanche

  13. The ANTARES Detector: Electronics and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, M.

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an underwater neutrino telescope at 2500 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. The experiment aims to detect high- energy cosmic neutrinos using a 3D array of 900 photomultipliers distributed along 12 lines. 5 such lines have been operational since January 2007. The PMTs collect the Cherenkov light induced by neutrino-produced charged particles in the water. In this contribution, we will illustrate the electronics and the data acquisition system of the apparatus and discuss their performance. The PMT signals are digitized and time-stamped offshore. The front-end electronics, based on the ASIC Analogue Ring Sampler, is located inside electronics modules which collect data from PMT triplets and control the various calibration/monitoring devices. Bidirectional data communication is maintained between the shore station and the apparatus over a network of optical fibres with a DWDM technique. This is a convenient solution to allow control of the detector from the shore and to guarantee a high-bandwidth for data transport to shore. Common clock signals, GPS-synchronized onshore, are delivered to the whole apparatus on dedicated optical fibres. An onshore computer farm performs the data filtering and, depending on selectable trigger conditions, writes data to disk. Results from the current 5-line apparatus will be shown.

  14. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  15. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)

  16. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, K. V.; Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V.; Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A.; Sidorova, M. V.; Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R n , which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L k and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  17. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  18. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  19. Method for pulse to pulse dose reproducibility applied to electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.

    2002-01-01

    An original method for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration and pulse dose is presented. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse dose reproducibility is required. This method is applied to the electron linear accelerators, ALIN-10 of 6.23 MeV and 82 W and ALID-7, of 5.5 MeV and 670 W, built in NILPRP. In order to implement this method, the accelerator triggering system (ATS) consists of two branches: the gun branch and the magnetron branch. ATS, which synchronizes all the system units, delivers trigger pulses at a programmed repetition rate (up to 250 pulses/s) to the gun (80 kV, 10 A and 4 ms) and magnetron (45 kV, 100 A, and 4 ms).The accelerated electron beam existence is determined by the electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping. The method consists in controlling the overlapping of pulses in order to deliver the beam in the desired sequence. This control is implemented by a discrete pulse position modulation of gun and/or magnetron pulses. The instabilities of the gun and magnetron transient regimes are avoided by operating the accelerator with no accelerated beam for a certain time. At the operator 'beam start' command, the ATS controls electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping and the linac beam is generated. The pulse-to-pulse absorbed dose variation is thus considerably reduced. Programmed absorbed dose, irradiation time, beam pulse number or other external events may interrupt the coincidence between the gun and magnetron pulses. Slow absorbed dose variation is compensated by the control of the pulse duration and repetition frequency. Two methods are reported in the electron linear accelerators' development for obtaining the pulse to pulse dose reproducibility: the method

  20. Pulsed Discharge Helium Ionization Detector for Highly Sensitive Aquametry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D; Pimentel, Adam S; Sparks, Elizabeth S; Moorman, Matthew W; Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Manginell, Ronald P

    2016-01-01

    Trace moisture quantitation is crucial in medical, civilian and military applications. Current aquametry technologies are limited by the sample volume, reactivity, or interferences, and/or instrument size, weight, power, cost, and complexity. We report for the first time on the use of a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID-D2) (∼196 cm(3)) for the sensitive (limit of detection, 0.047 ng; 26 ppm), linear (r(2) >0.99), and rapid (volume of liquid or gas. The relative humidity sensitivity was 0.22% (61.4 ppmv) with a limit of detection of less than 1 ng moisture with gaseous samples. The sensitivity was 10 to 100 to fold superior to competing technologies without the disadvantages inherent to these technologies. The PDHID-D2, due to its small footprint and low power requirement, has good size, weight, and power-portability (SWAPP) factors. The relatively low cost (∼$5000) and commercial availability of the PDHID-D2 makes our technique applicable to highly sensitive aquametry.

  1. Hough Radar Detectors in Conditions of Intensive Pulse Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. KABAKCHIEV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We study in the present paper the radar, which can be considered as a part of a multi-sensor data fusion system. To improve the quality of the detection process, a detailed statistical analysis is performed and several detection algorithms are presented. These algorithms can be divided into two groups – conventional and ones using Hough transform. The benefits in the average detection threshold gained by Hough transform application are expressed as signal-to-noise ratio. The aim of this paper is to present and summarize the results described in other contributions and to consider some new ones. We assume that the target echo signal fluctuates according to Swerling models (Swerling I, II, III, the randomly arriving impulse interference is with a Poisson distribution of the probability for appearance and the amplitudes are with a Rayleigh distribution. The profits (losses are determined as a statistical estimation by means of the probability characteristics of both types of detectors, obtained in Matlab. The achieved results show that Hough transform is very effective in conditions of intensive pulse jamming.

  2. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  3. Dual detector pulsed neutron logging for providing indication of formation porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    A logging instrument contains a pulsed neutron source and a pair of radiation detectors spaced along the length of the instrument. The radiation detectors are gated differently from each other to provide an indication of formation porosity which is substantially independent of the formation salinity. In the preferred embodiment, the electrical signals indicative of radiation detected by the long-spaced detector are gated for almost the entire interval between neutron pulses and the short-spaced signals are gated for a significantly smaller time interval which commences soon after the termination of a given neutron burst. The signals from the two detectors are combined in a ratio circuit for determination of porosity

  4. Some studies on the pulse-height loss due to capacitive decay in the detector-circuit of parallel plate ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.L.; Anil Kumar, G.; Choudhury, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse-type ionization chambers are invariably operated in the electron-sensitive mode where the capacitive decay in the detector-circuit during the electron collection produces loss in the pulse-height. In order to understand and appreciate the effect of this capacitive decay on the detector response, we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations of the response of two-electrode parallel plate ionization chambers with and without the capacitive decay keeping shaping time so large that the ballistic deficit is negligibly small. These simulations have been carried out incorporating the physical processes, namely, emission of charged particles from a point radioactive source, the generation of charge carriers in the active volume, separation and acceleration of the charge carriers, transport of the charge carriers, induction of charges on the electrodes, pulse processing by preamplifier-amplifier network, etc. These simulations have shown that the concerned capacitive decay produces appreciable loss in the pulse-height, if the detector-circuit time constant is of the order of maximum electron collection time. We have also carried out measurements on the pulse-height loss due to the capacitive decay in the detector-circuit during the electron collection for a two-electrode parallel plate ionization chamber. The experimental data on the pulse-height loss match reasonably well with the theoretical predictions

  5. Development of high sensitivity 4H-SiC detectors for fission neutron pulse shape measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Li, Meng; Zeng, Lina; Li, Junjie; Gao, Hui; Zou, Dehui; Bai, Zhongxiong; Ye, Cenming; Liang, Wenfeng; Dai, Shaofeng; Lu, Yi; Rong, Ru; Du, Jinfeng; Fan, Xiaoqiang

    2017-08-01

    4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) detectors are well suited for measurements of fission neutron pulse shape for their compact size, excellent radiation resistance, and hydrogen free composition. The aim of this study is to improve the 4H-SiC detector's sensitivity to fission neutron pulses. 4H-SiC detectors with varied epilayer thicknesses are fabricated and then tested in the pulsed neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II (CFBR II). The sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is increased by 139.8%, with the enlargement of epilayer thickness from 20 μm to 120 μm. By employing the proton-recoil method, the sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is further increased by 11.6%. With enhanced sensitivity to fission neutron pulses, 4H-SiC detectors are promising devices for high intensity neutron pulse measurements.

  6. Application of the pulse-shape technique to proton-alpha discrimination in Si-detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D.; Bohne, W.; Grawe, H.; Hilscher, D.; Schubart, R.; De Angelis, G.; De Poli, M.

    1995-04-01

    The capability of the pulse-shape technique with reversed n-type Si detectors for discrimination of protons and alphas produced in fusion-evaporation reactions was tested at the VICKSI cyclotron in Berlin. We applied a zero-crossing technique which does not need any external time reference, and which can therefore be exploited at DC accelerators. Excellent proton-alpha discrimination in the full energy range of the evaporation spectra, but also charge and even isotope resolution for heavier ions produced in projectile fragmentation, was obtained with detectors of an existing Si ball. There is no doubt that the pulse-shape discrimination works well with detectors from serial production and under experimental conditions which are typical for nuclear structure studies. An application of this technique in Si detector arrays is obvious, but some special features must be considered in the design of the electronics. The particle discrimination depends strongly on the electric field distribution inside the detector. Stabilization of the bias voltage at the detector is therefore recommended. A consequence of the rear-side injection mode is a strong variation of the charge-collection time with energy, charge, and mass number of the detected ion. To obtain a precise energy signal it is indispensable to correct for the ballistic deficit. (orig.)

  7. A direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchione, T.; Denes, P.; Jobe, R. K.; Johnson, I. J.; Joseph, J. M.; Li, R. K.; Perazzo, A.; Shen, X.; Wang, X. J.; Weathersby, S. P.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of direct electron detectors enabled the structural biology revolution of cryogenic electron microscopy. Direct electron detectors are now expected to have a similarly dramatic impact on time-resolved MeV electron microscopy, particularly by enabling both spatial and temporal jitter correction. Here we report on the commissioning of a direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy. The direct electron detector demonstrated MeV single electron sensitivity and is capable of recording megapixel images at 180 Hz. The detector has a 15-bit dynamic range, better than 30-μmμm spatial resolution and less than 20 analogue-to-digital converter count RMS pixel noise. The unique capabilities of the direct electron detector and the data analysis required to take advantage of these capabilities are presented. The technical challenges associated with generating and processing large amounts of data are also discussed.

  8. Single-pulse electrons from a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Takeoka, Seiji; Kato, Kazushi

    1976-01-01

    The electronic circuits of a 35 MeV linear accelerator at Hiroshima University were modified to produce single-pulse electrons. Single-pulse electrons were obtained by synchronizing one of eight pulses from an electron gun modulator, 120 pps, to one of the micro-waves from a klystron, 15 pps. After single-pulse electrons were discharged, a signal was relayed to a stop-gate circuit from a binary scaler which was connected to the gun modulator. Although reproducibility of single-pulse electrons and stability of electron output per pulse were not completely satisfactory, it was possible to use for radiobiological studies. Biological effects of single-pulse electrons (energy: 25 MeV, dose rate: 10 10 rad/min) on cultured mammalian cells and on mice were nearly equal to those of multi-pulse electrons (25 MeV, 10 7 rad/min) and Co-60 γ-rays (dose rate: 100 rad/min). (auth.)

  9. Surface dynamics using pulsed electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ally S. Y.; Jones, Robert G.

    2000-04-01

    Line of sight time of flight has been used to measure the translational energy of ethene formed by dissociative electron attachment of adsorbed dihalocarbons (XCH 2CH 2Y) on Cu(111) at 100 K. A pulsed electron beam was used to generate low energy secondary electrons at the surface, which were the active agents in initiating the decomposition, XCH 2CH 2Y(ads)+e -→XCH 2CH 2rad (ads)+Y(chem)+e -, XCH 2CH 2rad (ads)→C 2H 4(g)+X(chem). For 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) adsorbed with a spacer layer of chemisorbed chlorine between it and the Cu(111)surface, the TOF data could be fitted using three Maxwell distributions with fast (960 K), slow (180 K) and diffusion ('20 K') components. For a single monolayer of DCE adsorbed directly on the clean Cu(111) surface the fast (1230 K) and slow (225 K) components increased in temperature, indicating that the copper surface was affecting the reaction. For 1-bromo-2-chloroethane the results were the same, consistent with both molecules dissociating via a common intermediate, ClC 2H 4rad (ads). For 1,2-dibromoethane the intermediate is different, BrC 2H 4rad , and decomposition of a monolayer of this molecule on clean Cu(111) exhibited fast (1850 K) and slow (270 K) components, both higher than the corresponding temperatures for DCE. The dynamics of these reactions and the origin of the two Maxwell distributions are discussed in terms of the energy available within the radical, and from the formation of the chemisorbed halogen when the radical dissociates.

  10. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza, E-mail: r-massudi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983969411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  12. Photomultiplier pulse Read Out system for the preshower detector of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaltouni, Z.; Bohner, G.; Cornat, R.; Deschamps, O.; Lecoq, J.; Monteil, S.; Perret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The second generation experiment for CP violation studies in B decays, LHCb, is a 20-m-long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition to a performance trigger system able to cope with high flux. The first level of trigger is mainly based on the fast response of the calorimetric subsystem. Of major importance is the 6000 channels preshower detector that aims to validate the electromagnetic nature of calorimetric showers. It consists of two-radiation-length lead sheet in front of a scintillator plane. Scintillator signals are extracted from plastic cells using wavelength-shifting fibres coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The preshower Read Out system has to cope with fluctuating photomultiplier pulses caused by small amounts of photoelectrons, in addition to strong constraints imposed by the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency. A special Read Out electronics including perfect 40 MHz integrators able to shape fluctuating photomultiplier pulses has been designed, and successfully realized. The temporal shape of photomultiplier pulse and the upstream Read Out system for preshower are described in this document

  13. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  14. System Electronics for the ATLAS Upgraded Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Dabrowskic, W; Dewitt, J; Diez Cornell, S; Dressdant, N; Fadeyev, V; Farthouat, P; Ferrere, D; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Kaplon, J; Key-Charriere, M; La Marra, D; Lipeles, E; Lynn, D; Newcomer, M; Pereirab, F; Phillips, P; Spencer, E; Swientekc, K; Warren, M; Weidberg, A

    2013-01-01

    The basic concept of the front-end system of the Silicon Strip Detector in the Atlas Detector upgraded for the HL-LHC is being elaborated and proposed. The readout electronics of this new detector is based on front-end chips (ABC130), Hybrid Controller chips (HCC) and End of Stave Controller chips (EOSC). This document defines the basic functionality of the front-end system and of the different ASICs.

  15. A correlation-based pulse detection technique for gamma-ray/neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Schiffer, Randolph T.; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Wentzloff, David D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a correlation-based detection technique that significantly improves the probability of detection for low energy pulses. We propose performing a normalized cross-correlation of the incoming pulse data to a predefined pulse template, and using a threshold correlation value to trigger the detection of a pulse. This technique improves the detector sensitivity by amplifying the signal component of incoming pulse data and rejecting noise. Simulation results for various different templates are presented. Finally, the performance of the correlation-based detection technique is compared to the current state-of-the-art techniques.

  16. Digital pulse-timing technique for the neutron detector array NEDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modamio, V., E-mail: victor.modamio@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Hüyük, T. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València, E-46980 Valencia (Spain); Triossi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Egea, J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València, E-46980 Valencia (Spain); Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Di Nitto, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, 351-0198 Saitama (Japan); Agramunt Ros, J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València, E-46980 Valencia (Spain); Angelis, G. de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, F-14076 Caen (France); Erduran, M.N. [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, 34303 Istanbul (Turkey); and others

    2015-03-01

    A new digital pulse-timing algorithm, to be used with the future neutron detector array NEDA, has been developed and tested. The time resolution of four 5 in. diameter photomultiplier tubes (XP4512, R4144, R11833-100, and ET9390-kb), coupled to a cylindrical 5 in. by 5 in. BC501A liquid scintillator detector was measured by employing digital sampling electronics and a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) algorithm. The zero crossing of the CFD algorithm was obtained with a cubic spline interpolation, which was continuous up to the second derivative. The performance of the algorithm was studied at sampling rates of 500 MS/s and 200 MS/s. The time resolution obtained with the digital electronics was compared to the values acquired with a standard analog CFD. The result of this comparison shows that the time resolution from the analog and the digital measurements at 500 MS/s and at 200 MS/s are within 15% for all the tested photomultiplier tubes.

  17. Investigation of silicon PIN-detector for laser pulse detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Sam

    2004-01-01

    This report has been written at SAAB Bofors Dynamics (SBD) AB in Gothenburg at the department of optronic systems. In military observation operations, a target to hit is chosen by illumination of a laser designator. From the targetpoint laser radiation is reflected on a detector that helps identify the target. The detector is a semiconductor PIN-type that has been investigated in a laboratory environment together with a specially designed laser source. The detector is a photodiode and using p...

  18. Pulse Shape Analysis and Discrimination for Silicon-Photomultipliers in Helium-4 Gas Scintillation Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Cathleen; Zhu, Ting; Rolison, Lucas; Kiff, Scott; Jordan, Kelly; Enqvist, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Using natural helium (helium-4), the Arktis 180-bar pressurized gas scintillator is capable of detecting and distinguishing fast neutrons and gammas. The detector has a unique design of three optically separated segments in which 12 silicon-photomultiplier (SiPM) pairs are positioned equilaterally across the detector to allow for them to be fully immersed in the helium-4 gas volume; consequently, no additional optical interfaces are necessary. The SiPM signals were amplified, shaped, and readout by an analog board; a 250 MHz, 14-bit digitizer was used to examine the output pulses from each SiPMpair channel. The SiPM over-voltage had to be adjusted in order to reduce pulse clipping and negative overshoot, which was observed for events with high scintillation production. Pulse shaped discrimination (PSD) was conducted by evaluating three different parameters: time over threshold (TOT), pulse amplitude, and pulse integral. In order to differentiate high and low energy events, a 30ns gate window was implemented to group pulses from two SiPM channels or more for the calculation of TOT. It was demonstrated that pulses from a single SiPM channel within the 30ns window corresponded to low-energy gamma events while groups of pulses from two-channels or more were most likely neutron events. Due to gamma pulses having lower pulse amplitude, the percentage of measured gamma also depends on the threshold value in TOT calculations. Similarly, the threshold values were varied for the optimal PSD methods of using pulse amplitude and pulse area parameters. Helium-4 detectors equipped with SiPMs are excellent for in-the-field radiation measurement of nuclear spent fuel casks. With optimized PSD methods, the goal of developing a fuel cask content monitoring and inspection system based on these helium-4 detectors will be achieved.

  19. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  20. A Direction-Sensitive Detector for Electron Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, F. D.; Drosg, M.; Smit, F. D.

    2011-12-01

    A modular design is proposed for an electron antineutrino detector based on boron-doped liquid scintillator. Tests have been carried out on small detector systems using neutrons to simulate the antineutrino detection signature. Results from these tests are reported, and the possibility of using a larger system of similar design to detect reactor antineutrinos is discussed.

  1. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  2. Pulse filtering and correction for CZT detectors using simple digital algorithms based on the wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report an approach to double gaussian filtering used in classical works as dual parameter pulse processing. This technique has been implemented by creating a bank of gaussian-like digital filters based on wavelet transforms. A simple method to correct for the charge loss inherent to room temperature semiconductor gamma detectors has been developed. This method is based on multi-resolution signal analysis. Results are reported from tests of these algorithms on commercial CZT detectors and two trapped hole charge correction levels are compared. Finally, the advantages and limitations of this new approach to detector pulse processing are discussed

  3. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10 -5 mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm 2 area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm 2 . To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The measurements where

  4. Controller for control of pulsed electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryazgin, A.A.; Faktorovich, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The controller is based on the K1816VE31 microprocessor and contains 22-channel integrating 10-digital two-wire analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel 12-digit digital-to-analog converter, 24-digit output register, 16-digit input register pulse generator in the range of 0.5 - 50 Hz with the regulation step of 0.05 Hz and delayed pulse generator. The controller is used for pulsed electron linear accelerator control and is reduced to regulation of the electron beam pulse repetition rate and beam energy. 1 ref., 1 fig

  5. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Zoppo, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Agodi, C. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Alba, R. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Bellia, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Catania (Italy)); Coniglione, R. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Loukachine, K. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Maiolino, C. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy)); Migneco, E. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Catania (Italy)); Piattelli, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Labora

    1993-10-01

    The dependence of the response to [gamma]-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  6. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  7. Detection of Secondary Electrons by Scintillation Detector at VP SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirák, J.; Čudek, P.; Neděla, Vilém

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, Suppl. 2 (2011), s. 922-923 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : variable pressure scanning electron microscopes (VP-SEM) * scintillation detector * secondary electrons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2011

  8. Single Electron Detection in Quadruple-GEM Detector with Pad Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, Jaroslav

    2001-03-07

    Using a system of four GEMs operating in tandem and coupled to pad readout, we have demonstrated the detection of single electrons in ethane at 1 bar. The paper presents measurements of single electron pulse height distributions, total gas gain measurement and calculation, pad-to-pad cross-talk, quenching capability, high rate capability, charging effects, etc. We describe the overall operational experience, including addition of a gaseous photocathode, TMAE, and compare it to the SLD CRID single-electron detector [1], which has been operational during the past decade.

  9. Uses of pulsed electron beam to solid-states studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Nakayama, Takeyoshi; Tanimura, Katsumi; Chong, Taisu; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    A survey is given on the use of the pulsed electron beams to studies of solid states. Even though main emphasis is placed on the studies carried out at the Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, using the Pulsed Electron Facilities installed in 1970, the works carried out at other institutes are also included. Only the studies of crystalline solids with simple structures, such as alkali halides and aromatic hydrocarbons are covered. In the first place several instrumentations which have extended utilities of pulsed-electron beams are presented. Then we discuss the studies of the dynamic of excitons, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of the usage of the electron pulses. Then usages of the pulsed-electron beam for the studies of the excited states of the quasi-stable defects are described. Application of the electron pulse for studies of the excitation spectroscopy of the photochemistry is described. The dynamic studies of defects introduced by electron-pulse bombardment is discussed finally. A summary is given, which includes also the possible future experiments. (author)

  10. Response of cellulose nitrate track detectors to electron doses

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, N; Moreno, A; Vazquez-Polo, G; Santamaría, T; Aranda, P; Hernández, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to study alternative dose determination methods, the bulk etching velocity and the latent track annealing of LR 115 track detectors was studied during electron irradiation runs from a Pelletron accelerator. For this purpose alpha irradiated and blank detectors were exposed to increasing electron doses from 10.5 to 317.5 kGy. After the irradiation with electrons the detectors were etched under routine conditions, except for the etching time, that was varied for each electron dose in order to reach a fixed residual thickness. The variation of the bulk etching velocity as a function of each one of the electron doses supplied, was interpolated in order to obtain dosimetric response curves. The observed annealing effect on the latent tracks is discussed as a function of the total electron doses supplied and the temperature.

  11. An electronic system for pulse rise time discrimination with a proton recoil proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1969-10-01

    This report describes an electronic pulse counting system in current use on the Zero Energy Fast Reactor Zebra at A.E.E. Winfrith for neutron spectra analysis from 3Kev to 1Mev. The system uses a proton recoil proportional counter as detector and incorporates neutron-gamma separation by rise time discrimination. The collected data are stored in an Argus 500 computer for which a three dimensional display is provided. (author)

  12. Secondary electrons detectors for beam tracking: micromegas and wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Chaminade, T; Drouart, A; Kebbiri, M; Riallot, M; Fernandez, B; Naqvi, F

    2009-01-01

    SPIRAL2 or FAIR will be able to deliver beams of radioactive isotopes of low energy (less than 10 MeV/n). The emittance of these new beams will impose the use of beam tracking detectors to reconstruct the exact impact position of the nuclei on the experimental target. However, due to their thickness, the classical detectors will generate a lot of energy and angular straggling. A possible alternative is the SED principle (Secondary Electron Detector). It consists of an emissive foil placed in beam and a detector for the secondary electrons ejected by the passing of the nuclei through the foil. An R and D program has been initiated at CEA Saclay to study the possibility to use low pressure gaseous detectors as SED for beam tracking. Some SED have been already used on the VAMOS spectrometer at GANIL since 2004. We have constructed new detectors on this model to measure their performances in time and spatial resolution, and counting rate. Other detector types are also under study. For the first time, a test with different micromegas detectors at 4 Torr has been realized. A comparison on the time resolution has been performed between wire chamber and micromegas at very low pressure. The use of micromegas could be promising to improve the counting rate capability and the robustness of beam tracking detectors.

  13. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  14. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  15. Electron-positron pair production by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Narozhny, N. B.; Mur, V. D.; Popov, V. S.

    2006-01-01

    Electron-positron pair production in vacuum by a single focused laser pulse and by two counter-propagating colliding focused pulses is analyzed. A focused laser pulse is described using a realistic three-dimensional model based on an exact solution of Maxwell's equations. In particular, this model reproduces an important property of focused beams, namely, the existence of two types of waves with a transverse electric or magnetic vector (e-or h-polarized wave, respectively). The dependence of the number of produced pairs on the radiation intensity and focusing parameter is studied. It has been shown that the number of pairs produced in the field of a single e-polarized pulse is many orders of magnitude larger than that for an h-polarized pulse. The pulse-intensity dependence of the number of pairs produced by a single pulse is so sharp that the total energy of pairs produced by the e-polarized pulse with intensity near the intensity I S 4.65 x 10 29 W/cm 2 characteristic of QED is comparable with the energy of the pulse itself. This circumstance imposes a natural physical bound on the maximum attainable intensity of a laser pulse. For the case of two colliding circularly polarized pulses, it is shown that pair production becomes experimentally observable when the intensity of each beam is I ∼ 10 26 W/cm 2 , which is one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for a single pulse

  16. Generalization of dependence between shadow radiation image and intensity of pulses at scanning detector output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedavnij, O.I.; Udod, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Dependence of general character is determined between shadow radiation image in nondestructive testing and intensity of electric pulse occasional flux observed at the detector output of testing radiometric system. Model for radiometric system detector operation in counting regime of radiation detection is derived. The model simultaneously accounts: possibility of scanning shadow radiation image of tested object (TO) by unspecified raster, possibility of using detectors with nonuniform spatial radiation sensitivity, effect of shadow radiation TO image averaging by detector in two-dimensional variant. This fact permits to investigate the maximum potential capabilities of radiation testing radiometric systems [ru

  17. CTS and CZTS for solar cells made by pulsed laser deposition and pulsed electron deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    This thesis concerns the deposition of thin films for solar cells using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and pulsed electron deposition (PED). The aim was to deposit copper tin sulfide (CTS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by pulsed laser deposition to learn about these materials in relation to copper zinc tin...... sulfide (CZTS), a new material for solar cells. We were the first research group to deposit CTS by pulsed laser deposition and since this is a potential solar cell material in its own right we experimented with CTS solar cells in parallel with CZTS. Both CTS and CZTS contain only Earth-abundant elements......, which make them promising alternatives to the commercially successful solar cell material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Complementing our group's work on pulsed laser deposition of CZTS, we collaborated with IMEM-CNR in Parma, Italy, to deposit CZTS by pulsed electron deposition for the first...

  18. 2-Dimension pulse shape discriminator for phoswich detector based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jianfeng; Liu Congzhan; Zhang Zhi

    2011-01-01

    It improves the data acquire system for the pulse signal based on digital front-rear pulse shape discrimination system. It adds pulse width information into the pulse's data package. Base on this, we divide the pulse event process into two process, on line coast process and offline accurate process: the online process sets a big threshold, just save the data of the event below this threshold; the offline process uses the acquired data, get the pulse amplitude and pulse width, and then according the spectrum's real shape, set the accurate threshold. this design resolves the problem that the detector's decay time change with the temperature; at the same time, it can correct the system's distortion when the input signal at small amplitude, improves the discrimination system's accuracy. (authors)

  19. Background recognition in Ge detectors by pulse shape analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, F.; Piepke, A.; Strecker, H.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Balysh, A.; Belyaev, S.T.; Demehin, A.; Gurov, A.; Kondratenko, I.; Kotel'nikov, D.; Lebedev, V.I.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.; Pehl, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    A method of event identification that distinguishes single and multiple-site events by determining the number of interactions in a high purity germanium detector is reported. The selectivity of the method has been experimentally verified. (orig.)

  20. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Amrendra [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  1. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  2. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel

  3. A detailed study of the pulse height deficit effect in gas ionisation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, T.D.M.; Timmers, H.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Gas ionisation detectors were originally developed for nuclear physics applications but have more recently also found use in nuclear techniques of analysis such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis (IBA). They are ideal for heavy ion detection primarily because they do not suffer from radiation damage. It is well known that the pulse height versus energy relation for gas ionization detectors is non-linear. Previous studies have established that this is due to a pulse height deficit effect, which increases with both the atomic number and energy of the detected ion, and is of the order of 5 - 8MeV for typical fission fragment energies and masses. Published data does not, however, provide accurate estimates of the size of this effect for the wide range of ion species and energies applicable to materials analysis applications such as heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HIERDA), nor does it provide complete understanding of the factors which contribute to the effect. This presentation reports on a detailed study of the pulse height deficit effect, undertaken at the ANU 14UD pelletron accelerator facility using a propane-filled gas ionisation detector. Results will be presented quantifying the size of the pulse height deficit for a variety of ion species and energies. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated that a significant residual pulse height deficit remains after accounting for energy loss in the detector window, and non-ionising energy loss processes in the detector gas

  4. Microbunching and coherent acceleration of electrons by subcycle laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, B.; Tajima, T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Physics Dept.; Hojo, H. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan). Plasma Research Center

    1997-05-01

    The pick up and acceleration of all plasma electrons irradiated by an intense, subcyclic laser pulse is demonstrated via analytical and numerical calculations. It is shown that the initial low emittance of the plasma electrons is conserved during the process of acceleration, leading to an extremely cold, bunched electron beam. Compression of the electron bunch along the longitudinal coordinate is naturally achieved due to the interaction of electrons and laser pulse. In this paper, the authors find the localized solutions to Maxwell`s equations of a subcyclic laser pulse and use these to determine the acceleration of charged particles and they suggest future application for this acceleration mechanism as low energy particle injector and as electron source for coherent x-ray generation.

  5. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  6. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N2). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  7. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Joon Huang Chuah; David Holburn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT), traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET) detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implement...

  8. Response function and optimum configuration of semiconductor backscattered-electron detectors for scanning electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, E. I.; Orlikovskiy, N. A.; Ivanova, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    A new highly efficient design for semiconductor detectors of intermediate-energy electrons (1–50 keV) for application in scanning electron microscopes is proposed. Calculations of the response function of advanced detectors and control experiments show that the efficiency of the developed devices increases on average twofold, which is a significant positive factor in the operation of modern electron microscopes in the mode of low currents and at low primary electron energies.

  9. A systematic study of the pulse height deficit in propane-filled gas ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, T.D.M.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.; Elliman, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The response of gas ionization detectors to heavy ions is species dependent. Relative to a linear calibration based on the response to light ions, heavy ions show a pulse height deficit. Detailed knowledge of this deficit is essential for accurate energy spectroscopy of heavy ions. Precise measurements of the response of a propane-filled gas ionization detector have been performed for a large selection of ions in the ranges Z=6-79 and E=0.4-2.6 MeV/amu. Pulse height deficits were determined with respect to the response to carbon ions, and found to be as large as 25% of the incident energy. The deficit was found to depend on ion energy and atomic number. Isotopic effects were also observed. Care was taken to obtain a reliable estimate of the energy loss of the ions in the detector window. This included measurements of the window thickness and shape, and measurements of heavy ion stopping powers for Mylar. Monte-Carlo simulations were carried out using the code TRIM to evaluate the contribution of elastic collisions of the ions in the detector gas. It was found that after accounting for both window energy loss and elastic collisions, a significant residual pulse height deficit remains. An empirical formula was developed to predict the magnitude of the pulse height deficit, and aid in the accurate energy calibration of gas ionization detectors

  10. Imaging detectors and electronics - A view of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth

    2004-01-01

    Imaging sensors and readout electronics have made tremendous strides in the past two decades. The application of modern semiconductor fabrication techniques and the introduction of customized monolithic integrated circuits have made large scale imaging systems routine in high energy physics. This technology is now finding its way into other areas, such as space missions, synchrotron light sources, and medical imaging. I review current developments and discuss the promise and limits of new technologies. Several detector systems are described as examples of future trends. The discussion emphasizes semiconductor detector systems, but I also include recent developments for large-scale superconducting detector arrays

  11. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  12. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Lusiani, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Sandrelli, F.; Speziali, V.; Svelto, F.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced

  13. Imaging detectors and electronics - A view of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieler, Helmuth

    2004-06-16

    Imaging sensors and readout electronics have made tremendous strides in the past two decades. The application of modern semiconductor fabrication techniques and the introduction of customized monolithic integrated circuits have made large scale imaging systems routine in high energy physics. This technology is now finding its way into other areas, such as space missions, synchrotron light sources, and medical imaging. I review current developments and discuss the promise and limits of new technologies. Several detector systems are described as examples of future trends. The discussion emphasizes semiconductor detector systems, but I also include recent developments for large-scale superconducting detector arrays.

  14. Scintillation secondary electron detector for ESEM and SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirák, Josef; Čudek, P.; Neděla, Vilém

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 2 (2012), s. 1266-1267 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : environmental scanning electron microscopes * scintillation detector * secondary electrons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2012

  15. Direct measurement of the pulse duration and frequency chirp of seeded XUV free electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azima, Armin; Bödewadt, Jörn; Becker, Oliver; Düsterer, Stefan; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Ivanov, Rosen; Kazemi, Mehdi M.; Lamberto Lazzarino, Leslie; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Manschwetus, Bastian; Miltchev, Velizar; Müller, Jost; Plath, Tim; Przystawik, Andreas; Wieland, Marek; Assmann, Ralph; Hartl, Ingmar; Laarmann, Tim; Rossbach, Jörg; Wurth, Wilfried; Drescher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We report on a direct time-domain measurement of the temporal properties of a seeded free-electron laser pulse in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Utilizing the oscillating electromagnetic field of terahertz radiation, a single-shot THz streak-camera was applied for measuring the duration as well as spectral phase of the generated intense XUV pulses. The experiment was conducted at FLASH, the free electron laser user facility at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. In contrast to indirect methods, this approach directly resolves and visualizes the frequency chirp of a seeded free-electron laser (FEL) pulse. The reported diagnostic capability is a prerequisite to tailor amplitude, phase and frequency distributions of FEL beams on demand. In particular, it opens up a new window of opportunities for advanced coherent spectroscopic studies making use of the high degree of temporal coherence expected from a seeded FEL pulse.

  16. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  17. Electron identification with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tarna, Grigore; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron identification is a crucial input to many ATLAS physics analysis. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolationcuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statistics sample of Z->ee and J/psi->ee decays. These measurements performed with pp collisions data at sqrt(s)=13 TeV in 2016 (2015) corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 33.9 (3.2) fb-1 of sqrt(s)=13 TeV pp are presented.

  18. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  19. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H.; Berliner, Ronald R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  20. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  1. Low power electronics for NEMO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, Domenico

    2000-01-01

    For the realization of the submarine detector NEMO it is necessary to design an acquisition system which is able to capture the signals coming from photo-multipliers (PMs) of the optical modules (OMs) and to satisfy several specifications: low power consumption; few submarine interconnections for reliability and simplicity of the deployment; flexibility of the system; minimum dead time; high dynamic range; accuracy in order to have good resolution. Here we present a Very Large Scale Integration full-custom solution for the OMs according to the requirements. It foresees to use a switched capacitor analog memory, a trigger and single photon classification system, a PLL and a control unit able to manage the different operation states of the whole system. For such a system we foresee a power dissipation not higher than 200-300 mV in each OM, 20 bit dynamic range and a dead time of about 0.1%

  2. A timing detector with pulsed high-voltage power supply for mass measurements at CSRe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Tu, X.L.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy of nuclear mass measurements in storage rings depends critically on the accuracy with which the revolution times of stored ions can be obtained. In such experiments, micro-channel plates (MCP) are used as timing detectors. Due to large phase space of injected secondary beams, a large number of ions cannot be stored in the ring and is lost within the first few revolutions. However, these ions interact with the detector and can saturate the MCP and thus deteriorate its performance. In order to eliminate such effects, a fast, pulsed high-voltage power supply (PHVPS) has been employed which keeps the detector switched-off during the first few revolutions. The new detector setup was taken into operation at the Experimental Cooler-Storage-Ring CSRe in Lanzhou and resulted in a significant improvement of the detector amplitude and efficiency characteristics

  3. Femtosecond pulse radiolysis based on photocathode electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Yang, Jinfeng; Kondoh, T.; Kozawa, T.; Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis is a powerful tool for studying chemical kinetics and primary processes or reactions of radiation chemistry. In the pulse radiolysis, a short electron beam, which is almost produced by radio-frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator with energy from a few MeV to a few tens MeV, is used as an irradiative source. The electron-induced reactions or phenomena in matter are analyzed by a short-pulse analyzing light (e.g. synchronized lasers) with the time-resolved stroboscopic technique. The time resolution of pulse radiolysis is not only dependent on the electron bunch length, the analyzing light pulse width, the time jitter between the electron bunch and the analyzing light, but also determined by degradation due to the velocity difference between light and the electron in the sample because of the refractive index. In order to improve the time resolution into femtosecond time region, we have develop a new pulse radiolysis based on a concept of 'Equivalent Velocity Spectroscopy (EVS)' to avoid the degradation of the time resolution caused by the velocity difference between the light and the electron beam in sample. In EVS as shown in Fig.1, a femtosecond electron beam produced by a photocathode electron linear accelerator was used, and a synchronized femtosecond laser was used as the analyzing light source. The electron beam and the laser light were injected into sample with an angle (θ), which is determined by the refractive index (n) of the sample. The electron bunch was also rotated with a same angle to make an overlap of the electron bunch with the laser pulse. The degradation of the time resolution caused by the velocity difference between the light and the electron beam can be calculated as g(L)=L[n/c-1/(vcos θ)], where L is the optical path length and v is the velocity of the electron in sample (we can assume v=c for a few tens MeV electron beam).We can thus obtained g(L)=0 by adjusting the incident angle to cos θ=1/n. However, the rotation

  4. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  5. Molecular electron recollision dynamics in intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Extreme UV and x-ray table top light sources based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are focused now on circular polarization for the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses as new tools for controlling electron dynamics, such as charge transfer and migration and the generation of attosecond quantum electron currents for ultrafast magneto-optics. A fundamental electron dynamical process in HHG is laser induced electron recollision with the parent ion, well established theoretically and experimentally for linear polarization. We discuss molecular electron recollision dynamics in circular polarization by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The control of the polarization of HHG with circularly polarized ionizing pulses is examined and it is shown that bichromatic circularly polarized pulses enhance recollision dynamics, rendering HHG more efficient, especially in molecules because of their nonspherical symmetry. The polarization of the harmonics is found to be dependent on the compatibility of the rotational symmetry of the net electric field created by combinations of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses with the dynamical symmetry of molecules. We show how the field and molecule symmetry influences the electron recollision trajectories by a time-frequency analysis of harmonics. The results, in principle, offer new unique controllable tools in the study of attosecond molecular electron dynamics.

  6. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  7. Measurement of the single-shot pulse energy of a free electron laser using a cryogenic radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahiro, Kato; Norio, Saito; Yuichiro, Morishita; Takahiro, Tanaka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba (Japan); Masahiro, Kato; Norio, Saito; Kai, Tiedtke; Pavle N, Juranic; Sorokin, A.A.; Richter, M.; Takahiro, Tanaka; Mitsuru, Nagasono; Makina, Yabashi; Kensuke, Tono; Tadashi, Togashi; Tetsuya, Ishikawa [RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Kai, Tiedtke; Pavle N, Juranic; Sorokin, A.A.; Jastrow, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Sorokin, A.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Richter, M.; Kroth, U.; Schoppe, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, PTB, Berlin (Germany); Tadashi, Togashi; Hiroaki, Kimura; Haruhiko, Ohashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The absolute single-shot pulse energy of the SPring 8 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) free electron laser (FEL) was measured using a cryogenic radiometer with a relative standard uncertainty of 3%. The temperature change of the cavity in the cryogenic radiometer caused by an incident FEL pulse was determined using a lock-in amplifier and an ac Wheatstone bridge. The measured pulse energies were compared with a gas-monitor detector developed by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt/Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron/Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (Ioffe) at a wavelength of 51.3 nm at the SPring-8 EUV-FEL in a shot-to-shot mode. The pulse energies measured using the two detectors agree within 2.0%. (authors)

  8. Isotopic identification using Pulse Shape Analysis of current signals from silicon detectors: Recent results from the FAZIA collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Gruyer, D.; Ottanelli, P.; Le Neindre, N.; Pasquali, G.; Alba, R.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; Chbihi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The FAZIA apparatus exploits Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) to identify nuclear fragments stopped in the first layer of a Silicon-Silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescope. In this work, for the first time, we show that the isotopes of fragments having atomic number as high as Z∼20 can be identified. Such a remarkable result has been obtained thanks to a careful construction of the Si detectors and to the use of low noise and high performance digitizing electronics. Moreover, optimized PSA algorithms are needed. This work deals with the choice of the best algorithm for PSA of current signals. A smoothing spline algorithm is demonstrated to give optimal results without requiring too much computational resources.

  9. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

    2010-08-01

    We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

  10. Isotopic identification using Pulse Shape Analysis of current signals from silicon detectors: Recent results from the FAZIA collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, G., E-mail: pastore@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gruyer, D. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ottanelli, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Le Neindre, N. [LPC Caen, Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Pasquali, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barlini, S.; Bini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bonnet, E. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Bruno, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Casini, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2017-07-11

    The FAZIA apparatus exploits Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) to identify nuclear fragments stopped in the first layer of a Silicon-Silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescope. In this work, for the first time, we show that the isotopes of fragments having atomic number as high as Z∼20 can be identified. Such a remarkable result has been obtained thanks to a careful construction of the Si detectors and to the use of low noise and high performance digitizing electronics. Moreover, optimized PSA algorithms are needed. This work deals with the choice of the best algorithm for PSA of current signals. A smoothing spline algorithm is demonstrated to give optimal results without requiring too much computational resources.

  11. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  12. Earth formation pulsed neutron porosity logging system utilizing epithermal neutron and inelastic scattering gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector and an inelastic scattering gamma ray detector is moved through a borehole. The detection of inelastic gamma rays provides a measure of the fast neutron population in the vicinity of the detector. repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formation and, during the busts, inelastic gamma rays representative of the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. the fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  13. Electron and Photon Reconstruction and Identification with the ATLAS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the electron and photon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector based on the first LHC collision data at √(s)=7 TeV. Calorimetric and tracker related electron identification variables are in a fair agreement with the Monte Carlo model describing the detector response. The position of the reconstructed photon conversions vertices has been used to compare the description of the inner detector used in Monte Carlo geometry to that from data. The energy flow measured in the electromagnetic calorimeter has been used to provide the same comparison at larger radii. π 0 →γγ and J/Ψ→e + e - peaks were observed with reconstructed masses in good agreement with both Monte Carlo and PDG values. 17 W→eν candidates and one Z→e + e - candidate have been observed in 6.69 nb -1 of data.

  14. An FPGA-Based Pulse Pile-up Rejection Technique for Photon Counting Imaging Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kun; Li Feng; Chen Lian; Jin Ge; Liang Fu-Tian

    2015-01-01

    A novel FPGA-based pulse pile-up rejection method for single photon imaging detectors is reported. The method is easy to implement in FPGAs for real-time data processing. The rejection principle and entire design are introduced in detail. The photon counting imaging detector comprises a micro-channel plate (MCP) stack, and a wedge and strip anode (WSA). The resolution mask pattern in front of the MCP can be reconstructed after data processing in the FPGA. For high count rates, the rejection design can effectively reduce the impact of the pulse pile-up on the image. The resolution can reach up to 140 μm. The pulse pile-up rejection design can also be applied to high-energy physics and particle detection. (paper)

  15. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  16. Power-pulsing schemes for vertex detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, G; Fuentes, C

    2014-01-01

    The principal aim is to achieve significant power reduction without compromising the power integrity supplied to the front-end electronics. A current based powerpulsing scheme is proposed and its electrical features are discussed on the basis of measurements.

  17. Development and applications of gas electron multiplier detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the recent developments in the field of gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors was presented. Cascading of several GEM foils permits the sustaining of large gains and thereby allows the detection of minimum ionizing particles. The application of GEM included, fast and position sensitive detection in particle physics, medicine, neutron spectrometry, and astrophysics. (Edited abstract) 19 Refs.

  18. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.

    1994-01-01

    A picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor for a 35 MeV linear accelerator has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA connector and aluminium pipe(inner diameter of 50mm). The following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (a) the rise time is less than 17.5 ps (b) linearity of the monitor output voltage is proportional to the peak current of beam. It is shown that this monitor can be successfully used for bunch measurements of picosecond pulsed electron beam of 35 MeV linac. (author)

  19. Pulse processing CMOS ASIC for Si-strip/PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an 8-channel front-end signal processing ASIC for Si-strip detectors with capacitance from 1 to 40 pf. Each channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a track-hold stage. The channel outputs are connected to an analog multiplexer which is controlled by an external clock for serial readout. The peaking time is adjustable over 500 ns-1.2us in steps by external control. There is provision for changing gain and polarity. The circuit has a power dissipation of 16 mw per channel and is designed to fabricate in 1.2 um CMOS technology. The 0pf noise is ∼400e. The chip has an area of 5 by 5 mm with target package 48 pin CLCC. (author)

  20. Electron Acceleration by a Laser Pulse in a Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startsev, E. A.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    1996-11-01

    The motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field is a well-known paradigm of physics. Suppose that the field is associated with a laser pulse of finite extent propagating in a vacuum. As the pulse overtakes the particle, the particle gains energy and momentum. However, the oscillatory energy of the particle is wasted, and it is difficult to extract the particle from the pulse. We have found an exact analytic solution for the motion of an electron under the influence of a circularly polarized laser pulse in a plasma. This solution shows that a pre-accelerated electron can be accelerated efficiently and extracted easily. Although the pulse tends to generate a plasma wake, to which it loses energy, one can eliminate the wake by choosing the duration of the pulse judiciously. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  1. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  2. Position sensitive detector with semiconductor and image electron tube comprising such a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roziere, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a position sensitive detector comprising a semiconducting substrate. It also concerns the electron tubes in which the detector may be incorporated in order to obtain an image formed at the tube input by an incident flux of particles or radiation. When a charged particle or group of such particles, electrons in particular, enter the space charge region of an inversely biased semiconductor diode, the energy supplied by these particles releases in the diode a certain number of electron-hole pairs which move in the field existing in the area towards the diode contacts. A corresponding current arises in the connections of this diode which constitutes the signal corresponding to the incident energy. Such a tube or chain of tubes is employed in nuclear medicine for observing parts of the human body, particularly by gamma radiation [fr

  3. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Moody

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gradients exceeding 200  MV/m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti:Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, nondestructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with <100  fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected to pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.

  4. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center

    1992-01-01

    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  5. Electron rescattering at metal nanotips induced by ultrashort laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdoerfer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the interaction of moderate intensity near-infrared few cycle laser pulses with nano-scale metal tips. Local field enhancement in a nanometric region around the tip apex triggers coherent electron emission on the nanometer length and femtosecond time scale. The quantum dynamics at the surface are simulated with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and interpreted based on the simple man's model. We investigate the dependence of the emitted electron spe...

  6. Simulation based investigation of source-detector configurations for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttrich Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a method to monitor the oxygen supply of the unborn child non-invasively. Due to the measurement setup, the received signal of the detector is composed of photons coding purely maternal and photons coding mixed fetal-maternal information. To analyze the wellbeing of the fetus, the fetal signal is extracted from the mixed component. In this paper we assess source-detector configurations, such that the mixed fetal-maternal components of the acquired signals are maximized. Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate light propagation and photon distribution in tissue. We use a plane layer and a spherical layer geometry to model the abdomen of a pregnant woman. From the simulations we extracted the fluence at the detector side for several source-detector distances and analyzed the ratio of the mixed fluence component to total fluence. Our simulations showed that the power of the mixed component depends on the source-detector distance as expected. Further we were able to visualize hot spot areas in the spherical layer model where the mixed fluence ratio reaches the highest level. The results are of high importance for sensor design considering signal composition and quality for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry.

  7. Improved fission neutron energy discrimination with {sup 4}He detectors through pulse filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ting, E-mail: ting.zhu@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liang, Yinong; Rolison, Lucas; Barker, Cathleen; Lewis, Jason; Gokhale, Sasmit [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Chandra, Rico [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Räffelstrasse 11, Zürich (Switzerland); Kiff, Scott [Sandia National Laboratories, CA (United States); Chung, Heejun [Korean Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, 1534 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ray, Heather; Baciak, James E.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-11

    This paper presents experimental and computational techniques implemented for {sup 4}He gas scintillation detectors for induced fission neutron detection. Fission neutrons are produced when natural uranium samples are actively interrogated by 2.45 MeV deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction neutrons. Fission neutrons of energies greater than 2.45 MeV can be distinguished by their different scintillation pulse height spectra since {sup 4}He detectors retain incident fast neutron energy information. To enable the preferential detection of fast neutrons up to 10 MeV and suppress low-energy event counts, the detector photomultiplier gain is lowered and trigger threshold is increased. Pile-up and other unreliable events due to the interrogating neutron flux and background radiation are filtered out prior to the evaluation of pulse height spectra. With these problem-specific calibrations and data processing, the {sup 4}He detector's accuracy at discriminating fission neutrons up to 10 MeV is improved and verified with {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutrons. Given the {sup 4}He detector's ability to differentiate fast neutron sources, this proof-of-concept active-interrogation measurement demonstrates the potential of special nuclear materials detection using a {sup 4}He fast neutron detection system.

  8. Development of digital pulse processing spectrometer for online analysis of nuclear physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian; Xie Shuxin; Liang Hao; Yu Xiaoqi

    2010-01-01

    An application of double-channels digital pulse processing spectrometer is presented which used for nanosecond time determinations and energy measurements with nuclear physics detectors. Each channel features a 14-bit 125 Mhz Samples/s ADC for fast sampling signals, FPGA controls the whole system and connects the computer with USB2.0 interface, transfers the sampled data to DSP for online data analysis. A few algorithms have been simulated by Matlab and successfully tested on Agilent 33250A Function/Arbitrary Waveform Generator, implementing FIR lowpass Filter, pulse shape reconstruction, amplitude peak search, digital constraint fraction timing. (authors)

  9. Probing collective multi-electron effects with few cycle laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiner, Andrew

    High Harmonic Generation (HHG) enables the production of bursts of coherent soft x-rays with attosecond pulse duration. This process arrises from the nonlinear interaction between intense infrared laser pulses and an ionizing gas medium. Soft x-ray photons are used for spectroscopy of inner-shell electron correlation and exchange processes, and the availability of attosecond pulse durations will enable these processes to be resolved on their natural time scales. The maximum or cutoff photon energy in HHG increases with both the intensity as well as the wavelength of the driving laser. It is highly desirable to increase the harmonic cutoff as this will allow for the generation of shorter attosecond pulses, as well as HHG spectroscopy of increasingly energetic electronic transitions. While the harmonic cutoff increases with laser wavelength, there is a corresponding decrease in harmonic yield. The first part of this thesis describes the experimental measurement of the wavelength scaling of HHG efficiency, which we report alambda-6.5+/-1.1 in xenon, and lambda -6.5+/-1.1 in krypton. To increase the HHG cutoff, we have developed a 1.8 microm source, with stable carrier envelope phase and a pulse duration of caries the signature of the electronic structure of the generating medium. In krypton we observed a Cooper minimum at 85 eV, showing that photoionization cross sections can be measured with HHG. Measurements in xenon lead to the first clear observation of electron correlation effects during HHG, which manifest as a broad peak in the HHG spectrum centred at 100 eV. This thesis also describes several improvements to the HHG experiment including the development of an ionization detector for measuring laser intensity, as well as an investigation into the role of laser mode quality on HHG phase matching and efficiency.

  10. Electron observation with the balloon-borne CALET prototype detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Shoji; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Akaike, Yosui; Aiba, Toshihide; Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Nakai, Mikio; Kai, Yuuichirou; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Kawada, Jiro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; Kim, Meyoung; Bigongiari, Gabriele

    We have been carrying out an observation of the cosmic ray electrons, using the CALET prototype detector: bCALET. After the first flight of bCALET-1, the bCALET-2 was flown in 2009 at the JAXA balloon center at Taikicho for observing the electrons in 1-100 GeV. The detector is composed IMaging Calorimeter(IMC), Total AbSorption Calorimeter(TASC). IMC has an area of 256mmx256mm, and is consisted 8 layers of scintillating fiber belts intserted below tungsten plate (3 r.l. in total) for a fine imaging of shower particles. TASC is made 6 layers of BGO scintillator logs (25mm x 25mm x 300 mm in each) with an active area of 250mm x 250mm, for measurement the total energy deposit of incoming shower particles. The observation was successfully carried out, and the basic performance of the detector was confirmed to be consistent with the expectation by simulations. We will have the third flight of the bCALET-3 in 2010 at the Balloon Launch Center of Cachoeira Paulista in Brazil, to extend the energy region up to 1000 GeV. We will present the results of the bCALET-2 and the RD of the bCALET-3 detector.

  11. Superradiance of short electron pulses in regular and corrugated waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Konoplev, I.V.; Sergeev, A.S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The report is devoted to theoretical and experimental study of superradiance of short electron pulses moving through waveguide systems. It is suggested that electrons oscillate or in undulator field (undulator SR) or in homogeneous magnetic field (cyclotron SR). We studied specific regimes of SR which may occur due to peculiarities of waveguide dispersion. Among them there are regimes of radiation near cut-off frequency as well as regimes of group synchronism. At the last operating regimes an electron bunch longitudinal velocity coincide with group velocity of e.m. wave. It is found the increasing of the SR instability grows rate and energy extraction efficiency in such regimes. It is also possible to observe the same enhancement using external feedback in periodically corrugated waveguide when Bragg resonance condition with forward propagated e.m. wave is fulfill. For experimental observation of cyclotron SR we intend to use compact subnanosecond accelerator RADAN 303B on the base of the high voltage generator with special subnansecond transformer. Accelerator generates short 0.3ns electron pulses with current about 1kA and particles energy 200keV. Design of magnetic confound system provide possibility to install an active locker to impose to electrons cyclotron rotation with pitch-factor about 1-1.5. According to numerical simulation at the mm and submm wavebands it is possible to achieve radiation pick power about 5-10MW with pulse duration less than 1ns.

  12. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  13. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described

  14. The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a danger for the world of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.

    1984-01-01

    After discussing the characteristics and formation of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse, the author considers the effects such a pulse would have on various types of electronic systems. Finally he discusses what protection there is against such pulses. (Auth.)

  15. Local Trigger Electronics for the CMS Drift Tubes Muon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Travaglini, R

    2003-01-01

    In the CMS detector in preparation for the CERN LHC collider, the Drift Tubes Muon Chambers are equipped with mini-crates hosting custom electronics for fast data processing and local trigger generation. In particular the Trigger Server of a DTC consists of Track Sorter Slave ASICs and a Track Sorter Master system. The trigger electronics boards are in production, to be ready for the muon detector installation in the CMS barrel starting at the end of 2003.In this work, the performance of the Trigger Server will be discussed, on the basis both of high-statistics tests with predefined patterns and of test beam data collected at CERN, where a DTC was exposed to a muon beam having an LHC-like bunch structure. Finally, some system performance expectations, concerning radiation tolerance and signal transmission issues during LHC running, will be also discussed.

  16. Compression of pulsed electron beams for material tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metel, Alexander S.

    2018-03-01

    In order to strengthen the surface of machine parts and investigate behavior of their materials exposed to highly dense energy fluxes an electron gun has been developed, which produces the pulsed beams of electrons with the energy up to 300 keV and the current up to 250 A at the pulse width of 100-200 µs. Electrons are extracted into the accelerating gap from the hollow cathode glow discharge plasma through a flat or a spherical grid. The flat grid produces 16-cm-diameter beams with the density of transported per one pulse energy not exceeding 15 J·cm-2, which is not enough even for the surface hardening. The spherical grid enables compression of the beams and regulation of the energy density from 15 J·cm-2 up to 15 kJ·cm-2, thus allowing hardening, pulsed melting of the machine part surface with the further high-speed recrystallization as well as an explosive ablation of the surface layer.

  17. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...

  18. Thermal conductivity of gas by pulse injection techniques using specific thermal conductivity detector (TCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Cataluña, Renato; Silva, Rosângela da; Menezes, Eliana W.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to determine the thermal conductivity of gases by pulse injection, using a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The measurements are taken at 323K and atmospheric pressure with a 160 omega tungsten filament sensor. Under well defined approximations the original nonlinear second order equation, which describes the sensors output, as a function of thermal conductivity and constant volume specific heat was transformed into a linear first order equation. According ...

  19. Trains of electron pulses generation using multi-stage cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Masaki; Mori, Michiya; Sugawara, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Yoko; Kurihara, Kazuteru; Shirasaka, Haruki; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Ando, Ritoku; Kamada, Keiichi

    2002-01-01

    Automodulation of an intense relativistic electron beam was reexamined experimentally to obtain trains of subnanosecond electron bunches. Sufficient beam modulation with frequency larger than 1 GHz was expected for the trains of subnanosecond bunches. It was obtained when a short pulse electron beam with energy of 550 keV, current of 4 kA, pulse duration of 12 ns and current rise time of 2ns was injected to a series of four coaxial cavities with the length of 75 mm. However, only a poor modulation was observed when a long pulse electron beam of 700 keV, 4 kA, 175 ns with current rise time of 20 ns was injected to the same cavities. Transmission line theory as well PIC code simulation suggested that the round trip time for the electromagnetic wave in the cavity must be longer than the rise time of the beam current to obtain the high level current modulation. Therefore, we studied experimentally how the ratio between the beam current rise time and the length of the cavity affects on the level of current modulation. Single cavity experiments were carried out with the short pulse beam. Single cavity with the length of 75, 150 or 300 mm was utilized. The round trip times for 75 and 150 mm cavities are shorter than the current rise time of 2 ns. The experiments with a 75 or 150 mm cavity resulted in suppression of the modulation amplitude. In the case of a 300 mm cavity, the high level modulation was obtained. The simulation results showed good agreements with the experimental results. We employed a series of cavities with decreasing lengths to improve the current rise time. For the short pulse beam, the high level current 1 GHz modulation was obtained when two 75 mm cavities were set at the downstream side of cavities with lengths of 300 mm and 150 mm. (author)

  20. Pulse radiolysis based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with double-pulse injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Youichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A new pulse radiolysis system based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with oblique double-pulse injection was developed for studying ultrafast chemical kinetics and primary processes of radiation chemistry. The time resolution of 5.2 ps was obtained by measuring transient absorption kinetics of hydrated electrons in water. The optical density of hydrated electrons was measured as a function of the electron charge. The data indicate that the double-laser-pulse injection technique was a powerful tool for observing the transient absorptions with a good signal to noise ratio in pulse radiolysis

  1. Engineering tradeoffs in miniaturization of electronics for very large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1987-10-01

    The trend toward Application-Specific Integrated Circuits and similar systems-on-a-chip-technologies is fueling a new wave of innovation in detector electronics, just in time to address some of the problems being introduced by detectors which will approach a million channels of electronics. The cost-effectiveness of these technologies can be easily demonstrated, and the trend of the past twenty years of achieving more powerful electronics at a lower per-channel cost should receive a major impetus. The investment required in the new technologies will reshape the work force of most laboratories, by providing more and better tools, and by requiring training or retraining of significant numbers of personnel. The need for new instrumentation standards will arise at new levels in the detectors of the future. The laboratories must also invest heavily in integrating various computer aided engineering and computer aided design tools into a smoothly functioning system. They must also establish a new and different kind of working relationship with vendors and suppliers of both basic devices as well as standard packaged products. This paper discusses three concepts

  2. Apertures with Laval Nozzle and Circular Orifice in Secondary Electron Detector for Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyroubal, P.; Maxa, J.; Neděla, Vilém; Jirák, Josef; Hladká, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-69 ISSN 1802-2308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Aperture * Laval nozzle * circular orifice * pressure * detector * Mach number * flow * trajectory of secondary electrons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. Electron/Jet Separation with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pralavorio, Pascal

    1999-01-01

    Results on the single and inclusive electron reconstruction efficiency as well as the rejection capability against QCD-jets with the ATLAS detector are presented. These studies, based on fully simulated events, include the trigger (first and second level) selection and are done at low (10^33 cm^-2s^-1) and high (10^34 cm^-2s^-1) luminosity - in which case pile-up was superimposed. For both luminosity, a jet rejection factor > 10^5 can be obtained keeping an electron efficiency of ~70%

  4. Qualification and characterization of electronics of the fast neutron Hodoscope detectors using neutrons from CABRI core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Chevalier, V.; Biard, B.

    2018-01-01

    The study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) is important to determine up to which limits nuclear fuels can withstand such accidents without clad failure. The CABRI International Program (CIP), conducted by IRSN under an OECD/NEA agreement, has been launched to perform representative RIA Integral Effect Tests (IET) on real irradiated fuel rods in prototypical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions. For this purpose, the CABRI experimental pulse reactor, operated by CEA in Cadarache, France, has been strongly renovated, and equipped with a pressurized water loop. The behavior of the test rod, located in that loop in the center of the driver core, is followed in real time during the power transients thanks to the hodoscope, a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, and one of the major distinctive features of CABRI. The hodoscope measures the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse with a complete set of 153 Fission Chambers and 153 Proton Recoil Counters. During the CABRI facility renovation, the electronic chain of these detectors has been upgraded. In this paper, the performance of the new system is presented describing gain calibration methodology in order to get maximal Signal/Noise ratio for amplification modules, threshold tuning methodology for the discrimination modules (old and new ones), and linear detectors response limit versus different reactor powers for the whole electronic chain.

  5. Qualification and characterization of electronics of the fast neutron Hodoscope detectors using neutrons from CABRI core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirotta S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA is important to determine up to which limits nuclear fuels can withstand such accidents without clad failure. The CABRI International Program (CIP, conducted by IRSN under an OECD/NEA agreement, has been launched to perform representative RIA Integral Effect Tests (IET on real irradiated fuel rods in prototypical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR conditions. For this purpose, the CABRI experimental pulse reactor, operated by CEA in Cadarache, France, has been strongly renovated, and equipped with a pressurized water loop. The behavior of the test rod, located in that loop in the center of the driver core, is followed in real time during the power transients thanks to the hodoscope, a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, and one of the major distinctive features of CABRI. The hodoscope measures the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse with a complete set of 153 Fission Chambers and 153 Proton Recoil Counters. During the CABRI facility renovation, the electronic chain of these detectors has been upgraded. In this paper, the performance of the new system is presented describing gain calibration methodology in order to get maximal Signal/Noise ratio for amplification modules, threshold tuning methodology for the discrimination modules (old and new ones, and linear detectors response limit versus different reactor powers for the whole electronic chain.

  6. High spatial resolution fast-neutron imaging detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Katz, D.; Sayag, E.; Shmueli, I.; Cohen, Y.; Tal, A.; Vagish, Z.; Bromberger, B.; Dangendorf, V.; Mugai, D.; Tittelmeier, K.; Weierganz, M.

    2009-05-01

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1-10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  7. Charge collection and charge pulse formation in highly irradiated silicon planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V.

    1998-06-01

    The interpretation of experimental data and predictions for future experiments for high-energy physics have been based on conventional methods like capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements. Experiments carried out on highly irradiated detectors show that the kinetics of the charge collection and the dependence of the charge pulse amplitude on the applied bias are deviated too far from those predicted by the conventional methods. The described results show that in highly irradiated detectors, at a bias lower than the real full depletion voltage (V fd ), the kinetics of the charge collection (Q) contains a fast and a slow component. At V = V fd *, which is the full depletion voltage traditionally determined by the extrapolation of the fast component amplitude of q versus bias to the maximum value or from the standard C-V measurements, the pulse has a slow component with significant amplitude. This slow component can only be eliminated by applying additional bias that amounts to the real full depletion voltage (V fd ) or more. The above mentioned regularities are explained in this paper in terms of a model of an irradiated detector with multiple regions. This model allows one to use C-V, in a modified way, as well as TChT (transient charge technique) measurements to determine the V fd for highly irradiated detectors

  8. A ns-pulsed high-current electron beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Gexin; Li, Youzhi; Pan, Yuli

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of a pulse electron beam source which is composed of a gun and pulse system depends on not only the time characteristics of the gun and the pulser, but also their combination. This point become apparent if effects of the electron tansit-time between electrodes are studied. A ferrite transmission line (FTL) pulser is used as a grid driver in this source. It has advantages of providing fast risetime, large peak power output and good loading characteristics. It is these advantages of the pulser that compensates the absence of some technological conditions of manufacturing gun and makes the source better. Our testing showed that the cooperation of both the gun and the pulser produced peak currents in the range of 1 to 9 amps with widths of 2 to 2.5 ns (FWHM) at cathode-to-anode potential of 60 to 82 kv, while the grid drives are about in the range of 1 to 3 kv. In addition, the results of the testing instructed that effects of electron transit-time cannot be ignored when the pulses with widths of several nanoseconds are used as a grid drive. Based on the results, electron transit-time effects on the design of the gun and the beam performances are briefly descussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Investigating Pulsed Discharge Polarity Employing Solid-State Pulsed Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , the influence of electric field distribution is analyzed using Finite Element simulations for the employed geometries and mediums. The experimental and simulation results have verified the important role of the applied voltage polarity, employed geometry and medium of the system on plasma generation.......Power electronics technique has become a key technology in solid-state pulsed power supplies. Since pulsed power applications have been matured and found its way into many industrial applications, moving toward energy efficiency is gaining much more interest. Therefore, finding an optimum operation...... condition plays an important role in maintaining the desired performance. Investigating the system parameters contributed to the generated pulses is an effective way in improving the system performance further ahead. One of these parameters is discharge polarity which has received less attention...

  10. Electron detachment from negative ions in a short laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, S. F. C.; Smyth, M. C.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method to study electron detachment from negative ions by a few-cycle linearly polarized laser pulse. The adiabatic saddle-point method of Gribakin and Kuchiev [Phys. Rev. A 55, 3760 (1997)] is adapted to calculate the transition amplitude for a short laser pulse. Its application to a pulse with N optical cycles produces 2(N+1) saddle points in complex time, which form a characteristic 'smile.' Numerical calculations are performed for H - in a 5-cycle pulse with frequency 0.0043 a.u. and intensities of 10 10 , 5x10 10 , and 10 11 W/cm 2 , and for various carrier-envelope phases. We determine the spectrum of the photoelectrons as a function of both energy and emission angle, as well as the angle-integrated energy spectra and total detachment probabilities. Our calculations show that the dominant contribution to the transition amplitude is given by 5-6 central saddle points, which correspond to the strongest part of the pulse. We examine the dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions on the carrier-envelope phase and show that measuring such distributions can provide a way of determining this phase.

  11. Electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source: operating parameters vs. analytical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bunert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances such as pesticides or chlorofluorocarbons. With detection limits in the low pptv range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by a β− decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation, and disposal. Here, we present a novel electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source that shows similar detection limits compared to radioactive detectors but that is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable electron densities and energies. In this work we show first experimental results using 1,1,2-trichloroethane and sevoflurane, and investigate the effect of several operating parameters on the analytical performance of this new non-radioactive electron capture detector (ECD.

  12. Design and fabrication of a pulsed diode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Gandhi, M.L.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun has been designed, fabricated and tested and this will be used for the initial hot testing of the Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) linac. The gun is required to deliver 1 A at 70 kV which works out to a current of 500 mA at 40 kV. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at a mesh size of 0.2 mm. The beam divergence close to cathode caused by an annular gap of 2 mm between cathode and focusing electrode (FE) is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. Important features of the pulsed power supply (40 kV, 500 mA, 2 μsec) developed for testing this gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance. Suitable positioning of cathode with respect to the FE helps in further improving the beam quality

  13. The powerful pulsed electron beam effect on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Yuferov, V.B.; Kosik, N.A.; Druj, O.S.; Skibenko, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of the influence of powerful pulsed electron beams on the surface structure,hardness and corrosion resistance of the Cr18ni10ti steel are presented. The experiments were carried out in the powerful electron accelerators of directional effect VGIK-1 and DIN-2K with an energy up to approx 300 KeV and a power density of 10 9 - 10 11 W/cm 2 for micro- and nanosecond range. The essential influence of the irradiation power density on the material structure was established. Pulsed powerful beam action on metallic surface leads to surface melting,modification of the structure and structure-dependent material properties. The gas emission and mass-spectrometer analysis of the beam-surface interaction were defined

  14. A pulsed electron gun for the Plane Wave Transformer Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, S; Nandedkar, R V

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun delivering 500 mA current at 40 kV is described. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at higher scaling factors by choosing the closest converging starting surface. The effect of an annular gap between cathode and focusing electrode on beam behaviour is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. The estimated perveance is 0.065 mu perv and the normalized emittance is within 5 pi mm mrad. The variation in current density at the cathode has been limited to within 10% across the face of the cathode. Salient features of the pulsed power supply and an insight of its interconnection with the gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance.

  15. How can attosecond pulse train interferometry interrogate electron dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. L.; Isinger, M.; Busto, D.; Guénot, D.; Nandi, S.; Zhong, S.; Dahlström, J. M.; Gisselbrecht, M.; l'Huillier, A.

    2018-04-01

    Light pulses of sub-100 as (1 as=10-18 s) duration, with photon energies in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) spectral domain, represent the shortest event in time ever made and controlled by human beings. Their first experimental observation in 2001 has opened the door to investigating the fundamental dynamics of the quantum world on the natural time scale for electrons in atoms, molecules and solids and marks the beginning of the scientific field now called attosecond science.

  16. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  17. Hard-rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    Intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this technique appears promising for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a pulsed electron tunnel excavator, capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods, is presented. (auth)

  18. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  19. Multistage linear electron acceleration using pulsed transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Prestwich, K.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Epstein, B.G.; Freeman, J.R.; Sharpe, A.W.; Tucker, W.K.; Shope, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    A four-stage linear electron accelerator is described which uses pulsed radial transmission lines as the basic accelerating units. An annular electron beam produced by a foilless diode is guided through the accelerator by a strong axial magnetic field. Synchronous firing of the injector and the acccelerating modules is accomplished with self-breaking oil switches. The device has accelerated beam currents of 25 kA to kinetic energies of 9 MV, with 90% current transport efficiency. The average accelerating gradient is 3 MV/m

  20. Imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy using single nanosecond electron pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, Matthieu; Bücker, Kerstin; LaGrange, Thomas; Banhart, Florian

    2018-03-13

    We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach. By varying the laser power, the Wehnelt bias, and the condenser lens settings, the optimum TEM operation conditions for the single-shot approach are revealed. Due to space charge and the Boersch effect, the energy width of the pulses under maximized emission conditions is far too high for imaging or spectroscopy. However, by using the Wehnelt electrode as an energy filter, the energy width of the pulses can be reduced to 2 eV, though at the expense of intensity. The first EEL spectra taken with nanosecond electron pulses are shown in this study. With 7 ns pulses, an image resolution of 25 nm is attained. It is shown how the spherical and chromatic aberrations of the objective lens as well as shot noise limit the resolution. We summarize by giving perspectives for improving the single-shot time-resolved approach by using aberration correction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  2. Comparison of experimental pulse-height distributions in germanium detectors with integrated-tiger-series-code predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A.; Knott, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports pulse-height distributions in two different types of Ge detectors measured for a variety of medium-energy x-ray bremsstrahlung spectra. These measurements have been compared to predictions using the integrated tiger series (ITS) Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code. In general, the authors find excellent agreement between experiments and predictions using no free parameters. These results demonstrate that the ITS codes can predict the combined bremsstrahlung production and energy deposition with good precision (within measurement uncertainties). The one region of disagreement observed occurs for low-energy (<50 keV) photons using low-energy bremsstrahlung spectra. In this case the ITS codes appear to underestimate the produced and/or absorbed radiation by almost an order of magnitude

  3. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  4. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  5. Evaluation of real-time digital pulse shapers with various HPGe and silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaa, N.; D'Agostino, P.; Zakrzewski, B.; Jordanov, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time digital pulse shaping techniques allow synthesis of pulse shapes that have been difficult to realize using the traditional analog methods. Using real-time digital shapers, triangular/trapezoidal filters can be synthesized in real time. These filters exhibit digital control on the rise time, fall time, and flat-top of the trapezoidal shape. Thus, the trapezoidal shape can be adjusted for optimum performance at different distributions of the series and parallel noise. The trapezoidal weighting function (WF) represents the optimum time-limited pulse shape when only parallel and series noises are present in the detector system. In the presence of 1/F noise, the optimum WF changes depending on the 1/F noise contribution. In this paper, we report on the results of the evaluation of new filter types for processing signals from CANBERRA high purity germanium (HPGe) and passivated, implanted, planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The objective of the evaluation is to determine improvements in performance over the current trapezoidal (digital) filter. The evaluation is performed using a customized CANBERRA digital signal processing unit that is fitted with new FPGA designs and any required firmware modifications to support operation of the new filters. The evaluated filters include the Cusp, one-over-F (1/F), and pseudo-Gaussian filters. The results are compared with the CANBERRA trapezoidal shaper.

  6. Gas Electron Multipler (GEM) detectors for parity-violating electron scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, John; Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Solid Collaboration; Moller Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The JLab Parity Violation In Deep Inelastic Scattering (PVDIS) experiment will use the upgraded 12 GeV beam and proposed Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) to measure the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in DIS of polarized electrons with high precision in order to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Unlike many prior Parity-Violating Electron Scattering (PVES) experiments, PVDIS is a single-particle tracking experiment. Furthermore the experiment's high luminosity combined with the SoLID spectrometer's open configuration creates high-background conditions. As such, the PVDIS experiment has the most demanding tracking detector needs of any PVES experiment to date, requiring precision detectors capable of operating at high-rate conditions in PVDIS's full production luminosity. Developments in large-area GEM detector R&D and SoLID simulations have demonstrated that GEMs provide a cost-effective solution for PVDIS's tracking needs. The integrating-detector-based JLab Measurement Of Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction (MOLLER) experiment requires high-precision tracking for acceptance calibration. Large-area GEMs will be used as tracking detectors for MOLLER as well. The conceptual designs of GEM detectors for the PVDIS and MOLLER experiments will be presented.

  7. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H., E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Z. [Physics and Accelerator School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  8. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  9. Silicon nanowire based high brightness, pulsed relativistic electron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that silicon nanowire arrays efficiently emit relativistic electron pulses under irradiation by a high-intensity, femtosecond, and near-infrared laser (∼1018 W/cm2, 25 fs, 800 nm. The nanowire array yields fluxes and charge per bunch that are 40 times higher than those emitted by an optically flat surface, in the energy range of 0.2–0.5 MeV. The flux and charge yields for the nanowires are observed to be directional in nature unlike that for planar silicon. Particle-in-cell simulations establish that such large emission is caused by the enhancement of the local electric fields around a nanowire, which consequently leads to an enhanced absorption of laser energy. We show that the high-intensity contrast (ratio of picosecond pedestal to femtosecond peak of the laser pulse (10−9 is crucial to this large yield. We extend the notion of surface local-field enhancement, normally invoked in low-order nonlinear optical processes like second harmonic generation, optical limiting, etc., to ultrahigh laser intensities. These electron pulses, expectedly femtosecond in duration, have potential application in imaging, material modification, ultrafast dynamics, terahertz generation, and fast ion sources.

  10. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP [Positron Electron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e + e - interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, γ, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb -1 of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10 -2 pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c 2 for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs

  11. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP (Positron Electron Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e-tilde, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, ..gamma..-tilde, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb/sup -1/ of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10/sup -2/ pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Advantages using pulse shape discrimination to assign the depth of interaction information (DOI) from a multi layer phoswich detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmand, M.; Eriksson, L.; Casey, M. E.; Wienhard, K.; Flugge, G.; Nutt, R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently new high resolution brain PET and PET/SPECT tomographs have been discussed using phoswich detectors. The detector design is based on two layers of scintillation crystals in the z-axis with different physical properties, such as light decay time or light yield. This makes it feasible to assign the depth of interaction (DOI) information in order to be able to correct for spatial degradation in PET or to operate the detector in PET or SPECT mode. The pixel DOI detectors are cost effectively arranged in a block design. In this work the authors discuss the possibility of separating events from the two different layers in the time domain using pulse shape discrimination or in the energy domain using pulse height discrimination. Furthermore, the authors have investigated the feasibility of interdetector scatter suppression using pulse shape discrimination. The measurements have been done using a LSO/LSO high resolution PET detector, a LSO and GSO crystal in coincidence and a NaI(TI)/LSO combined PET/SPECT detector. The investigations show, that the pulse shape discrimination technique has a significant higher identification probability compared to the pulse height discrimination and does make a interdetector scatter detection feasible.

  13. Advantages using pulse shape discrimination to assign the depth of interaction information (DOI) from a multi layer phoswich detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmand, M. [CTI PET Systems, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Max-Planck-Inst. for Neurology Research, Cologne (Germany)]|[RWTH-Aachen (Germany); Eriksson, L. [CTI, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Karolinska Inst. (Sweden); Casey, M.E. [CTI PET Systems, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Wienhard, K. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Neurology Research, Cologne (Germany); Fluegge, G. [RWTH-Aachen (Germany); Nutt, R. [CTI, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Recently new high resolution brain PET and PET/SPECT tomographs have been discussed using phoswich detectors. The detector design is based on two layers of scintillation crystals in the z-axis with different physical properties, such as light decay time or light yield. This makes it feasible to assign the depth of interaction (DOI) information in order to be able to correct for spatial degradation in PET or to operate the detector in PET or SPECT mode. The pixel DOI detectors are cost effectively arranged in a block design. In this work the authors discuss the possibility of separating events from the two different layers in the time domain using pulse shape discrimination or in the energy domain using pulse height discrimination. Furthermore, they have investigated the feasibility of interdetector scatter suppression using pulse shape discrimination. The measurements have been done using a LSO/LSO high resolution PET detector, a LSO and GSO crystal in coincidence and a NaI(Tl)/LSO combined PET/SPECT detector. The investigations show that the pulse shape discrimination technique has a significant higher identification probability compared to the pulse height discrimination and does make a interdetector scatter detection feasible.

  14. Parameterization of the pulse height defect and resolution for low-Z ions incident on silicon barrier detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, C

    1999-01-01

    The pulse height output of silicon charged particle detectors has been studied for low Z particles having energies in the range of 1-5 MeV/amu. Particle beams of sup 7 Li, sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 1 B, sup 1 sup 2 C, and sup 1 sup 6 O nuclei were scattered from sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au targets and their energies were measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. For alpha-particle detection, both beam particles and those from a calibrated sup 2 sup 2 sup 8 Th source were used. The data are anomalous in that the pulse heights for different ions of the same energy increase with atomic number, contrary to observations for fission fragments. It is found that the pulse height output of the detectors and the width of the pulse height distribution (FWHM) increase with the Z and Z sup 2 , respectively, of the detected particle. (author)

  15. Simulation and real-time analysis of pulse shapes from segmented HPGe-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlarb, Michael Christian

    2009-11-17

    The capabilities of future HPGe arrays consisting of highly segmented detectors, like AGATA will depend heavily on the performance of {gamma}-ray tracking. The most crucial component in the whole concept is the pulse shape analysis (PSA). The working principle of PSA is to compare the experimental signal shape with signals available from a basis set with known interaction locations. The efficiency of the tracking algorithm hinges on the ability of the PSA to reconstruct the interaction locations accurately, especially for multiple {gamma}-interactions. Given the size of the arrays the PSA algorithm must be run in a real-time environment. A prerequisite to a successful PSA is an accurate knowledge of the detectors response. Making a full coincidence scan of a single AGATA detector, however takes between two and three months, which is too long to produce an experimental signal basis for all detector elements. A straight forward possibility is to use a precise simulation of the detector and to provide a basis of simulated signals. For this purpose the Java Agata Signal Simulation (JASS) was developed in the course of this thesis. The geometry of the detector is given with numerical precision and models describing the anisotropic mobilities of the charge carriers in germanium were taken from the literature. The pulse shapes of the transient and net-charge signals are calculated using weighting potentials on a finite grid. Special care was taken that the interpolation routine not only reproduces the weighting potentials precisely in the highly varying areas of the segment boundaries but also that its performance is independent of the location within the detector. Finally data from a coincidence scan and a pencil beam experiment were used to verify JASS. The experimental signals are reproduced accurately by the simulation. Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) reconstructs the positions of the individual interactions and the corresponding energy deposits within the detector. This

  16. Universal and discriminative detection using a miniaturized pulsed discharge detector in comprehensive two-dimensional GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winniford, Bill L; Sun, Kefu; Griffith, James F; Luong, Jim C

    2006-11-01

    A miniaturized pulsed discharge detector (Mini-PDD) has been successfully demonstrated for comprehensive 2-D GC (GC x GC) analysis of pyrolysis gasoline and the pyrolysis GC x GC analysis of a polyethylene copolymer. The detector cell volume of the Mini-PDD is reduced to 25% of the Valco plug-in PDD D-3. An n-C11 peak width at base is 96 ms for the Mini-PDD, about 23% larger than a peak width of 78 ms detected by a flame ionization detector (FID). The Mini-PDD has sufficient response time for most GC x GC applications. When Mini-PDD is operated in helium photoionization mode (Mini He-PDD), it is a universal detector for both inorganic and organic compounds. This is especially useful when detection of water is needed in GC x GC applications. When krypton is doped in the helium discharge gas (Mini Kr-PDD), it can suppress signals of compounds having higher ionization potentials and enhance relative signal intensities of aromatic compounds. The determination of aliphatic to aromatic hydrocarbon ratios is essential to the operation of petroleum crackers. Comparison of the signal from two modes of the Mini-PDD is a simple and fast way to verify the location of aromatics in comprehensive 2-D gas chromatograms.

  17. Optimal Fitting of Non-linear Detector Pulses with Nonstationary Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Cabera, B.; Figueroa-Felicianco, E.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Optimal extraction of pulses of constant known shape from a time series with stationary noise is well understood and widely used in detection applications. Applications where high resolution is required over a wide range of input signal amplitudes use much of the dynamic range of the sensor. The noise will in general vary over this signal range, and the response may be a nonlinear function of the energy input. We present an optimal least squares procedure for inferring input energy in such a detector with nonstationary noise and nonlinear energy response.

  18. Electron emission channeling with position-sensitive detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Cardoso, S; Marques, J G; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G

    1998-01-01

    Electron emission channeling allows direct lattice location studies of low doses of radioactive atoms implanted in single crystals. For that purpose the anisotropic emission yield of conversion electrons from the crystal surface is measured, most conveniently by use of position-sensitive detectors. We discuss characteristic features of this method, including quantitative data analysis procedures, which are achieved by fitting simulated two-dimensional emission distributions for different lattice sites to the experimental patterns. The capabilities of this approach are illustrated by the case of rare earth atoms (Er, Tm, Yb) in Si, where we were able to do lattice location experiments down to implanted doses which are 150 times lower compared to previous RBS studies.

  19. Electron and Photon Reconstruction and Identification with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuna, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the electron and photon reconstruction performance in ATLAS with the first LHC collision data at $sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV collected up to the beginning of June 2010. Calorimetric and tracker related electron identification variables are shown to be in a fair agreement with the Monte Carlo model. %Material estimations in the inner detector were checked with photon conversions vertex position, complementarily to the energy flow from minimum bias events for material at larger radii. The position of the reconstructed photon conversions vertices has been used to compare the inner detector model used in Monte Carlo to the real one from data. The energy flow measured in the electromagnetic calorimeter with minimum bias data has been used to provide the same comparison at larger radii. $pi^0 ightarrow gamma gamma$ and $J/Psi ightarrow ee$ peaks were observed with a reconstructed mass in good agreement with both Monte Carlo and PDG value. 17 $W ightarrow e u$ candidates and one $Z ightarrow ee$ candidat...

  20. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  1. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  2. Pulsed Gas Lasers Pumped by a Runaway Electron Initiated Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A. N.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Panchenko, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The generation parameters are investigated in a runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD). Laser generation is produced in different spectral bands from the IR to VUV range. New modes of the nitrogen laser operation are obtained. Ultimate efficiencies of N2- and nonchain HF(DF)-lasers are achieved. A possibility of increasing the pulse durations of XeF-, KrF-, ArF- and VUV F2- lasers (157 nm) in an oscillating REP DD is shown. The efficiencies of VUV- and UV-generation comparable with that of a laser pumped by a self-sustained volume discharge with preionization are gained.

  3. Electron rescattering at metal nanotips induced by ultrashort laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Schenk, Markus; Krüger, Michael; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first investigation of plateau and cut-off structures in photoelectron spectra from nano-scale metal tips interacting with few-cycle near-infrared laser pulses. These hallmarks of electron rescattering, well-known from atom-laser interaction in the strong-field regime, appear at remarkably low laser intensities with nominal Keldysh parameters of the order of $\\gtrsim 10$. Quantum and quasi-classical simulations reveal that a large field enhancement near the tip and the increa...

  4. Attosecond electron pulse trains and quantum state reconstruction in ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Katharina E.; Rathje, Christopher; Yalunin, Sergey V.; Hohage, Thorsten; Feist, Armin; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafast electron and X-ray imaging and spectroscopy are the basis for an ongoing revolution in the understanding of dynamical atomic-scale processes in matter. The underlying technology relies heavily on laser science for the generation and characterization of ever shorter pulses. Recent findings suggest that ultrafast electron microscopy with attosecond-structured wavefunctions may be feasible. However, such future technologies call for means to both prepare and fully analyse the corresponding free-electron quantum states. Here, we introduce a framework for the preparation, coherent manipulation and characterization of free-electron quantum states, experimentally demonstrating attosecond electron pulse trains. Phase-locked optical fields coherently control the electron wavefunction along the beam direction. We establish a new variant of quantum state tomography—`SQUIRRELS'—for free-electron ensembles. The ability to tailor and quantitatively map electron quantum states will promote the nanoscale study of electron-matter entanglement and new forms of ultrafast electron microscopy down to the attosecond regime.

  5. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  6. Study of performance of electronic dosemeters in continuous and pulsed X-radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Margarete Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Personal radiation monitoring is a basic procedure to verify the compliance to regulatory requirements for radiological protection. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have largely been used for personnel monitoring; including for pulsed radiation beams where their responses are not well known and deficiencies have been reported. In this work, irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both continuous and pulsed X-ray beams were studied to be established in a constant potential Seifert-Pantak and in a medical Pulsar 800 Plus VMI X-ray machines. Characterization of X-ray beams was done in terms of tube voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. A Xi R/F Unfors solid state dosimeter used as reference for air kerma measurements was verified against a RC-6 and 10X6-6 Radical ionization chambers as far its metrological coherence. Rad-60 RADOS, PDM- 11 Aloka and EPD MK2 Thermo electron EPDs were selected to be tested in terms of relative intrinsic error and energy response in similar to IEC RQR, IEC RQA and ISO N reference radiations. Results demonstrated the reliability of the solid state Xi R/F Unfors dosimeter to be as reference dosimeter although its response was affected by heavily filtered beams. Results also showed that relative intrinsic errors in the response of the EPDs in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), were higher than the requirement established for continuous beams. In pulsed beams, some EPDs showed inadequate response and high relative intrinsic errors. This work stressed the need of performing additional checks for EPDs, besides the limited 137 Cs beam calibration, before using them in pulsed X-ray beams. (author)

  7. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  9. Radiobiological influence of megavoltage electron pulses of ultra-high pulse dose rate on normal tissue cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Karsch, Leonhard; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Oppelt, Melanie; Pawelke, Jörg; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke

    2016-08-01

    Regarding the long-term goal to develop and establish laser-based particle accelerators for a future radiotherapeutic treatment of cancer, the radiobiological consequences of the characteristic short intense particle pulses with ultra-high peak dose rate, but low repetition rate of laser-driven beams have to be investigated. This work presents in vitro experiments performed at the radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance). This accelerator delivered 20-MeV electron pulses with ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy/min either at the low pulse frequency analogue to previous cell experiments with laser-driven electrons or at high frequency for minimizing the prolonged dose delivery and to perform comparison irradiation with a quasi-continuous electron beam analogue to a clinically used linear accelerator. The influence of the different electron beam pulse structures on the radiobiological response of the normal tissue cell line 184A1 and two primary fibroblasts was investigated regarding clonogenic survival and the number of DNA double-strand breaks that remain 24 h after irradiation. Thereby, no considerable differences in radiation response were revealed both for biological endpoints and for all probed cell cultures. These results provide evidence that the radiobiological effectiveness of the pulsed electron beams is not affected by the ultra-high pulse dose rates alone.

  10. Alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in plastic scintillation using commercial scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Activity determination in different types of samples is a current need in many different fields. Simultaneously analysing alpha and beta emitters is now a routine option when using liquid scintillation (LS) and pulse shape discrimination. However, LS has an important drawback, the generation of mixed waste. Recently, several studies have shown the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to LS, but no research has been carried out to determine its capability for alpha/beta discrimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The results obtained show that PS pulses had lower energy than LS pulses. As a consequence, a lower detection efficiency, a shift to lower energies and a better discrimination of beta and a worst discrimination of alpha disintegrations was observed for PS. Colour quenching also produced a decrease in the energy of the particles, as well as the effects described above. It is clear that in PS, the discrimination capability was correlated with the energy of the particles detected. Taking into account the discrimination capabilities of PS, a protocol for the measurement and the calculation of alpha and beta activities in mixtures using PS and commercial scintillation detectors has been proposed. The new protocol was applied to the quantification of spiked river water samples containing a pair of radionuclides ( 3 H- 241 Am or 90 Sr/ 90 Y- 241 Am) in different activity proportions. The relative errors in all determinations were lower than 7%. These results demonstrate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape and to quantify mixtures without generating mixed waste.

  11. Pulsed hollow cathode discharge: intense electron beam and filamentary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modreanu, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with a transient hollow cathode discharge optimised by a preionization one and providing intense electron beams. It exists a preionization current value for which the pulsed discharge becomes a very straight and bright filament, well collimated on the discharge tube axis for some tenths of centimeters. A remarkable feature of this discharge is that, without internal metallic electrodes very pure plasma could be produced. Using self-biasing by the beam of a Faraday cup placed only few millimeters behind the anode, we deduced the beam electron's distribution function and its temporal behavior for two radial positions, on the axis and 1 millimeter off-axis, respectively. The real advantage of this measurement technique is the transient polarization character, which allows analysis very closely from the electron beam extraction hole. On the other side, using the emission spectroscopy, we have studied the plasma produced in electron beam - gas interaction and deduced the temporal evolution of the electron temperature. The temporal behavior of the filamentary plasma diameter shows a constriction at the last moments of the beam existence, followed by diffusion controlled expansion. The ambipolar diffusion coefficient corresponding to the estimated electron temperature describes quite well this expansion and allows a quantitative interpretation of the measured temperature diminution, with taking into account the preferential fast electrons escape. The analysis of both beam and post-beam plasma phases suggests potential applications of this robust, very reproducible and not expensive discharge also susceptible to be external monitored. The beam - target interaction could be used for PVD, elementary analysis and filamentary or point-like X-ray emission. (author) [fr

  12. The VXI electronics of the DIAMANT particle detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, J.; Hegyesi, G.; Molnár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kalinka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Aléonard, M. M.; Chemin, J. F.; Pedroza, J. L.; Juhász, K.; Pucknell, V. F. E.

    2004-01-01

    A VXI card designed for the processing of signals from the particle detector array DIAMANT, a CsI(Tl) light charged particle ancillary detector system to the EUROBALL and the EXOGAM gamma-spectrometers, is described. The card provides particle energy, particle-type and time-reference information and is compatible with the existing signal-processing system of EUROBALL/EXOGAM. In order to have full compatibility with the electronics of these spectrometers without sacrificing the performance of the card, some new solutions are used in the signal processing. For particle discrimination three methods can be selected; the ballistic deficit method, the zero-crossing method and a combination of these two methods. The figure of merit of the particle discrimination using the combined method is better than that of the zero crossing or the ballistic deficit method individually. Timing signals for particle-gamma coincidence are derived by a specially designed non-delay-line constant fraction discriminator, which exhibits low rise-time-dependent walk. The card has been tested with EUROBALL. The results of these tests are presented.

  13. Comparative Dosimetric Characterization for Different Types of Detectors in High-Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jeong; Huh, Hyun Do [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seungwoo; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum Bae [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Chul Kee [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Chung-nam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Oh [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to perform a comparison and on analysis of measured dose factor values by using various commercially available high-energy electron beam detectors to measure dose profiles and energy property data. By analyzing the high-energy electron beam data from each detector, we determined the optimal detector for measuring electron beams in clinical applications. The dose linearity, dose-rate dependence, percentage depth dose, and dose profile of each detector were measured to evaluate the dosimetry characteristics of high-energy electron beams. The dose profile and the energy characteristics of high-energy electron beams were found to be different when measured by different detectors. Through comparison with other detectors based on the analyzed data, the microdiamond detector was found to have outstanding dose linearity, a low dose-rate dependency, and a small effective volume. Thus, this detector has outstanding spatial resolution and is the optimal detector for measuring electron beams. Radiation therapy results can be improved and related medical accidents can be prevented by using the procedure developed in this research in clinical practice for all beam detectors when measuring the electron beam dose.

  14. Practical application of HgI2 detectors to a space-flight scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.; Albee, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric iodide X-ray detectors have been undergoing tests in a prototype scanning electron microscope system being developed for unmanned space flight. The detector program addresses the issues of geometric configuration in the SEM, compact packaging that includes separate thermoelectric coolers for the detector and FET, X-ray transparent hermetic encapsulation and electrical contacts, and a clean vacuum environment.

  15. Electronic noise in CT detectors: Impact on image noise and artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Leng, Shuai; Schmidt, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Grant, Katharine; Flohr, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2013-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate in phantoms the differences in CT image noise and artifact level between two types of commercial CT detectors: one with distributed electronics (conventional) and one with integrated electronics intended to decrease system electronic noise. Cylindric water phantoms of 20, 30, and 40 cm in diameter were scanned using two CT scanners, one equipped with integrated detector electronics and one with distributed detector electronics. All other scanning parameters were identical. Scans were acquired at four tube potentials and 10 tube currents. Semianthropomorphic phantoms were scanned to mimic the shoulder and abdominal regions. Images of two patients were also selected to show the clinical values of the integrated detector. Reduction of image noise with the integrated detector depended on phantom size, tube potential, and tube current. Scans that had low detected signal had the greatest reductions in noise, up to 40% for a 30-cm phantom scanned using 80 kV. This noise reduction translated into up to 50% in dose reduction to achieve equivalent image noise. Streak artifacts through regions of high attenuation were reduced by up to 45% on scans obtained using the integrated detector. Patient images also showed superior image quality for the integrated detector. For the same applied radiation level, the use of integrated electronics in a CT detector showed a substantially reduced level of electronic noise, resulting in reductions in image noise and artifacts, compared with detectors having distributed electronics.

  16. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

  17. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hahn, H.T. [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Material Science and Engineering Department, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    An intense pulsed light (IPL) from a xenon flash lamp was used to sinter copper nanoink printed on low-temperature polymer substrates at room temperature in ambient condition. The IPL can sinter the copper nanoink without damaging the polymer substrates in extremely short time (2 ms). The microstructure of the sintered copper film was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray micro tomography, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sintered copper film has a grainy structure with neck-like junctions. The resulting resistivity was 5{mu}{omega} cm of electrical resistivity which is only 3 times as high as that of bulk copper. The IPL sintering technique allows copper nanoparticles to be used in inkjet printing on low-temperature substrates such as polymers in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  18. Modulated desynchronism in short pulse free-electron laser oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar G. Calderón

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and theoretical study of the effect of desynchronism modulation on short pulse free-electron laser (FEL oscillators. We find that the output power and the micropulse length of the FEL beam oscillate periodically at the modulation frequency and that the minimum micropulse length during the cycle can be significantly shorter than that which can be obtained without modulation. For example, when the desynchronism of our FEL is modulated at 40 kHz, the minimum measured micropulse length is 300 fs. Without modulation the minimum is about 700 fs. We show that when the desynchronism is modulated, the FEL can operate for part of the cycle in the normally inaccessible portion of the output power curve where the FEL gain is less than the cavity losses. It is even possible for the FEL to operate periodically in the region of negative desynchronism where gain, as normally defined, does not exist.

  19. The coulometric electron capture detector and its application to the selected freons in water and air. Part of a coordinated programme on the analysis of organic compounds by electron capture gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1981-01-01

    In developing the use of Freon-11 and Freon-12 as environmental tracers in aeronomy, oceanography and hydrology electron capture gas chromatography was used to measure the concentration changes. A detector in the coulometric mode was designed and operated as a solute switch. The detection limit was in the order of 0.2x10 -12 g for a modified head space method in handling aqueous samples. Theoretical analysis of the detector design and the effects of factors including pulsing period, flowrates of carrier gas and the radioactivity of the detector source were discussed and confirmed experimentally

  20. Construction of double discharge pulsed electron beam generator and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, H.

    2001-12-01

    Generation of fast pulsed electron beam by superposing DC and pulsed hollow cathode discharge is studied. The electrical characteristics and measurements of the electron beam generator are done dc glow discharge and for the pulsed one. The electron beam current, its density and magnetic field effect, pinch effect, have been studied. The dependence of the electron beam parameters with respect to pressure and magnetic field have been studied. The pulsing effect of the beam is reviewed. By using the generator, micron holes drilling and carbon deposition was done at the laboratory. As a target source for carbon deposition methane gas is used and for Hydrogen-free carbon deposition was graphite

  1. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  2. Photomultiplier pulse Read Out system for the preshower detector of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Cornat, R; Deschamps, O; Lecoq, J; Monteil, S; Perret, P

    2003-01-01

    The second generation experiment for CP violation studies in B decays, LHCb, is a 20-m-long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition to a performance trigger system able to cope with high flux. The first level of trigger is mainly based on the fast response of the calorimetric subsystem. Of major importance is the 6000 channels preshower detector that aims to validate the electromagnetic nature of calorimetric showers. It consists of two- radiation-length lead sheet in front of a scintillator plane. Scintillator signals are extracted from plastic cells using wavelength-shifting fibres coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The preshower Read Out system has to cope with fluctuating photomultiplier pulses caused by small amounts of photoelectrons, in addition to strong constraints imposed by the 40 MHz LHC bunch- crossing frequency. A special Read...

  3. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  4. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Huang Chuah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT, traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implemented using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology with optical enhancement. This microchip comprises main circuit constituents of an array of photodiodes connecting to respective noise-optimised transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs, a selector-combiner (SC circuit, and a postamplifier (PA. The design possesses the capability of detecting photons with low input optical power in the range of 1 nW with 100 μm × 100 μm sized photodiodes and achieves a total amplification of 180 dBΩ at the output.

  5. Development of a fountain detector for spectroscopy of secondary electrons in scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agemura, Toshihide; Kimura, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    The low-pass secondary electron (SE) detector, the so-called “fountain detector (FD)”, for scanning electron microscopy has high potential for application to the imaging of low-energy SEs. Low-energy SE imaging may be used for detecting the surface potential variations of a specimen. However, the detected SEs include a certain fraction of tertiary electrons (SE3s) because some of the high-energy backscattered electrons hit the grid to yield SE3s. We have overcome this difficulty by increasing the aperture ratio of the bias and ground grids and using the lock-in technique, in which the AC field with the DC offset was applied on the bias grid. The energy-filtered SE images of a 4H-SiC p–n junction show complex behavior according to the grid bias. These observations are clearly explained by the variations of Auger spectra across the p–n junction. The filtered SE images taken with the FD can be applied to observing the surface potential variation of specimens.

  6. A triple-crystal phoswich detector with digital pulse shape discrimination for alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Travis L.; Miller, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri - Columbia have developed a three-crystal phoswich detector coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination system for use in alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy. Phoswich detectors use a sandwich of scintillators viewed by a single photomultiplier tube to simultaneously detect multiple types of radiation. Separation of radiation types is based upon pulse shape difference among the phosphors, which has historically been performed with analog circuitry. The system uses a GaGe CompuScope 1012, 12 bit, 10 MHz computer-based oscilloscope that digitally captures the pulses from a phoswich detector and subsequently performs pulse shape discrimination with cross-correlation analysis. The detector, based partially on previous phoswich designs by Usuda et al., uses a 10 mg/cm 2 thick layer of ZnS(Ag) for alpha detection, followed by a 0.254 cm CaF 2 (Eu) crystal for beta detection, all backed by a 2.54 cm NaI(Tl) crystal for gamma detection. Individual energy spectra and count rate information for all three radiation types are displayed and updated periodically. The system shows excellent charged particle discrimination with an accuracy of greater than 99%. Future development will include a large area beta probe with gamma-ray discrimination, systems for low-energy photon detection (e.g. Bremsstrahlung or keV-range photon emissions), and other health physics instrumentation

  7. Free electron laser experiments using a long pulse induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasour, J.A.; Lucey, R.

    1983-01-01

    The NRL Long Pulse Induction Linac is being employed in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiment. The authors present results of beam transport and focusing experiments as well as measurements of the output radiation generated by various magnetic wigglers. The electron gun of the accelerator presently has a 17-cmdiam. cold cathode which is located in a nearly zero magnetic field (B /SUB z/ less than or equal to 5 G). The gun voltage is flat to within approx. = + or - 5% for 1.5 μsec with this graphite brush cathode. The beam is focused by a series of solenoidal coils as it propagates through the 4-m-long accelerator. 2 A solenoidal field which can be varied from 1-10 kG confines the beam in the FEL interaction region. Previous experiments were limited by poor beam transport, focusing, and matching into the relatively large solenoidal field in the FEL region. By smoothing the axial magnetic field profile in the accelerator and making a more adiabatic transition from the low field in the accelerator to the high field in the FEL, beam transport into the wiggler has been substantially improved. Currently, a 700 kV beam with I > 500 A and r /SUB b/ < 0.75 cm is transported through the FEL region. Beam transport is in qualitative agreement with envelope code calculations

  8. Measuring charge density of electron beam single nanosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Fazkullin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of a probe design and electrometric repeater circuit and technique for measuring the charge (current) density of electron beam single pulses by integrating current at a reference capacitor with a subsequent registering of voltage across the capacitor. The probe consists of a band-type signal electrodes and two oval cross-section sleeves: external and internal with larger and smaller rectangular openings, respectively. The external sleeve has antidynatron grid located over the hole. The design employs integer nickel sleever - the cores of electron tube cathodes. The signal electrode is made of nickel band 0.15 mm thick. The probe elements are insulated from each other along the whole length with a layer of teflon band (30 μm), with rectangular openings cut in compliance with the sleeve openings. The measurement range is from 0.4x10 - 9 to 1x10 - 7 C/cm 2 . The rated accuracy of measurements is no worse than +-5% for the beam energy of 0.2 to 3 KeV. The ultimate parameters the charge density - 6 C/cm 2 and direct current density 3 mA/cm 2 - are specified by the breakdown voltage (200 V) of the input capacitor and probe insulation

  9. Electroluminescence pulse shape and electron diffusion in liquid argon measured in a dual-phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2018-02-05

    We report the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant in liquid argon with the DarkSide-50 dual-phase time projection chamber. The measurement is performed at drift electric fields of 100 V/cm, 150 V/cm, and 200 V/cm using high statistics $^{39}$Ar decays from atmospheric argon. We derive an expression to describe the pulse shape of the electroluminescence signal (S2) in dual-phase TPCs. The derived S2 pulse shape is fit to events from the uppermost portion of the TPC in order to characterize the radial dependence of the signal. The results are provided as inputs to the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant DL, which we find to be (4.12 $\\pm$ 0.04) cm$^2$/s for a selection of 140keV electron recoil events in 200V/cm drift field and 2.8kV/cm extraction field. To study the systematics of our measurement we examine datasets of varying event energy, field strength, and detector volume yielding a weighted average value for the diffusion constant of (4.09 $\\pm$ 0.09) cm$^2$ /s. The measured longitudinal diffusion constant is observed to have an energy dependence, and within the studied energy range the result is systematically lower than other results in the literature.

  10. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlog, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-02-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV {sup 12}C ions in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity. The dissociation of pairs was supposed to take place with a constant probability in a time unit. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field, inside and outside the ion range, was found as the solution of the one-dimensional Maxwell's equation for the electric field in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the current signal simulation with that time-dependent treatment is encouraging, as compared to a prompt carrier collection in an undisturbed electric field.

  11. Electron transfer in pulse irradiated polypropylene film containing irganox type antioxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.; Szreder, T

    2002-02-01

    Time resolved absorption spectra of trapped electrons generated in pulse irradiated polypropylene film containing irganox 1076 are investigated at {approx}100 K. Antioxidant influences the yield and decay of near-ir electrons in the matrix under consideration.

  12. Electron transfer in pulse irradiated polypropylene film containing irganox type antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J.; Szreder, T.

    2002-02-01

    Time resolved absorption spectra of trapped electrons generated in pulse irradiated polypropylene film containing irganox 1076 are investigated at ˜100 K. Antioxidant influences the yield and decay of near-ir electrons in the matrix under consideration.

  13. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs, like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH, makes unprecedented research on matter at atomic length and ultrafast time scales possible. However, in order to take advantage of these unique light sources and to meet the strict requirements of many experiments in photon science, FEL photon pulse durations need to be known and tunable. This can be achieved by controlling the FEL driving electron beams, and high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics can be utilized to provide constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of soft x-ray pulse durations and electron bunch lengths at FLASH. The soft x-ray pulse durations were measured by FEL radiation pulse energy statistics and compared to electron bunch lengths determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range and time-domain longitudinal phase space measurements. The experimental results, theoretical considerations, and simulations show that high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics provide reasonable constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In addition, we demonstrated the generation of soft x-ray pulses with durations below 50 fs (FWHM after the implementation of the new uniform electron bunch compression scheme used at FLASH.

  14. Development of high current electron source using photoemission from metals with ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.

    1990-10-01

    We summarize the studies of photoemission from metal photocathodes using picosecond pulses in the UV (4.66 eV) wavelength and femtosecond laser pulses in the visible (2 eV) wavelengths. To achieve high current density yield from metal photocathodes, multiphoton photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses are suggested. Electron yield improvement incorporating surface photoemission and surface plasmon resonance in metals and metal films are demonstrated. We examine the possibility of the nonlinear photoemission process overtaking the linear process, and identity some possible complexity. To extract the large amount of electrons free of space charge, a pulsed high voltage is designed; the results of the preliminary test are presented. Finally, for the first time, the width of the electron temporal profiles are measured, utilizing the nonlinear photoelectric effect, to below 100 fsec time regime. The results indicated that the electron pulse duration follows the laser pulses and are not limited by the material. 8 refs., 15 figs

  15. Red Shift and Broadening of Backward Harmonic Radiation from Electron Oscillations Driven by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Senecha, Vinod K; Han, Xu; Deng Degang; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of backward harmonic radiation due to electron oscillations driven by a linearly polarized fs laser pulse are analysed considering a single electron model. The spectral distributions of the electron's backward harmonic radiation are investigated in detail for different parameters of the driver laser pulse. Higher order harmonic radiations are possible for a sufficiently intense driving laser pulse. We have shown that for a realistic pulsed photon beam, the spectrum of the radiation is red shifted as well as broadened because of changes in the longitudinal velocity of the electrons during the laser pulse. These effects are more pronounced at higher laser intensities giving rise to higher order harmonics that eventually leads to a continuous spectrum. Numerical simulations have further shown that by increasing the laser pulse width the broadening of the high harmonic radiations can be controlled

  16. Direct-Write Printing on Three-Dimensional Geometries for Miniaturized Detector and Electronic Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Beth; Samuels, Margaret; Chen, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Direct-write printing techniques will enable new detector assemblies that were not previously possible with traditional assembly processes. Detector concepts were manufactured using this technology to validate repeatability. Additional detector applications and printed wires on a 3-dimensional magnetometer bobbin will be designed for print. This effort focuses on evaluating performance for direct-write manufacturing techniques on 3-dimensional surfaces. Direct-write manufacturing has the potential to reduce mass and volume for fabrication and assembly of advanced detector concepts by reducing trace widths down to 10 microns, printing on complex geometries, allowing new electronic concept production, and reduced production times of complex those electronics.

  17. Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N

    2009-10-04

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond UV pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  18. Timing Performance of a MCP Photon Detector Read Out with Multi-Channel Electronics for the Torch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo García, L.; Fopma, J. M.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the R&D phase of the (Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light) TORCH project, 8×8 pad micro-channel plate photon detectors are being characterized. Multichannel electronics based on fast amplifier discriminator and time digitization conversion ASICs are used to read out and time the charge signals from single photoelectrons. The MCP performance is investigated with a 20ps pulsed blue laser diode. A time resolution of 90ps is achieved. Timing properties are obtained at modest MCP gain, without time walk correction and no fine calibration of the time-to-digital converter circuit. The reference time is provided by a single-channel MCP photon detector coupled to a Constant Fraction Discriminator. Photoelectron detection efficiencies and back-scattering effect are discussed together with the laser source influence on the timing performance.

  19. Temporal and lateral electron pulse compression by a compact spherical electrostatic capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P; Tromp, Rudolf M

    2013-07-01

    A novel solution for high intensity electron pulse compression in both space and time is proposed in this paper. Based on the unique properties of the central-force electrostatic field of a spherical electrostatic capacitor, the newly developed α-Spherical Deflector Analyzer (α-SDA) with 2π total deflection is utilized for the practical realization of femtosecond electron pulse compression. The mirror symmetry of the system at π deflection causes not only the cancellation of the geometrical and chromatic aberrations at 2π, but also leads to aberration-free time reversal of the electron pulse in the exit plane. As a consequence, the time-divergent electrons at the input are transformed to a time-convergent pulse at the output. In the symmetric case with the first time compression exactly at π, the shortest electron pulse behind the α-SDA analyzer is a mirror symmetric to the original electron pulse at the photocathode. It results in extremely short final electron pulses that are limited only by the duration of the laser pulse, the emittance of the electron bunch, and by imperfections of the real system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of the integration time of pulse shape analysis for dual-layer GSO detector with different amount of Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2008-01-01

    For a multi-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector using different decay times, pulse shape analysis based on two different integration times is often used to distinguish scintillators in DOI direction. This method measures a partial integration and a full integration, and calculates the ratio of these two to obtain the pulse shape distribution. The full integration time is usually set to integrate full width of the scintillation pulse. However, the optimum partial integration time is not obvious for obtaining the best separation of the pulse shape distribution. To make it clear, a theoretical analysis and experiments were conducted for pulse shape analysis by changing the partial integration time using a scintillation detector of GSOs with different amount of Ce. A scintillation detector with 1-in. round photomultiplier tube (PMT) optically coupled GSO of 1.5 mol% (decay time: 35 ns) and that of 0.5 mol% (decay time: 60 ns) was used for the experiments. The signal from PMT was digitally integrated with partial (50-150 ns) and full (160 ns) integration times and ratio of these two was calculated to obtain the pulse shape distribution. In the theoretical analysis, partial integration time of 50 ns showed largest distance between two peaks of the pulse shape distribution. In the experiments, it showed maximum at 70-80 ns of partial integration time. The peak to valley ratio showed the maximum at 120-130 ns. Because the separation of two peaks is determined by the peak to valley ratio, we conclude the optimum partial integration time for these combinations of GSOs is around 120-130 ns, relatively longer than the expected value

  1. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications. The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the

  2. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  3. A low energy, high current, pulsed electron gun for Time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Pratap; Rao, K.C.; Sule, Uday; Rodrigues, S.M.; Bhushan, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    A compact, low energy, high current pulsed electron gun specifically intended for use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers has been developed. The electron gun consists of a thoriated tungsten hairpin type filament, a wehnelt electrode, series of extracting electrodes, an x-y deflector and a set of pulsing electrodes, all mounted on a CF35 conflat flange. The electron gun delivers ∼ 1 mA of current at 70 eV, in the dc mode. The gun can be pulsed in nanosecond pulses with a repetition rate of upto 50 KHz which can be externally synchronized with conventional time-of-flight electronics. The design and performance of the electron gun over the energy range 20eV to 500 eV is presented along with the pulsing mode operation demonstrated in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. (author)

  4. The Cryogenic Anti-Coincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: pulse analysis of the AC-S7 single pixel prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Argan, A.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU): it is a TES based kilo-pixel order array able to provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background expected at L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the background level and enable the mission science goals, a Cryogenic Anticoincidence (CryoAC) detector is placed TESes. The CryoAC development schedule foresees by Q1 2017 the delivery of a Demonstration Model (DM) to the X-IFU FPA development team. The DM is a single-pixel detector that will address the final design of the CryoAC. It will verify some representative requirements at single-pixel level, especially the detector operation at 50 mK thermal bath and the threshold energy at 20 keV. To reach the final DM design we have developed and tested the AC-S7 prototype, with 1 cm2 absorber area sensed by 65 Ir TESes. Here we will discuss the pulse analysis of this detector, which has been illuminated by the 60 keV line from a 241Am source. First, we will present the analysis performed to investigate pulses timings and spectrum, and to disentangle the athermal component of the pulses from the thermal one. Furthermore, we will show the application to our dataset of an alternative method of pulse processing, based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This kind of analysis allow us to recover better energy spectra than achievable with traditional methods, improving the evaluation of the detector threshold energy, a fundamental parameter characterizing the Cryo

  5. Measurements of electron drift velocity in isobutane using the pulsed Townsend technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Lima, Iara B.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    Full text. The electron drift velocity characterizes the electric conductivity of weakly ionized gases and is one of the most important transport parameters for simulation and modeling of radiation detectors and plasma discharges. This work presents the results of electron drift velocity as a function of the reduced electric field obtained in nitrogen and isobutane by the Pulsed Townsend technique. Due to its excellent timing properties, isobutane is a common component of standard mixtures used in RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers), however, at moderate electric fields strength (50 Td 10 Ω·m). The fast electric signals generated is amplified and were digitalized in a 1 GHz bandwidth oscilloscope to measure the electrons transit time and to calculate the electron drift velocity in different gaps between anode and cathode. As the timing information presented in the fast electric signal originated in the anode is significant in our application, the amplifier circuit had to hold special features in order to preserve the signal shape. The linear amplifier used, based on the BGM1013 integrated circuit (Philips R), reaches up to 2.1 GHz bandwidth with 35.5 dB gain and was developed and built at Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particles Physics/Portugal. In order to validate this method, measurements were initially carried out in pure nitrogen, in reduced electric fields ranging from 148 to 194 Td. These results showed good agreement with those found in the literature for this largely investigated gas. The measurements of electron drift velocities in pure isobutane were performed as a function of reduced electric field from 190 to 211 Td. The results were concordant, within the experimental errors, with the values simulated by the Imonte (version 4.5) code and the data recently obtained by our group. (author)

  6. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  7. Characterisation of a MOSFET-based detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, W. L.; Ung, N. M.; Tiong, A. H. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Wong, J. H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of the MOSkin detector for megavoltage electron beam dosimetry. The reproducibility, linearity, energy dependence, dose rate dependence, depth dose measurement, output factor measurement, and surface dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam were tested. The MOSkin detector showed excellent reproducibility (>98%) and linearity (R2= 1.00) up to 2000 cGy for 4-20 MeV electron beams. The MOSkin detector also showed minimal dose rate dependence (within ±3%) and energy dependence (within ±2%) over the clinical range of electron beams, except for an energy dependence at 4 MeV electron beam. An energy dependence correction factor of 1.075 is needed when the MOSkin detector is used for 4 MeV electron beam. The output factors measured by the MOSkin detector were within ±2% compared to those measured with the EBT3 film and CC13 chamber. The measured depth doses using the MOSkin detector agreed with those measured using the CC13 chamber, except at the build-up region due to the dose volume averaging effect of the CC13 chamber. For surface dose measurements, MOSkin measurements were in agreement within ±3% to those measured using EBT3 film. Measurements using the MOSkin detector were also compared to electron dose calculation algorithms namely the GGPB and eMC algorithms. Both algorithms were in agreement with measurements to within ±2% and ±4% for output factor (except for the 4 × 4 cm2 field size) and surface dose, respectively. With the uncertainties taken into account, the MOSkin detector was found to be a suitable detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam. This has been demonstrated in the in vivo skin dose measurement on patients during electron boost to the breast tumour bed.

  8. Observation of Time-Domain Modulation of Free-Electron-Laser Pulses by Multipeaked Electron-Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Anania, M. P.; Artioli, M.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Giannessi, L.; Mostacci, A.; Musumeci, P.; Petralia, A.; Pompili, R.; Quattromini, M.; Rau, J. V.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Sabia, E.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the experimental demonstration of a new scheme for the generation of ultrashort pulse trains based on free-electron-laser (FEL) emission from a multipeaked electron energy distribution. Two electron beamlets with energy difference larger than the FEL parameter ρ have been generated by illuminating the cathode with two ps-spaced laser pulses, followed by a rotation of the longitudinal phase space by velocity bunching in the linac. The resulting self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL radiation, measured through frequency-resolved optical gating diagnostics, reveals a double-peaked spectrum and a temporally modulated pulse structure.

  9. Ignitor electrode system design for the pulses electron irradiators device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lely Susita RM; Ihwanul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The designed ignitor electrode system is a system used to initiate the plasma discharge. It consists of two pieces which are placed on both side of the plasma vessel. Each of the ignitor electrode system consists of a cathode, an anode and insulator between the cathode and the anode. The best cathode material for ignitor electrode system is Mg due to its lowest ion erosion rate (γi =11.7 μg/C) and its low cohesive energy (1.51 eV). The specifications of ignitor electrode system designed for the pulse electron irradiators is as follow: Mg cathode materials in the form of rod having a diameter of 6.35 mm and length of 76.75 mm. Anode material are made of non magnetic of SS 304 cylinder shaped with an outer diameter of 88.53 mm, an inner diameter of 81.53 mm and a thickness of 3.50 mm. Insulating material between the cathode and the anode is made of teflon cylinder shaped, outer diameter of 9.50 mm, an inner diameter of 6.35 mm and a length of 30 mm. Based on the ignitor electrode system design, the next step is construction and function test of the ignitor electrode system. (author)

  10. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

  11. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  12. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  13. Measurement of high-energy electrons by means of a Cherenkov detector in ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: lech.Jjakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The paper concerns detectors of the Cherenkov radiation which can be used to measure high-energy electrons escaping from short-living plasma. Such detectors have high temporal (about 1 ns) and spatial (about 1 mm) resolution. The paper describes a Cherenkov-type detector which was designed, manufactured and installed in the ISTTOK tokamak in order to measure fast runaway electrons. The radiator of that detector was made of an aluminium nitride (AlN) tablet with a light-tight filter on its front surface. Cherenkov signals from the radiator were transmitted through an optical cable to a fast photomultiplier. It made possible to perform direct measurements of the runaway electrons of energy above 80 keV. The measured energy values and spatial characteristics of the recorded electrons appeared to be consistent with results of numerical modelling of the runaway electron generation process in the ISTTOK tokamak.

  14. Mean secondary electron yield of avalanche electrons in the channels of a microchannel plate detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; Suszcynsky, D.M.; Harper, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    By modeling the statistical evolution of an avalanche created by 20 keV protons impacting the input surface of a z-stack microchannel plate (MCP) detector, the mean secondary electron yield γ C of avalanche electrons propagating through a MCP channel is measured to equal 1.37 for 760 V per MCP in the z stack. This value agrees with other studies that used MCP gain measurements to infer γ C . The technique described here to measure γ C is independent of gain saturation effects and simplifying assumptions used in the segmented dynode model, both of which can introduce errors when inferring γ C through gain measurements. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  16. Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Marshall, D.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Oxoby, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Suekane, F.; Toge, N.; Va'Vra, J.; Williams, S.; Wilson, R.J.; Whitaker, J.S.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Spencer, E.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Jacques, P.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Yuta, H.

    1990-10-01

    The SLD Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector use a proportional wire detector for which a single channel hybrid has been developed. It consists of a preamplifier, gain selectable amplifier, load driver amplifier, power switching, and precision calibrator. For this hybrid, a bipolar, semicustom integrated circuit has been designed which includes video operational amplifiers for two of the gain stages. This approach allows maximization of the detector volume, allows DC coupling, and enables gain selection. System tests show good noise performance, calibration precision, system linearity, and signal shape uniformity over the full dynamic range. 10 refs., 8 figs

  17. Emission and electron transitions in an atom interacting with an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Electron transitions and emission of an atom interacting with a spatially inhomogeneous ultrashort electromagnetic pulse are considered. The excitation and ionization probabilities are obtained as well as the spectra and cross sections of the reemission of such a pulse by atoms. By way of an example, one- and two-electron inelastic processes accompanying the interaction of ultrashort pulses with hydrogen- and helium-like atoms are considered. The developed technique makes it possible to take into account exactly the spatial nonuniformity of the ultrashort pulse field and photon momenta in the course of reemission

  18. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  19. Fast neutron tomography with real-time pulse-shape discrimination in organic scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Malcolm J., E-mail: m.joyce@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Agar, Stewart [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Aspinall, Michael D. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Colley, Edmund; Colling, Miriam; Dykes, Joseph; Kardasopoulos, Phoevos; Mitton, Katie [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-21

    A fast neutron tomography system based on the use of real-time pulse-shape discrimination in 7 organic liquid scintillation detectors is described. The system has been tested with a californium-252 source of dose rate 163 μSv/h at 1 m and neutron emission rate of 1.5×10{sup 7} per second into 4π and a maximum acquisition time of 2 h, to characterize two 100×100×100 mm{sup 3} concrete samples. The first of these was a solid sample and the second has a vertical, cylindrical void. The experimental data, supported by simulations with both Monte Carlo methods and MATLAB®, indicate that the presence of the internal cylindrical void, corners and inhomogeneities in the samples can be discerned. The potential for fast neutron assay of this type with the capability to probe hydrogenous features in large low-Z samples is discussed. Neutron tomography of bulk porous samples is achieved that combines effective penetration not possible with thermal neutrons in the absence of beam hardening.

  20. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  1. Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams and X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) and X-ray emission in nitrogen, as well as the transition from a single-pulse mode to a pulse-periodic mode with a high repetition frequency, was studied experimentally. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode, the full width at halfmaximum of the SAEB is larger and the decrease rate of the gap voltage is lower than those in the single-pulse mode. It is found that, when the front duration of the voltage pulse at a nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr decreases from 2.5 to 0.3 ns, the X-ray exposure dose in the pulse-periodic mode increases by more than one order of magnitude and the number of SAEB electrons also increases. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode of a diffuse discharge, gas heating in the discharge gap results in a severalfold increase in the SAEB amplitude (the number of electrons in the beam). At a generator voltage of 25 kV, nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr, and pulse repetition frequency of 3.5 kHz, a runaway electron beam was detected behind the anode foil.

  2. Electric performance of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector irradiated with 1 GeV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Wheadon, R

    2002-01-01

    The final version of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector was irradiated with 1 GeV electrons at the LINAC of the Synchrotron 'Elettra' in Trieste. The electron fluence was equivalent to the total particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation as far as the bulk damage is concerned. The anode current, the voltage distribution on the integrated divider, and the operation of the MOS injectors were tested. The detector was found to be sufficiently radiation hard for the ALICE experiment.

  3. Transient pulse analysis of ionized electronics exposed to γ-radiation generated from a relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Hong, Dongpyo; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Jungmin; Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ranajoy; Cho, Ilsung; Kim, Byungsu; Park, Chawon; Jung, Wongyun; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2018-02-01

    When a semiconductor element is irradiated with radiation in the form of a transient pulse emitted from a nuclear explosion, a large amount of charge is generated in a short time in the device. A photocurrent amplified in a certain direction by these types of charges cause the device to break down and malfunction or in extreme cases causes them to burn out. In this study, a pulse-type γ-ray generator based on a relativistic electron beam accelerator (γ=2.2, β=0.89) which functions by means of tungsten impingement was constructed and tested in an effort to investigate the process and effects of the photocurrent formed by electron hole pairs (EHP) generated in a pMOSFET device when a transient radiation pulse is incident in the device. The pulse-type γ-ray irradiating device used here to generate the electron beam current in a short time was devised to allow an increase in the irradiation dose. A precise signal processing circuit was constructed to measure the photocurrent of the small signal generated by the pMOSFET due to the electron beam accelerator pulse signal from the large noise stemming from the electromagnetic field around the relativistic electron beam accelerator. The pulse-type γ-ray generator was installed to meet the requirements of relativistic electron beam accelerators, and beam irradiation was conducted after a beam commissioning step.

  4. An Electronic Patch for Wearable Health Monitoring by Reflectance Pulse Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Duun, Sune Bro; Toft, Mette H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of an Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring. The Electronic Patch is a new health monitoring system incorporating biomedical sensors, microelectronics, radio frequency (RF) communication, and a battery embedded in a 3-dimensional hydrocolloid polymer....... In this paper the Electronic Patch is demonstrated with a new optical biomedical sensor for reflectance pulse oximetry so that the Electronic Patch in this case can measure the pulse and the oxygen saturation. The reflectance pulse oximetry solution is based on a recently developed annular backside silicon...... photodiode to enable low power consumption by the light emitting components. The Electronic Patch has a disposable part of soft adhesive hydrocolloid polymer and a reusable part of hard polylaurinlactam. The disposable part contains the battery. The reusable part contains the reflectance pulse oximetry...

  5. Generation of femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by interaction between laser and electron beam in an electron storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, T; Amano, S; Mochizuki, T; Yatsuzaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A femtosecond synchrotron radiation pulse train can be extracted from an electron storage ring by interaction between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam in an undulator. Generation system of a femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by the slicing technique was studied with numerical calculations for its performance, as applicable for the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility at LASTI. The femtosecond electron pulse, that is energy-modulated with a Ti:sapphire laser at a pulse energy of 100 mu J, a pulse width of 150 fs, and repetition frequency of 20 kHz, can be sufficiently separated in a bending magnet. A femtosecond soft x-ray pulse (the critical photon energy of 0.69 keV and a pulse width of 250 fs) is obtained with a collimator (diameter of 800 mu m phi), and it has an average brightness 3 x 10 sup 6 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 /0.1 %BW and an average photon flux 10 sup 5 photons/s/0.1 %BW. (author)

  6. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Kelley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized 4He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a 252Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the 4He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the 4He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For 252Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a 252Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  7. Proposed electronics and data acquisition system for India-based neutrino observatory detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : India-based neutrino observatory (INO) collaboration consisting of several Indian Institutions and Universities is currently involved in a feasibility study towards building a neutrino detector in India. We are currently planning for a large and modular detector consisting of 6 cm thick magnetised iron plates interleaved with glass resistive plate chambers (RPCs) used as active detector elements. Good tracking and energy resolution, accurate directionality capability and ease of construction were the parameters which have favoured choice of this type of detector. The main challenges for the design of electronics, trigger and data acquisition include sub-nano second response of the RPCs and huge number of detector channels to handle. These requirements inevitably leads to hardware designs based on high speed VLSI devices and ASICs. We present in this talk, design aspects of these systems for the prototype as well as for the final detectors

  8. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhlanov, S.V.; Bazlov, N.V.; Derbin, A.V.; Drachnev, I.S.; Kayunov, A.S.; Muratova, V.N.; Semenov, D.A.; Unzhakov, E.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  9. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  10. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-01-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun

  11. Accurate virus quantitation using a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) detector in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancett, Candace D; Fetterer, David P; Koistinen, Keith A; Morazzani, Elaine M; Monninger, Mitchell K; Piper, Ashley E; Kuehl, Kathleen A; Kearney, Brian J; Norris, Sarah L; Rossi, Cynthia A; Glass, Pamela J; Sun, Mei G

    2017-10-01

    A method for accurate quantitation of virus particles has long been sought, but a perfect method still eludes the scientific community. Electron Microscopy (EM) quantitation is a valuable technique because it provides direct morphology information and counts of all viral particles, whether or not they are infectious. In the past, EM negative stain quantitation methods have been cited as inaccurate, non-reproducible, and with detection limits that were too high to be useful. To improve accuracy and reproducibility, we have developed a method termed Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Virus Quantitation (STEM-VQ), which simplifies sample preparation and uses a high throughput STEM detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with commercially available software. In this paper, we demonstrate STEM-VQ with an alphavirus stock preparation to present the method's accuracy and reproducibility, including a comparison of STEM-VQ to viral plaque assay and the ViroCyt Virus Counter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Notification determining technical standards concerning prevention of radiation injuries by electron capture detectors for gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, the ordinance and the regulation for the execution of the law. This rule is applied to electron capture detectors for gas chromatography under the law. Basic terms are defined, such as detector radiation source, detector container and carrier gas. The detectors shall consist of detector radiation sources and containers, and the containers must be such that the radiation sources can not be easily taken away and never cause the danger to fall off. The induction and discharge mouths of the detector containers shall be shut tightly with caps, etc. The main structures and radiation sources of detectors shall be made of materials, which are difficult to corrode, and do not melt and easily cause chemical change below 800 deg. C. Detector radiation sources shall be made of metals plated with nickel 63 less than 20 milli-curie. The radiation dose rate on the surface of a detector shall be shielded to less than 0.06 milli-rem an hour. The temperature of detectors and carrier gas shall not exceed 350 deg. C. Corrosive gas shall not be used as carrier gas. The period of effective indication is 5 years. The method of washing, and the conditions of leak, heat-resistance and shock-resistance examinations are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  13. Low background-rate detector for 40-keV ions using a conversion dynode and a microchannel-plate electron multiplier to reject low-energy ions, electrons, and photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Peter G.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Michel, Maynard C.; Morris, Donald E.; Muller, Richard A.; Tans, Pieter P.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed and tested an inexpensive ion detector with dark-count rates below 10-4 s-1 and excellent background rejection. Each 40-keV ion that strikes a grazing-incidence Al2O3 conversion dynode ejects a few tens of secondary electrons, which enter separate pores of a microchannel plate and are independently multiplied to saturated pulse height. The pulses are summed to produce an output signal that is proportional to the number of secondary electrons. This permits pulse-height discrimination against backgrounds of low-energy ions, electrons, and photons. We have successfully tested the detector with C+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+ at 5-40 keV, and with 36-keV C- and CH-. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5-10 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at pressures up to at least 2×10-7 Torr and be exposed to air repeatedly without requiring reactivation. The maximum ion count rate is 3×106 s-1 in pulse-counting mode and 6×109 s-1 in current-integrating mode. Detection of 40-keV ions at rates below 10-2 s-1 was required in development of a 10-cm radius 40-keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). In the cyclotron, the detector suppresses to 6×10-4 s-1 the background count rate from the presence of low-energy ions, photons, and electrons.

  14. Implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states in pulsed-power discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    1997-01-01

    The author points out the possible implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules in two pulsed power technologies. One involves the pulsed H 2 discharges used for the generation of H ion beams for magnetic fusion energy and particle accelerators. The other is the power modulated plasma discharges used for material processing

  15. The EMP excitation of radiation by the pulsed relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakirev, V.A.; Sidelnikov, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of excitation of ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses (EMP) by short pulses of high-current relativistic electron beams were proposed and investigated. It is shown that the transformation efficiency of the bunch kinetic energy to the excited energy of the EMP can be very significant. (author). 2 figs., 4 refs

  16. Sub-nanosecond pulse modulation of a triode electron gun at 25 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meddens, B. J. H.; van de Pol, M.J.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Although the electron injection system of the infrared free electron laser FELIX permits a high electron bunch repetition frequency of 1 GHz, user experiments often require a lower frequency. At the same time, the pulses from the gun have to be sufficiently short to fit within the longitudinal

  17. Imaging and Spectroscopic Sensing with Low-Repetition-Rate Terahertz Pulses and GaN TeraFET Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Daniel; Zouaghi, Wissem; Jamshidifar, Mehran; Boppel, Sebastian; McDonnell, Cormac; Bain, James R. P.; Hempler, Nils; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.; Maker, Gareth T.; Bauer, Maris; Lisauskas, Alvydas; Rämer, Adam; Shevchenko, Sergey A.; Heinrich, Wolfgang; Krozer, Viktor; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2018-03-01

    Aiming for non-destructive testing and security applications, we investigate transmission-mode imaging and spectroscopic sensing using terahertz (THz) pulses from a commercial optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in combination with THz detectors based on antenna-coupled field-effect transistors (TeraFETs). The Q-switched OPO generates quasi-continuous-wave THz pulses with a peak power of up to 1 W at a repetition rate between 12 and 90 Hz. The pulses are frequency-tunable between 0.7 and 2.6 THz with a typical linewidth of 50 GHz. We explore detection with fast GaN/AlGaN TeraFETs which hold the potential for multi-pixel and homodyne detection.

  18. Numerical Investigation on Electron and Ion Transmission of GEM-based Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, Saikat; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Majumdar, Nayana; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik

    2018-02-01

    ALICE at the LHC is planning a major upgrade of its detector systems, including the TPC, to cope with an increase of the LHC luminosity after 2018. Different R&D activities are currently concentrated on the adoption of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The major challenge is to have low ion feedback in the drift volume as well as to ensure a collection of good percentage of primary electrons in the signal generation process. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been adopted to numerically estimate the electron transparency and ion backflow fraction of GEM-based detectors. In this process, extensive simulations have been carried out to enrich our understanding of the complex physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. A detailed study has been performed to observe the effect of detector geometry, field configuration and magnetic field on the above mentioned characteristics.

  19. Electron drift time in silicon drift detectors: A technique for high precision measurement of electron drift mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a precise absolute measurement of the drift velocity and mobility of electrons in high resistivity silicon at room temperature. The electron velocity is obtained from the differential measurement of the drift time of an electron cloud in a silicon drift detector. The main features of the transport scheme of this class of detectors are: the high uniformity of the electron motion, the transport of the signal electrons entirely contained in the high-purity bulk, the low noise timing due to the very small anode capacitance (typical value 100 fF), and the possibility to measure different drift distances, up to the wafer diameter, in the same semiconductor sample. These features make the silicon drift detector an optimal device for high precision measurements of carrier drift properties. The electron drift velocity and mobility in a 10 kΩ cm NTD n-type silicon wafer have been measured as a function of the electric field in the range of possible operation of a typical drift detector (167--633 V/cm). The electron ohmic mobility is found to be 1394 cm 2 /V s. The measurement precision is better than 1%. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Femtosecond X-ray Pulses from a Spatially Chirped Electron Bunch in a SASE FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P.

    2003-01-14

    We propose a simple method to produce short x-ray pulses using a spatially chirped electron bunch in a SASE FEL. The spatial chirp is generated using an rf deflector which produces a transverse offset (in y and/or y') correlated with the longitudinal bunch position. Since the FEL gain is very sensitive to an initial offset in the transverse phase space at the entrance of the undulator, only a small portion of the electron bunch with relatively small transverse offset will interact significantly with the radiation, resulting in an x-ray pulse length much shorter than the electron bunch length. The x-ray pulse is also naturally phase locked to the rf deflector and so allows high precision timing synchronization. We discuss the generation and transport of such a spatially chirped electron beam and show that tens of femtosecond long pulse can be generated for the linac coherent light source (LCLS).

  1. Abnormal electron-heating mode and formation of secondary-energetic electrons in pulsed microwave-frequency atmospheric microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H. C.; Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. Y.; Won, I. H.; Lee, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of secondary energetic electrons induced by an abnormal electron-heating mode in pulsed microwave-frequency atmospheric microplasmas was investigated using particle-in-cell simulation. We found that additional high electron heating only occurs during the first period of the ignition phase after the start of a second pulse at sub-millimeter dimensions. During this period, the electrons are unable to follow the abruptly retreating sheath through diffusion alone. Thus, a self-consistent electric field is induced to drive the electrons toward the electrode. These behaviors result in an abnormal electron-heating mode that produces high-energy electrons at the electrode with energies greater than 50 eV

  2. Monitoring of energetic characteristics of electron beams during formation of high-power pulsed bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaschenko, D.M.; Mordasov, N.G.; Chlenov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring the dynamic and integrated characteristics of high-power electron and bremsstrahlung beams of the pulse accelerators are proposed. The transfer functions for various types of a target in operating conditions of the pulse accelerator UIN-10 are presented. Possibilities if the integrated diagnostics of acceleration rate of the electron beams with simultaneous testing of the bremsstrahlung parameters as a local field point beyond the converting target are shown [ru

  3. Measurements of electron drift velocity in isobutane using the pulsed Townsend technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Lima, Iara B.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The electron drift velocity characterizes the electric conductivity of weakly ionized gases and is one of the most important transport parameters for simulation and modeling of radiation detectors and plasma discharges. This work presents the results of electron drift velocity as a function of the reduced electric field obtained in nitrogen and isobutane by the Pulsed Townsend technique. Due to its excellent timing properties, isobutane is a common component of standard mixtures used in RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers), however, at moderate electric fields strength (50 Td <= E/N <= 200 Td), there are insufficient data available in literature for this gas. In our experimental apparatus, electrons are liberated from an aluminum cathode (40mm diameter) due to the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) and are accelerated by the applied electric field toward the anode, made of a high resistivity glass (2 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}m). The fast electric signals generated is amplified and were digitalized in a 1 GHz bandwidth oscilloscope to measure the electrons transit time and to calculate the electron drift velocity in different gaps between anode and cathode. As the timing information presented in the fast electric signal originated in the anode is significant in our application, the amplifier circuit had to hold special features in order to preserve the signal shape. The linear amplifier used, based on the BGM1013 integrated circuit (Philips R), reaches up to 2.1 GHz bandwidth with 35.5 dB gain and was developed and built at Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particles Physics/Portugal. In order to validate this method, measurements were initially carried out in pure nitrogen, in reduced electric fields ranging from 148 to 194 Td. These results showed good agreement with those found in the literature for this largely investigated gas. The measurements of electron drift velocities in pure isobutane were performed as a function

  4. Low energy electron imaging using Medipix 2 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikharulidze, I.; van Gastel, Raoul; Schramm, S.; Abrahams, J.P.; Poelsema, Bene; Tromp, R.M.; van der Molen, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) and Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) predominantly use a combination of microchannel plate (MCP), phosphor screen and optical camera to record images formed by 10–20 keV electrons. We have tested the performance of a LEEM/PEEM instrument with a Medipix2

  5. A low-jitter pulse generator for a Van de Graaff electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, E.

    The design of a new pulse generator used to drive the electron gun of a Van de Graaff accelerator is described. It consists of a pulse amplifier and a remote control unit. Both units are interconnected by means of two fiber optic cables by which the beam pulse parameters, i.e. pulse start, duration and amplitude, are conveyed. The duration and the amplitude are continuously variable from 2 ns to 1 μs and from 0 to 1.5 A, respectively. The overall time jitter is about 1 ns.

  6. Pulsed laser processing of electronic materials in micro/nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David Jen

    2005-08-01

    Time-resolved pump-and-probe side-view imaging has been performed to investigate the energy coupling to the target specimen over a wide range of fluences. Plasmas generated during the laser ablation process are visualized and the decrease of the ablation efficiency in the high fluence regime (>10 J/cm2) is attributed to the strong interaction of the laser pulse with the laser-induced plasmas. The high intensity ultra-short laser pulses also trigger volumetric multi-photon absorption (MPA) processes that can be beneficial in applications such as three-dimensional bulk modification of transparent materials. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to fabricate straight and bent through-channels in the optical glass. Drilling was initiated from the rear surface to preserve consistent absorbing conditions of the laser pulse. Machining in the presence of a liquid solution assisted the debris ejection. Drilling process was further enhanced by introducing ultrasonic waves, thereby increasing the aspect ratio of drilled holes and improving the quality of the holes. In conventional lens focusing schemes, the minimum feature size is determined by the diffraction limit. Finer resolution is accomplished by combining pulsed laser radiation with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) probes. Short laser pulses are coupled to a fiber-based NSOM probes in order to ablate thin metal films. A detailed parametric study on the effects of probe aperture size, laser pulse energy, temporal width and environment gas is performed. The significance of lateral thermal diffusion is highlighted and the dependence of the ablation process on the imparted near-field distribution is revealed. As a promising application of laser ablation in nanoscale, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system has been built up based on NSOM ablation configuration. NSOM-LIBS is demonstrated with nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on Cr sample. Far-field collecting scheme by top objective lens was chosen as

  7. Peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame

  8. The electronics and data acquisition system for the DarkSide-50 veto detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    DarkSide-50 is a detector for dark matter candidates in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. It utilizes a liquid argon time projection chamber for the inner main detector, surrounded by a liquid scintillator veto (LSV) and a water Cherenkov veto detector (WCV). The LSV and WCV act as the neutron and cosmogenic muon veto detectors for DarkSide-50. This paper describes the electronics and data acquisition system used for these two detectors. The system is made of a custom built front end electronics and commercial National Instruments high speed digitizers. The front end electronics, the DAQ, and the trigger system have been used to acquire data in the form of zero-suppressed waveform samples from the 110 PMTs of the LSV and the 80 PMTs of the WCV. The veto DAQ system has proven its performance and reliability. This electronics and DAQ system can be scaled and used as it is for the veto of the next generation DarkSide-20k detector. Abstract (arXiv)

  9. Overview of the data acquisition electronics system design for the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    The SLD Detector will contain five major electronics subsystems: Vertex, Drift, Liquid Argon Calorimeter, Cerenkov Ring Imaging, and Warm Iron Calorimeter. To implement the approximately 170,000 channels of electronics, extensive miniaturization and heavy use of multiplexing techniques are required. Design criteria for each subsystem, overall system architecture, and the R and D program are described

  10. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  11. Electronics of the data acquisition system of the DANSS detector based on silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirida, D.

    2018-01-01

    The electronics of the data acquisition system based on silicon photomultipliers is briefly described. The elements and modules of the system were designed and constructed at ITEP especially for the DANSS detector. Examples of digitized signals obtained with the presented electronic modules and selected results on processing of the DANSS engineering data-taking run in spring 2016 are given.

  12. Application of Faraday cup array detector in measurement of electron-beam distribution homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiguo; Wang Jinchuan; Xiao Guoqing; Guo Zhongyan; Wu Lijie; Mao Ruishi; Zhang Li

    2005-01-01

    It is described that a kind of Faraday cup array detector, which consists of Faraday cup, suppressor electrode insulation PCB board, Base etc. The homogeneity of electron-beam distribution is measured and the absorbed dose for the irradiated sample is calculated. The results above provide the important parameters for the irradiation experiment and the improvement for the quality of electron beam. (authors)

  13. Studying discharges in the Gas Electron Multiplies in Alice Detector

    CERN Document Server

    EُlGedawy, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing discharges is very important in the operation of the GEM detector. Once the discharges happen, a current will go through the GEM, the voltages across the GEM foils sides drop, charge amplification cannot take place anymore, resulting in a loss of signal. So the goal is to understand how the discharges evolve and propagate, in order to find requirements on the voltage settings, which allow to decrease the discharge probability.

  14. Calibration of electrons and photons with the ATLAS detector, and its impact on ATLAS precision measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Becot, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A precise energy calibration of electrons and photons is a key ingredient to many measurements performed with the ATLAS detector, such as the measurement of the Higgs boson mass. An improved calibration scheme is based on corrections derived from collision data, multivariant algorithms for the energy reconstruction and finally electrons from Z boson decays to set the absolute energy scale. Studies of the longitudinal shape of electromagnetic showers also lead to an improved detector material simulation. The calibration is checked with electrons from J/psi decays and photons from radiative photon decays. This contribution will describe the calibration scheme and the cross checks and the impact on ATLAS measurements.

  15. Electron performance measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; 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Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; 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Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; 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Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; 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Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-03-09

    Detailed measurements of the electron performance of the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported, using decays of the Z, W and J/psi particles. Data collected in 2010 at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of almost 40 pb^-1. The inter-alignment of the inner detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter, the determination of the electron energy scale and resolution, and the performance in terms of response uniformity and linearity are discussed. The electron identification, reconstruction and trigger efficiencies, as well as the charge misidentification probability, are also presented.

  16. Integral-equation based methods for parameter estimation in output pulses of radiation detectors: Application in nuclear medicine and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian-Behbahani, Mohammad-Reza; Saramad, Shahyar

    2018-04-01

    Model based analysis methods are relatively new approaches for processing the output data of radiation detectors in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy. A class of such methods requires fast algorithms for fitting pulse models to experimental data. In order to apply integral-equation based methods for processing the preamplifier output pulses, this article proposes a fast and simple method for estimating the parameters of the well-known bi-exponential pulse model by solving an integral equation. The proposed method needs samples from only three points of the recorded pulse as well as its first and second order integrals. After optimizing the sampling points, the estimation results were calculated and compared with two traditional integration-based methods. Different noise levels (signal-to-noise ratios from 10 to 3000) were simulated for testing the functionality of the proposed method, then it was applied to a set of experimental pulses. Finally, the effect of quantization noise was assessed by studying different sampling rates. Promising results by the proposed method endorse it for future real-time applications.

  17. Energy loss from an electron pulse in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, W.W.; Aitken, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Upper and lower bounds are presented for the rate of energy loss by a high intensity Gaussian pulse of finite length propagating in a cold dense homogeneous plasma. For sufficiently high plasma conductivity these bounds coalesce yielding an explicit expression for the dissipated power. (author)

  18. Long-pulse high-power VUV molecular F2 laser pumped by a beam of relativistic electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.J.M.; Lankhorst, Frank T.; Lankhorst, F.T.J.L.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Botma, H.; Botma, Hako; Witteman, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A long pulse molecular F2 laser ((lambda) equals 157 nm) with an optical pulse width of 160 ns and an output energy of 1.7 J (4.6 MW/cm2) pumped by an electron beam has been realized. The only restriction for the optical pulse width of the laser seems to be the duration of the excitation pulse. No

  19. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  20. Pulse radiolysis with (sub) nanosecond time resolution using a 3 MV electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthjens, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the development of equipment for pulse radiolysis is described and the application of the technique to time-resolved measurements of the fluorescence emission of excited states formed after irradiation of some alkanes is dealt with. A review is given of the development of the pulsed 3MV Van de Graaf electron accelerator for the generation of subnanosecond electron beam pulses and of the development of the equipment for optical detection as accomplished by the author. The initial stage of a further development for shorter pulses and higher time resolution is briefly discussed. A collection of papers on the development of apparatus and a collection of papers dealing with the results obtained from measurements of the fluorescence of excited states, formed by the recombination of electrons and ions in irradiated alkanes such as cyclohexane and the decalines, are included. (Auth.)

  1. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanney, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  2. Introduction to powering schemes for the CLIC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, G

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC detector designs together with the CLIC beam properties impose strong constraints in terms of power distribution for the front-end electronics. The definition of periodic active and idle times in the detector operation allows implementing a pulsed powering scheme that will result in a significant reduction of dissipated power. This note provides an introduction to the different power pulsing schemes applicable to the CLIC detectors electronics.

  3. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-04-19

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures.

  4. Energy-dependent dead-time correction in digital pulse processors applied to silicon drift detector's X-ray spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Suelen F; Vanin, Vito R; Malafronte, Alexandre A; Maidana, Nora L; Martins, Marcos N

    2018-03-01

    Dead-time effects in X-ray spectra taken with a digital pulse processor and a silicon drift detector were investigated when the number of events at the low-energy end of the spectrum was more than half of the total, at counting rates up to 56 kHz. It was found that dead-time losses in the spectra are energy dependent and an analytical correction for this effect, which takes into account pulse pile-up, is proposed. This and the usual models have been applied to experimental measurements, evaluating the dead-time fraction either from the calculations or using the value given by the detector acquisition system. The energy-dependent dead-time model proposed fits accurately the experimental energy spectra in the range of counting rates explored in this work. A selection chart of the simplest mathematical model able to correct the pulse-height distribution according to counting rate and energy spectrum characteristics is included.

  5. An Improved Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 370 kg (250 kg active mass) two-_phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The first absolute charge (Qy) and light (Ly) measurement performed in situ in the LUX detector with a D-D calibration technique for nuclear recoil spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV respectively have been reported in. The D-D calibration has subsequently been further improved by incorporating pulsing technique, i.e. the D-D neutron production is concentrated within narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz) with the timing information recorded. This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. Brown University, Large Underground Xenon(LUX) Collaboration.

  6. Monte Carlo Simulations of Signal Electrons Collection Efficiency and Development of New Detectors for ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Konvalina, Ivo; Oral, Martin; Hudec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1109-1110 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : MC simulations * ESEM * detectors * ionisation detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  7. Directional Sensitivity in Light-Mass Dark Matter Searches with Single-Electron-Resolution Ionization Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadribasic, Fedja; Mirabolfathi, Nader; Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Holmström, Eero; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2018-03-01

    We propose a method using solid state detectors with directional sensitivity to dark matter interactions to detect low-mass weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) originating from galactic sources. In spite of a large body of literature for high-mass WIMP detectors with directional sensitivity, no available technique exists to cover WIMPs in the mass range <1 GeV /c2 . We argue that single-electron-resolution semiconductor detectors allow for directional sensitivity once properly calibrated. We examine the commonly used semiconductor material response to these low-mass WIMP interactions.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Segmented Detector for Low-Energy Electron Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomi, H. Akhtari; Safari, M. J.; Davani, F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Detection of low-energy electron antineutrinos is of importance for several purposes, such as ex-vessel reactor monitoring, neutrino oscillation studies, etc. The inverse beta decay (IBD) is the interaction that is responsible for detection mechanism in (organic) plastic scintillation detectors. Here, a detailed study will be presented dealing with the radiation and optical transport simulation of a typical segmented antineutrino detector withMonte Carlo method using MCNPX and FLUKA codes. This study shows different aspects of the detector, benefiting from inherent capabilities of the Monte Carlo simulation codes.

  9. Pulsed Electron Beam Spectroscopy for Temperature Measurements in Hypersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Collisional Quenching Data ............................................ 26 C. Improvements to Pulsed E-Beam System...neutral g informati vibrationa The e-be flow m e Developm Shock T applicatio employs continuo mtorr are of an e-beam g the elect are acce through...the f irst two advantages result in improved signal/noise ratio over continuous e-beam systems and a shorter exposure time. The third advantage of a

  10. Research of pulse formation neutron detector efficiency by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianmin; Deng Li; Xie Zhongsheng; Yu Weidong; Zhong Zhenqian

    2001-01-01

    A study on detection efficiency of the neutron detector used in oil logging by Monte Carlo method is presented. Detection efficiency of the thermal and epithermal neutron detectors used in oil logging was calculated by Monte Carlo method using the MCNP code. The calculation results were satisfactory

  11. Instantaneous nonvertical electronic transitions with shaped femtosecond laser pulses: Is it possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2003-01-01

    In molecular electronic transitions, a vertical transition can be induced by an ultrashort laser pulse. That is, a replica of the initial nuclear state-times the transition dipole moment of the electronic transition-can be created instantaneously (on the time scale of nuclear motion) in the excited...

  12. Experiments on Ion Beam Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1998-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated by electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. A charge enhancement factor of four has been achieved by neutralization with pulsed electron beams for Al7+ ions generated from an aluminium target.

  13. Photon and electron identification with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00431162; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background, originating mostly from photons from hadron decays, relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification is based on a likelihood discriminant to separate isolated electron from background electron originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavour decays. Additionally, isolation variables provide further handles to separate signal and background. The measurements of the efficiencies of the electron and photon identification and isolation selections are performed with data. Tag and probe techniques are used with Z$\\rightarrow$ee, J/$\\psi$ $\\rightarrow$ee and Z$\\rightarrow$l l$\\gamma$ decays. Inclusive photon samples are also used to measure photon identification efficiency.\\\\ The results of these measurement with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 at $\\sqrt {s}$ = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$, are presented. as well as a first look at 201...

  14. The Boersch effect in a picosecond pulsed electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Makoto, E-mail: kuwahara@imass.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ujihara, Toru; Saitoh, Koh [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nambo, Yoshito; Aoki, Kota; Sameshima, Kensuke; Asano, Hidefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Jin, Xiuguang [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Yoshikazu [Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center, Seto 489-0965 (Japan); Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, Nagoya 460-0008 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuo [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-07-04

    The space charge effect has been clearly observed in the energy distributions of picosecond pulse beams from a spin-polarized electron microscope, and was found to depend upon the quantity of charge per pulse. The non-linear phenomena associated with this effect have also been replicated in beam simulations that take into account of a three-dimensional space charge. The results show that a charge of 500 aC/pulse provides the highest brightness with a 16-ps pulse duration, a 30-keV beam energy, and an emission spot of 1.8 μm. Furthermore, the degeneracy of the wave packet of the pulsed electron beam has been evaluated to be 1.6 × 10{sup −5} with a charge of 100 aC/pulse, which is higher than that for a continuously emitted electron beam despite the low beam energy of 30 keV. The high degeneracy and high brightness contribute to the realization of high temporal and energy resolutions in low-voltage electron microscopy, which will serve to reduce radiolysis damage and enhance scattering contrast.

  15. Feasibility of conversion electron spectrometry using a Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perajarvi, K.; Turunen, J.; Ihantola, S.; Pollanen, R.; Siiskonen, T.; Toivonen, H.; Kamarainen, V.; Pomme, S.

    2014-01-01

    A Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector was successfully applied for conversion electron spectrometry. The energy resolution of the detector for 45 keV electrons was 0.50 keV (FWHM). The approximate thickness of the dead layer was determined to be 140 ± 20 nm Si equivalent. The relative efficiency of the detector was verified to be approximately constant in the energy range of 17-75 keV. This is concordant with the high transparency of the thin dead layer and the sufficient thickness of the detector (450 μm) to stop the electrons. The detector is suitable for use in plutonium analysis of chemically prepared samples. Moreover, it was demonstrated that conversion electron spectrometry is better than alpha spectrometry in preserving its capability to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratio as a function of sample thickness. The investigated measurement technique can be considered a promising new tool in safeguards, complementary to existing methods. (author)

  16. Ring recognition and electron identification in the RICH detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S; Hoehne, C; Ososkov, G

    2010-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR facility at Darmstadt will measure dileptons emitted from the hot and dense phase in heavy-ion collisions. In case of an electron measurement, a high purity of identified electrons is required in order to suppress the background. Electron identification in CBM will be performed by a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector and Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). In this contribution we will present algorithms and software which have been developed for electron identification in CBM. Efficient and fast ring recognition in the RICH detector is based on the Hough Transform method which has been accelerated considerably compared to a standard implementation. Ring quality selection is done using an Artificial Neural Network which also has been used for electron identification. Due to optical distortions ellipse fitting and radius corre ction routines are used for improved ring radius resolution. These methods allow for a high purity and efficiency of reconstructed electron rings. For momenta above 2 GeV/c the ring reconstruction efficiency for electrons embedded in central Au+Au collisions at 25 AGeV beam energy is 95% resulting in an electron identification efficiency of 90% at a pion suppression factor of 500. Including information from the TRD a pion suppression of 10 4 is reached at 80% efficiency. The developed algorithm is very robust to a high ring density environment. Current work focusses on detector layout studies in order to optimize the detector setup while keeping a high performance. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and are included into the CBM software framework for common use.

  17. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode and/or with gas amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and cetera. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification. . To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of 1. The second type alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10E4). A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as comparison with the commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible ap...

  18. LHCb: FPGA-based, radiation-tolerant on-detector electronics for the upgrade of the LHCb Outer Tracker Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Vink, W

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment studies B-decays at the LHC. The Outer Tracker straw tubes detects charged decay particles. The on-detector electronics will be upgraded to be able to digitize and transmit drift-times at every LHC crossing without the need for a hardware trigger. FPGAs have been preferred to application-specific integrated circuits to implement dead-time free TDCs, able to transmit data volumes of up to 36 Gbits/s per readout unit, including the possibility of performing zero suppression. Extensive irradiation tests have been carried out to validate the usage of field-programmable devices in the hostile environment of the LHCb tracking system.

  19. An efficient digital phase sensitive detector for use in electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vistnes, A.I; Wormald, D.I.; Isachsen, S.

    1983-10-01

    A digital sensitive detector for a modified Bruker electron spin resonance spectrometer, equipped with an Aspect 2000 minicomputer, is described. Magnetic field modulation is derived from a clock in the computer, which makes it possible to perform the data acquisition fully synchronously with the modulation. The resulting high phase accuracy makes it possible to compress the data to a single modulation period before the Fourier transformation. Both the in-phase and the phase-quadrature signals (of the first or second harmonic) are recorded simultaneously. The system makes the data processing, including the Fourier transformation, approximately 1000 times faster than previously reported digital phase sensitive detector systems for electron spin resonance spectrometers

  20. An Efficient Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination Technique for Scintillation Detectors Based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Different techniques for pulse discrimination (PSD) of the scintillation pulses have been developed. The PSD of scintillation pulese can been used in several applications as Positron Emission Topography (PET) system. Each technique analyzes the resulting pulses from the absorption of radiation in the scintillation pulses were filtered and digitized then it is captured using DAQ, and it sent to the host computer for processing. The spatial resolution of images that generated in PET system can be improved by applying the proposed PSD. In this thesis various digital PSD techniques are proposed to discriminate the scintillation pulses. These techniques are based on discrete sine transform (DST). discrete cosine transform (DCT). Discrete hartley transform (DHT), Discrete Goertzel transform (DGT),and principal component analysis (PCA). Then the output coefficients of the discrete transforms are classified using one of the following classifiers T-test,tuned, or support vector machine (SVM).

  1. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V

    2002-01-01

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  2. Production and utilization of synchronized femtosecond electron and laser single pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.; Nakajima, K.; Kotaki, H.; Ogata, A.

    1997-01-01

    A subpicosecond (700 fs at FWHM) electron pulse from the S-band (2.856 GHz) linear accelerator (linac) of the NERL (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory) was synchronized with a femtosecond (100 fs at FWHM) laser pulse from a T 3 (table-top terawatts) laser with a picosecond time whose standard deviation is 3.7 ps. Then we generated a picosecond characteristic X-ray pulse by irradiating through the electron pulse a Cu target (Kα, 8.1 keV, 1.54 A) and obstained the Bragg diffraction from a NaCl ionic monocrystal using a high sensitivity X-ray imaging plate. Further, we discuss its applications to observe lattice vibration of the monocrystal by using the synchronized laser (pump) and X-ray (probe). (orig.)

  3. Space charge effects and aberrations on electron pulse compression in a spherical electrostatic capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Li, Haibo; Wan, Weishi; Wei, Zheng; Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P; Tromp, Rudolf M; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2017-12-01

    The effects of space charge, aberrations and relativity on temporal compression are investigated for a compact spherical electrostatic capacitor (α-SDA). By employing the three-dimensional (3D) field simulation and the 3D space charge model based on numerical General Particle Tracer and SIMION, we map the compression efficiency for a wide range of initial beam size and single-pulse electron number and determine the optimum conditions of electron pulses for the most effective compression. The results demonstrate that both space charge effects and aberrations prevent the compression of electron pulses into the sub-ps region if the electron number and the beam size are not properly optimized. Our results suggest that α-SDA is an effective compression approach for electron pulses under the optimum conditions. It may serve as a potential key component in designing future time-resolved electron sources for electron diffraction and spectroscopy experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudo-random generator to allow to an electronic pulse simulator the ability to emulate radioisotopes spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucianna F A; Carrillo M A; Mangussi M J

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a pseudo-random system to provide to a simulator pulse of radiation detectors the ability to emit pulses patterns similar to those recorded when measuring actual radioisotope. The idea is that the system can emulate characteristic spectral distributions of known radioisotopes, as well as creating individual spectra for specific purposes. This design is based on an improvement in terms of software from earlier development that only supplied predefined amplitude pulses at constant intervals (author)

  5. Calibration of a detector by activation with a continuous neutron source used as a transfer standard for measuring pulsed neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Jose; Silva, Patricio; Birstein, Lipo; Soto, Leopoldo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calibrating activation detectors. These detectors will be used as transfer standard in measuring neutron fluxes produced by pulsed plasma sources. A standard neutron source is used as a secondary standard. The activation detector is being shielded in order to substantially reduce detection of gamma emission coming from the source. The detector's calibration factor is obtained by considering also the standard neutron source as a free source of gamma radiation so that the measurements can be done without quickly withdrawing the neutron source as it is usually done. This will substantially simplify the traditionally established method (JM)

  6. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Manzoni, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electron and photon is paramount for many ATLAS physics analysis. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed in-situ using a large statistics of Z->ee events. The results obtained with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1 and 2.7 fb-1 respectively , as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented.

  7. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00436885; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electrons and photons is paramount for many ATLAS physics analyses. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed $in$-$situ$ using a large statistics of $Z \\rightarrow ee$ events. The results obtained with the $pp$ collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ and 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ respectively, as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented

  8. Comparison of optimal performance at 300 keV of three direct electron detectors for use in low dose electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullan, G.; Faruqi, A.R.; Clare, D.; Henderson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Low dose electron imaging applications such as electron cryo-microscopy are now benefitting from the improved performance and flexibility of recently introduced electron imaging detectors in which electrons are directly incident on backthinned CMOS sensors. There are currently three commercially available detectors of this type: the Direct Electron DE-20, the FEI Falcon II and the Gatan K2 Summit. These have different characteristics and so it is important to compare their imaging properties carefully with a view to optimise how each is used. Results at 300 keV for both the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented. Of these, the DQE is the most important in the study of radiation sensitive samples where detector performance is crucial. We find that all three detectors have a better DQE than film. The K2 Summit has the best DQE at low spatial frequencies but with increasing spatial frequency its DQE falls below that of the Falcon II. - Highlights: • Three direct electron detectors offer better DQE than film at 300 keV. • Recorded 300 keV electron events on the detectors have very similar Landau distributions. • The Gatan K2 Summit detector has the highest DQE at low spatial frequency. • The FEI Falcon II detector has the highest DQE beyond one half the Nyquist frequency. • The Direct Electron DE-20 detector has the fastest data acquisition rate

  9. Comparison of optimal performance at 300 keV of three direct electron detectors for use in low dose electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, G., E-mail: gm2@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Faruqi, A.R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Clare, D. [Crystallography and Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Henderson, R. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Low dose electron imaging applications such as electron cryo-microscopy are now benefitting from the improved performance and flexibility of recently introduced electron imaging detectors in which electrons are directly incident on backthinned CMOS sensors. There are currently three commercially available detectors of this type: the Direct Electron DE-20, the FEI Falcon II and the Gatan K2 Summit. These have different characteristics and so it is important to compare their imaging properties carefully with a view to optimise how each is used. Results at 300 keV for both the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented. Of these, the DQE is the most important in the study of radiation sensitive samples where detector performance is crucial. We find that all three detectors have a better DQE than film. The K2 Summit has the best DQE at low spatial frequencies but with increasing spatial frequency its DQE falls below that of the Falcon II. - Highlights: • Three direct electron detectors offer better DQE than film at 300 keV. • Recorded 300 keV electron events on the detectors have very similar Landau distributions. • The Gatan K2 Summit detector has the highest DQE at low spatial frequency. • The FEI Falcon II detector has the highest DQE beyond one half the Nyquist frequency. • The Direct Electron DE-20 detector has the fastest data acquisition rate.

  10. Electron emission from a metal nano-tip by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, G; Lemell, C; Burgdörfer, J

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the interaction of near-infrared few cycle laser pulses of moderate intensity with nano-scale metal tips. Macroscopic field enhancement leads to coherent electron emission from the tip apex. Electron spectra are simulated with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We investigate the dependence of the simulated electron spectra on the choice of exchange-correlation potential and atomic core pseudo-potential.

  11. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitive compounds by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhihua; Yao Side; Li Hucheng; Lin Nianyun; Jin Yizun

    1994-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E 7 1 ) is one of the important parameters of radiosensitive compound with high electron affinity. In this work one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitizers, such as Miso, 911, CMNa, SMU-1, SMU-2, SMD, SNN, S 3 and BSO, were determined pulse radiolytically by using anthraquinone-2-sulfate (AQS), duroquinone (DQ) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) as references

  12. Efficient electron beam deposition for repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeler, F.; Myers, M.C.; Friedman, M.; Sethian, J.D.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have demonstrated that we can significantly increase the electron beam transmission efficiency through a pressure foil structure (hibachi) by segmenting the beam into strips to miss the hibachi support ribs. In order to increase the electron beam transmission, the cathode strips are adjusted to compensate for beam rotation and pinching. The beam propagation through the hibachi has been both measured and simulated with 1-D and 3-D codes

  13. Production and application of pulsed slow-positron beam using an electron LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    1997-03-01

    Slow-positron beam is quite useful for non-destructive material research. At the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), an intense slow positron beam line by exploiting an electron linac has been constructed in order to carry out various experiments on material analysis. The beam line can generates pulsed positron beams of variable energy and of variable pulse period. Many experiments have been carried out so far with the beam line. In this paper, various capability of the intense pulsed positron beam is presented, based on the experience at the ETL, and the prospect for the future is discussed. (author)

  14. Picosecond stability of injection of parallel high-current pulsed electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalandin, M. I.; Reutova, A. G.; Ul'Maskulov, M. R.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Klimov, A. I.; Rostov, V. V.; Mesyats, G. A.

    2009-09-01

    The stability of operation of parallel explosive-emission cathodes driven by a split high-voltage pulse with a subnanosecond leading front has been studied. It is established that, upon the training of graphite cathodes in vacuum with up to ˜104 pulses, the current pulse fronts of injected high-current electron beams exhibit a mutual temporal dispersion not exceeding ten picoseconds. The dynamics of this parameter during the training stage, the variation of the absolute spread, and the growth of a relative delay of the moments of beam injection have been investigated.

  15. Electron Reconstruction and Identification with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kerschen, N

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the reconstruction of electrons will be one of the key issues at the start-up of data-taking with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2009. The energy measurement of electrons is based on the electromagnetic calorimetry over most of the relevant energy range (5 GeV to a few TeV). The electromagnetic calorimeter cluster algorithm starts from electronically calibrated calorimeter cells where local position and energy variations are then corrected for. A refined calibration procedure, developed and validated over years of test-beam data-taking and analysis, strives to identify all sources of energy losses upstream of the calorimeter and outside the cluster and corrects for them one by one (using Monte-Carlo). To achieve this, the material in front of the calorimeter will have to be mapped out precisely using other methods. The electron identification is based on the shower shapes in the calorimeter and relies on the tracker and combined tracker/calo information to achieve the required rejecti...

  16. Neutrino-electron scattering at LAMPF: Large Cherenkov detector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to measure neutrino-electron scattering is described. The neutrinos are generated in a beam stop from 800 MeV protons at LAMPF. The expected precision on sin 2 θ/sub w/ is 1%. The experiment also gives stringent hints on neutrino oscillations and is sensitive to neutrinos from supernova collapse. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Novel detectors and algorithms for electron nano-crystallography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Eric van

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, advances in structure determination with electron microscopy of organic, beam sensitive, materials have been significant. The newly developed techniques, triggered by new microscope systems and new cameras, made it possible to acquire 3D structural information from these samples

  18. Electron Reconstruction and Identification with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the reconstruction of electrons will be one of the key issues at the start-up of data-taking with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2009. The first signals from prompt electrons are expected in direct J/psi and Upsilon production and in semi-leptonic decays of heavy flavour. They will be accompanied of course by W to enu and Z to ee decays, which will be used for a detailed and complete understanding of the performance of the trigger and offline algorithms once the accumulated statistics will be adequate. The energy measurement of electrons is based on the electromagnetic calorimetry over most of the relevant energy range (10 GeV to a few TeV). The electromagnetic calorimeter cluster algorithm starting from electronically calibrated calorimeter cells will be described. Local position and energy variations are corrected for. A refined calibration procedure, developed and validated over years of test-beam data-taking and analysis, strives to identify all sources of energy losses upstream o...

  19. Front-end electronics for high rate, position sensitive neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, B; Harder, J A; Hrisoho, A; Radeka, V; Smith, G C

    2002-01-01

    Advanced neutron detectors for experiments at new spallation sources will require greater counting rate capabilities than previously attainable. This necessitates careful design of both detector and readout electronics. As part of a new instrument for protein crystallography at LANSCE, we are constructing a detector whose concept was described previously (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-46 (1999) 1916). Here, we describe the signal processing circuit, which is well suited for sup 3 He detectors with a continuous interpolating readout. The circuit is based on standard charge preamplification, transmission of this signal over 20 meters or so, followed by sample and hold using a second order gated baseline restorer. This latter unit provides high rate capability without requiring pole-zero and tail cancellation circuits. There is also provision for gain-adjustment. The circuits are produced in surface mounted technology.

  20. High resolution electron spectrometers for characterizing the contrast of isolated 25 as pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Kun; Chang, Zenghu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The accuracy of characterizing the contrast of an isolated 25 attosecond pulse is highly dependent on the energy resolution of the electron energy spectrometer. • Magnetic-bottle electron energy spectrometer has insufficient resolution for accurate contrast measurement. • New design in the magnetic-bottle spectrometer improved the resolution by restricting the acceptance angle with a small pinhole. • The satellite pulse of the isolated 25 attosecond can be characterized with less than 10 percent error by the new magnetic-bottle spectrometer design. - Abstract: We quantify the effects of the energy resolution of a magnetic bottle electron spectrometer in an attosecond streak camera on the accuracy of measuring the relative amplitudes of satellite pulses around the main attosecond pulse. Our numerical simulations show that the spectral resolution can be significantly improved by restricting the acceptance angle using a pinhole located near the source of the photoelectrons. The intensity of the pre- and post-pulses which are 1% and 10% of a main 25 as pulse can potentially be measured with less than 10% error by two practical time-of-flight spectrometer designs

  1. Calibration of high-dynamic-range, finite-resolution x-ray pulse-height spectrometers for extracting electron energy distribution data from the PFRC-2 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the full x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) emitted from a plasma over a large dynamic range of energies can yield valuable insights about the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of that plasma and the dynamic processes that create them. X-ray pulse height detectors such as Amptek's X-123 Fast SDD with Silicon Nitride window can detect x-rays in the range of 200eV to 100s of keV. However, extracting EEDF from this measurement requires precise knowledge of the detector's response function. This response function, including the energy scale calibration, the window transmission function, and the resolution function, can be measured directly. We describe measurements of this function from x-rays from a mono-energetic electron beam in a purpose-built gas-target x-ray tube. Large-Z effects such as line radiation, nuclear charge screening, and polarizational Bremsstrahlung are discussed.

  2. Effect of pulsed hollow electron-lens operation on the proton beam core in LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the HL-LHC. In order to further increase the diffusion rates for a fast halo removal as e.g. desired before the squeeze, the electron lens (e-lens) can be operated in pulsed mode. In case of profile imperfections in the electron beam the pulsing of the e-lens induces noise on the proton beam which can, depending on the frequency content and strength, lead to emittance growth. In order to study the sensitivity to the pulsing pattern and the amplitude, a beam study (machine development MD) at the LHC has been proposed for August 2016 and we present in this note the preparatory simulations and estimates.

  3. Electron cloud sizes in gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggende, A.J.F. den; Schrijver, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Electron cloud sizes have been calculated for gas mixtures containing Ar, Xe, CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 for drifts through a constant electric field. The transport coefficients w and D/μ are in good agreement with experimental data of various sources for pure gases. Results of measurements, also performed in this work, for Ar+CO 2 , Ar+CH 4 , and Ar+Xe+CO 2 mixtures are in fair agreement with the calculated cloud sizes. For a large number of useful gas mixtures calculated electron cloud sizes are presented and discussed, most of which are given for the first time. A suggestion is made for an optimal gas mixture for an X-ray position sensitive proportional counter for medium and low energies. (orig.)

  4. Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Falke, Saskia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electron and photon is needed for many ATLAS physics analysis. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed in-situ using a large statistics of Z->ee events. A pre-requisite of this calibration is a good understanding of the material in front of the calorimeter and of the inter-calibration of the different calorimeter layers. The Z->ee sample is also used to measure the energy resolution. The results obtained with the pp collisions data at sqrt(s)=13 TeV in 2016 (2015) corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 33.9 (3.1)fb-1 of sqrt(s)=13 TeV are presented as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales.

  5. Front end electronics and first results of the ALICE V0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoccarato, Y., E-mail: y.zoccarato@ipnl.in2p3.f [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Tromeur, W. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Aguilar, S.; Alfaro, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Anzo, A.; Belmont, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Combaret, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Contreras, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria. Delg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ducroux, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gonzalez Trueba, L.; Grabski, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Grossiord, J.-Y. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Herrera Corral, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-21

    This paper gives a detailed description of the acquisition and trigger electronics especially designed for the V0 detector of ALICE at LHC. A short presentation of the detector itself is given before the description of the Front End Electronics (FEE) system, which is completely embedded within the LHC environment as far as acquisition (DAQ), trigger (CTP), and detector control (DCS) are concerned. It is able to detect on-line coincident events and to achieve charge (with a precision of 0.6 pC) and time measurements (with a precision of 100 ps). It deploys quite a simple architecture. It is however totally programmable and fully non-standard in discriminating events coming from Beam-Beam interaction and Beam-Gas background. Finally, raw data collected from the first LHC colliding beams illustrate the performance of the system.

  6. Studies of dynamics of electron clouds in STAR silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bellwied, R; Brandon, N; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Hall, J R; Hardtke, D; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T J; Kotova, A I; Kotov, I V; Kraner, H W; Li, Z; Lynn, D; Middelkamp, P; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, W K

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of electrons generated in silicon drift detectors was studied using an IR LED. Electrons were generated at different drift distances. In this way, the evolution of the cloud as a function of drift time was measured. Two methods were used to measure the cloud size. The method of cumulative functions was used to extract the electron cloud profiles. Another method obtains the cloud width from measurements of the charge collected on a single anode as a function of coordinate of the light spot. The evolution of the electron cloud width with drift time is compared with theoretical calculations. Experimental results agreed with theoretical expectations.

  7. Electron identification in the CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] central calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proudfoot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient identification of electrons both from W decay and QCD heavy flavour production has been achieved with the CDF Central Calorimeter, which is a lead -- scintillator plate calorimeter incorporating tower geometry. The fine calorimetry granularity (0.1 /times/ 0.26 in /eta/, /phi/ space) allows identification of electrons well within the typical jet cone and is wholly sufficient for the measurement of the isolation of electrons from W decay. With minor improvements, such a detector is a realistic option for electron identification in the central rapidity region at the SSC. 1 ref., 7 figs

  8. Reconstruction of electrons with the Gaussian-Sum filter in the ATLAS inner detector

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, T

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS detector's ability to reconstruct and identify electrons with high precision is critical both for the calibration of the detector and for the analysis of many physics processes. High energy electrons traversing matter loose energy predominantly by bremsstrahlung. A well known model for bremsstrahlung is the Bethe- Heitler distribution, which is highly non-Gaussian. Linear fitters, such as the Kaiman filter (KF), model energy losses as Gaussian distributions and thus are not optimal for the reconstruction of electrons. The Gaussian-Sum filter (GSF) is a non-linear generalisation of the KF. This algorithm has been implemented for the reconstruction of electrons within ATLAS. The GSF models the Bethe- Heitler distribution by a weighted sum of Gaussian distributions. A comparison between the reconstruction performance of the GSF and the KF is presented using simulated events generated using the geometry of the 2004 ATLAS test-beam.

  9. A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN, Physics, Machine, Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphson, C

    2011-01-01

    The physics programme and the design are described of a new electron-hadron collider, the LHeC, in which electrons of $60$ to possibly $140$\\,GeV collide with LHC protons of $7000$\\,GeV. With an $ep$ design luminosity of about $10^{33}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, the Large Hadron Electron Collider exceeds the integrated luminosity collected at HERA by two orders of magnitude and the kinematic range by a factor of twenty in the four-momentum squared, $Q^2$, and in the inverse Bjorken $x$. The physics programme is devoted to an exploration of the energy frontier, complementing the LHC and its discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model with high precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) measurements. These are projected to solve a variety of fundamental questions in strong and electroweak interactions. The LHeC thus becomes the world's cleanest high resolution microscope, designed to continue the path of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering into unknown areas of physics and kinematics. The physics ...

  10. Pulse radiolysis study of reaction of bull serum albumin electron adduct with oxygen. Polychromatic kinetics of reaction with adsorbed oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribush, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    By the method of pulse radiolysis the reaction of bull serum albumin electron adduct with oxygen is investigated. As pulsed radiation source electron linear accelerators with particle energy of 8.0 and 4.5 MeV and pulse time of 40 ns and 2.2 μs, respectively have been used. It is assumed that the disappearance of protein electron adduct occurs in the course of its interaction with oxygen adsorbed on protein globular molecule

  11. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  12. Spatio-temporal shaping of photocathode laser pulses for linear electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S. Yu; Andrianov, A. V.; Gacheva, E. I.; Zelenogorskii, V. V.; Potemkin, A. K.; Khazanov, E. A.; Boonpornprasert, P.; Gross, M.; Good, J.; Isaev, I.; Kalantaryan, D.; Kozak, T.; Krasilnikov, M.; Qian, H.; Li, X.; Lishilin, O.; Melkumyan, D.; Oppelt, A.; Renier, Y.; Rublack, T.; Felber, M.; Huck, H.; Chen, Y.; Stephan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Methods for the spatio-temporal shaping of photocathode laser pulses for generating high brightness electron beams in modern linear accelerators are discussed. The possibility of forming triangular laser pulses and quasi-ellipsoidal structures is analyzed. The proposed setup for generating shaped laser pulses was realised at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). Currently, a prototype of the pulse-shaping laser system is installed at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ). Preliminary experiments on electron beam generation using ultraviolet laser pulses from this system were carried out at PITZ, in which electron bunches with a 0.5-nC charge and a transverse normalized emittance of 1.1 mm mrad were obtained. A new scheme for the three-dimensional shaping of laser beams using a volume Bragg profiled grating is proposed at IAP RAS and is currently being tested for further electron beam generation experiments at the PITZ photoinjector.

  13. Injection of electrons by colliding laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Martin; Ekerfelt, Henrik; Persson, Anna; Lundh, Olle

    2016-01-01

    To improve the stability and reproducibility of laser wakefield accelerators and to allow for future applications, controlling the injection of electrons is of great importance. This allows us to control the amount of charge in the beams of accelerated electrons and final energy of the electrons. Results are presented from a recent experiment on controlled injection using the scheme of colliding pulses and performed using the Lund multi-terawatt laser. Each laser pulse is split into two parts close to the interaction point. The main pulse is focused on a 2 mm diameter gas jet to drive a nonlinear plasma wave below threshold for self-trapping. The second pulse, containing only a fraction of the total laser energy, is focused to collide with the main pulse in the gas jet under an angle of 150°. Beams of accelerated electrons with low divergence and small energy spread are produced using this set-up. Control over the amount of accelerated charge is achieved by rotating the plane of polarization of the second p...

  14. Tagging system for scattered electrons in two-photon reactions at the MD-1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aul'chenko, V.M.; Baru, S.E.; Blinov, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Tagging System of the MD-1 detector at the VEPP-4 collider used for studying of two-photon reactions is described. A transverse magnetic field enables one to detect scattered electrons and positrons even at zero scattering angles. The system energy resolution for scattered electron is 1.75% at the beam energy 4.7 GeV. 32 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tabs

  15. BPM Electronics based on Compensated Diode Detectors – Results from development Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M; Steinhagen, RJ

    2012-01-01

    High resolution beam position monitor (BPM) electronics based on diode peak detectors is being developed for processing signals from button BPMs embedded into future LHC collimators. Its prototypes were measured in a laboratory as well as with beam signals from the collimator BPM installed on the SPS and with LHC BPMs. Results from these measurements are presented and discussed.

  16. The plastic ball spectrometer - an electronicdetector with particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baden, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.

    1982-04-01

    For the high multiplicity events occuring in relativistic nuclear collisions an electronicdetector with particle identification has been built. It consists of 815 ΔE-E telescopes and 176 TOF telescopes covering 97% of 4π. Very good particle identification has been obtained for hydrogen and helium isotopes and also π + have been detected with high efficiency. (orig.)

  17. Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run 1 data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Struebig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the electron and photon energy calibration achieved with the ATLAS detector using about 25 fb$^{-1}$ of LHC proton--proton collision data taken at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 8 TeV. The reconstruction of electron and photon energies is optimised using multivariate algorithms. The response of the calorimeter layers is equalised in data and simulation, and the longitudinal profile of the electromagnetic showers is exploited to estimate the passive material in front of the calorimeter and reoptimise the detector simulation. After all corrections, the $Z$ resonance is used to set the absolute energy scale. For electrons from $Z$ decays, the achieved calibration is typically accurate to 0.05% in most of the detector acceptance, rising to 0.2% in regions with large amounts of passive material. The remaining inaccuracy is less than 0.2-1% for electrons with a transverse energy of 10 GeV, and is on average 0.3% for photons. The detector resolution is determined with a relative in...

  18. Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run 1 data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 10 (2014), "3071-1"-"3071-48" ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon * energy * calibration * detector * resolution * showers * electromagnetic * electron * transverse energy * CERN LHC Coll * calorimeter Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2014

  19. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  20. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  1. Ultrashort x-ray pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense laser pulse is calculated numerically. The results show that an ultrashort x-ray pulse can be generated by an electron with an initial energy of 5 MeV propagating across a circularly polarized laser pulse with a duration of 8 femtosecond and an intensity of about 1.1×10^{21}  W/cm^{2}, when the detection direction is perpendicular to the propagation directions of both the electron and the laser beam. The optimal values of the carrier-envelop phase and the intensity of the laser pulse for the generation of a single ultrashort x-ray pulse are obtained and verified by our calculations of the radiation characteristics.

  2. Radiation effects in electronics for the CMS tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a study into the CMS tracker analogue front-end amplifier readout chip (APV), which during the period of the study was fabricated in three different VLSI technologies. The early versions were fabricated in a total dose radiation hardened Harris 1.2μm process. Later it was transferred to a DMILL 0.8μm process and the latest version is in a 0.25μm technology. Part of this thesis describes a test system which was designed to thoroughly test APV chips on the silicon wafer and produce a comprehensive data set for each chip to enable confident selection of good chips. The main study is on the effects that large dose radiation environments can cause in the individual parts of the chip. With the chips fabricated in different technologies it was possible to make some comparisons of the magnitude of the effects between the Harris and the 0.25μm technologies, but most of the work was aimed towards understanding the effects within the 0.25μm technology. Single Event Upset (SEU) was the main consideration behind the experimental and simulation work. The study had two main goals: the first was to investigate how SEU would affect the operation of the CMS detector in the expected high radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The second goal was to look at SEU from a more academic viewpoint, enabling a full understanding of how it is caused and what factors affect its magnitude. Simulations were performed in order to reconstruct the conditions brought about by highly ionising particles striking certain parts of the sensitive circuits, along with careful consideration of the mechanisms behind the effect such as: ionised charge collection within the semiconductor parts of the chip, how this charge deposition affects the circuit and how the effects manifest themselves within larger devices. A good set of results was collected from specially designed experiments, from which a confirmation of the theoretical effect was produced. (author)

  3. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  4. An Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring by reflectance pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Rasmus G; Duun, Sune B; Toft, Mette H; Belhage, Bo; Larsen, Jan; Birkelund, Karen; Thomsen, Erik V

    2012-02-01

    We report the development of an Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring. The Electronic Patch is a new health monitoring system incorporating biomedical sensors, microelectronics, radio frequency (RF) communication, and a battery embedded in a 3-dimensional hydrocolloid polymer. In this paper the Electronic Patch is demonstrated with a new optical biomedical sensor for reflectance pulse oximetry so that the Electronic Patch in this case can measure the pulse and the oxygen saturation. The reflectance pulse oximetry solution is based on a recently developed annular backside silicon photodiode to enable low power consumption by the light emitting components. The Electronic Patch has a disposable part of soft adhesive hydrocolloid polymer and a reusable part of hard polylaurinlactam. The disposable part contains the battery. The reusable part contains the reflectance pulse oximetry sensor and microelectronics. The reusable part is 'clicked' into the disposable part when the patch is prepared for use. The patch has a size of 88 mm by 60 mm and a thickness of 5 mm.

  5. sup 3 He detectors in experiments at the powerful pulsed accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boreiko, V F; Grebenyuk, V M; Ivanov, A I; Kalinin, A I; Krylov, A R; Parzhitsky, S S; Slepnev, V M; Stolupin, V A; Wozniak, J

    2002-01-01

    A possibility of using a thermal neutron detector in the high gamma-quantum and bremsstrahlung fields is considered in the paper. The design of the thermal neutron detector consisting of 10 counters filled with sup 3 He under the pressure of 2 atm and enclosed in the polyethylene moderator is described. The results of measuring the neutron recording efficiency and neutron lifetimes by this detector exposed to a neutron flux from the dt-reaction and from the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and Pu-Be sources are reported. The thicknesses of the polyethylene moderator and the Pb layer used for suppression of the background in the fields of powerful electromagnetic radiation are optimized.

  6. Short electron bunches generated by perpendicularly crossing laser pulses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horný, Vojtěch; Petržílka, Václav; Klimo, Ondřej; Krůs, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 103125. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03118S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001552; GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Laser pulses * Particle beam bunching * Plasma simulation * Particle acceleration * Lasers * Particle-in-cell metthod * Particle beams * Electrostatics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5007889

  7. Intense pulsed sources of ions and electrons produced by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrabier, G.; Consoli, T.; Slama, L.

    1966-11-01

    We describe a device for the acceleration of the plasma burst produced by focusing a laser beam into a metal target. We extract the electrons and the ions from the plasma. The maximum current is around 2000 amperes during few microseconds. The study of the effect of the kind of the target on the characteristics of the current shows the great importance of the initial conditions that is the ionisation potential of the target and the energy laser. (authors) [fr

  8. Pulse compression radar reflectometry to measure electron density in plasma with parasitic reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Li, Hong; Chen, Zhipeng; Luo, Chen; Wang, Huihui; Geng, Song; Feng, Lei; Liu, Qiuyan; Liu, Wandong

    2008-07-01

    Pulse compression radar reflectometry is used to obtain electron density profile in plasma with parasitic reflections in this article. The pulse compression radar relies on the relation between the temporal width of a pulse and the frequency bandwidth of this pulse: Deltat proportional, variant1Deltaf. So a set of sweep-frequency microwaves within a bandwidth Deltaf can be introduced sequentially into the plasma to obtain the same information as the one obtained by a real pulse. By applying a Fourier transform to the data of reflectivity array in the frequency domain, the temporal response in the time domain is obtained. The limitation of the parasitic reflections on measurement can be eliminated from the temporal response by the method of time gate. This is a prominent advantage when this method is compared to the traditional reflectometry. For this method, an appropriate compromise between the spatial resolution and the electron density resolution is important. Experimental results show that the profile obtained from pulse compression radar reflectometry is similar to that from a double Langmuir probe.

  9. Electronics and readout of a large area silicon detector for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Scampoli, P.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Benslama, K.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; Wu, X.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schultz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Bibby, J.H.; Hawkings, R.J.; Kundu, N.; Weidberg, A.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Teiger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the RD2 project is to evaluate the feasibility of a silicon tracker and/or preshower detector for LHC. Irradiation studies with doses equivalent to those expected at LHC have been performed to determine the behavior of operational parameters such as leakage current, depletion voltage and charge collection during the life of the detector. The development of fast, dense, low power and low cost signal processing electronics is one of the major activities of the collaboration. We describe the first fully functional integrated analog memory chip with asynchronous read and write operations and level 1 trigger capture capabilities. A complete test beam system using this analog memory chip at 66 MHz has been successfully operated with RD2 prototype silicon detectors during various test runs. The flexibility of the electronics and readout have allowed us to easily interface our set-up to other data acquisition systems. Mechanical studies are in progress to design a silicon tracking detector with several million channels that may be operated at low (0-10 C) temperature, while maintaining the required geometrical precision. Prototype readout boards for such a detector are being developed and simulation studies are being performed to optimize the readout architecture. (orig.)

  10. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  11. A new numerical technique to design satellite energetic electron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszewski, M G; Ingraham, J C

    2002-01-01

    Energetic charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere are routinely detected by satellite instruments. However, it is generally difficult to extract quantitative energy and angular information from such measurements because the interaction of energetic electrons with matter is rather complex. Beam calibrations and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are often used to evaluate a flight instrument once it is built. However, rules of thumb and past experience are common tools to design the instrument in the first place. Hence, we have developed a simple numerical procedure, based on analytical probabilities, suitable for instrumental design and evaluation. In addition to the geometrical response, the contributions of surface backscattering, edge penetration, and bremsstrahlung radiation are estimated. The new results are benchmarked against MC calculations for a simple test case. Complicated effects, such as the contribution of the satellite to the instrumental response, can be estimated with the new formalism.

  12. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  13. Pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer processes and applications to solar photochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neta, P.

    1995-02-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is applied to the study of electron transfer processes in a variety of chemical systems. Reactive intermediates are produced in solution by electron pulse irradiation and the kinetics of their reactions are followed by time resolved absorption spectrophotometry. Complementary experiments are carried out with excimer laser flash photolysis. These studies are concerned with mechanisms, kinetics, and thermodynamics of reactions of organic and inorganic radicals and unstable oxidation states of metal ions. Reactions are studied in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. The studies focus on the unique ability of pulse radiolysis to provide absolute rate constants for reactions of many inorganic radicals and organic peroxyl radicals, species that are key intermediates in many chemical processes. A special concern of this work is the study of electron transfer reactions of metalloporphyrins, which permits evaluation of these molecules as intermediates in solar energy conversion. Metalloporphyrins react with free radicals via electron transfer, involving the ligand or the metal center, or via bonding to the metal, leading to a variety of chemical species whose behavior is also investigated. The highlights of the results during the past three years are summarized below under the following sections: (a) electron transfer reactions of peroxyl radicals, concentrating on the characterization of new peroxyl radicals derived from vinyl, phenyl, other aryl, and pyridyl; (b) solvent effects on electron transfer reactions of inorganic and organic peroxyl radicals, including reactions with porphyrins, and (c) electron transfer and alkylation reactions of metalloporphyrins and other complexes.

  14. Fast broad-band photon detector based on quantum well devices and charge-integrating electronics for non-invasive FEL monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, M.; Cautero, G.; Sergo, R.; Castellaro, C.; Menk, R. H.; Ganbold, T.; Biasiol, G.

    2016-01-01

    The recent evolution of free-electron lasers has not been matched by the development of adequate beam-monitoring instrumentation. However, for both experimental and diagnostics purposes, it is crucial to keep such photon beams under control, avoiding at the same time the absorption of the beam and the possible destruction of the detector. These requirements can be fulfilled by utilizing fast and non-invasive photon detectors operated in situ, upstream from the experimental station. From this perspective, sensors based on Quantum Well (QW) devices can be the key to detecting ultra-short light pulses. In fact, owing to their high electron mobility, InGaAs/InAlAs QW devices operated at room temperature exhibit sub-nanosecond response times. Their direct, low-energy band gap renders them capable of detecting photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Furthermore, the 2D electron gas forming inside the QW is responsible for a charge amplification mechanism, which increases the charge collection efficiency of these devices. In order to acquire the signals produced by these QW sensors, a novel readout electronics has been developed. It is based on a high-speed charge integrator, which allows short, low-intensity current pulses to be read within a 50-ns window. The integrated signal is acquired through an ADC and the entire process can be performed at a 10-MHz repetition rate. This work provides a detailed description of the development of the QW detectors and the acquisition electronics, as well as reporting the main experimental results, which show how these tools are well suited for the realization of fast, broad-band beam monitors.

  15. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  16. Electron Acceleration in Wakefield and Supra-Bubble Regimes by Ultraintense Laser with Asymmetric Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiaili, Bake; Sayipjamal, Dulat; Aimierding, Aimidula; Xie Baisong

    2011-01-01

    Electron acceleration in plasma driven by circular polarized ultraintense laser with asymmetric pulse are investigated analytically and numerically in terms of oscillation-center Hamiltonian formalism. Studies include wakefield acceleration, which dominates in blow-out or bubble regime and snow-plow acceleration which dominates in supra-bubble regime. By a comparison with each other it is found that snow-plow acceleration has lower acceleration capability. In wakefield acceleration, there exists an obvious optimum pulse asymmetry or/and pulse lengths that leads to the high net energy gain while in snow-plow acceleration it is insensitive to the pulse lengths. Power and linear scaling laws for wakefield and snow-plow acceleration respetively are observed from the net energy gain depending on laser field amplitude. Moreover, there exists also an upper and lower limit on plasma density for an effective acceleration in both of regimes. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  17. Pulse shape discrimination with silicon detectors using charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H.; Rauly, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Borderie, B.; Chabot, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Lavergne, L.; Le Bris, J.; Le Neindre, N.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Barbey, S.; Becheva, E.; Bzyl, F.R.; D' Esesquelles, P.; Galichet, E.; Lalu, G.; Martinet, G.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Legou, Th.; Tillier, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Carniol, B.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Grevy, S.; Lopez, O.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSI, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, 75 - Paris (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Villeurbanne Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 69 (France); Lanzalone, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, (Italy); Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Rosato, E. [Napoli, Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    For the first time shapes of current pulses from light charged particles and carbon ions are presented. Capabilities for pulse shape discrimination techniques are demonstrated. In this work, charge and current-sensitive preamplifier prototypes for nuclear structure and dynamics experiments have been developed and tested with the aim of improving PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method by studying in detail current signal shapes from particles and ions over a large energy range. Note that current signal shapes have been recently used in atomic cluster studies to identify partitions of carbon cluster fragmentation. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is devoted to characterization of preamplifiers. In section 3, results of on beam tests will be presented, discussed and compared to a simple simulation.

  18. Pulse radiolytic and electrochemical investigations of intramolecular electron transfer in carotenoporphyrins and carotenoporphyrin-quinone triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, E.J.; Lexa, D.; Bensasson, R.V.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Liddell, P.A.; Nemeth, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions in carotenoporphyrin dyads and carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads have been studied by using pulse radiolysis and cyclic voltammetry. Rapid (<1 μs) electron transfer from carotenoid radical anions to attached porphyrins has been inferred. Carotenoid cations, on the other hand, do not readily accept electrons from attached porphyrins or pyropheophorbides. Electrochemical studies provide the thermodynamic basis for these observations and also allow estimation of the energetics of photoinitiated two-step electron transfer and two-step charge recombination in triad models for photosynthetic charge separation

  19. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I.; Jakubowska, K.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments

  20. The design, status and performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.; Cussans, D.G.; Fawcett, H.F.; Gilmore, R.S.; Heath, G.P.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Tapper, R.J.; Gingrich, D.M.; Harnew, N.; Hallam-Baker, P.; Nash, J.; Khatri, T.; Shield, P.D.; McArthur, I.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Wilson, F.F.; Allen, D.; Baird, S.A.; Carter, R.; Galagadera, S.; Gibson, M.D.; Hatley, R.S.; Jeffs, M.; Milborrow, R.; Morissey, M.; Quinton, S.P.H.; White, D.J.; Lane, J.; Nixon, G.; Postranecky, M.; Jamdagni, A.K.; Marcou, C.; Miller, D.B.; Toudup, L.

    1992-01-01

    The readout system developed for the ZEUS central tracking detector (CTD) is described. The CTD is required to provide an accurate measurement of the sagitta and energy loss of charged particles as well as provide fast trigger information. This must be carried out in the HERA environment in which beams cross every 96 ns. The first two aims are achieved by digitizing chamber pulses using a pipelined 104 MHz FADC system. The trigger uses a fast determination of the difference in the arrival times of a pulse at each end of the CTD. It processes this data and gives information to the ZEUS global first level trigger. The modules are housed in custom-built racks and crates and read out using a DAQ system based on Transputer readout controllers. These also monitor data quality and produce data for the ZEUS second level Trigger. (orig.)

  1. Numerical Investigation on Electron and Ion Transmission of GEM-based Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Purba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ALICE at the LHC is planning a major upgrade of its detector systems, including the TPC, to cope with an increase of the LHC luminosity after 2018. Different R&D activities are currently concentrated on the adoption of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The major challenge is to have low ion feedback in the drift volume as well as to ensure a collection of good percentage of primary electrons in the signal generation process. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been adopted to numerically estimate the electron transparency and ion backflow fraction of GEM-based detectors. In this process, extensive simulations have been carried out to enrich our understanding of the complex physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. A detailed study has been performed to observe the effect of detector geometry, field configuration and magnetic field on the above mentioned characteristics.

  2. Elimination and formation of electrically active defects in hydrogenated silicon particle detectors irradiated with electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, L.F. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)]. E-mail: makleo@mail.ru; Korshunov, F.P. [Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Lastovski, S.B. [Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Kazuchits, N.M. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Rusetsky, M.S. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Fretwurst, E. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Lindstroem, G. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pintilie, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zamiatin, N.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-21

    The influence of preliminary treatment in hydrogen plasma on elimination of radiation defects and formation of thermal donors has been studied in detector structures made of standard float zone silicon. The detectors were irradiated with 3.5 MeV electrons and annealed at temperatures of 50-350 deg. C. It has been found that preliminary hydrogenation at 300 deg. C leads to disappearance of divacancies and vacancy-oxygen complexes at lower annealing temperatures. The annealing of hydrogenated and irradiated crystals is accompanied by hydrogen redistribution and formation of hydrogen-related donors.

  3. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  4. The Use of Low Temperature Detectors for Direct Measurements of the Mass of the Electron Neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nucciotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there has been tremendous technical progress: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required to perform competitive experiments challenging the lowest electron neutrino masses. This paper reviews the thirty-year effort aimed at realizing calorimetric measurements with sub-eV neutrino mass sensitivity using low temperature detectors.

  5. J-PET detector system for studies of the electron-positron annihilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlik-Niedźwiecka M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET has been recently constructed at the Jagiellonian University as a prototype of a cost-effective scanner for the metabolic imaging of the whole human body. J-PET detector is optimized for the measurement of momentum and polarization of photons from the electron-positron annihilations. It is built out of strips of plastic scintillators, forming three cylindrical layers. As detector of gamma quanta it will be used for studies of discrete symmetries and multiparticle entanglement of photons originating from the decays of ortho-positronium atoms.

  6. Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance in the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, Adam Paul [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment that utilizes a particle beam and two steel-scintillator calorimeters designed to determine the parameters associated with muon neutrino disappearance. Analysis methods developed by the MINOS νe group have facilitated the placement of limits upon the mixing angle associated with νμ → νe oscillations. Since the polarity of the focusing horns can be switched, we can perform a similar analysis with an antineutrino-enriched beam to select electron antineutrino appearance candidates. Using 3.34e20 POT (protons on target) in the antineutrino mode, we exclude θ13 = 0 at the 80% C.L. A joint fit of the 3.34e20 POT antineutrino and 10.6e20 POT neutrino samples excluded θ13 = 0 at the 96% C.L. In addition, the combined data were used to produce exclusions regarding the CP-violating phase.

  7. Studies of some elementary processes involving electrons in the gas phase by pulse-radiolysis microwave-cavity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Takeyoshi; Makita, Takeshi; Musasa, Hirofumi; Tatsumi, Yoshitsugu; Shimamori, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis-microwave cavity technique has been employed for detection of free electrons in the gas phase. Presented are results of the observation of electron disappearance by attachment to molecules, the electron thermalization (energy loss) processes in the presence of an electron-attaching compound, and the formation of electrons by Penning ionization. (author)

  8. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of tea polyphenol components using pulse radiolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    1998-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E1/7) is one of the important parameters of electrophilic radioprotectors. In this work, one-electron reduction potential of tea polyphenol components including EGCG, ECG, EGC and EC in aqueous solution at pH7 were determined to be -321 mV, -326 mV, -331 mV and -330 mV, respectively, using pulse radiolysis techniques. 2,6-dimethyl benzoquinone (DQ) was used as a reference compound

  9. Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H - generation, material processing, and plasma remediation

  10. Instrumentation system for pulsed neutron generator. Pt. 1. Electronic control and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Janik, W.; Kosik, M.; Kurowski, A.; Zaleski, T.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron generator and measurements. In the paper there are described in details all modernized parts of the system as well as new designed and applied ones. The set of diagrams is enclosed. An important part of the system has been designed and built in the Neutron Transport Physics Laboratory. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic cascade in high-energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of high-energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high-energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when three-dimensional effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high-energy e-beam interacting with a counterstreaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  12. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  13. Pulse radiolysis study of one electron oxidation of riboflavin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Guha, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    One electron oxidation of riboflavin (Rf) has been studied using various oxidising species such as Cl 2 -. , SO 4 -. and OH radicals. The transient species produced by the reaction of SO 4 -. with riboflavin gave spectra with λ m at 680 and 640 nm at pHs 4 and 7.1 respectively with a pK a at ∼ 6. Cl 2 -. radicals reacted with riboflavin to give a transient spectrum with λ m at 570 nm. The possibility of two sites viz. C-8 methyl group and the extended π-ring system of the molecule for oxidation reaction are discussed. The reaction of Cl 2 -. with riboflavin is an equilibrium from which the redox potential for the Rf +. /Rf couple has been evaluated to be 2.28 V vs NHE. OH radicals reacted with riboflavin to give a transient spectrum attributable to a mixture of species produced by addition or abstraction reactions. (author)

  14. An ultrafast NbN hot-electron single-photon detector for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, A; Okunev, O; Smirnov, K; Chulkova, G; Korneev, A; Kouminov, P; Gol'tsman, G; Zhang, J; Slysz, W; Verevkin, A; Sobolewski, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the latest generation of our superconducting single-photon detector (SPD), which can work from ultraviolet to mid-infrared optical radiation wavelengths. The detector combines a high speed of operation and low jitter with high quantum efficiency (QE) and very low dark count level. The technology enhancement allows us to produce ultrathin (3.5 nm thick) structures that demonstrate QE hundreds of times better, at 1.55 μm, than previous 10 nm thick SPDs. The best, 10x10 μm 2 , SPDs demonstrate QE up to 5% at 1.55 μm and up to 11% at 0.86 μm. The intrinsic detector QE, normalized to the film absorption coefficient, reaches 100% at bias currents above 0.9 I c for photons with wavelengths shorter than 1.3 μm

  15. The desktop muon detector: A simple, physics-motivated machine- and electronics-shop project for university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S. N.; Conrad, J. M.; Kirby, C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the construction of a desktop muon detector, an undergraduate-level physics project that develops machine-shop and electronics-shop technical skills. The desktop muon detector is a self-contained apparatus that employs a plastic scintillator as the detection medium and a silicon photomultiplier for light collection. This detector can be battery powered and is used in conjunction with the provided software. The total cost per detector is approximately 100. We describe physics experiments we have performed, and then suggest several other interesting measurements that are possible, with one or more desktop muon detectors.

  16. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Antrim, Daniel Joseph; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 frontend boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASIC and board prototypes.

  17. Terahertz Direct Detectors Based on Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers with Microwave Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shou-Lu; Li, Xian-Feng; Su, Run-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Xue-Cou; Kang, Lin; Jin, Biao-Bing; Xu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2017-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) direct detectors based on superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) hot electron bolometers (HEBs) with microwave (MW) biasing are studied. The MW is used to bias the HEB to the optimum point and to readout the impedance changes caused by the incident THz signals. Compared with the thermal biasing method, this method would be more promising in large scale array with simple readout. The used NbN HEB has an excellent performance as heterodyne detector with the double sideband noise temperature (TN) of 403 K working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz. As a result, the noise equivalent power of 1.5 pW/Hz1/2 and the response time of 64 ps are obtained for the direct detectors based on the NbN HEBs and working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz.

  18. Front-End-Electronics Communication software for multiple detectors in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bablok, Sebastian; Hartung, G; Keidel, R; Kofler, C; Krawutschke, T; Lindenstruth, V; Röhrich, D

    2006-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment at CERN, the Detector Control System (DCS) employs several interacting software components to accomplish its task of ensuring the correct operation and monitoring of the experiment. This paper describes the Front-End-Electronics Communication (FeeCommunication) software and its role within the DCS. The FeeCommunication software's central task is passing configuration and monitoring data between the top level DCS process control and the field devices of several detectors within ALICE. The lowest level of the FeeCommunication software runs on the DCS boards, specialized embedded systems which are in direct contact with the field devices and are physically located within the detector. The middle and upper layers run on standard PC hardware located in the counting room or other external locations. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of the FeeCommunication software and the steps that were taken to fulfill the imposed reliability and performance requirements, specifically th...

  19. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The present small wheel muon detector at ATLAS will be replaced with a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector to handle the increase in data rates and harsh radiation environment expected at the LHC. Resistive Micromegas and small strip Thin Gap Chambers will be used to provide both trigger and tracking primitives. Muon segments found at NSW will be combined with the segments found at the Big Wheel to determine the muon transverse momentum at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system is developed for the NSW detector. The new system has about 2.4 million trigger and readout channels and about 8,000 Front-End boards. The large number of input channels, short time available to prepare and transmit data, harsh radiation environment, and low power consumption all impose great challenges on the design. We will discuss the overall electronics design and studies with various ASICs and high-speed circuit board prototypes.

  20. Numerical Detector Theory for the Longitudinal Momentum Distribution of the Electron in Strong Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Justin; Wang, Xu; Eberly, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    The lack of analytical solutions for the exit momentum in the laser-driven tunneling theory is a well-recognized problem in strong field physics. Theoretical studies of electron momentum distributions in the neighborhood of the tunneling exit depend heavily on ad hoc assumptions. In this Letter, we apply a new numerical method to study the exiting electron's longitudinal momentum distribution under intense short-pulse laser excitation. We present the first realizations of the dynamic behavior of an electron near the so-called tunneling exit region without adopting a tunneling approximation.

  1. Testing and Comparison of Imaging Detectors for Electrons in the Energy Range 10-20 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, J.; Moldovan, G.; Kirkland, A.; Allinson, N.; Abrahams, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Interest in direct detectors for low-energy electrons has increased markedly in recent years. Detection of electrons in the energy range up to low tens of keV is important in techniques such as photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The PEEM technique is used both in the laboratory and on synchrotron light sources worldwide. The ubiquity of SEMs means that there is a very large market for EBSD detectors for materials studies. Currently, the most widely used detectors in these applications are based on indirect detection of incident electrons. Examples include scintillators or microchannel plates (MCPs), coupled to CCD cameras. Such approaches result in blurring in scintillators/phosphors, distortions in optical systems, and inefficiencies due the limited active area of MCPs. In principle, these difficulties can be overcome using direct detection in a semiconductor device. Growing out of a feasibility study into the use of a direct detector for use on an XPEEM, we have built at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory a system to illuminate detectors with an electron beam of energy up to 20 keV . We describe this system in detail. It has been used to measure the performance of a custom back-thinned monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), a detector based on the Medipix2 chip, and a commercial detector based on MCPs. We present a selection of the results from these measurements and compare and contrast different detector types.

  2. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  3. Improvement of density resolution in short-pulse hard x-ray radiographic imaging using detector stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, B.; Gärtner, F.; Khaghani, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate that stacking several imaging plates (IPs) constitutes an easy method to increase hard x-ray detection efficiency. Used to record x-ray radiographic images produced by an intense-laser driven hard x-ray backlighter source, the IP stacks resulted in a significant improvement of the radiograph density resolution. We attribute this to the higher quantum efficiency of the combined detectors, leading to a reduced photon noise. Electron-photon transport simulations of the interaction processes in the detector reproduce the observed contrast improvement. Increasing the detection efficiency to enhance radiographic imaging capabilities is equally effective as increasing the x-ray source yield, e.g., by a larger drive laser energy.

  4. System aspects of the ILC-electronics and power pulsing

    CERN Document Server

    Götlicher, P

    2007-01-01

    The requirements for the electronics of an experiment at the international linear collider (ILC) are driven by the bunch structure of the accelerator - short trains (1ms) with bunch to bunch lag of 0.3μs interrupted by long empty intervals (199ms) - and the precision physics. Based on developments of the CALICEcollaboration a system for high granular dense calorimetry is presented. The talk covers the system aspect: — of compact sensors as Si-diodes and multi-pixel Geiger mode photo sensors, — of the electromechanics with components embedded into the PCB’s, — of integrating the functionality needed nearby the sensor into low power ASIC’s, — of a DAQ-chain, in which each channel triggers on its own and the data selection is installed into PC’s and — of calibrating the calorimeter. With the high number of 100 million channels the power consumption and cooling have to be investigated carefully. Calculations demonstrate, that active cooling inside the calorimeters can be avoided. But essential fo...

  5. Evaluation of Medipix2 detector for recording electron diffraction data in low dose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, D; Sikharulidze, I; Jiang, L; Abrahams, J P; Jansen, J; Zandbergen, H W

    2011-01-01

    The drive for elucidation of important macromolecular structures to high resolution in their 3D native or near-native state places continuously higher demands on the quality of the experimental data. For instance, recording of diffraction patterns good enough for structural studies from cryo-preserved bio-macromolecules at low dose conditions remains challenging and highly desirable. The emergence of hybrid pixel detectors opens up new possibilities for direct electron detection and superior detector performance. Here, we report on the characteristics of the Medipix2 detector in diffraction studies, with a special focus on the reliability of the intensities acquired in very low dose conditions. Diffraction data recorded on a Medipix2 detector were assessed in refinement analysis. R-factors lower than 10% were obtained from data recorded at electron dose of 0.05 el/A 2 . The reproducibility of the data was also shown to be high, given the correlation coefficient of the intensities being higher than 0.9970. The contrast that could be achieved at very low dose conditions was at least an order of magnitude better than that of image plates, based on a direct comparison.

  6. On-Detector Electronics for the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Muschter, Steffen Lothar; The ATLAS collaboration; Anderson, Kelby; Bohm, Christian; Drake, Gary; Oreglia, Mark; Paramonov, Alexander; Tang, Fukun

    2014-01-01

    In the major upgrade of the LHC and its detectors around year 2023 the beam energy and luminosity will increase significantly. For TileCal, the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS, most of the on-detector and off-detector electronics will be replaced. A new design has been proposed with some alternative solutions for some of the parts. To gain experience with this design, a demonstrator project is on-going aiming at inserting a prototype module in ATLAS this summer or in the next possible shut-down. A caveat is that it must be able to operate seamlessly with the present system. This together with test beam studies will help to finalize the design. The on-detector part of the demonstrator electronics contains five parts: new front-end boards, digitizer boards with a link daughter board, a programmable high voltage power supply and a redundant low voltage power supply. Apart from improved performance reliability is a main concern. This will be achieved by increased modularity so that the consequences of a complete fail...

  7. Generation of attosecond electron beams in relativistic ionization by short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajiao Vélez, F.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionization by relativistically intense short laser pulses is studied in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. Distinctive patterns are found in the energy probability distributions of photoelectrons, which are sensitive to the properties of a driving laser field. It is demonstrated that these electrons are generated in the form of solitary attosecond wave packets. This is particularly important in light of various applications of attosecond electron beams such as in ultrafast electron diffraction and crystallography, or in time-resolved electron microscopy of physical, chemical, and biological processes. We also show that, for intense laser pulses, high-energy ionization takes place in narrow regions surrounding the momentum spiral, the exact form of which is determined by the shape of a driving pulse. The self-intersections of the spiral define the momenta for which the interference patterns in the energy distributions of photoelectrons are observed. Furthermore, these interference regions lead to the synthesis of single-electron wave packets characterized by coherent double-hump structures.

  8. Frequency-agile gyrotron for electron decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Faith J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Albert, Brice J.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L.; Gao, Chukun; Golota, Natalie C.; Choi, Eric J.; Jagtap, Anil P.; Wittmann, Johannes J.; Eckardt, Michael; Harneit, Wolfgang; Corzilius, Björn; Th. Sigurdsson, Snorri; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a frequency-agile gyrotron which can generate frequency-chirped microwave pulses. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) within the NMR spectrometer controls the microwave frequency, enabling synchronized pulsed control of both electron and nuclear spins. We demonstrate that the acceleration of emitted electrons, and thus the microwave frequency, can be quickly changed by varying the anode voltage. This strategy results in much faster frequency response than can be achieved by changing the potential of the electron emitter, and does not require a custom triode electron gun. The gyrotron frequency can be swept with a rate of 20 MHz/μs over a 670 MHz bandwidth in a static magnetic field. We have already implemented time-domain electron decoupling with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) with this device. In this contribution, we show frequency-swept DNP enhancement profiles recorded without changing the NMR magnet or probe. The profile of endofullerenes exhibits a DNP profile with a <10 MHz linewidth, indicating that the device also has sufficient frequency stability, and therefore phase stability, to implement pulsed DNP mechanisms such as the frequency-swept solid effect. We describe schematics of the mechanical and vacuum construction of the device which includes a novel flanged sapphire window assembly. Finally, we discuss how commercially available continuous-wave gyrotrons can potentially be converted into similar frequency-agile high-power microwave sources.

  9. Monitoring system of energy characteristics of electron beam during shaping process of power bremsstrahlung pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordasov, N.G.; Ulimov, V.N.; Bryksin, V.A.; Shiyan, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    One proposes a procedure and a device to monitor dynamic and integral characteristics of electron power beams of high-current pulsed accelerators (HCPA) operating under Bremsstrahlung radiation mode. One obtained static and dynamic transfer characteristics for various types of heterogenous targets-converters under operation of UIN-10 HCPA with up to 4 MeV energy electrons, up to 60 kA current and 6 x 10 -8 -2 x 10 -6 s pulse efficient duration. One demonstrated the capabilities of the complex diagnostics of acceleration of electron beams by HCPA with simultaneous determination of parameters of the Bremsstrahlung radiation at the local point of the field behind the target-converter [ru

  10. Single-electron pulse-height spectra in thin-gap parallel-plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Peskov, Vladimir; Policarpo, Armando

    1999-01-01

    Single-electron pulse-height spectra were measured in 0.6 and 1.2 mm parallel-plate chambers developed for the TOF system of the ALICE /LHC-HI experiment. Mixtures of Ar with ethane, isobutane, and SF/sub 6/ were studied. The observed spectrum shows a clear peak for all gases, suggesting efficient single-electron detection in thin parallel-plate structures. The pulse-height spectrum can be described by the weighted sum of an exponential and a Polya distribution, the Polya contribution becoming more important at higher gains. Additionally, it was found that the maximum gain, above 10/sup 6/, is limited by the appearance of streamers and depends weakly on the gas composition. The suitability of each mixture for single-electron detection is also quantitatively assessed. (8 refs).

  11. Pulse electron beam-induced synthesis of CdTe printed films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houng, M.P.; Fu, S.L.; Wu, T.S.; Leu, J.T.; Cheng, K.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to produce a high quality single crystal CdTe film with enhanced electrical properties, screen printed Cd + Te films were prepared on an aluminium oxide substrate and then irradiated with a pulsed electron beam over the energy range 12-15 KeV. Some samples were also vacuum annealed from 410-620 0 C after irradiation. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence. This showed that film quality and uniformity were limited by electron beam heating, although improvements can be made by vacuum annealing. Furthermore, only polycrystalline films were produced, possibly due to a too short pulse duration and the use of a polycrystalline substrate. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of pulse electron beam characteristics on internal friction and structural alterations in epoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaikin, Yu.A. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: drzaykin@mail.ru; Ismailova, G.A. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Sheikhly, M. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Temperature dependence of internal friction is experimentally studied in epoxy irradiated by 2.5 MeV pulse electron beam to different doses. Time dependence of internal friction characteristics associated with radiation-induced processes of polymer scission and cross-linking is analyzed and discussed. Experimental data on kinetics of structural transformations in epoxy are interpreted on the base of analytical solutions of differential equations for free radical accumulation during and after irradiation subject to the pulse irradiation mode and an arbitrary effective order of radical recombination.

  13. Storage ring free electron laser, pulse propagation effects and microwave type instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Renieri, A.; Migliorati, M.

    2000-01-01

    It has been developed a dynamical model accounting for the storage Ring Free Electron Laser evolution including pulse propagation effects and e-beam instabilities of microwave type. It has been analyzed the general conditions under which the on set of the laser may switch off the instability and focus everybody attention on the interplay between cavity mismatch, laser pulsed behavior and e-beam instability dynamics. Particular attention is also devoted to the laser operation in near threshold conditions, namely at an intracavity level just enough to counteract the instability, that show in this region new and interesting effects arises [it

  14. Space charge calculations of elliptical cross-section electron pulses in PARMELA

    CERN Document Server

    Koltenbah, B E C

    1999-01-01

    The Boeing version of the PARMELA code has been modified to compute the space charge effects for electron pulses with highly elliptical transverse cross-sections. A dynamic gridding routine has been added to allow good resolution for pulses as they evolve in time. The results from calculations for the chicane buncher in the 1 kW visible FEL beam line at Boeing indicate that the old circular algorithm of the SCHEFF subroutine overestimates the emittance growth in the bend plane by 30-40%.

  15. In vivo imaging of a stable paramagnetic probe by pulsed-radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murugesan; Cook; Devasahayam

    1997-01-01

    , Recent advances in radiofrequency (RF) electronics have enabled the generation of pulses of the order of 10-50 ns. Such short pulses provide adequate spectral coverage for EPR studies at 300 MHz resonant frequency. Acquisition of free induction decays (FID) of paramagnetic species possessing...... samples in solution and also when infused intravenously in an anesthetized mouse. Using static magnetic field gradients and back-projection methods of image reconstruction, two-dimensional images of the spin-probe distribution were obtained in phantom samples as well as in a mouse. The resolution...

  16. Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

    2014-09-23

    An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

  17. Effect of pulse electron beam characteristics on internal friction and structural alterations in epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Ismailova, G.A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of internal friction is experimentally studied in epoxy irradiated by 2.5 MeV pulse electron beam to different doses. Time dependence of internal friction characteristics associated with radiation-induced processes of polymer scission and cross-linking is analyzed and discussed. Experimental data on kinetics of structural transformations in epoxy are interpreted on the base of analytical solutions of differential equations for free radical accumulation during and after irradiation subject to the pulse irradiation mode and an arbitrary effective order of radical recombination

  18. Experiments on Ion Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1996-01-01

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source may be increased by one order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. For $Al^(7+)$ ions from an aluminium target a charge enhancement by a factor of 4 has been achieved by electron beam focusing.

  19. Desorption of H atoms from graphite (0001) using XUV free electron laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemer, B.; Olsen, Thomas; Hoger, T.

    2010-01-01

    The desorption of neutral H atoms from graphite with femtosecond XUV pulses is reported. The velocity distribution of the atoms peaks at extremely low kinetic energies. A DFT-based electron scattering calculation traces this distribution to desorption out of specific adsorption sites on graphite......, and identifies the highest vibrational state in the adsorbate potential as a major source for the slow atoms. It is evident that multiple electron scattering processes are required for this desorption. A direct electronic excitation of a repulsive hydrogen-carbon bond seems not to be important....

  20. Experimental subcritical reactivity determinations employing APSD measurements with pulse mode detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Lee, Seung Min; Diniz, Ricardo; Jerez, Rogerio

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to determine experimentally the subcritical reactivity levels of several configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor in an approach based on the subcritical kinetic model developed by Gandini and Salvatores. The procedure employs the measurements of the APSD (Auto Power Spectral Density) using pulse mode detectors. The proposed approach is based only on measured quantities such as counting rates and the parameters arising from the least square approach of the APSD. Other difficult quantity such as detector efficiencies is not needed in the method. Several measurements of APSD were performed in varying degrees of sub-criticality (up to around -7000 pcm). The APSD data were least-square fitted to get the prompt decay mode (α). Beside the startup source, an external neutron sources of Am-Be was installed near the core in order to improve neutron count statistics. The final experimental results are of very good quality. The experiment shows clearly that the classical one point kinetic theory cannot describe the measured reactivity. MCNP K eff results were compared to the corresponding experimental results. The agreement was fairly good. (author)

  1. Subnanosecond breakdown development in high-voltage pulse discharge: Effect of secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. L.; Schweigert, I. V.; Zakrevskiy, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P.; Lavrukhin, M.

    2017-10-01

    A subnanosecond breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge may be a key tool for superfast commutation of high power devices. The breakdown in high-voltage open discharge at mid-high pressure in helium was studied in experiment and in kinetic simulations. The kinetic model of electron avalanche development was constructed, based on PIC-MCC simulations, including dynamics of electrons, ions and fast helium atoms, produced by ions scattering. Special attention was paid to electron emission processes from cathode, such as: photoemission by Doppler-shifted resonant photons, produced in excitation processes involving fast atoms; electron emission by ions and fast atoms bombardment of cathode; the secondary electron emission (SEE) by hot electrons from bulk plasma. The simulations show that the fast atoms accumulation is the main reason of emission growth at the early stage of breakdown, but at the final stage, when the voltage on plasma gap diminishes, namely the SEE is responsible for subnanosecond rate of current growth. It was shown that the characteristic time of the current growth can be controlled by the SEE yield. The influence of SEE yield for three types of cathode material (titanium, SiC, and CuAlMg-alloy) was tested. By changing the pulse voltage amplitude and gas pressure, the area of existence of subnanosecond breakdown is identified. It is shown that in discharge with SiC and CuAlMg-alloy cathodes (which have enhanced SEE) the current can increase with a subnanosecond characteristic time value as small as τs = 0.4 ns, for the pulse voltage amplitude of 5÷12 kV. An increase of gas pressure from 15 Torr to 30 Torr essentially decreases the time of of current front growth, whereas the pulse voltage variation weakly affects the results.

  2. A new method of testing space-based high-energy electron detectors with radioactive electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Shen, G.H.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, D.Z.; Zhang, X.X.; Li, J.W.; Huang, C.; Zhang, X.G.; Dong, Y.J.; Zhang, W.J.; Zhang, B.Q.; Shi, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Space-based electron detectors are commonly tested using radioactive β-sources which emit a continuous spectrum without spectral lines. Therefore, the tests are often to be considered only qualitative. This paper introduces a method, which results in more than a qualitative test even when using a β-source. The basic idea is to use the simulated response function of the instrument to invert the measured spectrum and compare this inverted spectrum with a reference spectrum obtained from the same source. Here we have used Geant4 to simulate the instrument response function (IRF) and a 3.5 mm thick Li-drifted Si detector to obtain the reference 90 Sr/ 90 Yi source spectrum to test and verify the geometric factors of the Omni-Direction Particle Detector (ODPD) on the Tiangong-1 (TG-1) and Tiangong-2 (TG-2) spacecraft. The TG spacecraft are experimental space laboratories and prototypes of the Chinese space station. The excellent agreement between the measured and reference spectra demonstrates that this test method can be used to quantitatively assess the quality of the instrument. Due to its simplicity, the method is faster and therefore more efficient than traditional full calibrations using an electron accelerator.

  3. Review of input stages used in front end electronics for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplon, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present noise analysis of the input stages most commonly used in front end electronics for particle detectors. Analysis shows the calculation of the input referenced noise related to the active devices. It identifies the type, parallel or series, of the equivalent noise sources related to the input transistors, which is the important input for the further choice of the signal processing method. Moreover we calculate the input impedance of amplifiers employed in applications where the particle detector is connected to readout electronics by means of transmission line. We present schematics, small signal models,a complete set of equations, and results of the major steps of calculations for all discussed circuits.

  4. Pulsed X-ray radiography of a gas jet target for laser-matter interaction experiments with the use of a CCD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, R.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; MikoIajczyk, J.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.; Foeldes, I.B.; Toth, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of gas jet targets has been carried out using pulsed X-ray radiography. A laser-plasma X-ray source was applied for backlighting of the targets to obtain X-ray shadowgraphs registered with a CCD detector. From the shadowgraphs, characteristics of the targets were determined

  5. Cherenkov-type diamond detectors for measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Lotte, Ph.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J-Y.; Colledani, G.; Basiuk, V.; Goniche, M.; Lipa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a schematic design and tests of a system applicable for measurements of fast electron pulses emitted from high-temperature plasma generated inside magnetic confinement fusion machines, and particularly in the TORE-SUPRA facility. The diagnostic system based on the registration of the Cherenkov radiation induced by fast electrons within selected solid radiators is considered, and electron low-energy thresholds for different radiators are given. There are some estimates of high thermal loads, which might be deposited by intense electron beams upon parts of the diagnostic equipment within the TORE-SUPRA device. There are some proposed measures to overcome this difficulty by the selection of appropriate absorption filters and Cherenkov radiators, and particularly by the application of a fast-moving reciprocating probe. The paper describes the measuring system, its tests, as well as some results of the preliminary measurements of fast electrons within TORE-SUPRA facility.

  6. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  7. Search for electron decay mode e- → γ + νe with prototype of Borexino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, H.O.; Balata, M.; Bari, A. de.

    2002-01-01

    The prototype of the Borexino detector Counting Test Facility, located in the Gran Sasso laboratory, has been used to obtain a bound on the stability of the electron. The new lower limit on the mean lifetime defined on 32.1 days of data set is τ(e - → γ + ν e ) ≥ 4.6 · 10 26 years (90 % C.L.)

  8. An X-Ray facility to perform irradiation tests and TID studies on electronics and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brundu, Davide; Cadeddu, Sandro; Wyllie, Ken; Ciambrone, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The X-Ray irradiation system of the LHCb group, installed in Cagliari, is presented; with a particular focus on the setup configuration and dose rate calibration. The system can be used to perform Total Ionizing Dose (TID) studies for detectors, readout and front-end electronics. It was already used to test the nSYNC chip, an ASIC for the readout of the LHCb upgraded muon system.

  9. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-07-16

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km{sup 3} of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2} is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E{sup -2} in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  10. Neutrino interaction vertex location with the help of electronic detectors in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornushkin, Yu.A.; Dmitrievskij, S.G.; Chukanov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    OPERA experiment is designed for the direct observation of ν τ appearance from ν μ →ν τ oscillation in a ν μ beam. Description of the procedure of neutrino interaction vertex localization (Brick Finding) by the electronic detectors of a hybrid OPERA setup is presented. The procedure includes muon track and hadronic shower axis reconstruction and determination of the target bricks with the highest probability to contain the vertex.

  11. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km 3 of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10 -8 E -2 GeVs -1 sr -1 cm -2 is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E -2 in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  12. Laser-driven electron beam generation for secondary photon sources with few terawatt laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, K.; Chaulagain, U.; Horny, V.; Kozlova, M.; Krus, M.; Nejdl, J.

    2017-05-01

    Relativistic electron beams accelerated by laser wakefield have the ability to serve as sources of collimated, point-like and femtosecond X-ray radiation. Experimental conditions for generation of stable quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches using a femtosecond few-terawatt laser pulse (600 mJ, 50 fs) were investigated as they are crucial for generation of stable betatron radiation and X-ray pulses from inverse Compton scattering. A mixture of helium with argon, and helium with an admixture of synthetic air were tested for this purpose using different backing pressures and the obtained results are compared. The approach to use synthetic air was previously proven to stabilize the energy and energy spread of the generated electron beams at the given laser power. The accelerator was operated in nonlinear regime with forced self-injection and resulted in the generation of stable relativistic electron beams with an energy of tens of MeV and betatron X-ray radiation was generated in the keV range. A razor blade was tested to create a steep density gradient in order to improve the stability of electron injection and to increase the total electron bunch charge. It was proven that the stable electron and X-ray source can be built at small-scale facilities, which readily opens possibilities for various applications due to availability of such few-terawatt laser systems in many laboratories around the world.

  13. Optimization of the electron beam properties from intense laser pulses interacting with structured gas jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K. K.; Tsai, H.-E.; Barber, S. K.; Lehe, R.; Mao, H.-S.; Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-05-01

    Laser plasma acceleration has been intensely investigated for its ability to produce energetic, ultrashort electron bunches in a compact distance. A high intensity laser pulse propagating through a plasma expels the electrons from the optical axis via the ponderomotive force, leaving behind a column of ions and driving a density wake. The accelerating electric fields present in the wake can reach several orders of magnitude greater than those found in radio-frequency cavities, allowing for compact systems much smaller than those using conventional accelerators. This compact source can provide electrons for various applications including stages for a high energy collider or for production of x-ray pulses from coherent undulator radiation. However, these applications require tunable, stable and high-quality electron beams. We report on a study of controlled injection along a shock-induced density downramp of laser-plasma- accelerated electrons through precision tailoring of the density profile produced from a mm-scale gas jet. Using BELLA Center's TREX Ti:Sapphire laser, the effects of the plasma density profile and the tilt of the shock front on the beam spatial profile, steering, and energy were investigated experimentally. To explain these rela- tionships, we propose simple models which agree well with experimental results. Using this technique, electron beam quality was tailored, allowing for the production of high-quality electron beams with percent-level energy spreads over a range of energies.

  14. Cold cathode electron guns in the LASL high power short-pulse CO2 laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, S.; Ladish, J.S.; Nutter, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Electron Beam Controlled Discharge CO 2 Laser is now firmly established as the only high power short pulse laser amplifier that has been demonstrated to have scaling capabilities to large apertures and energies much greater than 100 J. These devices require a beam of energetic electrons to control the gas discharge that produces the required population inversion. Until recently, the electron source was usually a thermionic emitter, even for rather large lasers, whose heater requirements dwarfed the pulsed energies associated with the transient operation of the laser. With the advent of reliable cold-cathode electron guns, the operation of these lasers has been greatly simplified. At LASL, there are four electron beam controlled laser systems which are in operation, under construction, or in design: the 1 kJ system, now operational; the 2.5 kJ system; the 10 kJ system; and the 100 kJ system. Only the first uses thermionic-emitter electron guns; the remainder use or will use cold cathode sources. The operation of the 200 x 35 cm 2 two sided cold cathode electron gun used in the 2.5 kJ laser system and to be used in the 10 kJ laser is described

  15. study of neutrino interactions using the electronic detectors and emulsion-lead targets of the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolin, Alessandro; Kose, Umut

    2011-01-01

    OPERA collected muon-neutrino interaction during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 physics run of the CNGS neutrino beam, produced at CERN with an energy range of about 5-35 GeV. A total of 5.3 x 10 19 protons on target equivalent luminosity from the 2008-2009 sample has been analysed using the measurements in the electronic detectors. We report on the OPERA electronic detectors performances and comparison of momentum measurements of soft muon tracks performed by the electronic detectors to the measurement performed in the OPERA neutrino target brick.

  16. Study of neutrino interactions with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Altinok, O.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bendhabi, A.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Dal Corso, F.; De Lellis, G.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Gollnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Ishida, H.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kazuyama, K.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Lippi, I.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Mannai, K.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olchevski, A.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pretzl, K.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2011-01-01

    The OPERA experiment is based on a hybrid technology combining electronic detectors and nuclear emulsions. OPERA collected muon-neutrino interactions during the 2008 and 2009 physics runs of the CNGS neutrino beam, produced at CERN with an energy range of about 5-35 GeV. A total of $5.3 \\times 10^{19}$ protons on target equivalent luminosity has been analysed with the OPERA electronic detectors: scintillator strips target trackers and magnetic muon spectrometers equipped with resistive plate gas chambers and drift tubes, allowing a detailed reconstruction of muon-neutrino interactions. Charged Current (CC) and Neutral Current (NC) interactions are identified, using the measurements in the electronic detectors, and the NC/CC ratio is computed. The momentum distribution and the charge of the muon tracks produced in CC interactions are analysed. Calorimetric measurements of the visible energy are performed for both the CC and NC samples. For CC events the Bjorken-$y$ distribution and the hadronic shower profile ...

  17. 3D simulation of electron and ion transmission of GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; da Luz, Hugo Natal

    2017-10-01

    Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been chosen as the main tracking system in several high-flux and high repetition rate experiments. These include on-going experiments such as ALICE and future experiments such as PANDA at FAIR and ILC. Different R&D activities were carried out on the adoption of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The requirement of low ion feedback has been established through these activities. Low ion feedback minimizes distortions due to space charge and maintains the necessary values of detector gain and energy resolution. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been used to study the related physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. Ion backflow and electron transmission of quadruple GEMs, made up of foils with different hole pitch under different electromagnetic field configurations (the projected solutions for the ALICE TPC) have been studied. Finally a new triple GEM detector configuration with low ion backflow fraction and good electron transmission properties has been proposed as a simpler GEM-based alternative suitable for TPCs for future collider experiments.

  18. Development of a multichannel RF field detector for the low-level RF control of the free-electron laser at Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    Modern free electron lasers produce synchrotron radiation with constantly shortening wavelengths of up to 6 nm and pulse widths of up to 100 fs. That requires a constantly increasing stability of the beam energy and arrival time of the electron beam at the undulator entrance which is situated at the end of the accelerator. At the same time, the increasing speed of digital signal processing and data acquisition facilitates new possibilities for the digital radio frequency control and field detection. In this thesis the development of a multichannel radio frequency field detector for the low level radio frequency (LLRF) control of the superconducting cavities of the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH) is described. The applied method of IF sampling is state of the technology and is utilized in many areas of digital communication. It is evaluated concerning its applicability for the LLRF control. Analytical and numerical investigations of the noise behavior and transport in the control loop have been accomplished to define the requirements for the measurement accuracy of the field detector that was to be developed. Therefore, simplified models of the noise behavior of each system component of the control loop, e.g. amplifier, radio frequency mixer and analog-to-digital converter, were established and subsequently assorted to a the model of the control loop. Due to the application of the vector-sum control, where several separately measured field vectors are added to a vector-sum, requirements concerning the allowable compression error of the detector nonlinearity were defined. These were investigated by analytical and numerical methods, as well. Requirements for the hardware that was to be developed were compiled from the simulation results. For the development of the field detector, a modular and EMC-compatible concept with a high-level passive front-end for an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio was chosen. The following tests in the lab delivered the

  19. Development of a multichannel RF field detector for the low-level RF control of the free-electron laser at Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Modern free electron lasers produce synchrotron radiation with constantly shortening wavelengths of up to 6 nm and pulse widths of up to 100 fs. That requires a constantly increasing stability of the beam energy and arrival time of the electron beam at the undulator entrance which is situated at the end of the accelerator. At the same time, the increasing speed of digital signal processing and data acquisition facilitates new possibilities for the digital radio frequency control and field detection. In this thesis the development of a multichannel radio frequency field detector for the low level radio frequency (LLRF) control of the superconducting cavities of the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH) is described. The applied method of IF sampling is state of the technology and is utilized in many areas of digital communication. It is evaluated concerning its applicability for the LLRF control. Analytical and numerical investigations of the noise behavior and transport in the control loop have been accomplished to define the requirements for the measurement accuracy of the field detector that was to be developed. Therefore, simplified models of the noise behavior of each system component of the control loop, e.g. amplifier, radio frequency mixer and analog-to-digital converter, were established and subsequently assorted to a the model of the control loop. Due to the application of the vector-sum control, where several separately measured field vectors are added to a vector-sum, requirements concerning the allowable compression error of the detector nonlinearity were defined. These were investigated by analytical and numerical methods, as well. Requirements for the hardware that was to be developed were compiled from the simulation results. For the development of the field detector, a modular and EMC-compatible concept with a high-level passive front-end for an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio was chosen. The following tests in the lab delivered the

  20. Digital front-end electronics for COMPASS Muon-Wall 1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Maggiora, A.

    2005-01-01

    The digital front-end electronics for the COMPASS Muon-Wall 1 (CERN) detector is described. The digital card has been designed on the basis of the TDC chip F1. One card includes 6 F1 chips (192 channels), bus arbiter, DAC, power supply distribution, hot-link interface. The total number of the digital cards in the system is 44 housed in 5 euro-crates (6U), the total number of readout channels is 8448. The electronics has been designed by the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (JINR) and INFN (Torino, Italy) experts

  1. Physical packaging and organization of the drift chamber electronics system for the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Freytag, M.L.; Mazaheri, G.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.

    1990-10-01

    In this paper the logical organization, physical packaging, and operation of the drift chamber electronics for the SLD at SLAC is described. The system processes signals from approximately 7000 drift wires and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged on printed circuit boards within the detector. The circuits reside on signal-processing motherboards, controller boards, signal-transition boards, power-distribution boards, and fiber-optics-to-electrical conversion boards. The interaction and interconnection of these boards with respect to signal and control flow are presented. 11 refs., 7 figs

  2. High-current pulse electron accelerators based on stepped forming lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Filipov, V O; Petrov, A N; Gridasov, A P

    2001-01-01

    There presented is a brief review of I-3000, STRAUS, STRAUS-2 and LIA-10M accelerators produced in VNIEF over the period from 1981 to 1994. All the installations function in the mode of single pulses. Their distinction consists in using the systems of forming high-voltage pulses on the basis of stepped forming lines. Such installations formed of line sections of a similar electrical length with a stepped character of impedance variance provide a high efficiency and as a result of wave processes increase for a several time the output voltage as compared to the charge voltage of lines. The limiting energy of accelerated electrons for the created accelerators lies within the range from 2.3 to 25 MeV, beam current amplitude - from 20 to 50 kA, current pulse width at half-height - from 16 to 40 ns. The basic characteristics of each accelerator are presented.

  3. In vivo imaging of a stable paramagnetic probe by pulsed-radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murugesan; Cook; Devasahayam

    1997-01-01

    , Recent advances in radiofrequency (RF) electronics have enabled the generation of pulses of the order of 10-50 ns. Such short pulses provide adequate spectral coverage for EPR studies at 300 MHz resonant frequency. Acquisition of free induction decays (FID) of paramagnetic species possessing...... inhomogeneously broadened narrow lines after pulsed excitation is feasible with an appropriate digitizer/averager. This report describes the use of time-domain RF EPR spectrometry and imaging for in vivo applications. FID responses were collected from a water-soluble, narrow line width spin probe within phantom...... samples in solution and also when infused intravenously in an anesthetized mouse. Using static magnetic field gradients and back-projection methods of image reconstruction, two-dimensional images of the spin-probe distribution were obtained in phantom samples as well as in a mouse. The resolution...

  4. Pulse shape optimization for electron-positron production in rotating fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Hebenstreit, Florian; Gagnon, Denis; MacLean, Steve

    2017-07-01

    We optimize the pulse shape and polarization of time-dependent electric fields to maximize the production of electron-positron pairs via strong field quantum electrodynamics processes. The pulse is parametrized in Fourier space by a B -spline polynomial basis, which results in a relatively low-dimensional parameter space while still allowing for a large number of electric field modes. The optimization is performed by using a parallel implementation of the differential evolution, one of the most efficient metaheuristic algorithms. The computational performance of the numerical method and the results on pair production are compared with a local multistart optimization algorithm. These techniques allow us to determine the pulse shape and field polarization that maximize the number of produced pairs in computationally accessible regimes.

  5. Feasibility analysis for attosecond X-ray pulses at FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    We present preliminary analysis for the feasibility of the attosecond x-ray pulses at a proposed FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser (FEL) [1]. In part 1 we restrict ourselves to minimal modifications to the proposed FEL and consider a scheme for attosecond x-ray production which can be qualified as a small add-on to a primary facility. We demonstrate that at 5-nm wavelength our scheme is capable for production of pulses with an approximate duration of 100 attoseconds at approximately 2 MW peak power and with an absolute temporal synchronization to a pump laser pulse. In part 2 we propose to use an FEL amplifier seeded by a VUV signal and to follow it by the scheme for attosecond x-ray production described in part 1.

  6. Medipix3 Demonstration and understanding of near ideal detector performance for 60 & 80 keV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, J.A.; MacInnes, R.; Gough, C.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Sawada, H.; MacLaren, I.; Ballabriga, R.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; McGrouther, D.; Kirkland, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In our article we report first quantitative measurements of imaging performance for the current generation of hybrid pixel detector, Medipix3, as direct electron detector. Utilising beam energies of 60 & 80 keV, measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have revealed that, in single pixel mode (SPM), energy threshold values can be chosen to maximize either the MTF or DQE, obtaining values near to, or even exceeding, those for an ideal detector. We have demonstrated that the Medipix3 charge summing mode (CSM) can deliver simultaneous, near ideal values of both MTF and DQE. To understand direct detection performance further we have characterized the detector response to single electron events, building an empirical model which can predict detector MTF and DQE performance based on energy threshold. Exemplifying our findings we demonstrate the Medipix3 imaging performance, recording a fully exposed electron diffraction pattern at 24-bit depth and images in SPM a...

  7. Coherence limits and chirp control in long pulse free electron laser oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Socol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental studies of the spectral linewidth and chirp characteristics of the mm-wave rf radiation of the Israeli Electrostatic-Accelerator free electron laser (EA-FEL, along with theory and numerical simulations. The simulations, matching the experimental data, were carried out using a space-frequency-domain model. EA-FELs have the capacity to generate long pulses of tens microseconds and more, that in principle can be elongated indefinitely (cw operation. Since a cold beam FEL is by nature a “homogeneously broadened laser,” EA-FEL can operate, unlike other kinds of FELs, at a single longitudinal mode (single frequency. This allows the generation of very coherent radiation. The current status of the Israeli Tandem Electrostatic-Accelerator FEL, which is based on an electrostatic Van de Graaff accelerator, allows the generation of pulses of tens microseconds duration. It has been operated recently past saturation, and produced single-mode coherent radiation of record narrow inherent relative linewidth ∼Δf/f=10^{-6} at frequencies near 100 GHz. A frequency chirp was observed during the pulses of tens of microseconds (0.3–0.5  MHz/ms. This is essentially a drifting “frequency-pulling effect,” associated with the accelerator voltage drop during the pulse. Additionally, damped relaxation of the FEL oscillator was experimentally measured at the beginning and the end of the lasing pulse, in good correspondence to our theory and numerical simulations. We propose using the chirped signal of the pulsed EA-FEL for single pulse sweep spectroscopy of very fine resolution. The characteristics of this application are analyzed based on the experimental data.

  8. Supersymmetry with decoupled scalars and reconstruction and identification of electrons in the Atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Atlas experiment, installed on the LHC, is fully functional and ready to record data. In this thesis, I presented my contribution to the preparation of the Atlas experiment. First, I exposed the improvements I brought to the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the Atlas detector. Electrons are of major importance for many physics studies. I showed that an electron identification efficiency of about 70% (for electrons with p T > 25 GeV and in the central region of the detector) was reached for a jet rejection of 10 5 (for jets with p T > 17 GeV). This was achieved thanks to the analysis of many identification variables on both signal and background. The correspondence between tracks left by electrons in the tracking detector and electromagnetic showers left by their decay in the calorimeter was fully exploited to reject photons and neutral mesons. Secondly, I presented my contribution to the preparation for the search for supersymmetry at the LHC. The Decoupled Scalars Supersymmetry (DSS) model is a heavy-scalars model with only five parameters. DSS was studied in two points in parameter space, covering the entire domain of interest at the LHC. In this framework, supersymmetry may be produced at the LHC through gluino or gaugino pairs. They sign in the detector by a large amount of missing transverse energy due to the non-detection of the lightest supersymmetric particle, many jets with large transverse momenta and leptons in the case of gaugino decays. Thanks to an analysis based on the Monte Carlo generation of signal and background samples and a semi-fast simulation of the Atlas detector, I showed that both points can be discovered or excluded at the LHC. I investigated a number of observables that may be measured at the LHC such as the mass splitting between the two lightest neutralinos, the cross-section for the production of gluino pairs and the tri-lepton signal, the ration of on-shell to off-shell Z bosons produced in supersymmetric

  9. Synchronization of femtosecond UV-IR laser with electron beam for pulse radiolysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akinori; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Isoyama, Goro; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    A picosecond stroboscopic pulse radiolysis system which consists of a femtosecond laser and a picosecond L-band linear accelerator (linac) is demonstrated. A newly installed femtosecond laser system operated at 960 Hz can cover a wide region of wavelength ranging from <300 nm to 10 μm, although the upper limit is 1.7 μm to date because of the sensitivity of photodetectors. In order to achieve a high accuracy of synchronization between the laser and the linac, a new timing and synchronization circuit was developed. A double pulse detection method was applied for the new system, resulting in doubling of the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution and time jitter were estimated from the rise time of hydrated electrons at 600 nm, and the transient absorption kinetics of electrons in n-dodecane was measured at 1300 nm

  10. Measurements of Electron Transport in Foils Irradiated with a Picosecond Time Scale Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. R. D.; Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Swatton, D.; Hughes, S. J.; Morton, J. W.; Guymer, T. M.; Hill, M. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Andrew, J. E.; Comley, A. J.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Chen, H.; Schneider, M.; Brown, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.

    2011-01-01

    The heating of solid foils by a picosecond time scale laser pulse has been studied by using x-ray emission spectroscopy. The target material was plastic foil with a buried layer of a spectroscopic tracer material. The laser pulse length was either 0.5 or 2 ps, which resulted in a laser irradiance that varied over the range 10 16 -10 19 W/cm 2 . Time-resolved measurements of the buried layer emission spectra using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera were used to infer the density and temperature conditions as a function of laser parameters and depth of the buried layer. Comparison of the data to different models of electron transport showed that they are consistent with a model of electron transport that predicts the bulk of the target heating is due to return currents.

  11. Pulsed Laser Ablation and Deposition with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anne; Allmond, Chris; Shinn, Michelle

    2002-05-01

    We have been conducting some of the first experiments in pulsed laser ablation and deposition with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser (TJNAF-FEL). The wavelength tunability, high average power (up to 1.72 kW), very high repetition rate (cw rate up to 74 MHz) and ultrafast pulses ( 650 fs) of the TJNAF-FEL present a combination of parameters unmatched by any laser, which has marked benefits for ablation and deposition. We will be presenting results on ablation of metals (Co,NiFe,Ti,Nb). Comparison with thin films deposited with a standard nanosecond laser source and an ultrafast low-repetition rate laser system show the advantage of using the FEL to produce high quality films at high deposition rates. Preliminary optical spectroscopy studies of the ablation plume and electron/ion emission studies during ablation will also be presented.

  12. Development of Trigger and Readout Electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Junjie; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned Phase-I and Phase-II upgrades of the LHC accelerator drastically impacts the ATLAS trigger and trigger rates. A replacement of the ATLAS innermost endcap muon station with a new small wheel (NSW) detector is planned for the second long shutdown period of 2019 - 2020. This upgrade will allow us to maintain a low pT threshold for single muon and excellent tracking capability even after the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The NSW detector will feature two new detector technologies, Resistive Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers. Both detector technologies will provide trigger and tracking primitives. The total number of trigger and readout channels is about 2.4 millions, and the overall power consumption is expected to be about 75 kW. The electronics design will be implemented in some 8000 front-end boards including the design of four custom front-end ASICs capable to drive trigger and tracking primitives with high speed sterilizers to drive trigger candidates to the backend trigger processor sy...

  13. A position-sensitive electron detector for use in electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hubin-Franskin, M J

    2002-01-01

    A home-made position-sensitive electron detection system has been mounted on an electron energy loss spectrometer. It makes use of advanced technology, is easy to handle with and not too expensive. The K-shell excitation spectrum of benzene is given as an example of the quality of the signal-to-noise ratio while keeping the resolution.

  14. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from Z → ee, Z → eeγ and J/ψ → ee decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with E{sub T} = 15 GeV and 99% at E{sub T} = 50 GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of gas flow in a secondary electron scintillation detector for ESEM with a new system of pressure limiting apertures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maxa, J.; Neděla, Vilém; Jirák, J.; Vyroubal, P.; Hladká, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), s. 39-44 ISSN 1802-2308 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM, * SEs Scintillation Detector * CFD * CAE * SolidWorks * Ansys Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Styrene vapor decomposition in air under the action a pulse electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Mesyats, G A; Filatov, I E

    2001-01-01

    The results of experiments on the styrene vapor removal from the air through the pulse electron beam of the nanosecond duration and also through the nonindependent voluminous discharge are presented. The macrokinetic equations of the process obtained on the basis of these results, make it possible to systematize the data and also extrapolate them beyond the boundaries of the studied area of concentrations and energy, contained in the gas

  17. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2015 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note summarises the electron efficiency measurements using the 2015 LHC pp collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The data, collected by the ATLAS detector, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. The studies are focused on electron reconstruction, identification, trigger and isolation algorithms. The combination of these algorithms leads to a large variety of operating points for the electron measurement, with diverse signal efficiency versus background rejection performance. Samples of electron candidates with transverse energies above 7 GeV, in the central region of the detector defined by the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.47 are selected using the tag-and-probe method for Z → ee and J/ψ → ee processes. The measurements performed on data are compared to the measurements done on Monte Carlo simulations in the same phase space. The deviations are expressed as data-to-MC ratios, which are provided for a variety of operating points, and used in the physics analyses in order ...

  18. A high-speed area detector for novel imaging techniques in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, T.A.; Ercius, P.; Tate, M.W.; Ercan, A.; Gruner, S.M.; Muller, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) produces a convergent beam electron diffraction pattern at each position of a raster scan with a focused electron beam, but recording this information poses major challenges for gathering and storing such large data sets in a timely manner and with sufficient dynamic range. To investigate the c