WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic disease surveillance

  1. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  2. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  3. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  5. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  6. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  7. Disease surveillance among newly arriving refugees and immigrants--Electronic Disease Notification System, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Philen, Rossanne; Wang, Zanju; McSpadden, Pamela; Posey, Drew L; Ortega, Luis S; Weinberg, Michelle S; Brown, Clive; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A

    2013-11-15

    Approximately 450,000 legal permanent immigrants and 75,000 refugees enter the United States annually after receiving required medical examinations by overseas panel physicians (physicians who follow the CDC medical screening guidelines provided to the U.S. Department of State). CDC has the regulatory responsibility for preventing the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases into the United States as well as for developing the guidelines, known as technical instructions, for the overseas medical examinations. Other conditions that are not infectious might preclude an immigrant or refugee from entering the United States and also are reported as part of the medical examination. After arrival in the United States, all refugees are recommended to obtain a medical assessment by a health-care provider or a health department within 30 days. In addition, immigrants with certain medical conditions such as noninfectious tuberculosis at the time of the original medical examination are recommended to be evaluated after arrival to ensure that appropriate prevention or treatment measures are instituted. Health departments need timely and accurate notifications of newly arriving immigrants, refugees, and persons with other visa types to facilitate these evaluations. Notifications for all newly arriving refugees (with or without medical conditions) and immigrants with medical conditions are provided by CDC's Electronic Disease Notification (EDN) system. This is the first report describing EDN. This report summarizes notifications by the EDN system during January-December 2009. The EDN system is a centralized electronic reporting system that collects health information on newly arriving refugees and immigrants with Class A and Class B medical conditions. Class A conditions render applicants inadmissible and require a waiver for entry; Class B conditions are admissible but might require treatment or follow-up. Information in the EDN system is used to notify

  8. A Best Practices Model for Implementing Successful Electronic Disease Surveillance Systems: Insights from Peru and Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    reports provided detailed information for each case such as age, residential district, gender, and laboratory data. For instance, dengue fever and... region in Management of Childhood Observational study I) Training component I) Experienced high staff turnover. Brazil ; Inclusion Illness) aims to reduce...proved to be key to the successful implementation of such a system. National and regional surveillance teams performed the critical functions of disease

  9. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

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    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  10. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  11. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as socia...

  12. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.; Abel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  13. Prospective surveillance of multivariate spatial disease data

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    Corberán-Vallet, A

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance systems are often focused on more than one disease within a predefined area. On those occasions when outbreaks of disease are likely to be correlated, the use of multivariate surveillance techniques integrating information from multiple diseases allows us to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of outbreak detection. In this article, we present an extension of the surveillance conditional predictive ordinate to monitor multivariate spatial disease data. The proposed surveillance technique, which is defined for each small area and time period as the conditional predictive distribution of those counts of disease higher than expected given the data observed up to the previous time period, alerts us to both small areas of increased disease incidence and the diseases causing the alarm within each area. We investigate its performance within the framework of Bayesian hierarchical Poisson models using a simulation study. An application to diseases of the respiratory system in South Carolina is finally presented. PMID:22534429

  14. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  15. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

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    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  17. Integrated Disease Surveillance in India: Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak K. Raut; Anil K. Bhola

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) with 9 years of its implementation in India has given a positive impetus to integration of surveillance functions primarily for epidemic prone diseases and decentralized symptoms--‐based detection of early warning signals of outbreaks at primary health care level. This review is based on systematic literature review through PubMed and Google Scholar databases and published reports of the IDSP from 2005-2013. It attempts to describe the progr...

  18. Integrated Disease Surveillance in India: Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak K. Raut

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) with 9 years of its implementation in India has given a positive impetus to integration of surveillance functions primarily for epidemic prone diseases and decentralized symptoms-based detection of early warning signals of outbreaks at primary health care level. This review is based on systematic literature review through PubMed and Google Scholar databases and published reports of the IDSP from 2005-2013. It attempts to describe the progress ...

  19. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  20. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

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    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  1. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

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    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  2. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.......g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index...

  3. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  4. Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania adopted an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 in order to strengthen its infectious disease surveillance system. During that time, the country had 5 separate surveillance systems to monitor infectious disease trends and disease control programmes. The systems included the ...

  5. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  6. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  7. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  8. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part o...

  10. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  11. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  12. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  14. Chinese social media analysis for disease surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Yang, Nanhai [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Wang, Zhibo [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China); Hu, Cheng [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Zhu, Weiping [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Li, Hanjie [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Ji, Yujie [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Liu, Cheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-11

    Here, it is reported that there are hundreds of thou- sands of deaths caused by seasonal flu all around the world every year. More other diseases such as chickenpox, malaria, etc. are also serious threats to people’s physical and mental health. There are 250,000–500,000 deaths every year around the world. Therefore proper techniques for disease surveillance are highly demanded. Recently, social media analysis is regarded as an efficient way to achieve this goal, which is feasible since growing number of people have been posting their health information on social media such as blogs, personal websites, etc. Previous work on social media analysis mainly focused on English materials but hardly considered Chinese materials, which hinders the application of such technique to Chinese peo- ple. In this paper, we proposed a new method of Chinese social media analysis for disease surveillance. More specifically, we compared different kinds of methods in the process of classification and then proposed a new way to process Chinese text data. The Chinese Sina micro-blog data collected from September to December 2013 are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that a high classification precision of 87.49 % in average has been obtained. Comparing with the data from the authority, Chinese National Influenza Center, we can predict the outbreak time of flu 5 days earlier.

  15. [Population surveillance of coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Bougatef, Souha; Skhiri, Hajer; Gharbi, Donia; Haouala, Habib; Achour, Noureddine

    2005-05-01

    A cross-sectional population survey was carried out in the Ariana region in 2000-01. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of CHD as indicated by ECG Minnesota coding. A randomly selected sample included 1837 adults 40-70 years. Data on socio-economic status, demographic, medical history, health behaviour, clinical and biological investigations were recorded. Risk factors (hypertension, dyslipedemia, obesity, diabetes) are defined according to WHO criterias. Standard supine 12 lead ECGs were recorded. All ECGs are red and classified according to the Minnesota codes criteria on CHD probable, CHD possible and on Major abnormalities and minor abnormalities. CHD prevalence was higher on women. Major abnormalities are more common on women (20.6% vs 13%), while minor abnormalities prevalence was higher on men (15.5% vs 7.5%) (p<0.0001). The prevalence increased with age in both genders. This study tested how feasible is the population approach on CVDs surveillance. It highlighted the burden of cardiovascular diseases and support that women are at risk as men are. The value of ECG findings must be integrated in the cardiovascular diseases surveillance to identify high risk population.

  16. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  17. Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Ip, Dennis K M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y

    2011-10-14

    Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public health actions.

  18. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  19. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Usefulness of data from primary care for real-time surveillance of diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of bioterrorism and the outbreaks of new infectious diseases require rapid identification of clusters of illness. The increased availability of electronic data in health care makes real-time surveillance of diseases possible. Therefore, we investigated the

  1. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of

  2. Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...

  3. Enhancing disease surveillance reporting using public transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing disease surveillance reporting using public transport in Dodoma District, Central Tanzania. ... LEG Mboera, SF Rumisha, EJ Mwanemile, E Mziwanda, PK Mmbuji ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  5. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and ...

  6. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E.; Sharif, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Context: Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. Objective: PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. Design: An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual report...

  7. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Walsh, Kelly A; Vieira, Antonio R; Herman, Karen; Williams, Ian T; Hall, Aron J; Cole, Dana

    2013-06-28

    Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 48 million illnesses each year in the United States, including 9.4 million caused by known pathogens. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance provides valuable insights into the agents and foods that cause illness and the settings in which transmission occurs. CDC maintains a surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. This surveillance system is the primary source of national data describing the numbers of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; implicated foods; contributing factors; and settings of food preparation and consumption associated with recognized foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. 1998-2008. The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. Public health agencies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, and Freely Associated States have primary responsibility for identifying and investigating outbreaks and use a standard form to report outbreaks voluntarily to CDC. During 1998-2008, reporting was made through the electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System (eFORS). During 1998-2008, CDC received reports of 13,405 foodborne disease outbreaks, which resulted in 273,120 reported cases of illness, 9,109 hospitalizations, and 200 deaths. Of the 7,998 outbreaks with a known etiology, 3,633 (45%) were caused by viruses, 3,613 (45%) were caused by bacteria, 685 (5%) were caused by chemical and toxic agents, and 67 (1%) were caused by parasites. Among the 7,724 (58%) outbreaks with an implicated food or contaminated ingredient reported, 3,264 (42%) could be assigned to one of 17 predefined commodity categories: fish, crustaceans, mollusks, dairy, eggs, beef, game, pork, poultry, grains/beans, oils

  8. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  10. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  11. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Chantal R M; Aaronson, Neil K; Hes, Frederik J; Links, Thera P; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Lenders, Jacques W M; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; Van Os, Theo A M; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B; de Herder, Wouter; van der Luijt, Rob B; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Hest, Liselot P; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2011-06-01

    To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic surveillance. Medical record data on compliance with recommended radiologic surveillance examinations were also collected. Of the 84 (77%) participants, 78 indicated having received advice to undergo periodic surveillance. Of these, 71 reported being fully compliant with that advice. In 64% of the cases, this advice was only partially consistent with published guidelines. Based on medical record data, between one quarter and one third of individuals did not undergo surveillance as recommended in the guidelines for central nervous system lesions and one half for visceral lesions. Screening delay for central nervous system lesions was significantly higher in one hospital and in those cases where "the advice given" deviated from the guidelines. The majority of those with or at risk of Von Hippel-Lindau disease reported having received and being fully compliant with screening advice. However, in many cases, the advice given was only partially consistent with published guidelines, and screening delays were observed. Efforts should be undertaken to stimulate guideline-based surveillance advice and to minimize screening delay.

  12. Mass gatherings: A one-stop opportunity to complement global disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habida Elachola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infections including those resulting from the bioterrorist use of infectious agents have indicated the need for global health surveillance. This paper reviews multiple surveillance opportunities presented by mass gatherings (MGs that align with fundamental questions in epidemiology (why, what, who, where, when and how. Some MGs bring together large, diverse population groups coming from countries with high prevalence of communicable diseases and disparate surveillance capacities. MGs have the potential to exacerbate the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases due to various factors including the high population density and rigor of events, increase in number of people with underlying diseases that predisposes them to disease acquisition, mixing of people from countries or regions with and without efficient disease control efforts, and varying endemicity or existence of communicable diseases in home countries. MGs also have the potential to increase the opportunities for mechanical and even heat-related injuries, morbidity or deaths from accidents, alcohol use, deliberate terrorist attacks with biological agents and/or with explosives and from exacerbation of pre-existing conditions. Responding to these wider range of events may require the use of novel bio-surveillance systems designed to collect data from different sources including electronic and non-electronic medical records from emergency departments and hospitalisations, laboratories, medical examiners, emergency call centres, veterinary, food processors, drinking water systems and even other non-traditional sources such as over-the-counter drug sales and crowd photographs. Well-structured, interoperable real-time surveillance and reporting systems should be integral to MG planning. The increase in magnitude of participants exceeding millions and diversity of people attending MGs can be proactively used to conduct active surveillance of communicable and non

  13. Conditional predictive inference for online surveillance of spatial disease incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corberán-Vallet, Ana; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of statistical methodology for timely detection of incident disease clusters in space and time. The increasing availability of data on both the time and the location of events enables the construction of multivariate surveillance techniques, which may enhance the ability to detect localized clusters of disease relative to the surveillance of the overall count of disease cases across the entire study region. We introduce the surveillance conditional predictive ordinate as a general Bayesian model-based surveillance technique that allows us to detect small areas of increased disease incidence when spatial data are available. To address the problem of multiple comparisons, we incorporate a common probability that each small area signals an alarm when no change in the risk pattern of disease takes place into the analysis. We investigate the performance of the proposed surveillance technique within the framework of Bayesian hierarchical Poisson models using a simulation study. Finally, we present a case study of salmonellosis in South Carolina. PMID:21898522

  14. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part of what he called “epidemic intelligence.” Langmuir developed the practice of disease surveillance during an unprecedented moment in which the threat of biological warfare brought civil defense experts and epidemiologists together around a common problem. In this paper, I describe how Langmuir navigated this world, experimenting with new techniques and rationales of epidemic control. Ultimately, I argue, Langmuir′s experiments resulted in a set of techniques and infrastructures – a system of epidemic intelligence – that transformed the epidemic as an object of human art.

  15. Participatory Disease Surveillance in the Detection of Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the detection of trans-boundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Borno State. Participatory epidemiology is an emerging field that is based on the use of participatory techniques for harvesting qualitative epidemiological intelligence contained within community observations, ...

  16. Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. ... of the health‑care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively.

  17. Public Health Surveillance via Template Management in Electronic Health Records: Tri-Service Workflow's Rapid Response to an Infectious Disease Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, Holly; Barnes, Matthew; Carnahan, David; Hayhurst, Janet; Bockhorst, Archie; Neville, James

    2017-03-01

    To describe the use of template-based screening for risk of infectious disease exposure of patients presenting to primary care medical facilities during the 2014 West African Ebola virus outbreak. The Military Health System implemented an Ebola risk-screening tool in primary care settings in order to create early notifications and early responses to potentially infected persons. Three time-sensitive, evidence-based screening questions were developed and posted to Tri-Service Workflow (TSWF) AHLTA templates in conjunction with appropriate training. Data were collected in January 2015, to assess the adoption of the TSWF-based Ebola risk-screening tool. Among encounters documented using TSWF templates, 41% of all encounters showed use of the TSWF-based Ebola risk-screening questions by the fourth day. The screening rate increased over the next 3 weeks, and reached a plateau at approximately 50%. This report demonstrates the MHS capability to deploy a standardized, globally applicable decision support aid that could be seen the same day by all primary care clinics across the military health direct care system, potentially improving rapid compliance with screening directives. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R.; Olson, Don

    2016-01-01

    , flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying...... of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection...

  19. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar

    Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for

  20. Validation of an electronic surveillance system for acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herasevich, Vitaly; Yilmaz, Murat; Khan, Hasrat; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen

    2009-06-01

    Early detection of acute lung injury (ALI) is essential for timely implementation of evidence-based therapies and enrollment into clinical trials. We aimed to determine the accuracy of computerized syndrome surveillance for detection of ALI in hospitalized patients and compare it with routine clinical assessment. Using a near-real time copy of the electronic medical records, we developed and validated a custom ALI electronic alert (ALI "sniffer") based on the European-American Consensus Conference Definition and compared its performance against provider-derived documentation. A total of 3,795 consecutive critically ill patients admitted to nine multidisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care teaching institution were included. ALI developed in 325 patients and was recognized by bedside clinicians in only 86 (26.5%). Under-recognition of ALI was associated with not implementing protective mechanical ventilation (median tidal volumes of 9.2 vs. 8.0 ml/kg predicted body weight, P sniffer" demonstrated excellent sensitivity of 96% (95% CI 94-98) and moderate specificity of 89% (95% CI 88-90) with a positive predictive value ranging from 24% (95% CI 13-40) in the heart-lung transplant ICU to 64% (95% CI 55-71) in the medical ICU. The computerized surveillance system accurately identifies critically ill patients who develop ALI syndrome. Since the lack of ALI recognition is a barrier to the timely implementation of best practices and enrollment into research studies, computerized syndrome surveillance could be a useful tool to enhance patient safety and clinical research.

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  2. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems : China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards

  3. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia, update to December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Genevieve M; Boyd, Alison; Sarros, Shannon; Stehmann, Christiane; Simpson, Marion; McLean, Catriona A; Masters, Collin L; Collins, Stephen J

    2014-12-31

    Nation-wide surveillance of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Surveillance has been undertaken since 1993. Over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements, the emergence of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness and understanding of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the health care setting. In 2013, routine surveillance continued and this brief report provides an update of the surveillance data collected by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry prospectively from 1993 to December 2013, and retrospectively to 1970. The report highlights the recent multi-national collaborative study published that has verified the correlation between surveillance intensity and reported disease incidence. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the specific written permission from the Commonwealth to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent to the Online, Services and External Relations Branch, Department of

  4. Lyme Disease in West Virginia: An Assessment of Distribution and Clinicians' Knowledge of Disease and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarah; Parker, David; Mark-Carew, Miguella; White, Robert; Fisher, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. This study examines Lyme disease distribution in West Virginia (WV) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. Lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the WV Bureau for Public Health. A validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of disease diagnosis and surveillance. There were 297 adult Lyme disease cases of which 83 were confirmed. Clinician survey responses resulted in a correct response rate of 70% for Lyme disease knowledge questions. Fewer than half of all clinicians were aware of the surveillance criteria for confirming Lyme disease cases. Neither medical specialty nor previous treatment of patients with Lyme disease were significantly associated with clinicians' knowledge of the disease. Clinicians in WV are familiar with symptoms and clinical management of Lyme disease. However, they are less knowledgeable about diagnosis and public health surveillance comprising reporting and confirming cases of the disease. Clinicians and public health authorities should collaborate more closely to promote education and awareness as a key step to successfully reducing the burden of Lymne disease.

  5. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...... the risk of future cases, detected and undetected, of a waning infection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Both studies were successful in advancing European policy changes to reduce the cost of surveillance to appropriate levels given the magnitude of the respective hazards....

  6. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-04-23

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  7. A Global Cancer Surveillance Framework Within Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance: Making the Case for Population-Based Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Znaor, Ariana; Mery, Les; Bray, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities of NCD surveillance and, within it, of cancer surveillance. We propose a general framework for cancer surveillance that permits monitoring the core components of cancer control. We examine communalities in approaches to the surveillance of other major NCDs as well as communicable diseases, illustrating key differences in the function, coverage, and reporting in each system. Although risk factor surveys and vital statistics registration are the foundation of surveillance of NCDs, population-based cancer registries play a unique fundamental role specific to cancer surveillance, providing indicators of population-based incidence and survival. With an onus now placed on governments to collect these data as part of the monitoring of NCD targets, the integration of cancer registries into existing and future NCD surveillance strategies is a vital requirement in all countries worldwide. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development, endorsed by the World Health Organization, provides a means to enhance cancer surveillance capacity in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. perspective transforming zoonotic disease surveillance and spatial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kamani

    for human and animal well-being (indeed, humans are ... whereas the other might be a work animal that has ranged ... In the present system of recording disease occurrence ... existing data, and synthetic analyses must ... of error: omission error (predicting areas of known .... data served to permit effective and efficient ...

  9. Koi herpesvirus disease (khvd) surveillance and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Way, K.; Bergmann, S. M.; Engelsma, Marc

    together skills and experience on this fish disease from different parts of Europe. In the report of the meeting sent to the commission important issues concerning serology and cyprinid herpesvirus variants were raised. We hope that our recommendations to resolve these issues will be considered...

  10. Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Reporting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-intervention assessment on the groups was done.We analysed ... statistically significant (χ = 16.31;df= 1;p< 0.0000) in the intervention group. Conclusion: The study ..... staff; Nurses, Midwives, Environmental. Health Officers ... may also be found at other tiers of healthcare delivery. .... Performance of Integrated Disease.

  11. The Danish National Veterinary Institute and disease surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl

    The National Veterinary Institute at the Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Vet, conducts research in infectious diseases in livestock, wildlife and fish, and diagnoses diseased animals. We give advice to public authorities and cooperate with these on the Danish veterinary contingency plan...... on animal diseases and zoonoses. We will give a general overview of the activities of DTU-Vet with focus on participation in serological disease surveillance and on two selected examples from the laboratories: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) was first identified in Europe in 1971, and PED virus (PEDV...

  12. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  13. Malware and Disease: Lessons from Cyber Intelligence for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Malicious software and infectious diseases are similar is several respects, as are the functional requirements for surveillance and intelligence to defend against these threats. Given these similarities, this article compares and contrasts the actors, relationships, and norms at work in cyber intelligence and disease surveillance. Historical analysis reveals that civilian cyber defense is more decentralized, private, and voluntary than public health in the United States. Most of these differences are due to political choices rather than technical necessities. In particular, political resistance to government institutions has shaped cyber intelligence over the past 30 years, which is a troubling sign for attempts to improve disease surveillance through local, state, and federal health departments. Information sharing about malware is also limited, despite information technology being integral to cyberspace. Such limits suggest that automation through electronic health records will not automatically improve public health surveillance. Still, certain aspects of information sharing and analysis for cyber defense are worth emulating or, at the very least, learning from to help detect and manage health threats.

  14. Enhanced Disease Surveillance during the 2012 Republican National Convention, Tampa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrubin, David; Wiese, Michael; Snider, Rebecca; Workman, Kiley; McDougle, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe disease and illness surveillance utilized during the 2012 Republican National Convention (RNC) held August 26–30, 2012 in Tampa, FL. Introduction While the Tampa Bay Area has previously hosted other high profile events that required heightened disease surveillance (e.g., two Super Bowls), the 2012 RNC marked the first national special security event (NSSE) held in Florida. The Hillsborough County Health Department (HCHD), in conjunction with the Pinellas County Health Department (PinCHD) coordinated disease surveillance activities during this time frame. This presentation will focus of the disease surveillance efforts of the Hillsborough County Health Department during the 2012 RNC. In addition to the surveillance systems that are used routinely, the HCHD Epidemiology Program implemented additional systems designed to rapidly detect individual cases and outbreaks of public health importance. The short duration of RNC, coupled with the large number of visitors to our area, provided additional surveillance challenges. Tropical Storm Isaac, which threatened Tampa in the days leading up to RNC, and an overwhelming law enforcement presence likely dissuaded many protestors from coming to Tampa. As a result, a tiny fraction of the number of protestors that were expected actually showed up. Methods Our normal daily analysis of the emergency department (ED) data using the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE) was expanded to look in detail at ED volumes and chief complaints of those patients who live outside of a 5-county Tampa Bay area. This analysis used patient zip code to determine place of residence. Additionally, ESSENCE queries were utilized to look for heat, tear gas, and RNC related exposures. The ESSENCE system also receives Poison Control data every 15 minutes. Expanded analyses of the Poison Control data were conducted as well. Two Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were

  15. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  16. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data...... issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity...

  17. Surveillance for Lyme Disease - United States, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy M; Hinckley, Alison F; Mead, Paul S; Hook, Sarah A; Kugeler, Kiersten J

    2017-11-10

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States but is geographically focal. The majority of Lyme disease cases occur in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions. Lyme disease can cause varied clinical manifestations, including erythema migrans, arthritis, facial palsy, and carditis. Lyme disease occurs most commonly among children and older adults, with a slight predominance among males. 2008-2015. Lyme disease has been a nationally notifiable condition in the United States since 1991. Possible Lyme disease cases are reported to local and state health departments by clinicians and laboratories. Health department staff conduct case investigations to classify cases according to the national surveillance case definition. Those that qualify as confirmed or probable cases of Lyme disease are reported to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. States with an average annual incidence during this reporting period of ≥10 confirmed Lyme disease cases per 100,000 population were classified as high incidence. States that share a border with those states or that are located between areas of high incidence were classified as neighboring states. All other states were classified as low incidence. During 2008-2015, a total of 275,589 cases of Lyme disease were reported to CDC (208,834 confirmed and 66,755 probable). Although most cases continue to be reported from states with high incidence in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions, case counts in most of these states have remained stable or decreased during the reporting period. In contrast, case counts have increased in states that neighbor those with high incidence. Overall, demographic characteristics associated with confirmed cases were similar to those described previously, with a slight predominance among males and a bimodal age distribution with peaks among young children and older adults. Yet, among the subset of cases reported

  18. Surveillance for Lyme disease in Canada: 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, S; Ogden, N H; Lindsay, L R; Burns, S; Fleming, S; Badcock, J; Hanan, S; Gaulin, C; Leblanc, M A; Russell, C; Nelder, M; Hobbs, L; Graham-Derham, S; Lachance, L; Scott, A N; Galanis, E; Koffi, J K

    2017-10-05

    To summarize seven years of surveillance data for Lyme disease cases reported in Canada from 2009 to 2015. We describe the incidence over time, seasonal and geographic distribution, demographic and clinical characteristics of reported Lyme disease cases. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between age groups, sex and year to better understand potential demographic risk factors for the occurrence of Lyme disease. The number of reported Lyme disease cases increased more than six-fold, from 144 in 2009 to 917 in 2015, mainly due to an increase in infections acquired in Canada. Most locally acquired cases were reported between May and November. An increase in incidence of Lyme disease was observed in provinces from Manitoba eastwards. This is consistent with our knowledge of range expansion of the tick vectors in this region. In the western provinces the incidence has remained low and stable. All cases reported by Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador were acquired outside of the province, either elsewhere in Canada or abroad. There was a bimodal distribution for Lyme disease by age with peaks at 5-9 and 45-74 years of age. The most common presenting symptom was a single erythema migrans rash (74.2%) and arthritis (35.7%). Variations in the frequency of reported clinical manifestations were observed among age groups and years of study. Lyme disease incidence continues to increase in Canada as does the geographic range of ticks that carry the Lyme disease bacteria. Ongoing surveillance, preventive strategies as well as early disease recognition and treatment will continue to minimize the impact of Lyme disease in Canada.

  19. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  20. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Using internet search queries for infectious disease surveillance: screening diseases for suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Avril, Simon M R; Clements, Archie C A; Brownstein, John S; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-12-31

    Internet-based surveillance systems provide a novel approach to monitoring infectious diseases. Surveillance systems built on internet data are economically, logistically and epidemiologically appealing and have shown significant promise. The potential for these systems has increased with increased internet availability and shifts in health-related information seeking behaviour. This approach to monitoring infectious diseases has, however, only been applied to single or small groups of select diseases. This study aims to systematically investigate the potential for developing surveillance and early warning systems using internet search data, for a wide range of infectious diseases. Official notifications for 64 infectious diseases in Australia were downloaded and correlated with frequencies for 164 internet search terms for the period 2009-13 using Spearman's rank correlations. Time series cross correlations were performed to assess the potential for search terms to be used in construction of early warning systems. Notifications for 17 infectious diseases (26.6%) were found to be significantly correlated with a selected search term. The use of internet metrics as a means of surveillance has not previously been described for 12 (70.6%) of these diseases. The majority of diseases identified were vaccine-preventable, vector-borne or sexually transmissible; cross correlations, however, indicated that vector-borne and vaccine preventable diseases are best suited for development of early warning systems. The findings of this study suggest that internet-based surveillance systems have broader applicability to monitoring infectious diseases than has previously been recognised. Furthermore, internet-based surveillance systems have a potential role in forecasting emerging infectious disease events, especially for vaccine-preventable and vector-borne diseases.

  2. Infectious disease surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M

    2012-08-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA.

  3. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  5. The role of electronic healthcare record databases in paediatric drug safety surveillance: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Bie (Sandra); P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); C. Ferrajolo (Carmen); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Trifirò (Gianluca); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); R. Gini (Rosa); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); G. Picelli (Gino); A. Ghirardi (Arianna); L. Pedersen (Lars); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J. van der Lei (Johan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim Electronic healthcare record (EHR)-based surveillance systems are increasingly being developed to support early detection of safety signals. It is unknown what the power of such a system is for surveillance among children and adolescents. In this paper we provide estimates of the

  6. Innovative uses of electronic health records and social media for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Emma M; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-03-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) and social media have the potential to enrich public health surveillance of diabetes. Clinical and patient-facing data sources for diabetes surveillance are needed given its profound public health impact, opportunity for primary and secondary prevention, persistent disparities, and requirement for self-management. Initiatives to employ data from EHRs and social media for diabetes surveillance are in their infancy. With their transformative potential come practical limitations and ethical considerations. We explore applications of EHR and social media for diabetes surveillance, limitations to approaches, and steps for moving forward in this partnership between patients, health systems, and public health.

  7. Relevance of indirect transmission for wildlife disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modelling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. A second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e. basic reproductive number R0 and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host.We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models.We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude, but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  8. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Assessment of Information Exchange Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities to Support US Disease Surveillance in 3 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Macarena C; Garrett, Nedra Y; Singletary, Vivian; Brown, Sheereen; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara; Haney, Gillian; Link, Kimberly; Tripp, Jennifer; Mac Kenzie, William R; Yoon, Paula

    2017-12-07

    State and local public health agencies collect and use surveillance data to identify outbreaks, track cases, investigate causes, and implement measures to protect the public-s health through various surveillance systems and data exchange practices. The purpose of this assessment was to better understand current practices at state and local public health agencies for collecting, managing, processing, reporting, and exchanging notifiable disease surveillance information. Over an 18-month period (January 2014-June 2015), we evaluated the process of data exchange between surveillance systems, reporting burdens, and challenges within 3 states (California, Idaho, and Massachusetts) that were using 3 different reporting systems. All 3 states use a combination of paper-based and electronic information systems for managing and exchanging data on reportable conditions within the state. The flow of data from local jurisdictions to the state health departments varies considerably. When state and local information systems are not interoperable, manual duplicative data entry and other work-arounds are often required. The results of the assessment show the complexity of disease reporting at the state and local levels and the multiple systems, processes, and resources engaged in preparing, processing, and transmitting data that limit interoperability and decrease efficiency. Through this structured assessment, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a better understanding of the complexities for surveillance of using commercial off-the-shelf data systems (California and Massachusetts), and CDC-developed National Electronic Disease Surveillance System Base System. More efficient data exchange and use of data will help facilitate interoperability between National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance Systems.

  10. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC). We

  11. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, Erik; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mahmmod, Nofel; Kremer, Willemijn; Siersema, Peter D.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies (interval CRC).

  12. Incidence of Interval Colorectal Cancer Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Undergoing Regular Colonoscopic Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiweer, E.; Maulen- de Jong, A.E. van der; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Woude, C.J. van der; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Jansen, J.M.; Mahmmod, N.; Kremer, W.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surveillance is recommended for patients with long-term inflammatory bowel disease because they have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To study the effectiveness of surveillance, we determined the incidence of CRC after negative findings from surveillance colonoscopies

  13. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... conservative (lower) estimates of the confidence for a given sample size and should therefore be preferred....

  14. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  15. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each.

  16. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-06-13

    For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  17. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Law on Syndromic Disease Surveillance Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Field, Robert I; Hipper, Thomas; Nash-Arott, Jillian; Chernak, Esther; Buehler, James W

    Legal environments influence how health information technologies are implemented in public health practice settings. Syndromic disease surveillance (SyS) is a relatively new approach to surveillance that depends heavily on health information technologies to achieve rapid awareness of disease trends. Evidence suggests that legal concerns have impeded the optimization of SyS. To (1) understand the legal environments in which SyS is implemented, (2) determine the perceived legal basis for SyS, and (3) identify perceived legal barriers and facilitators to SyS implementation. Multisite case study in which 35 key informant interviews and 5 focus groups were conducted with 75 SyS stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by 3 coders using thematic content analysis. Legal documents were reviewed. Seven jurisdictions (5 states, 1 county, and 1 city) that were purposively selected on the basis of SyS capacity and legal environment. Health department directors, SyS system administrators, legal counsel, and hospital personnel. Federal (eg, HIPAA) and state (eg, notifiable disease reporting) laws that authorize traditional public health surveillance were perceived as providing a legal basis for SyS. Financial incentives for hospitals to satisfy Meaningful Use regulations have eased concerns about the legality of SyS and increased the number of hospitals reporting SyS data. Legal issues were perceived as barriers to BioSense 2.0 (the federal SyS program) participation but were surmountable. Major legal reforms are not needed to promote more widespread use of SyS. The current legal environment is perceived by health department and hospital officials as providing a firm basis for SyS practice. This is a shift from how law was perceived when SyS adoption began and has policy implications because it indicates that major legal reforms are not needed to promote more widespread use of the technology. Beyond SyS, our study suggests that

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Genevieve M; Boyd, Alison; Sarros, Shannon; Stehmann, Christiane; Simpson, Marion; McLean, Catriona; Masters, Colin L; Collins, Steven J

    2016-06-30

    Nation-wide surveillance of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also known as prion diseases), the most common being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Prospective surveillance has been undertaken since 1993 and over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements concomitant with the emergence of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness of prion diseases in the health care setting. In 2014, routine national surveillance continued and this brief report provides an update of the cumulative surveillance data collected by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry prospectively from 1993 to December 2014, and retrospectively to 1970.

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Genevieve M; Boyd, Alison; Sarros, Shannon; Stehmann, Christiane; Simpson, Marion; McLean, Catriona A; Masters, Colin L; Collins, Steven J

    2016-09-30

    Nation-wide surveillance of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also known as prion diseases), the most common being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Prospective surveillance has been undertaken since 1993 and over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements concomitant with the delineation of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness of prion diseases in the health care setting. In 2015, routine national surveillance continued and this brief report provides an update of the cumulative surveillance data collected by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry prospectively from 1993 to December 2015, and retrospectively to 1970.

  1. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification

  2. Optimizing surveillance for livestock disease spreading through animal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajardi, Paolo; Barrat, Alain; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    The spatial propagation of many livestock infectious diseases critically depends on the animal movements among premises; so the knowledge of movement data may help us to detect, manage and control an outbreak. The identification of robust spreading features of the system is however hampered by the temporal dimension characterizing population interactions through movements. Traditional centrality measures do not provide relevant information as results strongly fluctuate in time and outbreak properties heavily depend on geotemporal initial conditions. By focusing on the case study of cattle displacements in Italy, we aim at characterizing livestock epidemics in terms of robust features useful for planning and control, to deal with temporal fluctuations, sensitivity to initial conditions and missing information during an outbreak. Through spatial disease simulations, we detect spreading paths that are stable across different initial conditions, allowing the clustering of the seeds and reducing the epidemic variability. Paths also allow us to identify premises, called sentinels, having a large probability of being infected and providing critical information on the outbreak origin, as encoded in the clusters. This novel procedure provides a general framework that can be applied to specific diseases, for aiding risk assessment analysis and informing the design of optimal surveillance systems. PMID:22728387

  3. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset...

  4. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus With Onset...

  5. Use of electronic immunization registry in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sayuri Sato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP, Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System. The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. We estimated rates using AEFV as numerator and administered doses of vaccines as denominator. The surveillance sensitivity was estimated by applying the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used Prais-Winsten regression with a significance level of 5.0%. RESULTS The average annual rate of AEFV was 11.3/10,000 administered doses, however without a trend in the study period (p=0.491. Most cases occurred after the first dose (41.7% and among children under one year of age (72.6%. Vaccines with pertussis component, yellow fever and measles-mumps-rubella were the most reactogenic. We highlighted the rates of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion that were 4.1/10,000 and 1.5/10,000 doses of vaccines with pertussis component, respectively, most frequently in the first dose; 60,0% of cases presented symptoms in the first 24 hours after vaccination, however, 18.6% showed after 96 hours. The sensitivity of surveillance was 71.9% and 78.9% for hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The EIR-based AEFV surveillance system proved to be useful and highly sensitive to describe the safety profile of vaccines in a medium-sized city. It was also shown that the significant increase of the vaccines included in the basic vaccination schedule in childhood in the last decade did not alter the high safety standard of the National Immunization Program.

  6. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases.The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials.In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC.The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  7. Syndromic Surveillance: Enhancing Detection of Disease Outbreaks in Urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilot, E.; Schwarz, C.; Wang, L.; Krafft, T.; Wang, W.; Krafft, T.; Rosenberg, M.; Pilot, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a number of innovative surveillance approaches have been piloted or implemented in several parts of the country. Though Chinese cities have usually a sufficient health infrastructure that is included in the national surveillance system, the differences in treatment seeking behavior of a

  8. Polio eradication initiative in Africa: influence on other infectious disease surveillance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochi Stephen

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO and partners are collaborating to eradicate poliomyelitis. To monitor progress, countries perform surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP. The WHO African Regional Office (WHO-AFRO and the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also involved in strengthening infectious disease surveillance and response in Africa. We assessed whether polio-eradication initiative resources are used in the surveillance for and response to other infectious diseases in Africa. Methods During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel. Results We obtained responses from 32 (84% of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97% of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78% used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87% countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44% had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged Conclusions Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.

  9. Surveillance of gastrointestinal disease in France using drug sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivette, Mathilde; Mueller, Judith E; Crépey, Pascal; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2014-09-01

    Drug sales data have increasingly been used for disease surveillance during recent years. Our objective was to assess the value of drug sales data as an operational early detection tool for gastroenteritis epidemics at national and regional level in France. For the period 2008-2013, we compared temporal trends of drug sales for the treatment of gastroenteritis with trends of cases reported by a Sentinel Network of general practitioners. We benchmarked detection models to select the one with the best sensitivity, false alert proportion and timeliness, and developed a prospective framework to assess the operational performance of the system. Drug sales data allowed the detection of seasonal gastrointestinal epidemics occurring in winter with a distinction between prescribed and non-prescribed drugs. Sales of non-prescribed drugs allowed epidemic detection on average 2.25 weeks earlier than Sentinel data. These results confirm the value of drug sales data for real-time monitoring of gastroenteritis epidemic activity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Methods We describe three currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Results Each of the three sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. PMID:23158225

  11. Surveillance programme for uncompensated work-related diseases in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenty, M; Homère, J; Lemaitre, A; Plaine, J; Ruhlman, M; Cohidon, C; Imbernon, E

    2015-11-01

    The surveillance programme for uncompensated work-related diseases (UWRDs) in France relies on a network of occupational physicians (OPs) who volunteer to report all UWRDs diagnosed during a biannual 2-week observation period. To describe this programme and the usefulness of its results. During the observation period, OPs record job title and employment sector for each worker. For each potential UWRD, they complete a one-page report form. Between 2007 and 2012, the number of reporting OPs ranged from 705 to 965 and they saw between 78884 and 114154 employees annually. The UWRD incidence rate reports varied from 5 to 5.3% for men and from 6.5 to 7.7% for women, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being most frequent, followed by mental ill-health. Incidence rates, except for hearing loss, were higher for women than men in all categories and, in 2012, were twice as high for women (3.1%) as for men (1.4%) for mental ill-health. Incidence rates in every category increased with age up to 54 years. The highest rates for MSDs were observed among blue-collar workers (6.9% in women and 4% in men in 2012) and the lowest rates in professionals/managers (1.1 and 0.4%, respectively). Conversely, the latter had the highest incidence of mental health disorders (5.9 and 3.3%). This 'Fortnight' protocol provides useful data on the frequency of diseases linked to employment and allows us to estimate the incidence of UWRDs, whether recognized as compensable or not, as well as their trends over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Colonoscopic surveillance improves survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Oldenburg, B.; Siersema, P. D.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Dijkstra, G.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Vleggaar, F. P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonoscopic surveillance provides the best practical means for preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Strong evidence for improved survival from surveillance programmes is sparse. METHOD: The aim of this study was to compare tumour stage and

  13. Colonoscopic surveillance improves survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Oldenburg, B.; Siersema, P. D.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Dijkstra, G.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Vleggaar, F. P.

    2009-01-01

    Colonoscopic surveillance provides the best practical means for preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Strong evidence for improved survival from surveillance programmes is sparse. The aim of this study was to compare tumour stage and survival of IBD

  14. Vaccine-preventable diseases: evaluation of vaccination programmes and optimisation of surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Nicoline van der

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands has a National Immunisation Programme (NIP) and a seasonal influenza vaccination programme. Surveillance enables countries to monitor and assess the impact of these programmes. Dutch surveillance is coordinated by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control and consists of 5 pillars,

  15. Surveillance of emerging diseases in cattle : Application to the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is an essential component to protect animal health, facilitate trade, and protect public health. Reliable surveillance systems are able to rapidly identify outbreaks of emerging animal diseases in previously free areas to enable the implementation of control measures. In

  16. A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Dennis Km; Lau, Eric Hy; So, Hau Chi; Xiao, Jingyi; Lam, Chi Kin; Fang, Vicky J; Tam, Yat Hung; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2017-10-06

    School-aged children have the highest incidence of respiratory virus infections each year, and transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza virus can be a major concern in school settings. School absenteeism data have been employed as a component of influenza surveillance systems in some locations. Data timeliness and system acceptance remain as key determinants affecting the usefulness of a prospective surveillance system. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic school absenteeism surveillance system using smart card-based technology for influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance among a representative network of local primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. We designed and implemented a surveillance system according to the Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER). We employed an existing smart card-based education and school administration platform for data capture, customized the user interface, and used additional back end systems built for other downstream surveillance steps. We invited local schools to participate and collected absenteeism data by the implemented system. We compared temporal trend of the absenteeism data with data from existing community sentinel and laboratory surveillance data. We designed and implemented an ILI surveillance system utilizing smart card-based attendance tracking approach for data capture. We implemented the surveillance system in a total of 107 schools (including 66 primary schools and 41 secondary schools), covering a total of 75,052 children. The system successfully captured information on absences for 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). The absenteeism data we collected from the system reflected ILI activity in the community, with an upsurge in disease activity detected up to 1 to 2 weeks preceding other existing surveillance systems. We designed and implemented a novel

  17. Achieving an optimal allocation of resources for animal health surveillance, intervention and disease mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, B; Delabouglise, A; Babo Martins, S

    2017-04-01

    The primary role of animal health economics is to inform decision-making by determining optimal investments for animal health. Animal health surveillance produces information to guide interventions. Consequently, investments in surveillance and intervention must be evaluated together. This article explores the different theoretical frameworks and methods developed to assess and optimise the spending of resources in surveillance and intervention and their technical interdependence. The authors present frameworks that define the relationship between health investment and losses due to disease, and the relationship between surveillance and intervention resources. Surveillance and intervention are usually considered as technical substitutes, since increased investments in surveillance reduce the level of intervention resources required to reach the same benefit. The authors also discuss approaches used to quantify externalities and non-monetary impacts. Finally, they describe common economic evaluation types, including optimisation, acceptability and least-cost studies.

  18. Impact of clinical surveillance during a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    duration, number of infected herds and the economic losses from an epidemic. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was enhanced to include simulation of surveillance of herds within the protection and surveillance zones and the model was used to model spread of FMD between herds. A queuing......The objectives of this study were to assess, whether the current surveillance capacity is sufficient to fulfill EU and Danish regulations to control a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Denmark, and whether enlarging the protection and/or surveillance zones could reduce epidemic...... showed that the default surveillance capacity is sufficient to survey herds within one week of the zones establishment, as the regulations demand. Extra resources for surveillance did not reduce the costs of the epidemics, but fewer resources could result in larger epidemics and costs. Furthermore...

  19. Scoping review on search queries and social media for disease surveillance: a chronology of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa Marie; Rajic, Andrijana; Young, Ian; Robiadek, Katie; Pham, Mai T; Funk, Julie A

    2013-07-18

    The threat of a global pandemic posed by outbreaks of influenza H5N1 (1997) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, 2002), both diseases of zoonotic origin, provoked interest in improving early warning systems and reinforced the need for combining data from different sources. It led to the use of search query data from search engines such as Google and Yahoo! as an indicator of when and where influenza was occurring. This methodology has subsequently been extended to other diseases and has led to experimentation with new types of social media for disease surveillance. The objective of this scoping review was to formally assess the current state of knowledge regarding the use of search queries and social media for disease surveillance in order to inform future work on early detection and more effective mitigation of the effects of foodborne illness. Structured scoping review methods were used to identify, characterize, and evaluate all published primary research, expert review, and commentary articles regarding the use of social media in surveillance of infectious diseases from 2002-2011. Thirty-two primary research articles and 19 reviews and case studies were identified as relevant. Most relevant citations were peer-reviewed journal articles (29/32, 91%) published in 2010-11 (28/32, 88%) and reported use of a Google program for surveillance of influenza. Only four primary research articles investigated social media in the context of foodborne disease or gastroenteritis. Most authors (21/32 articles, 66%) reported that social media-based surveillance had comparable performance when compared to an existing surveillance program. The most commonly reported strengths of social media surveillance programs included their effectiveness (21/32, 66%) and rapid detection of disease (21/32, 66%). The most commonly reported weaknesses were the potential for false positive (16/32, 50%) and false negative (11/32, 34%) results. Most authors (24/32, 75%) recommended that

  20. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposure data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  1. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of labora......Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer...

  2. Tracking the rise in popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes) using search query surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brownstein, John S

    2011-04-01

    Public interest in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) is undocumented. By monitoring search queries, ENDS popularity and correlates of their popularity were assessed in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom (UK), and the U.S. English-language Google searches conducted from January 2008 through September 2010 were compared to snus, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and Chantix® or Champix®. Searches for each week were scaled to the highest weekly search proportion (100), with lower values indicating the relative search proportion compared to the highest-proportion week (e.g., 50=50% of the highest observed proportion). Analyses were performed in 2010. From July 2008 through February 2010, ENDS searches increased in all nations studied except Australia, there an increase occurred more recently. By September 2010, ENDS searches were several-hundred-fold greater than searches for smoking alternatives in the UK and U.S., and were rivaling alternatives in Australia and Canada. Across nations, ENDS searches were highest in the U.S., followed by similar search intensity in Canada and the UK, with Australia having the fewest ENDS searches. Stronger tobacco control, created by clean indoor air laws, cigarette taxes, and anti-smoking populations, were associated with consistently higher levels of ENDS searches. The online popularity of ENDS has surpassed that of snus and NRTs, which have been on the market for far longer, and is quickly outpacing Chantix or Champix. In part, the association between ENDS's popularity and stronger tobacco control suggests ENDS are used to bypass, or quit in response to, smoking restrictions. Search query surveillance is a valuable, real-time, free, and public method to evaluate the diffusion of new health products. This method may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational, or psychological outcomes manifested on search engines. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  4. Polio Eradication Initiative: Contribution to improved communicable diseases surveillance in WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sasagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  6. On infectious intestinal disease surveillance using social media content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Bin; Lampos, Vasileios; Gorton, Russell

    2016-01-01

    by traditional health surveillance methods. We employ a deep learning approach for creating a topical vocabulary, and then apply a regularised linear (Elastic Net) as well as a nonlinear (Gaussian Process) regression function for inference. We show that like previous text regression tasks, the nonlinear approach...

  7. Strengthening foodborne disease surveillance in the WHO African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMS

    2012-06-04

    Jun 4, 2012 ... region including acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and bromide poisoning in ... Global Food Infections Network (GFN), has been supporting countries to strengthen ... The surveillance system uses standard case definitions for classifying .... Figure 4: Participating countries and training sites for foodborne.

  8. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and...

  9. Developing open source, self-contained disease surveillance software applications for use in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Timothy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging public health threats often originate in resource-limited countries. In recognition of this fact, the World Health Organization issued revised International Health Regulations in 2005, which call for significantly increased reporting and response capabilities for all signatory nations. Electronic biosurveillance systems can improve the timeliness of public health data collection, aid in the early detection of and response to disease outbreaks, and enhance situational awareness. Methods As components of its Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance (SAGES program, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory developed two open-source, electronic biosurveillance systems for use in resource-limited settings. OpenESSENCE provides web-based data entry, analysis, and reporting. ESSENCE Desktop Edition provides similar capabilities for settings without internet access. Both systems may be configured to collect data using locally available cell phone technologies. Results ESSENCE Desktop Edition has been deployed for two years in the Republic of the Philippines. Local health clinics have rapidly adopted the new technology to provide daily reporting, thus eliminating the two-to-three week data lag of the previous paper-based system. Conclusions OpenESSENCE and ESSENCE Desktop Edition are two open-source software products with the capability of significantly improving disease surveillance in a wide range of resource-limited settings. These products, and other emerging surveillance technologies, can assist resource-limited countries compliance with the revised International Health Regulations.

  10. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  11. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R.; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. PMID:28830112

  13. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  14. Colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalykke, Claus; Jensen, Michael Dam; Fallingborg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been highly debated as risk estimates from different studies vary greatly. The present national Danish guideline on colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients......, in some subgroups of patients the risk is increased. These subgroups of patients, who should be offered colonoscopy surveillance, include patients with ulcerative colitis having extensive disease and a long disease duration (10-13 years); early age at onset (less than 19 years of age) of ulcerative...... colitis; and patients with ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn´s disease with a concomitant diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. A colonoscopy surveillance program is recommended in these subgroups with intervals ranging from every 3-6 months to every 5 years, using chromoendoscopy with targeted...

  15. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends. PMID:21967706

  16. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood and Adolescence, RFA DP 10-001...

  17. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark...

  18. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS

  19. Estimating transmission of avian influenza in wild birds from incomplete epizootic data: implications for surveillance and disease spreac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, Viviane; Jane Parmley,; Catherine Soos,; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating disease transmission in wildlife populations is critical to understand host–pathogen dynamics, predict disease risks and prioritize surveillance activities. However, obtaining reliable estimates for free-ranging populations is extremely challenging. In particular, disease surveillance programs may routinely miss the onset or end of epizootics and peak prevalence, limiting the ability to evaluate infectious processes.

  20. Immunization Documentation Practices and Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Capacity among Institutions of Higher Education in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Taryn; Golwalkar, Mugdha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective: Complete and accurate documentation of immunization records and surveillance of disease transmission are critical to the public health response to outbreaks of communicable disease in institutions of higher education (IHEs). This study aims to describe immunization documentation practices and disease surveillance capacity among…

  1. Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cox-Witton

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.

  2. Evaluation of occupational disease surveillance in six EU countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, D.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Registries of occupational diseases in various European countries differ considerably in criteria for notification and recognition, statistical data provided and the legal and social security context. Therefore, figures on occupational diseases are not comparable between countries and are often

  3. Window of Opportunity for New Disease Surveillance: Developing Keyword Lists for Monitoring Mental Health and Injury Through Syndromic Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Ursula; Chen, Jian-Hua; Lin, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster. Data typically consist of daily visit reports from hospital emergency departments (EDs) of basic patient data and free-text chief complaints. To develop keyword lists, comparisons were made with existing CDC categories and then integrated with lists from the New York City and New Jersey health departments in a collaborative effort. Two comprehensive lists were developed, each containing multiple subcategories and over 100 keywords for both mental health and injury. The data classifiers using these keywords were used to assess impacts of Sandy on mental health and injuries in New York State. The lists will be validated by comparing the ED chief complaint keyword with the final ICD diagnosis code. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:173-178).

  4. A Hidden Markov Model for Analysis of Frontline Veterinary Data for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Gunawardana, Walimunige S. N.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Nathoo, Farouk; Stephen, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems tracking health patterns in animals have potential for early warning of infectious disease in humans, yet there are many challenges that remain before this can be realized. Specifically, there remains the challenge of detecting early warning signals for diseases that are not known or are not part of routine surveillance for named diseases. This paper reports on the development of a hidden Markov model for analysis of frontline veterinary sentinel surveillance data from Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians collected data on syndromes and diagnoses using mobile phones. A model for submission patterns accounts for both sentinel-related and disease-related variability. Models for commonly reported cattle diagnoses were estimated separately. Region-specific weekly average prevalence was estimated for each diagnoses and partitioned into normal and abnormal periods. Visualization of state probabilities was used to indicate areas and times of unusual disease prevalence. The analysis suggests that hidden Markov modelling is a useful approach for surveillance datasets from novel populations and/or having little historical baselines. PMID:21949763

  5. The importance of waterborne disease outbreak surveillance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Franz Craun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the causes of disease outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water in the United States have helped inform prevention efforts at the national, state, and local levels. This article describes the changing nature of disease outbreaks in public water systems during 1971-2008 and discusses the importance of a collaborative waterborne outbreak surveillance system established in 1971. Increasing reports of outbreaks throughout the early 1980s emphasized that microbial contaminants remained a health-risk challenge for suppliers of drinking water. Outbreak investigations identified the responsible etiologic agents and deficiencies in the treatment and distribution of drinking water, especially the high risk associated with unfiltered surface water systems. Surveillance information was important in establishing an effective research program that guided government regulations and industry actions to improve drinking water quality. Recent surveillance statistics suggest that prevention efforts based on these research findings have been effective in reducing outbreak risks especially for surface water systems.

  6. Surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Germany: trends and challenges in the view of disease emergence and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Andreas; Frank, Christina; Koch, Judith; Stark, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging in Europe) and dengue fever (imported from tropical regions), representing important subgroups of vector-borne infections. Routine surveillance data on demographics, origin of infection and the date of reporting were analysed. From 2001 through 2007, 3,005 symptomatic hantavirus infections, and 85 cases of chikungunya fever were reported, similarly 1,048 cases of dengue fever in 2002 through 2007. The geographic origin of hantavirus infection was reported for 95.5% of all cases (dengue virus, 98.4%; chikungunya virus, 100%). Hantavirus infections were acquired in Germany in 97.6% of cases (n = 2800). In 2007, there was a marked increase of hantavirus cases, mainly in areas known to be endemic for hantavirus. In 2006, imported cases of chikungunya fever primarily returned from several islands of the Indian Ocean, while the majority of imported cases in 2007 came from India. The reported number of dengue fever cases have increased since 2004. Thailand contributed the largest proportion of cases (17-43% in individual years), followed by India, Brazil and Indonesia. Surveillance of notifiable vector-borne diseases in Germany is able to timely detect spatial and temporal changes of autochthonous an imported infections. Geographic and temporal data obtained by routine surveillance served as a basis for public health recommendations. In addition to surveillance of vector-borne infections in humans, nationwide monitoring programs and inventory techniques for emerging and reemerging vectors and for wildlife disease are warranted.

  7. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger...

  8. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  9. Towards an information ecosystem for animal disease surveillance using voice services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sharma Grover, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a solution for disease surveillance and monitoring in the primary animal health care (PAHC) domain that uses inbound voice-based services and voice- and text-based outbound services for connecting rural veterinarians...

  10. Disease insight and treatment perception of men on active surveillance for early prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; van Vugt, Heidi A.; Korfage, Ida J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the levels of knowledge of prostate cancer and the perception of active surveillance (AS) in men on AS, as AS for early prostate cancer instead of radical treatment might partly solve the over-treatment dilemma in this disease, but might be experienced as a complex and

  11. Evaluation of Electronic Healthcare Databases for Post-Marketing Drug Safety Surveillance and Pharmacoepidemiology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shuangqing; Lin, Hongbo; Xie, Yanming; Feng, Yuji; Huang, Kui; Zhan, Siyan

    2018-01-01

    Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are used increasingly for post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and North America. However, few studies have examined the potential of these data sources in China. Three major types of EHDs in China (i.e., a regional community-based database, a national claims database, and an electronic medical records [EMR] database) were selected for evaluation. Forty core variables were derived based on the US Mini-Sentinel (MS) Common Data Model (CDM) as well as the data features in China that would be desirable to support drug safety surveillance. An email survey of these core variables and eight general questions as well as follow-up inquiries on additional variables was conducted. These 40 core variables across the three EHDs and all variables in each EHD along with those in the US MS CDM and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM were compared for availability and labeled based on specific standards. All of the EHDs' custodians confirmed their willingness to share their databases with academic institutions after appropriate approval was obtained. The regional community-based database contained 1.19 million people in 2015 with 85% of core variables. Resampled annually nationwide, the national claims database included 5.4 million people in 2014 with 55% of core variables, and the EMR database included 3 million inpatients from 60 hospitals in 2015 with 80% of core variables. Compared with MS CDM or OMOP CDM, the proportion of variables across the three EHDs available or able to be transformed/derived from the original sources are 24-83% or 45-73%, respectively. These EHDs provide potential value to post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in China. Future research is warranted to assess the quality and completeness of these EHDs or additional data sources in China.

  12. Occupational disease surveillance of an aircraft rework facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, F; Bundy, M; Kennon, R

    1990-11-01

    Analysis of the 1987-1988 morbidity data of an aircraft rework facility's 6,672 employees identified 118 patients with occupational diseases. In our study, 61 cases (52%) involved eye and skin conditions. This was comparable to the State of California occupational diseases report. However, systemic conditions appeared to be higher (24% vs. 7%) in the study group, and this finding may need further investigation to clarify its significance. Patients employed as craftworkers accounted for nearly half of all reported occupational diseases. Federal workers in this facility appeared to have a higher percentage (70%) of "no time lost" when compared with that of the State of California report (54%). The utility of morbidity data in the prevention of occupational diseases is discussed.

  13. Driving improvements in emerging disease surveillance through locally relevant capacity strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jo E B; Hampson, Katie; Hanley, Nick; Lembo, Tiziana; Sharp, Joanne P; Haydon, Daniel T; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2017-07-14

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten the health of people, animals, and crops globally, but our ability to predict their occurrence is limited. Current public health capacity and ability to detect and respond to EIDs is typically weakest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many known drivers of EID emergence also converge in LMICs. Strengthening capacity for surveillance of diseases of relevance to local populations can provide a mechanism for building the cross-cutting and flexible capacities needed to tackle both the burden of existing diseases and EID threats. A focus on locally relevant diseases in LMICs and the economic, social, and cultural contexts of surveillance can help address existing inequalities in health systems, improve the capacity to detect and contain EIDs, and contribute to broader global goals for development. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  15. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science.

  16. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  17. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University

  18. Surveillance of Disease and Nonbattle Injuries During US Army Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauret, Keith G; Pacha, Laura; Taylor, Bonnie J; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) are the leading causes of morbidity during wars and military operations. However, adequate medical data were never before available to service public health centers to conduct DNBI surveillance during deployments. This article describes the process, results and lessons learned from centralized DNBI surveillance by the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, predecessor of the US Army Public Health Command, during operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-2013).The surveillance relied primarily on medical evacuation records and in-theater hospitalization records. Medical evacuation rates (per 1,000 person-years) for DNBI were higher (Afghanistan: 56.7; Iraq: 40.2) than battle injury rates (Afghanistan: 12.0; Iraq: 7.7). In Afghanistan and Iraq, respectively, the leading diagnostic categories for medical evacuations were nonbattle injury (31% and 34%), battle injury (20% and 16%), and behavioral health (12% and 10%). Leading causes of medically evacuated nonbattle injuries were sports/physical training (22% and 24%), falls (23% and 26%) and military vehicle accidents (8% and 11%). This surveillance demonstrated the feasibility, utility, and benefits of centralized DNBI surveillance during military operations.

  19. Overview of the Disease Situation and Surveillance in Europe In 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Nicolajsen, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    with focus on the listed diseases but also including other diseases of interest. 3. Laboratory data from the NRLs and other laboratories, including number of samples examined, diagnoses of fish diseases made. A new part was included for 2011 as a deliverable for the EFSA project CFP/EFSA/AHAW/2011/03: Risk...... categorisation for Aquatic Animal Health Surveillance: 4. Status on implementation of the new fish health surveillance legislation. The data on the European aquaculture production were obtained from the FIGIS database. Unfortunately this database does not include information on the number and size of fish farms......, which are epidemiologically important data. The production in 2010 is almost the same as in 2009 and has for the sixth time in row raised from the previous year and has now passed 2 million ton (Figur 1) Data from 2011 is not yet available. The farm sizes vary a lot between countries, e.g. the majority...

  20. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  1. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  2. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sohail Ahmed

    Full Text Available While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States.Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs.HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap's strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative "snapshot" of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities.The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems (at the time of writing, ABCs data

  3. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  4. Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndihokubwayo Jean B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional

  5. Improving antimicrobial prescribing in Irish primary care through electronic data collection and surveillance: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Callan, Aoife; Cormican, Martin; Duane, Sinead; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Vellinga, Akke

    2015-07-02

    The increase in the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens and limited availability of new antimicrobials places immense pressure on general practitioners (GPs) to prescribe appropriately. Currently, electronic antimicrobial prescribing data is not routinely collected from GPs in Ireland for surveillance purposes to assess regional specific fluctuations or trends in antimicrobial prescribing. The current study aimed to address this issue by assessing the feasibility of remotely extracting antimicrobial prescribing data from primary care practices in Ireland, for the purpose of assessing prescribing quality using the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) drug specific quality indicators. Participating practices (n = 30) uploaded data to the Irish Primary Care Research Network (IPCRN). The IPCRN data extraction facility is integrated within the practice patient management software system and permitted the extraction of anonymised patient prescriptions for a one year period, from October 2012 to October 2013. The quality of antimicrobial prescribing was evaluated using the twelve ESAC drug specific quality indicators using the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) methodology. National and European prescribing surveillance data (based on total pharmacy sales) was obtained for a comparative analysis. Antimicrobial prescriptions (n = 57,079) for 27,043 patients were obtained from the thirty study practices for a one year period. On average, study practices prescribed a greater proportion of quinolones (37 % increase), in summer compared with winter months, a variation which was not observed in national and European data. In comparison with national data, study practices prescribed higher proportions of β-lactamase-sensitive penicillins (4.98 % vs. 4.3 %) and a greater use of broad spectrum compared to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials (ratio = 9.98 vs. 6.26) was observed. Study practices exceeded the

  6. A Smartphone App (AfyaData) for Innovative One Health Disease Surveillance from Community to National Levels in Africa: Intervention in Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mutagahywa, Eric; Sindato, Calvin; Mboera, Leonard; Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Kariuki Njenga, M; Teesdale, Scott; Olsen, Jennifer; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-12-18

    We describe the development and initial achievements of a participatory disease surveillance system that relies on mobile technology to promote Community Level One Health Security (CLOHS) in Africa. The objective of this system, Enhancing Community-Based Disease Outbreak Detection and Response in East and Southern Africa (DODRES), is to empower community-based human and animal health reporters with training and information and communication technology (ICT)-based solutions to contribute to disease detection and response, thereby complementing strategies to improve the efficiency of infectious disease surveillance at national, regional, and global levels. In this study, we refer to techno-health as the application of ICT-based solutions to enhance early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to health events in human and animal populations. An EpiHack, involving human and animal health experts as well as ICT programmers, was held in Tanzania in 2014 to identify major challenges facing early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to disease events. This was followed by a project inception workshop in 2015, which brought together key stakeholders, including policy makers and community representatives, to refine the objectives and implementation plan of the DODRES project. The digital ICT tools were developed and packaged together as the AfyaData app to support One Health disease surveillance. Community health reporters (CHRs) and officials from animal and human health sectors in Morogoro and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania were trained to use the AfyaData app. The AfyaData supports near- to real-time data collection and submission at both community and health facility levels as well as the provision of feedback to reporters. The functionality of the One Health Knowledge Repository (OHKR) app has been integrated into the AfyaData app to provide health information on case definitions of diseases of humans and animals and to synthesize advice that

  7. Global invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance--2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jillian; Agócs, Mary; Serhan, Fatima; Singh, Simarjit; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; O'Brien, Katherine; Mwenda, Jason M; Mihigo, Richard; Oliveira, Lucia; Teleb, Nadia; Ahmed, Hinda; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Wijesinghe, Pushpa; Thapa, Arun Bhadra; Fox, Kimberly; Paladin, Fem Julia; Hajjeh, Rana; Schwartz, Stephanie; Van Beneden, Chris; Hyde, Terri; Broome, Claire; Cherian, Thomas

    2014-12-12

    Meningitis and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children globally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae causing a large proportion of disease. Vaccines are available to prevent many of the common types of these infections. S. pneumoniae was estimated to have caused 11% of deaths in children aged Organization (WHO) has recommended inclusion of PCV in childhood immunization programs worldwide, especially in countries with high child mortality. As of November 26, 2014, a total of 112 (58%) of all 194 WHO member states and 44 (58%) of the 76 member states ever eligible for support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), have introduced PCV. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance that includes data on serotypes, along with meningitis and pneumonia syndromic surveillance, provides important data to guide decisions to introduce PCV and monitor its impact.

  8. Use of electronic health records and administrative data for public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda F; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael F; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2012-12-01

    To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Perspective, comparing systems. We describe 3 currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Each of the 3 sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  10. Guess Who’s Not Coming to Dinner? Evaluating Online Restaurant Reservations for Disease Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Nsoesie, Elaine O; Buckeridge, David L; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative data sources are used increasingly to augment traditional public health surveillance systems. Examples include over-the-counter medication sales and school absenteeism. Objective We sought to determine if an increase in restaurant table availabilities was associated with an increase in disease incidence, specifically influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods Restaurant table availability was monitored using OpenTable, an online restaurant table reservation site. A daily sea...

  11. Electronic implementation of a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events. Feasibility and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M. C.; van Mourik, Maaike S. M.; Ong, David S. Y.; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is hampered by subjective diagnostic criteria. A novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) was introduced. To determine the validity of surveillance using the new VAE algorithm. Prospective cohort study in two

  12. Improving Neurodevelopmental Surveillance and Follow-up in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Mark; Scharf, Rebecca; Letzkus, Lisa; Vergales, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that neurodevelopmental surveillance of targeted patients with congenital heart disease during the admission for their cardiac surgery would improve neurodevelopmental assessment and outpatient follow-up rates. All patients under 12 months of age who were operated on between October 2013 and October 2014 and were considered at risk for neurodevelopmental delay in accordance with the 2012 American Heart Association Scientific Statement were included. A protocol was implemented to increase surveillance of targeted patients during the hospitalization for their cardiac surgery. A historical control cohort was used from a 6-month period that preceded initiation of the program from July 2012 to December 2012. Univariate analysis assessed the effects of patient demographics, anatomy, postoperative course, and distance from clinic on inpatient screening and follow-up to evaluate areas for future improvement. Neurodevelopmental surveillance in the post-protocol period increased from 21% to 82% (P neurodevelopmental surveillance of high risk patients. Individuals that were younger and in the hospital longer were more likely to be successfully seen and comply with outpatient follow-up than those not receiving inpatient risk assessment. Patients with single ventricle anatomy may benefit from a modified follow-up schedule to improve compliance rates. Travel distance has no effect on likelihood of outpatient cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The French surveillance network of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Epidemiological data in France and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, J-P; Peckeu, L; Haïk, S

    2013-09-01

    France, involved for a long time in the epidemiological surveillance of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), created a national network of surveillance in 1991, because of the description of the first cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) linked to a treatment by growth hormone of human origin and the observation of cases of cats infected with the agent of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United Kingdom (UK). The French surveillance network is integrated into the European network of surveillance since its creation in 1993. As in other countries, sporadic CJD is the most frequent form of TSE in France with an annual mortality rate of 1.44 per million. Genetic forms are most often associated with a mutation at codon 200. Among the cases of iatrogenic CJD, 13 cases of CJD after duramater grafts were observed and 119 related to treatment with growth hormone. France is the country worst affected in Europe and the world by this latter form, before the USA and UK. Since 1996, 27 cases of variant of CJD (vCJD) has been observed, making France the second country in the world most affected after the UK. No cases of transfusion-associated vCJD have been observed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. A national surveillance project on chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with

  15. The Effects of Computerized Auditory Feedback on Electronic Article Surveillance Tag Placement in an Auto-Parts Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2008-01-01

    In this report from the field, computerized auditory feedback was used to inform order selectors and order selector auditors in a distribution center to add an electronic article surveillance (EAS) adhesive tag. This was done by programming handheld computers to emit a loud beep for high-priced items upon scanning the item's bar-coded Universal…

  16. A Smartphone App (AfyaData) for Innovative One Health Disease Surveillance from Community to National Levels in Africa: Intervention in Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, Calvin; Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Teesdale, Scott; Olsen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background We describe the development and initial achievements of a participatory disease surveillance system that relies on mobile technology to promote Community Level One Health Security (CLOHS) in Africa. Objective The objective of this system, Enhancing Community-Based Disease Outbreak Detection and Response in East and Southern Africa (DODRES), is to empower community-based human and animal health reporters with training and information and communication technology (ICT)–based solutions to contribute to disease detection and response, thereby complementing strategies to improve the efficiency of infectious disease surveillance at national, regional, and global levels. In this study, we refer to techno-health as the application of ICT-based solutions to enhance early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to health events in human and animal populations. Methods An EpiHack, involving human and animal health experts as well as ICT programmers, was held in Tanzania in 2014 to identify major challenges facing early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to disease events. This was followed by a project inception workshop in 2015, which brought together key stakeholders, including policy makers and community representatives, to refine the objectives and implementation plan of the DODRES project. The digital ICT tools were developed and packaged together as the AfyaData app to support One Health disease surveillance. Community health reporters (CHRs) and officials from animal and human health sectors in Morogoro and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania were trained to use the AfyaData app. The AfyaData supports near- to real-time data collection and submission at both community and health facility levels as well as the provision of feedback to reporters. The functionality of the One Health Knowledge Repository (OHKR) app has been integrated into the AfyaData app to provide health information on case definitions of diseases of humans and animals

  17. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  18. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  19. Development and validation of electronic surveillance tool for acute kidney injury: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adil; Vairavan, Srinivasan; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Wilson, Gregory; Chiofolo, Caitlyn; Chbat, Nicolas; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Li, Guangxi; Kashani, Kianoush

    2015-10-01

    Timely detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) facilitates prevention of its progress and potentially therapeutic interventions. The study objective is to develop and validate an electronic surveillance tool (AKI sniffer) to detect AKI in 2 independent retrospective cohorts of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The primary aim is to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of AKI sniffer performance against a reference standard. This study is conducted in the ICUs of a tertiary care center. The derivation cohort study subjects were Olmsted County, MN, residents admitted to all Mayo Clinic ICUs from July 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010, and the validation cohort study subjects were all patients admitted to a Mayo Clinic, Rochester, campus medical/surgical ICU on January 12, 2010, through March 23, 2010. All included records were reviewed by 2 independent investigators who adjudicated AKI using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria; disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. This constituted the reference standard. An electronic algorithm was developed; its precision and reliability were assessed in comparison with the reference standard in 2 separate cohorts, derivation and validation. Of 1466 screened patients, a total of 944 patients were included in the study: 482 for derivation and 462 for validation. Compared with the reference standard in the validation cohort, the sensitivity and specificity of the AKI sniffer were 88% and 96%, respectively. The Cohen κ (95% confidence interval) agreement between the electronic and the reference standard was 0.84 (0.78-0.89) and 0.85 (0.80-0.90) in the derivation and validation cohorts. Acute kidney injury can reliably and accurately be detected electronically in ICU patients. The presented method is applicable for both clinical (decision support) and research (enrollment for clinical trials) settings. Prospective validation is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Comparative assessment of passive surveillance in disease-free and endemic situation: Example of Brucella melitensis surveillance in Switzerland and in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haracic Sabina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globalization and subsequent growth in international trade in animals and animal products has increased the importance of international disease reporting. Efficient and reliable surveillance systems are needed in order to document the disease status of a population at a given time. In this context, passive surveillance plays an important role in early warning systems. However, it is not yet routinely integrated in the assessment of disease surveillance systems because different factors like the disease awareness (DA of people reporting suspect cases influence the detection performance of passive surveillance. In this paper, we used scenario tree methodology in order to evaluate and compare the quality and benefit of abortion testing (ABT for Brucella melitensis (Bm between the disease free situation in Switzerland (CH and a hypothetical disease free situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH, taking into account DA levels assumed for the current endemic situation in BH. Results The structure and input parameters of the scenario tree were identical for CH and BH with the exception of population data in small ruminants and the DA in farmers and veterinarians. The sensitivity analysis of the stochastic scenario tree model showed that the small ruminant population structure and the DA of farmers were important influential parameters with regard to the unit sensitivity of ABT in both CH and BH. The DA of both farmers and veterinarians was assumed to be higher in BH than in CH due to the current endemic situation in BH. Although the same DA cannot necessarily be assumed for the modelled hypothetical disease free situation as for the actual endemic situation, it shows the importance of the higher vigilance of people reporting suspect cases on the probability that an average unit processed in the ABT-component would test positive. Conclusion The actual sensitivity of passive surveillance approaches heavily depends on the context in

  1. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  2. [Training programs for staff at local Infectious Disease Surveillance Centers: the needs and usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Nobuyuki; Yahata, Yuichiro; Ozeki, Yukie; Kishimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nadaoka, Yoko; Nakanishi, Yoshiko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shimada, Tomoe; Tada, Yuki; Shirabe, Komei; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for and usefulness of training programs for Local Infectious Disease Surveillance Center (LIDSC) staff. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the needs and usefulness of training programs. The subjects of the survey were participants of a workshop held after an annual conference for the LIDSC staff. Data on demographic information, the necessity of training programs for LIDSC staff, the themes and contents of the training program, self-assessment of knowledge on epidemiology and statistics were covered by the questionnaire. A total of 55 local government officials responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 100%). Among these, 95% of participants believed that the training program for the LIDSC staff was necessary. Basic statistical analysis (85%), descriptive epidemiology (65%), outline of epidemiology (60%), interpretation of surveillance data (65%), background and objectives of national infectious disease surveillance in Japan (60%), methods of field epidemiology (60%), and methods of analysis data (51%) were selected by over half of the respondents as suitable themes for training programs. A total of 34 LIDSC staff answered the self-assessment question on knowledge of epidemiology. A majority of respondents selected "a little" or "none" for all questions about knowledge. Only a few respondents had received education in epidemiology. The results of this study indicate that LIDSC staff have basic demands for fundamental and specialized education to improve their work. Considering the current situation regarding the capacity of LIDSC staff, these training programs should be started immediately.

  3. Protocol for hospital based-surveillance of cerebral palsy (CP) in Hanoi using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance mechanism (PAEDS-Vietnam): a study towards developing hospital-based disease surveillance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Van Bang, Nguyen; Dũng, Trịnh Quang; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Chau, Cao Minh; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi; Van Thuong, Nguyen; Badawi, Nadia; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-09

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam. These essential baseline data will inform future health service planning, health professional education and training, and family support. This is a hospital-based prospective surveillance of children with CP presenting to the rehabilitation, neurology and general paediatric services at the National Children's Hospital and St Paul Hospital in Hanoi. We will use active, prospective daily case-finding for all children with CP aged CP, known risk factors for CP, and nutrition, immunisation, education and rehabilitation status. This study was approved by the Hanoi Medical University Institutional Review Board (decision no 1722) and The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (approval no 2016/456). Establishment of PAEDS-Vietnam will enable hospital-based surveillance of CP for the first time in Vietnam. It will identify preventable causes of CP, patient needs and service gaps, and facilitate early diagnosis and intervention. Study findings will be disseminated through local and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Prevalence and variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Irish health system: initial findings from the National Kidney Disease Surveillance Programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable chronic disease that is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Passive surveillance systems are likely to improve efforts for prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inform national service planning. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of CKD in the Irish health system, assess period trends and explore patterns of variation as part of a novel surveillance initiative.

  5. Determining Chronic Disease Prevalence in Local Populations Using Emergency Department Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Long, Judith A; Wall, Stephen P; Carr, Brendan G; Satchell, Samantha N; Braithwaite, R Scott; Elbel, Brian

    2015-09-01

    We sought to improve public health surveillance by using a geographic analysis of emergency department (ED) visits to determine local chronic disease prevalence. Using an all-payer administrative database, we determined the proportion of unique ED patients with diabetes, hypertension, or asthma. We compared these rates to those determined by the New York City Community Health Survey. For diabetes prevalence, we also analyzed the fidelity of longitudinal estimates using logistic regression and determined disease burden within census tracts using geocoded addresses. We identified 4.4 million unique New York City adults visiting an ED between 2009 and 2012. When we compared our emergency sample to survey data, rates of neighborhood diabetes, hypertension, and asthma prevalence were similar (correlation coefficient = 0.86, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively). In addition, our method demonstrated less year-to-year scatter and identified significant variation of disease burden within neighborhoods among census tracts. Our method for determining chronic disease prevalence correlates with a validated health survey and may have higher reliability over time and greater granularity at a local level. Our findings can improve public health surveillance by identifying local variation of disease prevalence.

  6. Operationalizing Surveillance of Chronic Disease Self-Management and Self-Management Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Teresa J; Sacks, Jeffrey J; Terrillion, Albert J; Colligan, Erin M

    2018-04-05

    Sixty percent of US adults have at least one chronic condition, and more than 40% have multiple conditions. Self-management (SM) by the individual, along with self-management support (SMS) by others, are nonpharmacological interventions with few side effects that are critical to optimal chronic disease control. Ruiz and colleagues laid the conceptual groundwork for surveillance of SM/SMS at 5 socio-ecological levels (individual, health system, community, policy, and media). We extend that work by proposing operationalized indicators at each socio-ecologic level and suggest that the indicators be embedded in existing surveillance systems at national, state, and local levels. Without a robust measurement system at the population level, we will not know how far we have to go or how far we have come in making SM and SMS a reality. The data can also be used to facilitate planning and service delivery strategies, monitor temporal changes, and stimulate SM/SMS-related research.

  7. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  8. ASM LabCap's contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specter, Steven; Schuermann, Lily; Hakiruwizera, Celestin; Sow, Mah-Séré Keita

    2010-12-03

    The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, "Laboratory", requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response.Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM's vast resources and its membership's expertise-40,000 microbiologists worldwide-to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap's program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes.ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID

  9. Uptake of genetic testing and long-term tumor surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez Mireya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations in the VHL gene. Patients have significant morbidity and mortality secondary to vascular tumors. Disease management is centered on tumor surveillance that allows early detection and treatment. Presymptomatic genetic testing is therefore recommended, including in at-risk children. Methods We tested 17 families (n = 109 individuals for VHL mutations including 43 children under the age of 18. Personalized genetic counseling was provided pre and post-test and the individuals undergoing presymptomatic testing filled out questionnaires gathering socio-demographic, psychological and psychiatric data. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the VHL gene. Mutation-carriers were screened for VHL disease-related tumors and were offered follow-up annual examinations. Results Mutations were identified in 36 patients, 17 of whom were asymptomatic. In the initial screening, we identified at least one tumor in five of 17 previously asymptomatic individuals. At the end of five years, only 38.9% of the mutation-carriers continued participating in our tumor surveillance program. During this time, 14 mutation carriers developed a total of 32 new tumors, three of whom died of complications. Gender, education, income, marital status and religiosity were not found to be associated with adherence to the surveillance protocol. Follow-up adherence was also independent of pre-test depression, severity of disease, or number of affected family members. The only statistically significant predictor of adherence was being symptomatic at the time of testing (OR = 5; 95% CI 1.2 - 20.3; p = 0.02. Pre-test anxiety was more commonly observed in patients that discontinued follow-up (64.7% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.01. Conclusions The high initial uptake rate of genetic testing for VHL disease, including in minors, allowed the discontinuation of unnecessary screening

  10. Transborder cooperation on the protection, surveillance and control of endemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encho, S.; Doganov, B.; Kamenov, G.; Anelov, K.; Kalvachev, Z.; Rusev, A.; Dimova, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss some concern and challenges regards the Bulgarian-Greek transborder cooperation with respect the protection, surveillance and control of some endemic for this transborder region diseases like: Q-fever, Brucellosis, Lyme disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Marseilles fever. The study examines transborder activities, including a background for the infection diseases state for the period 2004-2007, the problems of training and equipment of the specialists for sampling and identification of these diseases, development of strategy and conception for control of spreading of the infectious agents in 4 bulgarian regions / Blagoevgrad, Haskovo, Smoljan and Kardjeli/ and in the corresponding regions in Greece - Seres, Drama, Ksanti and Evro. Additionally, there is presented the role of local governmental representatives to manage these transnational border issues.(author)

  11. Mathematical models used to inform study design or surveillance systems in infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sereina A; Blaizot, Stéphanie; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-18

    Mathematical models offer the possibility to investigate the infectious disease dynamics over time and may help in informing design of studies. A systematic review was performed in order to determine to what extent mathematical models have been incorporated into the process of planning studies and hence inform study design for infectious diseases transmitted between humans and/or animals. We searched Ovid Medline and two trial registry platforms (Cochrane, WHO) using search terms related to infection, mathematical model, and study design from the earliest dates to October 2016. Eligible publications and registered trials included mathematical models (compartmental, individual-based, or Markov) which were described and used to inform the design of infectious disease studies. We extracted information about the investigated infection, population, model characteristics, and study design. We identified 28 unique publications but no registered trials. Focusing on compartmental and individual-based models we found 12 observational/surveillance studies and 11 clinical trials. Infections studied were equally animal and human infectious diseases for the observational/surveillance studies, while all but one between humans for clinical trials. The mathematical models were used to inform, amongst other things, the required sample size (n = 16), the statistical power (n = 9), the frequency at which samples should be taken (n = 6), and from whom (n = 6). Despite the fact that mathematical models have been advocated to be used at the planning stage of studies or surveillance systems, they are used scarcely. With only one exception, the publications described theoretical studies, hence, not being utilised in real studies.

  12. Leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andréa; Nery, José Augusto; de Matos, Haroldo José

    2012-12-01

    Contact surveillance is a valuable strategy for controlling leprosy. A dynamic cohort study of leprosy contacts was initiated in 1987 at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The objective of this work was to review the data on the major risk factors leading up to the infectious stage of the disease, estimate incidence rates of leprosy in the cohort and characterise the risk factors for the disease among the contacts under surveillance. The incidence rate of leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients was estimated at 0.01694 cases per person-year in the first five years of follow-up. The following factors were associated with acquiring the disease: (i) not receiving the BCG vaccine, (ii) a negative Mitsuda reaction and (iii) contact with a patient with a multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The contacts of index patients who had high bacilloscopic index scores > 1 were at especially high risk of infection. The following factors were associated with infection, which was defined as a seropositive reaction for anti-phenolic glicolipid-1 IgM: (i) young age (< 20 years), (ii) a low measured Mitsuda reaction (< 5 mm) and (iii) contact with an index patient who had a high bacilloscopic index. BCG vaccination and re-vaccination were shown to be protective among household contacts. The main conclusions of this study indicate an urgent need for additional leprosy control strategies in areas with a high incidence of the disease.

  13. Leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzenir Nunes Sarno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contact surveillance is a valuable strategy for controlling leprosy. A dynamic cohort study of leprosy contacts was initiated in 1987 at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The objective of this work was to review the data on the major risk factors leading up to the infectious stage of the disease, estimate incidence rates of leprosy in the cohort and characterise the risk factors for the disease among the contacts under surveillance. The incidence rate of leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients was estimated at 0.01694 cases per person-year in the first five years of follow-up. The following factors were associated with acquiring the disease: (i not receiving the BCG vaccine, (ii a negative Mitsuda reaction and (iii contact with a patient with a multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The contacts of index patients who had high bacilloscopic index scores > 1 were at especially high risk of infection. The following factors were associated with infection, which was defined as a seropositive reaction for anti-phenolic glicolipid-1 IgM: (i young age (< 20 years, (ii a low measured Mitsuda reaction (< 5 mm and (iii contact with an index patient who had a high bacilloscopic index. BCG vaccination and re-vaccination were shown to be protective among household contacts. The main conclusions of this study indicate an urgent need for additional leprosy control strategies in areas with a high incidence of the disease.

  14. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  15. From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Butsch, Carsten; Belesova, Kristine; Kroll, Marieke; Kraas, Frauke

    2017-08-25

    Private practitioners are the preferred first point of care in a majority of low and middle-income countries and in this position, best placed for the surveillance of diseases. However their contribution to routine surveillance data is marginal. This systematic review aims to explore evidence with regards to the role, contribution, and involvement of private practitioners in routine disease data notification. We examined the factors that determine the inclusion of, and the participation thereof of private practitioners in disease surveillance activities. Literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, WHOLIS, and WHO-IRIS databases to identify peer-reviewed and gray full-text documents in English with no limits for year of publication or study design. Forty manuscripts were reviewed. The current participation of private practitioners in disease surveillance efforts is appalling. The main barriers to their participation are inadequate knowledge leading to unsatisfactory attitudes and misperceptions that influence their practices. Complicated reporting mechanisms with unclear guidelines, along with unsatisfactory attitudes on behalf of the government and surveillance program managers also contribute to the underreporting of cases. Infrastructural barriers especially the availability of computers and skilled human resources are critical to improving private sector participation in routine disease surveillance. The issues identified are similar to those for underreporting within the Integrated infectious Disease Surveillance and Response systems (IDSR) which collects data mainly from public healthcare facilities. We recommend that surveillance program officers should provide periodic training, supportive supervision and offer regular feedback to the practitioners from both public as well as private sectors in order to improve case notification. Governments need to take leadership and foster collaborative partnerships between the public and private

  16. Epidemic surveillance using an electronic medical record: an empiric approach to performance improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhang Zheng

    Full Text Available Electronic medical records (EMR form a rich repository of information that could benefit public health. We asked how structured and free-text narrative EMR data should be combined to improve epidemic surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI.Eight previously characterized ARI case detection algorithms (CDA were applied to historical EMR entries to create authentic time series of daily ARI case counts (background. An epidemic model simulated influenza cases (injection. From the time of the injection, cluster-detection statistics were applied daily on paired background+injection (combined and background-only time series. This cycle was then repeated with the injection shifted to each week of the evaluation year. We computed: a the time from injection to the first statistical alarm uniquely found in the combined dataset (Detection Delay; b how often alarms originated in the background-only dataset (false-alarm rate, or FAR; and c the number of cases found within these false alarms (Caseload. For each CDA, we plotted the Detection Delay as a function of FAR or Caseload, over a broad range of alarm thresholds.CDAs that combined text analyses seeking ARI symptoms in clinical notes with provider-assigned diagnostic codes in order to maximize the precision rather than the sensitivity of case-detection lowered Detection Delay at any given FAR or Caseload.An empiric approach can guide the integration of EMR data into case-detection methods that improve both the timeliness and efficiency of epidemic detection.

  17. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Hürlimann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. METHODOLOGY: With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and 'grey literature', contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques. The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment

  18. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more

  19. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  20. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  1. China's Efforts on Management, Surveillance, and Research of Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Scorecard Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Luo, Jie-Si; Zhang, Xiao-Chang; Zhai, Yi; Wu, Jing

    The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising dramatically throughout the world. Aspects of researches concerned with the improvement and development of prevention and control of NCDs have been conducted. Furthermore, the influence of most determinants of the major NCDs has showed that a broad and deep response involving stakeholders in different sectors is required in the prevention and control of NCDs. China has experienced an increase in NCDs in a short period compared with many countries. To address the burden of NCDs in China, it is important to learn about the progress that has been made in prevention and control of NCDs in China and worldwide, informed by opinions of stakeholders in different areas. In 2014, GRAND South developed the NCD Scorecard instrument to evaluate progress of NCD prevention and control in 23 countries through a 2-round Delphi process. The scorecard included 51 indicators in 4 domains: governance, surveillance and research, prevention and risk factors, and health system response. Stakeholders were then selected in the areas of government, nongovernmental organizations, private sectors, and academia to join the NCD Scorecard survey. Indicators of progress were scored by stakeholders from 0 (no activity), 1 (present but not adequate), and 2 (adequate) to 3 (highly adequate) and then the percentage of progress in each domain was calculated, representing the current situation in each country. There were 14 indicators in the domains of governance and surveillance and research. Of 429 stakeholders worldwide, 41 in China participated in the survey. China scored in the top 5 out of all participating countries in those 2 domains, scoring 67% in governance and 64% in surveillance and research. Indicators on which China scored particularly well included having a well-resourced unit or department responsible for NCDs, having a strong national system for recording the cause of all deaths, and having a system of NCD surveillance. Areas

  2. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe McKerr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved.We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables.Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93% were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14% recorded as travel-related, 111 (15% had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%.The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to

  3. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.

  4. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  5. Automated graphic image generation system for effective representation of infectious disease surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masashi; Hasegawa, Shinsaku; Suyama, Akihiko; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke

    2003-11-01

    Infectious disease surveillance schemes have been established to detect infectious disease outbreak in the early stages, to identify the causative viral strains, and to rapidly assess related morbidity and mortality. To make a scheme function well, two things are required. Firstly, it must have sufficient sensitivity and be timely to guarantee as short a delay as possible from collection to redistribution of information. Secondly, it must provide a good representation of the results of the surveillance. To do this, we have developed a database system that can redistribute the information via the Internet. The feature of this system is to automatically generate the graphic images based on the numerical data stored in the database by using Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) script and Graphics Drawing (GD) library. It dynamically displays the information as a map or bar chart as well as a numerical impression according to the real time demand of the users. This system will be a useful tool for medical personnel and researchers working on infectious disease problems and will save significant time in the redistribution of information.

  6. Global surveillance of emerging diseases: the ProMED-mail perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Woodall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is changing the way global disease surveillance is conducted. Countries and international organizations are increasingly placing their outbreak reports on the Internet, which speeds up distribution and therefore prevention and control. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the value of nongovernmental organizations and the media in reporting outbreaks, which it then attempts to verify through its country offices. However, WHO and other official sources are constrained in their reporting by the need for bureaucratic clearance. ProMED-mail has no such constraints, and posts outbreak reports 7 days a week. It is moderated by infectious disease specialists who add relevant comments. Thus, ProMED-mail complements official sources and provides early warning of outbreaks. Its network is more than 20,000 people in over 150 countries, who place their computers and time at the network's disposal and report on outbreaks of which they have knowledge. Regions and countries could benefit from adopting the ProMED-mail approach to complement their own disease surveillance systems.

  7. Towards One Health Knowledge Networks: A Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing. Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference. This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.

  8. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  9. Health Care Providers’ Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Hiko Gemeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02% health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8% of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2% of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers’ knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  10. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  11. The importance of being urgent: The impact of surveillance target and scale on mosquito-borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Schwab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence or re-emergence of numerous mosquito-borne diseases in recent years, effective methods for emergency vector control responses are necessary to reduce human infections. Current vector control practices often vary significantly between different jurisdictions, and are executed independently and at different spatial scales. Various types of surveillance information (e.g. number of human infections or adult mosquitoes trigger the implementation of control measures, though the target and scale of surveillance vary locally. This patchy implementation of control measures likely alters the efficacy of control.We modeled six different scenarios, with larval mosquito control occurring in response to surveillance data of different types and at different scales (e.g. across the landscape or in each patch. Our results indicate that: earlier application of larvicide after an escalation of disease risk achieves much greater reductions in human infections than later control implementation; uniform control across the landscape provides better outbreak mitigation than patchy control application; and different types of surveillance data require different levels of sensitivity in their collection to effectively inform control measures. Our simulations also demonstrate a potential logical fallacy of reactive, surveillance-driven vector control: measures stop being implemented as soon as they are deemed effective. This false sense of security leads to patchier control efforts that will do little to curb the size of future vector-borne disease outbreaks. More investment should be placed in collecting high quality information that can trigger early and uniform implementation, while researchers work to discover more informative metrics of human risk to trigger more effective control. Keywords: Zika control, Epidemiological surveillance, Disease surveillance, Mosquito control, Vector-borne disease control, Epidemiological modeling

  12. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  13. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G; Stone, Patricia W; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs.

  14. Revisiting the Rise of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Using Search Query Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C; Dredze, Mark; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) remain poorly understood because surveys are too costly to regularly implement and, when implemented, there are long delays between data collection and dissemination. Search query surveillance has bridged some of these gaps. Herein, ENDS' popularity in the U.S. is reassessed using Google searches. ENDS searches originating in the U.S. from January 2009 through January 2015 were disaggregated by terms focused on e-cigarette (e.g., e-cig) versus vaping (e.g., vapers); their geolocation (e.g., state); the aggregate tobacco control measures corresponding to their geolocation (e.g., clean indoor air laws); and by terms that indicated the searcher's potential interest (e.g., buy e-cigs likely indicates shopping)-all analyzed in 2015. ENDS searches are rapidly increasing in the U.S., with 8,498,000 searches during 2014 alone. Increasingly, searches are shifting from e-cigarette- to vaping-focused terms, especially in coastal states and states where anti-smoking norms are stronger. For example, nationally, e-cigarette searches declined 9% (95% CI=1%, 16%) during 2014 compared with 2013, whereas vaping searches increased 136% (95% CI=97%, 186%), even surpassing e-cigarette searches. Additionally, the percentage of ENDS searches related to shopping (e.g., vape shop) nearly doubled in 2014, whereas searches related to health concerns (e.g., vaping risks) or cessation (e.g., quit smoking with e-cigs) were rare and declined in 2014. ENDS popularity is rapidly growing and evolving. These findings could inform survey questionnaire development for follow-up investigation and immediately guide policy debates about how the public perceives the health risks or cessation benefits of ENDS. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: Organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G.; Stone, Patricia W.; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. Methods A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Results Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Conclusion Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs. PMID:20176411

  16. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  17. Devising an Indicator to Detect Mid-Term Abortions in Dairy Cattle: A First Step Towards Syndromic Surveillance of Abortive Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; H?naux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aur?lien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy ca...

  18. Active Surveillance of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy): Importance for Case Finding among Extra-domiciliary Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria L. N.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Sampaio, Gabriel A. A.; Nóbrega, Priscilla F. C.; Jeronimo, Ana K.; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M.; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Barbosa, James D.; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Souza, Marcia C. F.; Nobre, Maurício L.

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:23516645

  19. Systems Biology and Ratio-Based, Real-Time Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, J M; Rivas, A L

    2015-08-01

    Most infectious disease surveillance methods are not well fit for early detection. To address such limitation, here we evaluated a ratio- and Systems Biology-based method that does not require prior knowledge on the identity of an infective agent. Using a reference group of birds experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and a problem group of unknown health status (except that they were WNV-negative and displayed inflammation), both groups were followed over 22 days and tested with a system that analyses blood leucocyte ratios. To test the ability of the method to discriminate small data sets, both the reference group (n = 5) and the problem group (n = 4) were small. The questions of interest were as follows: (i) whether individuals presenting inflammation (disease-positive or D+) can be distinguished from non-inflamed (disease-negative or D-) birds, (ii) whether two or more D+ stages can be detected and (iii) whether sample size influences detection. Within the problem group, the ratio-based method distinguished the following: (i) three (one D- and two D+) data classes; (ii) two (early and late) inflammatory stages; (iii) fast versus regular or slow responders; and (iv) individuals that recovered from those that remained inflamed. Because ratios differed in larger magnitudes (up to 48 times larger) than percentages, it is suggested that data patterns are likely to be recognized when disease surveillance methods are designed to measure inflammation and utilize ratios. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  1. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  2. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  3. Prospective Surveillance of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease, Fiji, 2005–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Adam; Kado, Joseph; Good, Michael F.; Batzloff, Michael; Waqatakirewa, Lepani; Mullholland, E. Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a prospective active surveillance study of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease in Fiji over a 23-month period, 2005–2007. We identified 64 cases of invasive GAS disease, which represents an average annualized all-ages incidence of 9.9 cases/100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6–12.6). Rates were highest in those >65 years of age and in those <5 years, particularly in infants, for whom the incidence was 44.9/100,000 (95% CI 18.1–92.5). The case-fatality rate was 32% and was associated with increasing age and underlying coexisting disease, including diabetes and renal disease. Fifty-five of the GAS isolates underwent emm sequence typing; the types were highly diverse, with 38 different emm subtypes and no particular dominant type. Our data support the view that invasive GAS disease is common in developing countries and deserves increased public health attention. PMID:19193265

  4. Identifying Local Hotspots of Pediatric Chronic Diseases Using Emergency Department Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C.; Yi, Stella S.; Fong, Hiu-Fai; Athens, Jessica K.; Ravenell, Joseph E.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wall, Stephen P.; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use novel geographic methods and large-scale claims data to identify the local distribution of pediatric chronic diseases in New York City. Methods Using a 2009 all-payer emergency claims database, we identified the proportion of unique children aged 0 to 17 with diagnosis codes for specific medical and psychiatric conditions. As a proof of concept, we compared these prevalence estimates to traditional health surveys and registry data using the most geographically granular data available. In addition, we used home addresses to map local variation in pediatric disease burden. Results We identified 549,547 New York City children who visited an emergency department at least once in 2009. Though our sample included more publicly insured and uninsured children, we found moderate to strong correlations of prevalence estimates when compared to health surveys and registry data at pre-specified geographic levels. Strongest correlations were found for asthma and mental health conditions by county among younger children (0.88, p=0.05 and 0.99, pdisease prevalence with higher geographic resolution. More studies are needed to investigate limitations of these methods and assess reliability of local disease estimates. What’s New This study demonstrated how emergency department surveillance may improve estimates of pediatric disease prevalence with higher geographic resolution. We identified 29% of New York City children with a single year of data and identified local hotspots of pediatric chronic diseases. PMID:28385326

  5. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  6. Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkansah-Poku Joe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.

  7. Guess who's not coming to dinner? Evaluating online restaurant reservations for disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoesie, Elaine O; Buckeridge, David L; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-22

    Alternative data sources are used increasingly to augment traditional public health surveillance systems. Examples include over-the-counter medication sales and school absenteeism. We sought to determine if an increase in restaurant table availabilities was associated with an increase in disease incidence, specifically influenza-like illness (ILI). Restaurant table availability was monitored using OpenTable, an online restaurant table reservation site. A daily search was performed for restaurants with available tables for 2 at the hour and at half past the hour for 22 distinct times: between 11:00 am-3:30 pm for lunch and between 6:00-11:30 PM for dinner. In the United States, we examined table availability for restaurants in Boston, Atlanta, Baltimore, and Miami. For Mexico, we studied table availabilities in Cancun, Mexico City, Puebla, Monterrey, and Guadalajara. Time series of restaurant use was compared with Google Flu Trends and ILI at the state and national levels for the United States and Mexico using the cross-correlation function. Differences in restaurant use were observed across sampling times and regions. We also noted similarities in time series trends between data on influenza activity and restaurant use. In some settings, significant correlations greater than 70% were noted between data on restaurant use and ILI trends. This study introduces and demonstrates the potential value of restaurant use data for event surveillance.

  8. Implementing a public web based GIS service for feedback of surveillance data on communicable diseases in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekdahl Karl

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance data allow for analysis, providing public health officials and policy-makers with a basis for long-term priorities and timely information on possible outbreaks for rapid response (data for action. In this article we describe the considerations and technology behind a newly introduced public web tool in Sweden for easy retrieval of county and national surveillance data on communicable diseases. Methods The web service was designed to automatically present updated surveillance statistics of some 50 statutory notifiable diseases notified to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI. The surveillance data is based on clinical notifications from the physician having treated the patient and laboratory notifications, merged into cases using a unique personal identification number issued to all Swedish residents. The web service use notification data from 1997 onwards, stored in a relational database at the SMI. Results The web service presents surveillance data to the user in various ways; tabulated data containing yearly and monthly disease data per county, age and sex distribution, interactive maps illustrating the total number of cases and the incidence per county and time period, graphs showing the total number of cases per week and graphs illustrating trends in the disease data. The system design encompasses the database (storing the data, the web server (holding the web service and an in-the-middle computer (to ensure good security standards. Conclusions The web service has provided the health community, the media, and the public with easy access to both timely and detailed surveillance data presented in various forms. Since it was introduced in May 2003, the system has been accessed more than 1,000,000 times, by more than 10,000 different viewers (over 12.600 unique IP-numbers.

  9. Emerging infectious diseases: a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beltz, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    "This important resource offers a comprehensive introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, including the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect...

  10. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  11. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Smit, Sandra; Williams, Seymour; Reddy, Carl; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. Evaluate the attributes of Eden District's TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District's ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District's ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well

  12. Recommended procedures for disease and serological surveillance as part of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    One important activity of GREP is to recommend to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Member Countries a zoosanitary approach for achieving rinderpest eradication and for determining the effectiveness of this achievement. To this end, a Consultants Meeting on Animal Disease Surveillance Systems was held in Vienna from 27 September to 1 October 1993 under the auspices of FAO and IAEA. This document represents the conclusions of the meeting and attempts to outline, in a highly practical manner, the various factors to be taken into account and steps to be undertaken by a country in the process of moving along a zoosanitary pathway culminating in a declaration of freedom from rinderpest virus. 14 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  13. CLINICIAN SENSITIZATION ON INTEGRATED DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE IN FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE OWO, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For effective Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR all health care workers involvement is required. Most trainings have often neglected the clinicians. Aim: This study aimed to identify gaps requiring capacity building in preventing infectious disease outbreak among health care workers in Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State. Methods: A cross sectional study of clinicians at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo was done. Data was collected using semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data collected were analysed with SPSS version 21. Summary statistics was conducted to identify training need requirements. Results: The mean age of participant was 43 ± 5.9 years, 14(70% were male. Respondents who have worked for 10 years and above were 12(60%. In all, 5(25% respondent understood disease surveillance to be systematic collection of data and analysis in order to prevent diseases. Regarding respondent’s knowledge of notifiable diseases. Only 4(20% of the respondents knew malaria as a notifiable disease, Cholera knew by 11(55%, Ebola by 15(75% and Lassa by 13(65%. The main factor identified to be affecting prompt disease notification in Federal Medical Centre, Owo was lack of adequate training 12(60% while communication gap was identified by 7(35%. In all, 18(90% felt they do not know all that they needed about disease surveillance. Conclusion: Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of disease trends. Trainings that will improve the level of knowledge of clinician and communication channels will improve disease surveillance and notification.

  14. [Active etiological surveillance for foodborne diseases in Guangdong province, 2013-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, B X; He, D M; Tan, H L; Zeng, H H; Yang, T; Li, B S; Liang, Y H; Lu, L L; Liang, J H; Huang, Q; Ke, C W

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus , enterotoxigenic Escherichia ( E. ) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) collected from diarrhea patients in Guangdong. Methods: The strains of Salmonella, Shigella, V. parahemolyticus and 4 kinds of E. coli isolated from foodborne diseases surveillance during 2013-2014 were collected to conduct serotyping, drug resistance test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: A total of 3 372 stains of pathogens were isolated from 57 834 stool samples during 2013-2014, the overall positive rate was 5.83 % and the positive rate of Salmonella was highest, followed by that of V. parahemolyticus , 4 kinds of E. coli and Shigella . And 3 213 strains of Salmonella were divided into 143 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella typhimurium , 4, 5, 12: i:-, Enteritidis , Stanley and Derby . Salmonella was sensitive to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones, and showed significant differences in drug resistance rate among different serotypes. In top 10 common serotypes, S. enteritidis and S. derby were most resistant to cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin respectively. PFGE was performed for 2 289 strains of Salmonella , showing distribution diversity and significant fingerprint polymorphisms. The 85 strains of V. parahemolyticus were divided into 10 serotypes, O3∶K6 (61.18 % ) was the most common serotype, followed by O4∶K8. The results showed that the carrying rate of virulence genes tdh (81.18 % ) was high, while the carrying rate of trh was low (7.06 % ), and there were 10 strains carrying no the two kinds of virulence genes. The sensitive rate of V. parahemolyticus to imipenem, nalidixic acid, SMZ-TMP, chloramphenicol and tetracycline were more than 95 % . Thirteen strains of Shigella were detected, including 9 strains of Shigella

  15. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; Liang, Jennifer L; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Yu, Patricia A; Painter, John; Moore, Matthew R; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting waterborne disease and outbreak (WBDO)-related data. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize WBDOs associated with recreational water that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and one previously unreported outbreak from 2002. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. During 2003-2004, a total 62 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 26 states and Guam. Illness occurred in 2,698 persons, resulting in 58 hospitalizations and one death. The median outbreak size was 14 persons (range: 1-617 persons). Of the 62 WBDOs, 30 (48.4%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents, chemicals, or toxins; 13 (21.0%) were outbreaks of dermatitis; and seven (11.3%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness (ARI). The remaining 12 WBDOs resulted in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), meningitis (n = one), leptospirosis (n = one), otitis externa (n = one), and mixed illnesses (n = eight). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 1,945 (72

  16. ProMED-mail: 22 years of digital surveillance of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Malwina; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2017-05-01

    ProMED-mail (ProMED) was launched in 1994 as an email service to identify unusual health events related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and toxins affecting humans, animals and plants. It is used daily by public health leaders, government officials at all levels, physicians, veterinarians and other healthcare workers, researchers, private companies, journalists and the general public. Reports are produced and commentary provided by a global team of subject matter experts in a variety of fields including virology, parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, veterinary and plant disease specialists. ProMED operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and has over 83 000 subscribers, representing every country in the world. Additionally, ProMED disseminates information via its website and through social media channels such as Twitter and Facebook as well as through RSS feeds. Over the last 22 years, it has been the first to report on numerous major and minor disease outbreaks including SARS, MERS, Ebola and the early spread of Zika. ProMED is transparent, apolitical, open to all and free of charge, making it an important and longstanding contributor to global health surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Development of an electronic emergency department-based geo-information injury surveillance system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C B; Leung, M; Lai, Adela; Chow, Y H; Chung, Joanne; Tong, K M; Lit, Albert

    2012-06-01

    To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance Guideline to support safety promotion and injury prevention in a Safe Community in Hong Kong starting 2002. The initial ED data-based only collected data on name, sex, age, address, eight general categories of injury types (traffic, domestic, common assault, indecent assault, batter, industrial, self-harm and sports) and disposal from ED. Phase 1--manual data collection on International Classification of External Causes of Injury pre-event data; Phase 2--manual form was converted to electronic format using web-based data mining technology with built in data quality monitoring mechanism; Phase 3--integration of injury surveillance-data with in-patient hospital information; and Phase 4--geo-spatial information and body mapping were introduced to geo-code exact place of injury in an electronic map and site of injury on body map. It was feasible to develop a geo-spatial IS system at busy ED to collect valuable information for safety promotion and injury prevention at Safe Community setting. The keys for successful development and implementation involves engagement of all stakeholders at design and implementation of the system with injury prevention as ultimate goal, detail workflow planning at front end, support from the management, building on exiting system and appropriate utilisation of modern technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in the Netherlands, 1960-2012: an analysis of national surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Bekker, Vincent; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data for invasive meningococcal disease is essential for public health policy and vaccine development. We analysed national surveillance data from the Netherlands for PorA coverage of two PorA-based meningococcal serogroup B vaccines to describe the epidemiology of invasive

  19. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The

  20. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  1. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  2. Establishing national noncommunicable disease surveillance in a developing country: a model for small island nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Rose

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the surveillance model used to develop the first national, population-based, multiple noncommunicable disease (NCD registry in the Caribbean (one of the first of its kind worldwide; registry implementation; lessons learned; and incidence and mortality rates from the first years of operation. Methods Driven by limited national resources, this initiative of the Barbados Ministry of Health (MoH, in collaboration with The University of the West Indies, was designed to collect prospective data on incident stroke and acute myocardial infarction (MI (heart attack cases from all health care facilities in this small island developing state (SIDS in the Eastern Caribbean. Emphasis is on tertiary and emergency health care data sources. Incident cancer cases are obtained retrospectively, primarily from laboratories. Deaths are collected from the national death register. Results Phased introduction of the Barbados National Registry for Chronic NCDs (“the BNR” began with the stroke component (“BNR–Stroke,” 2008, followed by the acute MI component (“BNR–Heart,” 2009 and the cancer component (“BNR–Cancer,” 2010. Expected case numbers projected from prior studies estimated an average of 378 first-ever stroke, 900 stroke, and 372 acute MI patients annually, and registry data showed an annual average of about 238, 593, and 349 patients respectively. There were 1 204 tumors registered in 2008, versus the expected 1 395. Registry data were used to identify public health training themes. Success required building support from local health care professionals and creating island-wide registry awareness. With spending of approximately US$ 148 per event for 2 200 events per year, the program costs the MoH about US$ 1 per capita annually. Conclusions Given the limited absolute health resources available to SIDS, combined surveillance should be considered for building a national NCD evidence base. With prevalence

  3. Italian network for obesity and cardiovascular disease surveillance: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Chiara; Lo Noce, Cinzia; Brignoli, Ovidio; Riccardi, Gabriele; Ciccarelli, Paola; Dima, Francesco; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona

    2008-09-29

    Also in Mediterranean countries, which are considered a low risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the increase in body mass index (BMI) has become a public health priority. To evaluate the feasibility of a CVD and obesity surveillance network, forty General Practitioners (GPs) were engaged to perform a screening to assess obesity, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle habits and medication use. A total of 1,046 women and 1,044 men aged 35-74 years were randomly selected from GPs' lists stratifying by age decade and gender. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed by GPs using standardized methodologies. BMI was computed and categorized in normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Food frequency (per day: fruits and vegetables; per week: meat, cheese, fish, pulses, chocolate, fried food, sweet, wholemeal food, rotisserie food and sugar drink) and physical activity (at work and during leisure time) were investigated through a questionnaire. CVD risk was assessed using the Italian CUORE Project risk function. The percentage of missing values was very low. Prevalence of overweight was 34% in women and 50% in men; prevalence of obesity was 23% in both men and women. Level of physical activity was mostly low or very low. BMI was inversely associated with consumption of pulses, rotisserie food, chocolate, sweets and physical activity during leisure time and directly associated with consumption of meat. Mean value of total cardiovascular risk was 4% in women and 11% in men. One percent of women and 16% of men were at high cardiovascular risk (> or = 20% in 10 years). Normal weight persons were four times more likely to be at low risk than obese persons. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a surveillance network of GPs in Italy focusing on obesity and other CVD risk factors. It also provided information on lifestyle habits, such as diet and physical activity.

  4. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of bovine brucellosis surveillance in a disease-free country using stochastic scenario tree modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance systems of exotic infectious diseases aim to ensure transparency about the country-specific animal disease situation (i.e. demonstrate disease freedom) and to identify any introductions. In a context of decreasing resources, evaluation of surveillance efficiency is essential to help stakeholders make relevant decisions about prioritization of measures and funding allocation. This study evaluated the efficiency (sensitivity related to cost) of the French bovine brucellosis surveillance system using stochastic scenario tree models. Cattle herds were categorized into three risk groups based on the annual number of purchases, given that trading is considered as the main route of brucellosis introduction in cattle herds. The sensitivity in detecting the disease and the costs of the current surveillance system, which includes clinical (abortion) surveillance, programmed serological testing and introduction controls, were compared to those of 19 alternative surveillance scenarios. Surveillance costs included veterinary fees and laboratory analyses. The sensitivity over a year of the current surveillance system was predicted to be 91±7% at a design prevalence of 0.01% for a total cost of 14.9±1.8 million €. Several alternative surveillance scenarios, based on clinical surveillance and random or risk-based serological screening in a sample (20%) of the population, were predicted to be at least as sensitive but for a lower cost. Such changes would reduce whole surveillance costs by 20 to 61% annually, and the costs for farmers only would be decreased from about 12.0 million € presently to 5.3-9.0 million € (i.e. 25-56% decrease). Besides, fostering the evolution of the surveillance system in one of these directions would be in agreement with the European regulations and farmers perceptions on brucellosis risk and surveillance.

  5. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of bovine brucellosis surveillance in a disease-free country using stochastic scenario tree modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available Surveillance systems of exotic infectious diseases aim to ensure transparency about the country-specific animal disease situation (i.e. demonstrate disease freedom and to identify any introductions. In a context of decreasing resources, evaluation of surveillance efficiency is essential to help stakeholders make relevant decisions about prioritization of measures and funding allocation. This study evaluated the efficiency (sensitivity related to cost of the French bovine brucellosis surveillance system using stochastic scenario tree models. Cattle herds were categorized into three risk groups based on the annual number of purchases, given that trading is considered as the main route of brucellosis introduction in cattle herds. The sensitivity in detecting the disease and the costs of the current surveillance system, which includes clinical (abortion surveillance, programmed serological testing and introduction controls, were compared to those of 19 alternative surveillance scenarios. Surveillance costs included veterinary fees and laboratory analyses. The sensitivity over a year of the current surveillance system was predicted to be 91±7% at a design prevalence of 0.01% for a total cost of 14.9±1.8 million €. Several alternative surveillance scenarios, based on clinical surveillance and random or risk-based serological screening in a sample (20% of the population, were predicted to be at least as sensitive but for a lower cost. Such changes would reduce whole surveillance costs by 20 to 61% annually, and the costs for farmers only would be decreased from about 12.0 million € presently to 5.3-9.0 million € (i.e. 25-56% decrease. Besides, fostering the evolution of the surveillance system in one of these directions would be in agreement with the European regulations and farmers perceptions on brucellosis risk and surveillance.

  6. [Invasive pneumococcal disease in the Community of Valencia. Six years of surveillance (2007-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancotti Oliver, Lucía Rosa; Huertas Zarco, Isabel; Pérez Pérez, Elvira; Carmona Martí, Esther; Carbó Malonda, Rosa; Gil Bru, Ana; González Moran, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of conjugated anti-pneumonia vaccines has led to a change in the epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to describe the trends in IPD in the Community of Valencia during the period 2007-2012. A retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study was conducted on IPD in the Community of Valencia during the period 2007-2012, The information sources used were the Epidemiological Surveillance Analysis (Análisis de la Vigilancia Epidemiológica (AVE)) and the Valencian Microbiology Network (Red Microbiológica Valenciana (RedMIVA)) of the Valencia Health Department. The incidence of IPD decreased between 2007 and 2012 in all age groups, mainly in the under 5 year-olds, dropping from 30.5 cases to 12.3 cases per 10(5) inhabitants (p< .001). Pneumonia was the principal presentation of the disease, with a decrease in its rates from 6.9 to 4.1 cases per 10(5) inhabitants (p< .001). A gradual, non-significant, reduction from 26% to 12% (p=.23) was observed in the proportion of cases due to the serotypes contained in the heptavalent vaccine (PCV7), mainly in the under 5 year-olds. The cases due to additional serotypes in 13-valent conjugated vaccine (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A) also showed a decreasing trend, mainly in vaccinated under 5 year-olds (52.6% vs 14.3%; p=.03), while the cases due to non-vaccine serotypes significantly increased from 42.3% to 56.7% in the general population (p=.002), and from 47.4% to 78.6% in vaccinated under 5 year-olds (p=.08). The results of this study show a reduction in the incidence of IPD, with a decrease in the proportion of cases produced by vaccine serotypes, and an increase in the proportion of those not vaccinated. Epidemiological Surveillance is necessary to monitor the trends in the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. The EUVAC-NET project: creation and operation of a surveillance community network for vaccine preventable infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glismann, S; Rønne, T; Tozzi, A

    2001-06-01

    The EUVAC-NET network is in charge of the epidemiological surveillance and control of vaccine preventable diseases. It is coordinated by the SSI in Denmark, in collaboration with the ISS in Italy. The two main diseases targeted by the network are measles and pertussis. A collaboration is planned with the PHLS for the monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae b. EUVAC-NET includes the Member States of the European Union, and Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

  8. The Impact of Resources for Clinical Surveillance on the Control of a Hypothetical Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess whether current surveillance capacity is sufficient to fulfill EU and Danish regulations to control a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Denmark, and whether enlarging the protection and/or surveillance zones could minimize economic...... losses. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was further developed to simulate clinical surveillance of herds within the protection and surveillance zones and used to model spread of FMD between herds. A queuing system was included in the model, and based on daily surveillance capacity, which...... resources for surveillance did not improve the situation, but fewer resources could result in larger epidemics and costs. Enlarging the protection zone was a better strategy than the basic scenario. Despite that enlarging the surveillance zone might result in shorter epidemic duration, and lower number...

  9. PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitochondrial Surveillance: From Pleiotropy to Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Corti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Over the last decade, PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control emerged as a pleiotropic regulatory pathway. Loss of its function impinges on a number of physiological processes suspected to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Its role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory processes stands out, providing compelling support to the contribution of non-cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in PD. In this review, we illustrate the central role of this multifunctional pathway at the crossroads between mitochondrial stress, neuroinflammation and metabolism. We discuss how its dysfunction may contribute to PD pathogenesis and pinpoint major unresolved questions in the field.

  10. Contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in the Obala health district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Binde, Thierry; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Ekani, Jean Marie Edengue; Ekra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The establishment of effective community-based surveillance is an essential objective of all disease surveillance systems. Several studies and reports have found that the situation is far from optimal in several developing countries such as Cameroon. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Obala health district. The performance of community health workers was measured using: the number of cases referred to the health center, the percentage of accomplished referrals, the percentage of cases referred by community health workers confirmed by the staff of health centers. A questionnaire containing forty-seven questions (open-ended and closed-ended) was used for interviews with community health workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and Excel 2007. Counts and percentages are reported. Results The study showed that the age ranged of community health workers was from 24 to 61 years with an average of 37.9 years ± 6.7 years. The most represented age group was between 40 and 50 with a percentage of 38.6%. The male sex was more represented than the female sex (61.4% vs 38.6%) or a sex ratio male man of 1.7. Forty-five percent of community health workers were selected at a village meeting, 93.1% of community health workers were involved in the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and 87% experienced at least one preventable disease. Only 45.8% of them had the case definitions of the four diseases. Analysis of community health workers attendance at organized health committee meetings showed that 79% of community health workers attended at least one health committee meeting in 2015 and only 49% were monitored in 2015. Community health workers reported 42 suspected cases of measles, 37 of which actually went to the nearest Health Center, a baseline rate of 88%. Conclusion Community health workers play a key role in the control of

  11. Population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults in Toronto.

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    Agron Plevneshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs. METHODS: We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in homeless adults in Toronto, a Canadian city with a total population of 2.5 M, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006. RESULTS: We identified 69 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease and 27 cases of laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in an estimated population of 5050 homeless adults. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults was 273 infections per 100,000 persons per year, compared to 9 per 100,000 persons per year in the general adult population. Homeless persons with invasive pneumococcal disease were younger than other adults (median age 46 years vs 67 years, P<.001, and more likely than other adults to be smokers (95% vs. 31%, P<.001, to abuse alcohol (62% vs 15%, P<.001, and to use intravenous drugs (42% vs 4%, P<.001. Relative to age matched controls, they were more likely to have underlying lung disease (12/69, 17% vs 17/272, 6%, P = .006, but not more likely to be HIV infected (17/69, 25% vs 58/282, 21%, P = .73. The proportion of patients with recurrent disease was five fold higher for homeless than other adults (7/58, 12% vs. 24/943, 2.5%, P<.001. In homeless adults, 28 (32% of pneumococcal isolates were of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, 42 (48% of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, and 72 (83% of serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Although no outbreaks of disease were identified in shelters, there was evidence of clustering of serotypes suggestive of transmission of pathogenic strains within the homeless population. CONCLUSIONS: Homeless persons are at high risk of serious pneumococcal infection. Vaccination, physical structure changes

  12. To develop a public private partnership model of disease notification as a part of integrated disease surveillance project (IDSP for private medical practitioners in Mumbai City, India

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    Ratnendra R. Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The main objective of Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was early detection of disease outbreaks. This could be possible only when the public health authorities have a strong and effective surveillance system in collaboration with Private Health Sector. Objectives 1 To assess knowledge, attitude & practice about notification of diseases amongst Private Medical Practitioners (PMPs. 2 To find out barriers experienced by PMPs in reporting of diseases under surveillance. 3 To assess feasibility of various alternative ways of reporting convenient for PMPs. 4 To develop a Public Private Partnership Model of disease notification based on feasible options obtained in the study. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the F South Municipal ward of Mumbai city during April-May 2011. Two stage simple random sampling was used to select 104 PMPs for the study. Results and Conclusions Nearly 98% PMPs felt importance of notification in health system, but only 46% had practiced it. Most common reason for non-reporting was lack of information about reporting system. The convenient way of reporting for PMPs was to report to the nearest health post personally or to District Surveillance Unit through SMS/phone call and both at weekly interval.

  13. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit; Græsbøll, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected...... surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance......Modelling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...

  14. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  15. A data-capture system for post-marketing surveillance of drugs that integrates with hospital electronic health records

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    Yamamoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Yamamoto1, Shigemi Matsumoto2, Kazuhiro Yanagihara2, Satoshi Teramukai1, Masanori Fukushima1,2,31Department of Clinical Trial Design and Management, Translational Research Center, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 2Outpatient Oncology Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Translational Research Informatics Center, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, JapanPurpose: In conventional clinical studies, the cost of data management for the purposes of quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs can be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records (EHRs for this purpose could reduce costs and improve data quality in clinical studies. Kyoto University Hospital launched an EHR system in January 2005. At the same time, a replicate of that database was established for other purposes. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital we developed a data-capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. This system allows us to accumulate data at low cost and apply it to various uses in clinical or outcomes studies. Here we report on the application of this system to the post-marketing surveillance of drugs.Methods: We evaluated the availability of this system and identified problems for future development. With this system investigators can register cases for post-marketing surveillance, and the registered cases are listed on a screen. When CRFs for a particular case are required, data can be extracted from the list and CRFs are produced in PDF format.Results and conclusion: In this study we confirmed the applicability of our new system to post-marketing surveillance in providing prompt and efficient data exchange. We expect it to reduce the cost of data management and analysis and to improve the quality of data in post

  16. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1971, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Data presented summarize 48 outbreaks that occurred during January 2007--December 2008 and 70 previously unreported outbreaks. WBDOSS includes data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, recreational water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent (WUI). Public health agencies in the states, U.S. territories, localities, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating outbreaks and reporting them voluntarily to CDC by a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and WUI are summarized in this report. Outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported separately. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 48 outbreaks that occurred during 2007--2008. Of these 48 outbreaks, 36 were associated with drinking water, eight with WNID, and four with WUI. The 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 32 (88.9%) of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks; 21 (58.3%) outbreaks were associated with bacteria, five (13.9%) with viruses, three (8.3%) with parasites, one (2.8%) with a chemical, one (2.8%) with both bacteria and viruses, and one (2.8%) with both bacteria and parasites. Four outbreaks (11.1%) had unidentified etiologies. Of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks, 22 (61.1%) were outbreaks of

  17. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  18. Information management and ante-mortem inspection procedures for the emerging diseases control: Experiences acquired in the epidemiological surveillance of bluetongue and lumpy skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Alessandra; Trevisani, Marcello; Dosa, Geremia; Padovani, Anna

    2018-03-31

    The spread of exotic, emerging and reemerging diseases, has become, in the last years, one of the most important threats to the animal productions and public health, representing a new challenge for the European Community. In a global-market framework, where trade and contacts between countries are simplified, effective and well-developed surveillance systems are necessary. Multiple factors are, in fact, associated with the emergence of new, known or exotic diseases in this new economic panorama and for these reasons controls on animal imports, traceability and timeliness detection of infected animals should be considered the basis of a sound surveillance. In this work, we focused our attention on the management of Bluetongue and on the risk of introduction of the Lumpy Skin Disease in Italy, in order to describe the national and European surveillance systems for these diseases. In particular, we underlined the crucial role of information that reach the Official Veterinarian at the slaughterhouse concerning the epidemiological situation of the sending countries. Information that are important for the management of the ante-mortem inspection and for increasing the awareness of the Veterinary Inspectors of their role in the surveillance.

  19. Information management and ante-mortem inspection procedures for the emerging diseases control: Experiences acquired in the epidemiological surveillance of bluetongue and lumpy skin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Corradini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of exotic, emerging and reemerging diseases, has become, in the last years, one of the most important threats to the animal productions and public health, representing a new challenge for the European Community. In a global-market framework, where trade and contacts between countries are simplified, effective and well-developed surveillance systems are necessary. Multiple factors are, in fact, associated with the emergence of new, known or exotic diseases in this new economic panorama and for these reasons controls on animal imports, traceability and timeliness detection of infected animals should be considered the basis of a sound surveillance. In this work, we focused our attention on the management of Bluetongue and on the risk of introduction of the Lumpy Skin Disease in Italy, in order to describe the national and European surveillance systems for these diseases. In particular, we underlined the crucial role of information that reach the Official Veterinarian at the slaughterhouse concerning the epidemiological situation of the sending countries. Information that are important for the management of the ante-mortem inspection and for increasing the awareness of the Veterinary Inspectors of their role in the surveillance.

  20. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

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    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  1. Mortality trends for ischemic heart disease in China: an analysis of 102 continuous disease surveillance points from 1991 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Ren, Hongyan; Ma, Enbo; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-07-25

    In the past 20 years, the trends of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in China have been described in divergent claims. This research analyzes mortality trends for IHD by using the data from 102 continuous Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) from 1991 to 2009. The 102 continuous DSP covered 7.3 million people during the period 1991-2000, and then were expanded to a population of 52 million in the same areas for 2004-2009. The data were adjusted by using garbage code redistribution and underreporting rate, mapped from international classification of diseases ICD-9 to ICD-10. The mortality rates for IHD were further adjusted by the crude death proportion multiplied by the total number of deaths in the mortality envelope, which was calculated by using logr t  = a + bt. Age-standard death rates (ASDRs) were computed using China's 2010 census population structure. Trend in IHD was calculated from ASDRs by using a joinpoint regression model. The IHD ASDRs increased in total in regions with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) 4.96%, especially for the Southwest (AAPC = 7.97%) and Northeast areas (AAPC = 7.10%), and for male and female subjects (with 5% AAPC) as well. In rural areas, the year 2000 was a cut-off point for mortality rate with annual percentage change increasing from 3.52% in 1991-2000 to 9.02% in 2000-2009, which was much higher than in urban areas (AAPC = 1.05%). And the proportion of deaths increased in older adults, and more male deaths occurred before age 60 compared to female deaths. By observing a wide range of areas across China from 1991 to 2009, this paper concludes that the ASDR trend for IHD increased. These trends reflect changes in the Chinese standard of living and lifestyle with diets higher in fat, higher blood lipids and increased body weight.

  2. Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo L; Janini, Mario; Salomão, Reinaldo; Medeiros, Eduardo A S; Wey, Sergio B; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2009-09-01

    Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

  3. Italian network for obesity and cardiovascular disease surveillance: A pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Luigi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Also in Mediterranean countries, which are considered a low risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD, the increase in body mass index (BMI has become a public health priority. To evaluate the feasibility of a CVD and obesity surveillance network, forty General Practitioners (GPs were engaged to perform a screening to assess obesity, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle habits and medication use. Methods A total of 1,046 women and 1,044 men aged 35–74 years were randomly selected from GPs' lists stratifying by age decade and gender. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed by GPs using standardized methodologies. BMI was computed and categorized in normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Food frequency (per day: fruits and vegetables; per week: meat, cheese, fish, pulses, chocolate, fried food, sweet, wholemeal food, rotisserie food and sugar drink and physical activity (at work and during leisure time were investigated through a questionnaire. CVD risk was assessed using the Italian CUORE Project risk function. Results The percentage of missing values was very low. Prevalence of overweight was 34% in women and 50% in men; prevalence of obesity was 23% in both men and women. Level of physical activity was mostly low or very low. BMI was inversely associated with consumption of pulses, rotisserie food, chocolate, sweets and physical activity during leisure time and directly associated with consumption of meat. Mean value of total cardiovascular risk was 4% in women and 11% in men. One percent of women and 16% of men were at high cardiovascular risk (≥ 20% in 10 years. Normal weight persons were four times more likely to be at low risk than obese persons. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of a surveillance network of GPs in Italy focusing on obesity and other CVD risk factors. It also provided information on lifestyle habits

  4. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  5. Laboratory database population surveillance to improve detection of progressive chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David M; Chatha, Kamaljit; Rayner, Hugh C

    2013-09-01

    Some patients with chronic kidney disease are still referred late for specialist care despite the evidence that earlier detection and intervention can halt or delay progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). To develop a population surveillance system using existing laboratory data to enable early detection of patients at high risk of ESKD by reviewing cumulative graphs of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A database was developed, updated daily with data from the laboratory computer. Cumulative eGFR graphs containing up to five years of data are reviewed by clinical scientists for all primary care patients or out-patients with a low eGFR for their age. For those with a declining trend, a report containing the eGFR graph is sent to the requesting doctor. A retrospective audit was performed using historical data to assess the predictive value of the graphs. In nine months, we reported 370,000 eGFR results, reviewing 12,000 eGFR graphs. On average 60 graphs per week were flagged as 'high' or 'intermediate' risk. Patients with graphs flagged as high risk had a significantly higher mortality after 3.5 years and a significantly greater chance of requiring renal replacement therapy after 4.5 years of follow-up. Five patients (7%) with graphs flagged as high risk had a sustained >25% fall in eGFR without evidence of secondary care referral. Feedback about the service from requesting clinicians was 73% positive. We have developed a system for laboratory staff to review cumulative eGFR graphs for a large population and identify patients at highest risk of developing ESKD. Further research is needed to measure the impact of this service on patient outcomes. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  7. Use of emergency department electronic medical records for automated epidemiological surveillance of suicide attempts: a French pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marie-Hélène; Tvardik, Nastassia; Gicquel, Quentin; Bouvry, Côme; Poulet, Emmanuel; Potinet-Pagliaroli, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an expert system based on automated processing of electronic health records (EHRs) could provide a more accurate estimate of the annual rate of emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts in France, as compared to the current national surveillance system based on manual coding by emergency practitioners. A feasibility study was conducted at Lyon University Hospital, using data for all ED patient visits in 2012. After automatic data extraction and pre-processing, including automatic coding of medical free-text through use of the Unified Medical Language System, seven different machine-learning methods were used to classify the reasons for ED visits into "suicide attempts" versus "other reasons". The performance of these different methods was compared by using the F-measure. In a test sample of 444 patients admitted to the ED in 2012 (98 suicide attempts, 48 cases of suicidal ideation, and 292 controls with no recorded non-fatal suicidal behaviour), the F-measure for automatic detection of suicide attempts ranged from 70.4% to 95.3%. The random forest and naïve Bayes methods performed best. This study demonstrates that machine-learning methods can improve the quality of epidemiological indicators as compared to current national surveillance of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    network in 2011. Likewise, the wild Murchison Mountains population was consistently the sink of the network. Other nodes, such as the offshore islands and the wildlife hospital, varied in importance over time. Common network descriptors and measures of centrality identified key locations for targeting disease surveillance. The visual representation of movements of animals in a population that this technique provides can aid decision makers when they evaluate translocation proposals or attempt to control a disease outbreak. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. A One Health Evaluation of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. E. Hanin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rooted in the recognition that emerging infectious diseases occur at the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS initiative aims to promote a trans-sectoral approach to address better infectious disease risk management in five countries of the Southern African Development Community. Nine years after SACIDS’ inception, this study aimed to evaluate the program by applying a One Health (OH evaluation framework developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH. The evaluation included a description of the context and the initiative, illustration of the theory of change, identification of outputs and outcomes, and assessment of the One Healthness. The latter is the sum of characteristics that defines an integrated approach and includes OH thinking, OH planning, OH working, sharing infrastructure, learning infrastructure, and systemic organization. The protocols made available by NEOH were used to develop data collection protocols and identify the study design. The framework relies on a mixed methods approach by combining a descriptive and qualitative assessment with a semi-quantitative evaluation (scoring. Data for the analysis were gathered during a document review, in group and individual interviews and in an online survey. Operational aspects (i.e., OH thinking, planning, and working were found to be balanced overall with the highest score in the planning dimension, whereas the infrastructure (learning infrastructure, systemic organization, and sharing infrastructure was high for the first two dimensions, but low for sharing. The OH index calculated was 0.359, and the OH ratio calculated was 1.495. The program was praised for its great innovative energy in a difficult landscape dominated by poor infrastructure and its ability to create awareness for OH and enthuse people for the concept; training of people and networking. Shortcomings were identified

  10. Clinical Relation Extraction Toward Drug Safety Surveillance Using Electronic Health Record Narratives: Classical Learning Versus Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2018-04-25

    Medication and adverse drug event (ADE) information extracted from electronic health record (EHR) notes can be a rich resource for drug safety surveillance. Existing observational studies have mainly relied on structured EHR data to obtain ADE information; however, ADEs are often buried in the EHR narratives and not recorded in structured data. To unlock ADE-related information from EHR narratives, there is a need to extract relevant entities and identify relations among them. In this study, we focus on relation identification. This study aimed to evaluate natural language processing and machine learning approaches using the expert-annotated medical entities and relations in the context of drug safety surveillance, and investigate how different learning approaches perform under different configurations. We have manually annotated 791 EHR notes with 9 named entities (eg, medication, indication, severity, and ADEs) and 7 different types of relations (eg, medication-dosage, medication-ADE, and severity-ADE). Then, we explored 3 supervised machine learning systems for relation identification: (1) a support vector machines (SVM) system, (2) an end-to-end deep neural network system, and (3) a supervised descriptive rule induction baseline system. For the neural network system, we exploited the state-of-the-art recurrent neural network (RNN) and attention models. We report the performance by macro-averaged precision, recall, and F1-score across the relation types. Our results show that the SVM model achieved the best average F1-score of 89.1% on test data, outperforming the long short-term memory (LSTM) model with attention (F1-score of 65.72%) as well as the rule induction baseline system (F1-score of 7.47%) by a large margin. The bidirectional LSTM model with attention achieved the best performance among different RNN models. With the inclusion of additional features in the LSTM model, its performance can be boosted to an average F1-score of 77.35%. It shows that

  11. The integrated disease surveillance and response system in northern Ghana: challenges to the core and support functions

    OpenAIRE

    Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Beiersmann, Claudia; Müller, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: The integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) strategy was adopted in Ghana over a decade ago, yet gaps still remain in its proper functioning. The objective of this study was to assess the core and support functions of the IDSR system at the periphery level of the health system in northern Ghana. Methods: A qualitative study has been conducted among 18 key informants in two districts of Upper East Region. The respondents were from 9 health facilities considered repres...

  12. Integrating an infectious disease programme into the primary health care service: a retrospective analysis of Chagas disease community-based surveillance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Nakamura, Jiro; Hanada, Kyo

    2015-03-24

    Integration of disease-specific programmes into the primary health care (PHC) service has been attempted mostly in clinically oriented disease control such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis but rarely in vector control. Chagas disease is controlled principally by interventions against the triatomine vector. In Honduras, after successful reduction of household infestation by vertical approach, the Ministry of Health implemented community-based vector surveillance at the PHC services (health centres) to prevent the resurgence of infection. This paper retrospectively analyses the effects and process of integrating a Chagas disease vector surveillance system into health centres. We evaluated the effects of integration at six pilot sites in western Honduras during 2008-2011 on; surveillance performance; knowledge, attitude and practice in schoolchildren; reports of triatomine bug infestation and institutional response; and seroprevalence among children under 15 years of age. The process of integration of the surveillance system was analysed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for health programme planning. The model was employed to systematically determine influential and interactive factors which facilitated the integration process at different levels of the Ministry of Health and the community. Overall surveillance performance improved from 46 to 84 on a 100 point-scale. Schoolchildren's attitude (risk awareness) score significantly increased from 77 to 83 points. Seroprevalence declined from 3.4% to 0.4%. Health centres responded to the community bug reports by insecticide spraying. As key factors, the health centres had potential management capacity and influence over the inhabitants' behaviours and living environment directly and through community health volunteers. The National Chagas Programme played an essential role in facilitating changes with adequate distribution of responsibilities, participatory modelling, training and, evaluation and advocacy. We found that Chagas

  13. A Trial of electronic surveillance feedback for quality improvement at Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Heidi L; Bandle, Brian; Richard, Angela A; Min, Sung-Joon; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) risk is directly related to duration of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs), rising beyond 2 days of catheterization. We conducted a cluster randomized study in nonintensive care units of Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) hospitals. Electronic surveillance data were used in an audit and feedback intervention for frontline nurses to reduce IUC duration. Multivariable methods were used to identify the difference in average IUC duration and proportion of patients with IUC duration hospital characteristics. A total of 24 units at 19 NICHE hospitals reported 13,499 adult patients with IUCs over 18 months. Early and delayed intervention groups had important baseline differences in IUC utilization. Use of evidence-based CAUTI prevention measures increased during study participation. In multivariable analysis, the average IUC duration and proportion of patients with IUC duration Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication in the Bicol Surveillance Buffer Zone of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A; Freeman, P G; Abila, R; Benigno, C; Verin, B; Nim, V; Cameron, A

    2011-10-01

    Following the onset of an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) commencing in 1994 and affecting mainly pigs in the Philippines, a National Plan for the Control and Eradication of the disease was initiated. A disease surveillance buffer zone in the southern Luzon region of Bicol was established to protect the Visayas and Mindanao from infection and enable eventual elimination of the disease in Luzon. With achievement of Office International Epizooties (OIE)-certified FMD freedom with vaccination in the Philippines now imminent, the four components of the disease control strategy are reviewed, including quarantine and animal movement controls, strategic vaccination, surveillance and disease investigation, and enhanced public awareness with school on the air radio programmes. Although numbers of outbreaks declined following widespread vaccination, evaluation of serological responses in vaccinates suggested low levels of immune protection. The cessation of outbreaks was considered more likely a result of animal movement controls, improved surveillance and emergency response capability, and reduction in FMD-risk behaviours by livestock owners, particularly through efforts to enhance public awareness of biosecurity measures by the training of traders, livestock industry personnel and both commercial and smallholder farmers. A two-stage random sampling serosurveillance strategy enabled identification of residual infection that was not detected through opportunistic sampling and negative incident reporting. Intensive investigations of FMD outbreaks, particularly in Albay province in 1999, enabled improved understanding of the risk factors involved in disease transmission and implementation of appropriate interventions. The findings from this review are offered to assist development of FMD control and eradication programmes in other countries in south-east Asia that are now being encouraged to support the OIE goal of FMD freedom with vaccination by 2020. © 2011

  15. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Clara J; Richards, Allen L; Masuoka, Penny M; Foley, Desmond H; Buczak, Anna L; Musila, Lillian A; Richardson, Jason H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Pavlin, Julie A; Fukuda, Mark M; Gaydos, Joel; Russell, Kevin L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Myint, Khin S; Pendergast, Brian; Lewis, Sheri; Pinzon, Jorge E; Collins, Kathrine; Smith, Matthew; Pak, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth; Myers, Todd; Mansour, Moustafa; Earhart, Ken; Kim, Heung Chul; Jiang, Ju; Schnabel, Dave; Clark, Jeffrey W; Sang, Rosemary C; Kioko, Elizabeth; Abuom, David C; Grieco, John P; Richards, Erin E; Tobias, Steven; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Florin, Dave; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Philip, Trudy L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program's ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia.

  16. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  17. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Mwangi, Ann; Chege, Patrick; Simiyu, Chrispinus J; Aswa, Daniel F; Odhiambo, David; Obala, Andrew A; Ayuo, Paul; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa O

    2013-09-01

    To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). Population based survey of residents in an HDSS. Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya. 4037 adults ≥ 18 years of age. Home based survey using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable intake. The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR 26-50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 ± 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 ± 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) or eat ≥ 5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) compared to men. The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally relevant subgroup differences that could inform future prevention efforts.

  18. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  20. CKD.QLD: chronic kidney disease surveillance and research in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuthurupalli, Sree K.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Healy, Helen G.; Salisbury, Anne; Fassett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major public health problem in Australia with significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden. However, there is no comprehensive surveillance programme to collect, collate and analyse data on CKD in a systematic way. Methods We describe an initiative called CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD), which was established in 2009 to address this deficiency, and outline the processes and progress made to date. The foundation is a CKD Registry of all CKD patients attending public health renal services in Queensland, and patient recruitment and data capture have started. Results We have established through early work of CKD.QLD that there are over 11 500 CKD patients attending public renal services in Queensland, and these are the target population for our registry. Progress so far includes conducting two CKD clinic site surveys, consenting over 3000 patients into the registry and initiation of baseline data analysis of the first 600 patients enrolled at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) site. In addition, research studies in dietary intake and CKD outcomes and in models of care in CKD patient management are underway. Conclusions Through the CKD Registry, we will define the distribution of CKD patients referred to renal practices in the public system in Queensland by region, remoteness, age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We will define the clinical characteristics of those patients, and the CKD associations, stages, co-morbidities and current management. We will follow the course and outcomes in individuals over time, as well as group trends over time. Through our activities and outcomes, we are aiming to provide a nidus for other states in Australia to join in a national CKD registry and network. PMID:23115138

  1. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  2. ‘One Health’ infectious diseases surveillance in Tanzania: Are we all on board the same flight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto V. Mbugi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for nearly 40% of the burden of human mortality and morbidity in low-income countries, of which 7% is attributable to zoonoses and 13% to recently emerging diseases from animals. One of the strategic approaches for effective surveillance, monitoring and control of infectious diseases compromising health in both humans and animals could be through a combination of multiple disciplines. The approach can be achieved through a joint effort from stakeholders comprising health professionals (medical and veterinary, social, economic, agricultural, environmental and other interested parties. With resource scarcity in terms of number of staff, skills and facility in low-income countries, participatory multi- sectoral and multidisciplinary approaches in limiting the burden of zoonotic diseases could be worthwhile. We review challenging issues that may limit the ‘One Health’ approach for infectious diseases surveillance in Tanzania with a focus on Health Policy and how best the human and animal health systems could be complemented or linked to suit the community in need for disease control under the theme’s context.

  3. ‘One Health’ infectious diseases surveillance in Tanzania: Are we all on board the same flight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto V. Mbugi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for nearly 40% of the burden of human mortality and morbidity in low-income countries, of which 7% is attributable to zoonoses and 13% to recently emerging diseases from animals. One of the strategic approaches for effective surveillance, monitoring and control of infectious diseases compromising health in both humans and animals could be through a combination of multiple disciplines. The approach can be achieved through a joint effort from stakeholders comprising health professionals (medical and veterinary, social, economic, agricultural, environmental and other interested parties. With resource scarcity in terms of number of staff, skills and facility in low-income countries, participatory multi- sectoral and multidisciplinary approaches in limiting the burden of zoonotic diseases could be worthwhile. We review challenging issues that may limit the ‘One Health’ approach for infectious diseases surveillance in Tanzania with a focus on Health Policy and how best the human and animal health systems could be complemented or linked to suit the community in need for disease control under the theme’s context.

  4. An efficient approach for surveillance of childhood diabetes by type derived from electronic health record data: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Victor W; Obeid, Jihad S; Craig, Jean B; Pfaff, Emily R; Thomas, Joan; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Beavers, Daniel P; Carey, Timothy S; Lawrence, Jean M; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard F; Bowlby, Deborah A; Pihoker, Catherine; Saydah, Sharon H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an efficient surveillance approach for childhood diabetes by type across 2 large US health care systems, using phenotyping algorithms derived from electronic health record (EHR) data. Materials and Methods Presumptive diabetes cases diabetes-related billing codes, patient problem list, and outpatient anti-diabetic medications. EHRs of all the presumptive cases were manually reviewed, and true diabetes status and diabetes type were determined. Algorithms for identifying diabetes cases overall and classifying diabetes type were either prespecified or derived from classification and regression tree analysis. Surveillance approach was developed based on the best algorithms identified. Results We developed a stepwise surveillance approach using billing code–based prespecified algorithms and targeted manual EHR review, which efficiently and accurately ascertained and classified diabetes cases by type, in both health care systems. The sensitivity and positive predictive values in both systems were approximately ≥90% for ascertaining diabetes cases overall and classifying cases with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. About 80% of the cases with “other” type were also correctly classified. This stepwise surveillance approach resulted in a >70% reduction in the number of cases requiring manual validation compared to traditional surveillance methods. Conclusion EHR data may be used to establish an efficient approach for large-scale surveillance for childhood diabetes by type, although some manual effort is still needed. PMID:27107449

  5. Using mobile technology to optimize disease surveillance and healthcare delivery at mass gatherings: a case study from India's Kumbh Mela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Dhruv S; Greenough, P Gregg; Madhok, Rishi; Heerboth, Aaron; Shaikh, Ahmed; Leaning, Jennifer; Balsari, Satchit

    2017-09-01

    Planning for mass gatherings often includes temporary healthcare systems to address the needs of attendees. However, paper-based record keeping has traditionally precluded the timely application of collected clinical data for epidemic surveillance or optimization of healthcare delivery. We evaluated the feasibility of harnessing ubiquitous mobile technologies for conducting disease surveillance and monitoring resource utilization at the Allahabad Kumbh Mela in India, a 55-day festival attended by over 70 million people. We developed an inexpensive, tablet-based customized disease surveillance system with real-time analytic capabilities, and piloted it at five field hospitals. The system captured 49 131 outpatient encounters over the 3-week study period. The most common presenting complaints were musculoskeletal pain (19%), fever (17%), cough (17%), coryza (16%) and diarrhoea (5%). The majority of patients received at least one prescription. The most common prescriptions were for antimicrobials, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was great inter-site variability in caseload with the busiest hospital seeing 650% more patients than the least busy hospital, despite identical staffing. Mobile-based health information solutions developed with a focus on user-centred design can be successfully deployed at mass gatherings in resource-scarce settings to optimize care delivery by providing real-time access to field data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  7. [Importance for surveillance on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Chinese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2018-05-10

    The first national surveillance of COPD in mainland China was carried out in 2014, with the nationally representative data obtained. The national surveillance was significantly important for the monitoring of prevalence, risk factors, and changing trend of COPD among Chinese adults aged ≥ 40. The surveillance was also important in the development of national COPD prevention and control policy, the evaluation of prevention and control progress, the establishment of COPD comprehensive surveillance system, and the building of a professional COPD monitoring and prevention team. In this editorial, we briefly introduced the method and content of COPD surveillance, and reported the rate of spirometry examination and COPD awareness among adults aged ≥40 in China. We also analyzed the rate of main risk factors for COPD, such as tobacco smoking, occupational exposure to dust or chemical and indoor exposure to biomass or coal, and the distribution of high-risk population. This study provided fundamental data for the prevention and control of COPD in China.

  8. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  9. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  10. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous...... a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely......Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...

  11. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  12. Spatial surveillance during control of infectious diseases – Salmonella Dublin in Denmark 2002-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. ...

  13. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leanne; Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS' capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide.

  14. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  15. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  16. Removing a barrier to computer-based outbreak and disease surveillance--the RODS Open Source Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Jeremy U; Wagner, M; Szczepaniak, C; Tsui, F C; Su, H; Olszewski, R; Liu, Z; Chapman, W; Zeng, X; Ma, L; Lu, Z; Dara, J

    2004-09-24

    Computer-based outbreak and disease surveillance requires high-quality software that is well-supported and affordable. Developing software in an open-source framework, which entails free distribution and use of software and continuous, community-based software development, can produce software with such characteristics, and can do so rapidly. The objective of the Real-Time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) Open Source Project is to accelerate the deployment of computer-based outbreak and disease surveillance systems by writing software and catalyzing the formation of a community of users, developers, consultants, and scientists who support its use. The University of Pittsburgh seeded the Open Source Project by releasing the RODS software under the GNU General Public License. An infrastructure was created, consisting of a website, mailing lists for developers and users, designated software developers, and shared code-development tools. These resources are intended to encourage growth of the Open Source Project community. Progress is measured by assessing website usage, number of software downloads, number of inquiries, number of system deployments, and number of new features or modules added to the code base. During September--November 2003, users generated 5,370 page views of the project website, 59 software downloads, 20 inquiries, one new deployment, and addition of four features. Thus far, health departments and companies have been more interested in using the software as is than in customizing or developing new features. The RODS laboratory anticipates that after initial installation has been completed, health departments and companies will begin to customize the software and contribute their enhancements to the public code base.

  17. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Polio Eradication Initiative contribution in strengthening immunization and integrated disease surveillance data management in WHO African region, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-like Illness. Experience from a pilot study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Lopez, Liza; Mackereth, Graham

    2017-02-01

    Electronic reporting of Influenza-like illness (eILI) from primary care was implemented and evaluated in three general medical practices in New Zealand during May to September 2015. To measure the uptake of eILI and to identify the system's strength and limitations. Analysis of transactional data from the eILI system; comparative study of influenza-like illness cases reported using manual methods and eILI; questionnaire administered to clinical and operational stakeholders. Over the study period 66% of total ILI cases were reported using eILI. Reporting timeliness improved significantly compared to manual reporting with an average of 24 minutes from submission by the clinician to processing in the national database. Users found the system to be user-friendly. eILI assists clinicians to report ILI cases to public health authorities within a stipulated time period and is associated with faster, more reliable and improved information transfer.

  20. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  1. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Burdalo, M; Sanchis, A; Martin, A; Villar, R [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, C/Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mercedes@iec.csic.es

    2010-02-21

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  2. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Burdalo, M; Sanchis, A; Martin, A; Villar, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  3. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  4. A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waseem; Roivainen, Päivi; Herrala, Mikko; Tiikkaja, Maria; Sallmén, Markku; Hietanen, Maila; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2018-02-26

    We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems. The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015. 536 births and 38 miscarriages occurred among these women during the study period, based on information from nationwide health registries. Measurements were also performed to characterize the MF exposure of cashiers. Cashiers were found to be exposed to 8.2 MHz MFs only when passing by the gates at short distance. Static fields of about 0.1 mT were observed at cashier's seat. Extremely low frequency MFs were higher at stores without EAS devices. No differences on the risk of miscarriage, reduced birth weight or preterm birth were observed between cashiers in different store types. Any further studies should attempt to include study subjects working near EAS systems that produce stronger IF MFs at kHz frequencies. Exposure to ELF MFs should be assessed as a possible confounding factor.

  5. Special report. Update on EAS (electronic article surveillance) systems: protecting against patient wandering, infant abduction, property theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Concern about wandering patients and infant abduction on the part of hospitals has sparked renewed interest in Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems. Such systems had their origins in department stores and libraries where they are almost universally used. They also have applications in hospitals for preventing the theft of supplies and equipment. A number of companies provide EAS products for the health care field. How do you select the system that is best for your needs? "Talk to users. Pick out a number of profit and non-profit hospitals to get their views," advises Ted Algaier, vice president, marketing and sales, Innovative Control Systems, Inc., Waukesha, WI. "Examine the history of the company or vendor to determine if it understands the health care market and find out if the product really works." In this report, we'll review a number of EAS systems currently on the market, and present information on how they work, how effective they are, and costs involved. Also included are comments from users who have installed such systems.

  6. Operational Mosquito and Vector-Borne Diseases Surveillance at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    of Biological Diversity , Columbus, OH, or the - cies and tested for arboviruses. Pools ranged from 1-25 mosquitoes depending on submission numbers...Rickettsia felis (Rickett- - phonaptera: Pulicidae) in the Philippines . J Ento- mol Sci. 2012;47:95-96. Mosquito surveillance data from Incirlik Air Base...Taylor SJ, Durden LA, Foley EH, Reeves WK. The bat tick Carios azteci (Acari: Argasidae) from Be- lize, with an endosymbiotic Coxiellaceae. Speleo

  7. Drug-induced acute myocardial infarction: identifying 'prime suspects' from electronic healthcare records-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preciosa M Coloma

    Full Text Available Drug-related adverse events remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality and impose huge burden on healthcare costs. Routinely collected electronic healthcare data give a good snapshot of how drugs are being used in 'real-world' settings.To describe a strategy that identifies potentially drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI from a large international healthcare data network.Post-marketing safety surveillance was conducted in seven population-based healthcare databases in three countries (Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands using anonymised demographic, clinical, and prescription/dispensing data representing 21,171,291 individuals with 154,474,063 person-years of follow-up in the period 1996-2010. Primary care physicians' medical records and administrative claims containing reimbursements for filled prescriptions, laboratory tests, and hospitalisations were evaluated using a three-tier triage system of detection, filtering, and substantiation that generated a list of drugs potentially associated with AMI. Outcome of interest was statistically significant increased risk of AMI during drug exposure that has not been previously described in current literature and is biologically plausible.Overall, 163 drugs were identified to be associated with increased risk of AMI during preliminary screening. Of these, 124 drugs were eliminated after adjustment for possible bias and confounding. With subsequent application of criteria for novelty and biological plausibility, association with AMI remained for nine drugs ('prime suspects': azithromycin; erythromycin; roxithromycin; metoclopramide; cisapride; domperidone; betamethasone; fluconazole; and megestrol acetate.Although global health status, co-morbidities, and time-invariant factors were adjusted for, residual confounding cannot be ruled out.A strategy to identify potentially drug-induced AMI from electronic healthcare data has been proposed that takes into account not only statistical

  8. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  9. Survey of the perceptions of key stakeholders on the attributes of the South African Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, F G; Musekiwa, A; Blumberg, L; Rispel, L C

    2016-10-25

    An effective and efficient notifiable diseases surveillance system (NDSS) is essential for a rapid response to disease outbreaks, and the identification of priority diseases that may cause national, regional or public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs). Regular assessments of country-based surveillance system are needed to enable countries to respond to outbreaks before they become PHEICs. As part of a broader evaluation of the NDSS in South Africa, the aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of key stakeholders on the national NDSS attributes of acceptability, flexibility, simplicity, timeliness and usefulness. During 2015, we conducted a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of communicable diseases coordinators and surveillance officers, as well as members of NDSS committees. Individuals with less than 1 year experience of the NDSS were excluded. Consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information on demographic information and perceptions of the NDSS attributes. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the unconditional logistic regression model. Most stakeholders interviewed (53 %, 60/114) were involved in disease control and response. The median number of years of experience with the NDSS was 11 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 5 to 20 years). Regarding the NDSS attributes, 25 % of the stakeholders perceived the system to be acceptable, 51 % to be flexible, 45 % to be timely, 61 % to be useful, and 74 % to be simple. Health management stakeholders perceived the system to be more useful and timely compared to the other stakeholders. Those with more years of experience were less likely to perceive the NDSS system as acceptable (OR 0.91, 95 % CI: 0.84-1.00, p = 0.041); those in disease detection were less likely to perceive it as timely (OR 0.10, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.96, p = 0.046) and those participating in National Outbreak Response Team were

  10. A Smartphone-Based Application Improves the Accuracy, Completeness, and Timeliness of Cattle Disease Reporting and Surveillance in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Jibat Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate disease reporting, ideally in near real time, is a prerequisite to detecting disease outbreaks and implementing appropriate measures for their control. This study compared the performance of the traditional paper-based approach to animal disease reporting in Ethiopia to one using an application running on smartphones. In the traditional approach, the total number of cases for each disease or syndrome was aggregated by animal species and reported to each administrative level at monthly intervals; while in the case of the smartphone application demographic information, a detailed list of presenting signs, in addition to the putative disease diagnosis were immediately available to all administrative levels via a Cloud-based server. While the smartphone-based approach resulted in much more timely reporting, there were delays due to limited connectivity; these ranged on average from 2 days (in well-connected areas up to 13 days (in more rural locations. We outline the challenges that would likely be associated with any widespread rollout of a smartphone-based approach such as the one described in this study but demonstrate that in the long run the approach offers significant benefits in terms of timeliness of disease reporting, improved data integrity and greatly improved animal disease surveillance.

  11. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-03-26

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling.

  12. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  13. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kimberly; Jajosky, Ruth; Coates, Ralph J; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Dewey-Mattia, Daniel; Raymond, Jaime; Singh, Simple D

    2017-08-11

    The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 - United States, herein referred to as the Summary (Noninfectious), contains official statistics for nationally notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks. This Summary (Noninfectious) is being published in the same volume of MMWR as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions (1). Data on notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks from prior years have been published previously (2,3).

  15. Utilization and Accessibility of Healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: Implications for Health Outcomes and Disease Surveillance for Typhoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Ali, Said M.; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Deen, Jacqueline; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers', health administrators', and village residents' and leaders' perceptions of typhoid fever, and hypothetical and actual health care use among village residents for typhoid fever. Qualitative data provided descriptions of home-based treatment practices and use of western pharmaceuticals, and actual healthcare use for culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Survey data indicate health facility use was associated with gender, education, residency, and perceptions of severity for symptoms associated with typhoid fever. Data have implications for education of policy makers and health administrators, design and implementation of surveillance studies, and community-based interventions to prevent disease outbreaks, decrease risks of complications, and provide information about disease recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23208887

  16. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  18. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enserink Remko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network. The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff, medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (biodatabases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.

  19. Accuracy and Efficiency of Recording Pediatric Early Warning Scores Using an Electronic Physiological Surveillance System Compared With Traditional Paper-Based Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Gerri; Lane, Steven; Killen, Roger; Black, Stuart; Lyon, Max; Ampah, Pearl; Sproule, Cathryn; Loren-Gosling, Dominic; Richards, Caitlin; Spinty, Jean; Holloway, Colette; Davies, Coral; Wilson, April; Chean, Chung Shen; Carter, Bernie; Carrol, E D

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled study of documentation using five clinical vignettes. We measured the accuracy of vital sign recording, score calculation, and time taken to complete documentation using a handheld electronic physiological surveillance system, VitalPAC Pediatric, compared with traditional paper-based charts. We explored the user acceptability of both methods using a Web-based survey. Twenty-three staff participated in the controlled study. The electronic physiological surveillance system improved the accuracy of vital sign recording, 98.5% versus 85.6%, P < .02, Pediatric Early Warning Score calculation, 94.6% versus 55.7%, P < .02, and saved time, 68 versus 98 seconds, compared with paper-based documentation, P < .002. Twenty-nine staff completed the Web-based survey. They perceived that the electronic physiological surveillance system offered safety benefits by reducing human error while providing instant visibility of recorded data to the entire clinical team.

  20. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Ramatowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A hackathon is best described as an ‘innovation marathon’. Derived from the words ‘hacking’ and ‘marathon’, it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016 are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2 days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Keywords: Hackathon, Innovation, Infectious diseases, Public health, Medical meeting, Interdisciplinary, Emerging infectious diseases

  1. Examining lung cancer risks across different industries and occupations in Ontario, Canada: the establishment of the Occupational Disease Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, James K H; Feinstein, Saul G; Palma Lazgare, Luis; Macleod, Jill S; Arrandale, Victoria H; McLeod, Christopher B; Peter, Alice; Demers, Paul A

    2018-05-07

    The Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS) was established in Ontario, Canada by linking a cohort of workers with data created from Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims to administrative health databases. The aim of this study was to use ODSS to identify high-risk industry and occupation groups for lung cancer in Ontario. Workers in the WSIB lost time claims database were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry using subjects' health insurance numbers, name, sex, birthdate and death date (if applicable). Several occupations and industries known to be at increased risk were outlined a priori to examine whether ODSS could replicate these associations. Age-adjusted, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard models compared the risk of lung cancer within one industry/occupation versus all other groups in the cohort. Workers with a lung cancer diagnosis prior to cohort entry were excluded for analysis, leaving 2 187 762 workers for analysis. During the 1983 to 2014 follow-up, 34 661 workers in the cohort were diagnosed with lung cancer. Among expected high-risk industries, elevated risks were observed among workers in quarries/sand pits and construction industries for both sexes, and among males in metal mines, iron foundries, non-metallic mineral products industries and transportation industries. Excess risk was also observed among occupations in drilling/blasting, other mining/quarrying, mineral ore treating, excavating/grading/paving, truck driving, painting, bus driving and construction. This current surveillance system identified several established high-risk groups for lung cancer and could be used for ongoing surveillance of occupational lung cancer in Ontario. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Epidemiological and Surveillance Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Lofa County, Liberia (March-September, 2014); Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Koffi Isidore; Clement, Peter; Bolongei, Josephus; Tamba, Alpha; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Warsame, Abdihamid; Okeibunor, Joseph Chukwudi; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Tamba, Boima; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Poy, Alain; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2015-05-06

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EVD outbreak in Lofa County in Liberia from March to September 2014. Five of the 6 districts of Lofa were affected. The most affected districts were Voinjama/Guardu Gbondi and Foya. By 26th September, 2014, a total of 619 cases, including 19.4% probable cases, 20.3% suspected cases and 44.2% confirmed cases were recorded by the Ebola Emergency Response Team (EERT) of Lofa County. Adults (20-50 years) were the most affected. Overall fatality rate was 53.3%.  Twenty two (22) cases were reported among the Health Care Workers with a fatality rate of 81.8%. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the contacts successfully completed 21 days follow-up while 134 (6.15%) that developed signs and symptoms of EVD were referred to the ETU in Foya. The contributions of the weak health systems as well as socio-cultural factors in fueling the epidemic are highlighted. Importantly, the lessons learnt including the positive impact of multi-sectorial and multidisciplinary and coordinated response led by the government and community.  Again, given that the spread of infectious disease can be considered a security threat every effort has to put in place to strengthen the health systems in developing countries including the International Health Regulation (IHR)'s core capacities. Key words:  Ebola virus disease, outbreak, epidemiology and surveillance, socio-cultural factors, health system, West Africa.

  3. Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbuti Giovanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the publication of the Italian Guidelines for the control and prevention of legionellosis an environmental and clinical surveillance has been carried out in Southeastern Italy. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors for the disease, so allowing better programming of the necessary prevention measures. Methods During the period January 2000 - December 2009 the environmental surveillance was carried out by water sampling of 129 health care facilities (73 public and 56 private hospitals and 533 buildings within the community (63 private apartments, 305 hotels, 19 offices, 4 churches, 116 gyms, 3 swimming pools and 23 schools. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the Italian Guidelines. From January 2005, all facilities were subject to risk analysis through the use of a standardized report; the results were classified as good (G, medium (M and bad (B. As well, all the clinical surveillance forms for legionellosis, which must be compiled by physicians and sent to the Regional Centre for Epidemiology (OER, were analyzed. Results Legionella spp. was found in 102 (79.1% health care facilities and in 238 (44.7% community buildings. The percentages for the contamination levels 10,000 cfu/L were respectively 33.1%, 53.4% and 13.5% for samples from health care facilities and 33.5%, 43.3% and 23.2% for samples from the community. Both in hospital and community environments, Legionella pneumophila serogroup (L. pn sg 2-14 was the most frequently isolate (respectively 54.8% and 40.8% of positive samples, followed by L. pn sg 1 (respectively 31.3% and 33%. The study showed a significant association between M or B score at the risk analysis and Legionella spp. positive microbiological test results (p Conclusions Our experience suggests that risk analysis and environmental microbiological surveillance should be carried out more frequently to control the environmental spread of Legionella

  4. The human prion diseases. A review with special emphasis on new variant CJD and comments on surveillance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, C

    2012-02-03

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases represent a new group of diseases with unique clinical and neuropathological features, the transmission of which is both genetic and infectious. The responsible agent is unconventional and appears to be largely composed of a glycoprotein, the prion protein PrP. This is normally present on different cells. In prion diseases, it becomes converted to the pathogenic form PrPres which is resistant to proteinase and accumulates within the brain and this process is accompanied by the development of spongiform change, gliosis and neuronal loss. The human prion diseases include Kuru a progressive cerebellar degeneration with late dementia affecting Fore tribes in New-Guinea, now almost extinct, regarded as being related to cannibalism. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the more frequent human prion disease. Its incidence is approximately one case per million per year. Four variants are now recognized: sporadic, familial, iatrogenic and the new variant. The latter represents a distinct clinico-pathological entity. It is now widely accepted that it is due to the same agent responsible for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in cattle. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease is a very rare inherited disorder due to a number of different mutations in the PRP gene, characterized by abundant deposits of plaque PrPres in the cerebral grey matter. Fatal familial insomnia is another inherited disorder due to a mutation at codon 178 of the PRP gene associated with methionine on codon 129 of the mutant allele. The main neuropathological change is neuronal loss in the thalamus with little or no spongiosis and usually no PrPres deposition. Following the emergence of new variant CJD in 1996, surveillance of all forms of prion diseases has been now been actively introduced in many European nations in order to determine the true incidence and geographic distribution of these rare disorders in humans.

  5. Systematic review of surveillance systems and methods for early detection of exotic, new and re-emerging diseases in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Rubio-Guerri, C; Melero, M; Martínez-López, B; Martínez-Avilés, M; Hoinville, L; Vergne, T; Comin, A; Schauer, B; Dórea, F; Pfeiffer, D U; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-07-01

    In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease sero-surveillance in Africa and vaccine matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis Sebhatu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was the first animal pathogen to be identified as a virus, and today, more than a century later, it remains at the forefront of major animal diseases. It is a very contagious disease and affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals, mostly cattle, swine, sheep,

  7. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  8. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramatowski, John W; Lee, Christopher Xiang; Mantzavino, Aikaterini; Ribas, João; Guerra, Winter; Preston, Nicholas D; Schernhammer, Eva; Madoff, Lawrence C; Lassmann, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A hackathon is best described as an 'innovation marathon'. Derived from the words 'hacking' and 'marathon', it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016) are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Liver disease in Viet Nam: screening, surveillance, management and education: a 5-year plan and call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Robert G; Bui, Tam D; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Nguyen, Duc T; Tran, Huy V; Tran, Diem M T; Trinh, Huy N

    2012-02-01

    Despite a high prevalence of liver disease in Viet Nam, there has been no nationwide approach to the disease and no systematic screening of at-risk individuals. Risk factors include chronic hepatitis B (estimated prevalence of 12%), chronic hepatitis C (at least 2% prevalence), and heavy consumption of alcohol among men. This combination of factors has resulted in liver cancer being the most common cause of cancer death in Viet Nam. There is a general lack of understanding by both the general public and health-care providers about the major risk to health that liver disease represents. We report here the initial steps taken as part of a comprehensive approach to liver disease that will ultimately include nationwide education for health-care providers, health educators, and the public; expansion of nationwide screening for hepatitis B and C followed by hepatitis B virus vaccination or treatment of chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C; education about alcoholic liver disease; long-term surveillance for liver cancer; reduction of infection transmission related to medical, commercial, and personal re-use of contaminated needles, syringes, sharp instruments, razors, and inadequately sterilized medical equipment; and ongoing collection and analysis of data about the prevalence of all forms of liver disease and the results of the expanded screening, vaccination, and treatment programs. We report the beginning results of our pilot hepatitis B screening program. We believe that this comprehensive nationwide approach could substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality from liver disease and greatly lessen the burden in terms of both lives lost and health-care costs. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel): changes in weighting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-01-01

    to introduce the methodology used to calculate post-stratification weights of the 2012 Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) and to compare the trends of indicators estimated by cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. in this panel of cross-sectional studies, the prevalences of smokers, overweight, and intake of fruits and vegetables from 2006 to 2012 were estimated using the cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. there were no differences in time trends of the indicators estimated by both methods, but the prevalence of smokers estimated by the raking method was lower than the estimated by cell-by-cell weighting, whilst the prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake was higher; for overweight, there was no difference between the methods. raking method presented higher accuracy of the estimates when compared to cell-by-cell weighting method, proving to be most convenient, although it presents register coverage bias.

  11. Big brother is watching you--the ethical implications of electronic surveillance measures in the elderly with dementia and in adults with learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S; Hassiotis, A; O'Mahoney, G; Deahl, M

    2003-09-01

    Electronic surveillance has insidiously seeped into the fabric of society with little public debate about its moral implications. Perceived by some as a sinister Orwellian tool of repression and social control, the new technologies offer comfort and security to others; a benevolent parental watchful eye. Nervousness at being watched has been replaced increasingly by nervousness if we're not. These technologies are now becoming widely available to health care professionals who have had little opportunity to consider their ethical and moral ramifications. Electronic tagging and tracking devices may be seen as away of creating a more secure environment for vulnerable individuals such as the elderly with dementia or people with learning disabilities. However, the proponents of surveillance devices have met with considerable resistance and opposition,from those who perceive it as contrary to human dignity and freedom, with its connotations of criminal surveillance. In addition, they cite increased opportunity for abuse through, for example, the withdrawal of staff and financial resources from the care of people with complex needs. Implementing these technologies, therefore, has ethical implications for human rights and civil liberties. Optional alternatives to long-term and/or restrictive care, in the context of the practical difficulties involved in caring for those who represent a risk to themselves from wandering, demands rigorous exploration of pragmatic questions of morality, with reference to risk versus benefit strategies. Like reproductive cloning techniques, the mere existence of surveillance technologies is morally neutral. Rather it is the use (in this instance that of health and social care settings) to which it is put which has the potential for good or bad.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Neuroendocrine surveillance and management of neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahy, Aoife; Sherlock, Mark; Thompson, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognised acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life threatening. Although hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation. Patients who survive SAH may also develop hypopituitarism, though it is less common than after TBI. The growth hormone axis is most frequently affected. There is also accumulating evidence that survivors of intracranial malignancy, who have required cranial irradiation, may develop hypopituitarism. The time course of the development of hormone deficits is varied, and predictors of pituitary dysfunction are unreliable. Furthermore, diagnosis of GH and ACTH deficiency require dynamic testing that can be resource intensive. Thus the surveillance and management of neuroendocrine dysfunction in neurosurgical patients poses significant logistic challenges to endocrine services. However, diagnosis and management of pituitary dysfunction can be rewarding. Appropriate hormone replacement can improve quality of life, prevent complications such as muscle atrophy, infection and osteoporosis and improve engagement with physiotherapy and rehabilitation. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Conrad, Tim; Myles, Puja; Alchikh, Maren; Ma, Xiaolin; Hoppe, Christian; Tief, Franziska; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Kisler, Bron; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2017-06-01

    Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3.13; S.D. 3.89; range: 0 to 18.79). Expert commentary: The ViVI Score was correlated with risk of antibiotic use as well as need for hospitalization and intensive care. The ViVI Score was used to track children with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections and is fully compliant with regulatory data standards. The ViVI Disease Severity Score mobile application allows physicians to measure disease severity at the point-of care thereby taking clinical trials to the next level.

  14. Health Information-Seeking Patterns of the General Public and Indications for Disease Surveillance: Register-Based Study Using Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesälä, Samuli; Virtanen, Mikko J; Sane, Jussi; Mustonen, Pekka; Kaila, Minna; Helve, Otto

    2017-11-06

    People using the Internet to find information on health issues, such as specific diseases, usually start their search from a general search engine, for example, Google. Internet searches such as these may yield results and data of questionable quality and reliability. Health Library is a free-of-charge medical portal on the Internet providing medical information for the general public. Physician's Databases, an Internet evidence-based medicine source, provides medical information for health care professionals (HCPs) to support their clinical practice. Both databases are available throughout Finland, but the latter is used only by health professionals and pharmacies. Little is known about how the general public seeks medical information from medical sources on the Internet, how this behavior differs from HCPs' queries, and what causes possible differences in behavior. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the general public's and HCPs' information-seeking trends from Internet medical databases differ seasonally and temporally. In addition, we aimed to evaluate whether the general public's information-seeking trends could be utilized for disease surveillance and whether media coverage could affect these seeking trends. Lyme disease, serving as a well-defined disease model with distinct seasonal variation, was chosen as a case study. Two Internet medical databases, Health Library and Physician's Databases, were used. We compared the general public's article openings on Lyme disease from Health Library to HCPs' article openings on Lyme disease from Physician's Databases seasonally across Finland from 2011 to 2015. Additionally, media publications related to Lyme disease were searched from the largest and most popular media websites in Finland. Both databases, Health Library and Physician's Databases, show visually similar patterns in temporal variations of article openings on Lyme disease in Finland from 2011 to 2015. However, Health Library openings show not only

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Hamadan Province during 2009-2015: results from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ayubi, Erfan; Karami, Manoochehr; Khazaei, Salman; Shojaeian, Masoud; Zamani, Reza; Mansori, Kamyar; Gholamaliee, Behzad

    2017-08-01

    Human brucellosis and recurrent brucellosis is an ever-increasing public health concern, especially in endemic areas like Iran. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the epidemiology and determinants of recurrent brucellosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological patterns and potential determinants of recurrent brucellosis in Hamadan Province during the years 2009-2015. Data on reported cases of new and recurrent brucellosis from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the provincial Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Incidence rates per 100000 were estimated at the county level. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of background characteristics and recurrent brucellosis. The power of discrimination of the model for recurrent brucellosis was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Among 7318 brucellosis cases, the total frequency (%) of recurrent cases was 472 (6.45%). The rate of recurrent brucellosis was higher in females, people aged 50 years and over, people with a history of consuming unpasteurized dairy products with no history of contact with animals, and in the winter season. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.65), age ≥55 years (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.32-7.42), consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.40), and winter season (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.71) are potential risk factors for recurrent brucellosis. The final model that involved all the determinants showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.61). Female sex, older age, and winter months were found to be significant determinants of recurrent human brucellosis. Enhanced surveillance systems with an emphasis on these population characteristics will allow effective preventive and protective measures to be implemented and might alleviate the recurrence of brucellosis in the

  16. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  17. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  18. Who's worried about turkeys? How 'organisational silos' impede zoonotic disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerolmack, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Though emerging infectious diseases ignore boundaries between species, the agencies that respond to them do not. Based on interviews with state and federal epidemiologists, veterinarians, and physicians and on case studies of disease events, this article examines how the jurisdictional and cultural divides that exist among human and animal health agencies hinder efforts to successfully contain species-jumping diseases (zoonoses). I argue that newly emergent zoonoses make these agencies' organisational cultures function as silos because the institutionalised thinking and practices developed to address the diseases that traditionally concerned each agency constrain members from building the inter-organisational bridges required to manage the latest 'hybrid' diseases. The silo effect is evident both across the human-animal health divide and within the landscape of animal health, as agencies that monitor livestock and wildlife follow distinct and sometimes competing agendas. The article also touches on moments of inter-agency cooperation in order to specify how health practitioners can begin making connections between 'organisational silos'. This article encourages sociologists of health to explore the crucial link between animal and human health; and it introduces the concept of organisational silos to capture the relational dilemmas that arise when a 'hybrid' problem systemically links agencies with disparate organisational cultures. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. Instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 711-717. Epub 2014 June 01.

  20. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  1. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somda, Zana C; Meltzer, Martin I; Perry, Helen N; Messonnier, Nancy E; Abdulmumini, Usman; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Sacko, Massambou; Touré, Kandioura; Ki, Salimata Ouédraogo; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Sow, Idrissa

    2009-01-08

    Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Over the period studied (2002-2005), the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines), service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  3. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré Kandioura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  4. Methods for Discovery and Surveillance of Pathogens in Hotspots of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Randi Holm

    Viruses are everywhere, and can infect all living things. They are constantly evolving, and new diseases are emerging as a result. Consequently, they have always been of interest to scientists and people in general. Several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases transmitting from animals...... to virion enrichment compared to samples with no enrichment. We have used these methods to perform pathogen discovery in faecal samples collected from small mammals in Sierra Leone, to describe the presence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria in this area. From these data we were furthermore able to acquire...

  5. Disease surveillance and private sector in the metropolitans: A troublesome collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Independent interventions will have little chance of success and sustainability. Different intervention programs should consider legal issues, attitude and knowledge of physicians in the private sector, and building a simple reporting process for physicians. Intervention programs in which the reporting process offers incentives for all stakeholders can help improving and sustaining the disease reporting system.

  6. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  7. Do surveys with paper and electronic devices differ in quality and cost? Experience from the Rufiji Health and demographic surveillance system in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, Oscar; Mushi, Hildegalda P; Maire, Nicolas; Ross, Amanda; de Savigny, Don

    2017-01-01

    Data entry at the point of collection using mobile electronic devices may make data-handling processes more efficient and cost-effective, but there is little literature to document and quantify gains, especially for longitudinal surveillance systems. To examine the potential of mobile electronic devices compared with paper-based tools in health data collection. Using data from 961 households from the Rufiji Household and Demographic Survey in Tanzania, the quality and costs of data collected on paper forms and electronic devices were compared. We also documented, using qualitative approaches, field workers, whom we called 'enumerators', and households' members on the use of both methods. Existing administrative records were combined with logistics expenditure measured directly from comparison households to approximate annual costs per 1,000 households surveyed. Errors were detected in 17% (166) of households for the paper records and 2% (15) for the electronic records (p electronic surveys (58%, 95% CI: 29%, 87%). Errors in electronic surveys were more likely to be related to completeness (32%, 95% CI 12%, 56%) than in paper surveys (11%, 95% CI: 7%, 17%).The median duration of the interviews ('enumeration'), per household was 9.4 minutes (90% central range 6.4, 12.2) for paper and 8.3 (6.1, 12.0) for electronic surveys (p = 0.001). Surveys using electronic tools, compared with paper-based tools, were less costly by 28% for recurrent and 19% for total costs. Although there were technical problems with electronic devices, there was good acceptance of both methods by enumerators and members of the community. Our findings support the use of mobile electronic devices for large-scale longitudinal surveys in resource-limited settings.

  8. European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Leach, Heather; Walker, Caray A; Le Poder, Sophie; Decaro, Nicola; Rusvai, Miklos; Egberink, Herman; Rottier, Peter; Fernandez, Mireia; Fragkiadaki, Eirini; Shields, Shelly; Brownlie, Joe

    2017-12-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs. Disease occurrence and severity were significantly reduced in dogs vaccinated against classic CIRD agents, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), but substantial proportions (65.7%; 201/306) of vaccinated dogs remained affected. CRCoV and CnPnV were highly prevalent across the different dog populations, with overall seropositivity and detection rates of 47% and 7.7% for CRCoV, and 41.7% and 23.4% for CnPnV, respectively, and their presence was associated with increased occurrence and severity of clinical disease. Antibodies to CRCoV had a protective effect against CRCoV infection and more severe clinical signs of CIRD but antibodies to CnPnV did not. Involvement of M. cynos and influenza A in CIRD was less apparent. Despite 45% of dogs being seropositive for M. cynos, only 0.9% were PCR positive for M. cynos. Only 2.7% of dogs were seropositive for Influenza A, and none were positive by PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disease surveillance and private sector in the metropolitans: a troublesome collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ayat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-09-01

    An effective response to health problems is completely dependent upon the capacities of the health system in providing timely and valid information to take action. This study was designed to identify various reasons from various perspectives for underreporting disease by physicians in the private sector in big cities in developing countries setting. In this qualitative study, we used focus group discussions (16 manager), and in-depth semi-structured interviews. Themes were classified in 6 categories: Infrastructure and legal issues, the priority of disease reporting, workflow processes, motivation and attitude, human resources and knowledge and awareness. As the main reasons of under reporting, most physicians pointed out complicacy in reporting process and inadequate attention by the public sector. Managers emphasized instituting legal incentives and penalties. Experts focused on physicians' knowledge and expressed a need for continuing medical education programs. Independent interventions will have little chance of success and sustainability. Different intervention programs should consider legal issues, attitude and knowledge of physicians in the private sector, and building a simple reporting process for physicians. Intervention programs in which the reporting process offers incentives for all stakeholders can help improving and sustaining the disease reporting system.

  10. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease lookback study: 21 years of surveillance for transfusion transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Lauren A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Dodd, Roger Y; Steele, Whitney R

    2017-08-01

    Transfusion transmission of human prion diseases has been observed for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), but not for the classic forms of prion disease (CJD: sporadic, genetic, and iatrogenic). Although the presence of prions or misfolded prion proteins in blood has been documented in some patients with the most common form of CJD, sporadic CJD, no transfusion-transmitted cases of CJD have been recognized. Since 1995, the American Red Cross has conducted a lookback study of the recipients of blood products from donors who develop CJD to assess the risk of blood-borne CJD transmission in the United States. Blood donors subsequently diagnosed with confirmed or probable CJD were enrolled and the consignees were asked to identify the recipients of their blood products. These donors' transfusion recipients are traced annually with the National Death Index to see if they subsequently die of CJD. To date, 65 CJD donors have been enrolled along with 826 of their blood recipients. These recipients have contributed 3934 person-years of follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted cases of CJD have been recognized. From this study, as well as other epidemiologic studies, there is no evidence of CJD transfusion transmission; this risk remains theoretical. © 2017 AABB.

  11. Forecasting high-priority infectious disease surveillance regions: a socioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily H; Scales, David A; Brewer, Timothy F; Madoff, Lawrence C; Pollack, Marjorie P; Hoen, Anne G; Choden, Tenzin; Brownstein, John S

    2013-02-01

    Few researchers have assessed the relationships between socioeconomic inequality and infectious disease outbreaks at the population level globally. We use a socioeconomic model to forecast national annual rates of infectious disease outbreaks. We constructed a multivariate mixed-effects Poisson model of the number of times a given country was the origin of an outbreak in a given year. The dataset included 389 outbreaks of international concern reported in the World Health Organization's Disease Outbreak News from 1996 to 2008. The initial full model included 9 socioeconomic variables related to education, poverty, population health, urbanization, health infrastructure, gender equality, communication, transportation, and democracy, and 1 composite index. Population, latitude, and elevation were included as potential confounders. The initial model was pared down to a final model by a backwards elimination procedure. The dependent and independent variables were lagged by 2 years to allow for forecasting future rates. Among the socioeconomic variables tested, the final model included child measles immunization rate and telephone line density. The Democratic Republic of Congo, China, and Brazil were predicted to be at the highest risk for outbreaks in 2010, and Colombia and Indonesia were predicted to have the highest percentage of increase in their risk compared to their average over 1996-2008. Understanding socioeconomic factors could help improve the understanding of outbreak risk. The inclusion of the measles immunization variable suggests that there is a fundamental basis in ensuring adequate public health capacity. Increased vigilance and expanding public health capacity should be prioritized in the projected high-risk regions.

  12. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions...... for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0......>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ‗no possible...

  13. Association Between Real-time Electronic Injury Surveillance Applications and Clinical Documentation and Data Acquisition in a South African Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Spence, Richard; Adolph, Lauren; Nicol, Andrew; Schuurman, Nadine; Navsaria, Pradeep; Ramsey, Damon; Hameed, S Morad

    2018-03-14

    Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period. The study was conducted from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011, at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Data analysis was performed from October 15, 2011, to January 15, 2013. The primary outcome of part 1 was data field competition rates of pertinent trauma registry items obtained through electronic or paper documentation. The main measures of part 2 were to identify risk factors to trauma in Cape Town and quality indicators recommended for trauma system evaluation at Groote Schuur Hospital. The 41 physicians included in the study found the electronic patient documentation to be more efficient and preferable. A total of 11 612 trauma presentations were accurately documented and promptly analyzed. Fields relevant to injury surveillance in the eTHR (n = 11 612) had statistically significant higher completion rates compared with paper records (n = 9236) (for all comparisons, P Center (654 [9.0%]), and New Somerset Hospital (400 [5.5%]). Accurate capture and simultaneous analysis of trauma data in low-resource trauma settings are feasible through the integration

  14. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Allan J; Foley, Robert N; Gilbertson, David T; Chen, Shu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in the first two contract periods to a comprehensive assessment of aspects of care that affect morbidity and mortality in the second two periods. Beginning in 1999, the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation investigative team transformed the USRDS into a total care reporting system including disease severity, hospitalizations, pediatric populations, prescription drug use, and chronic kidney disease and the transition to ESRD. Areas of focus included issues related to death rates in the first 4 months of treatment, sudden cardiac death, ischemic and valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and infectious complications (particularly related to dialysis catheters) in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients; the burden of congestive heart failure and infectious complications in pediatric dialysis and transplant populations; and morbidity and access to care. The team documented a plateau and decline in incidence rates, a 28% decline in death rates since 2001, and changes under the 2011 Prospective Payment System with expanded bundled payments for each dialysis treatment. The team reported on Bayesian methods to calculate mortality ratios, which reduce the challenges of traditional methods, and introduced objectives under the Health People 2010 and 2020 national health care goals for kidney disease.

  15. Validation of a model for ranking aquaculture facilities for risk-based disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diserens, Nicolas; Falzon, Laura Cristina; von Siebenthal, Beat; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Wahli, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    A semi-quantitative model for risk ranking of aquaculture facilities in Switzerland with regard to the introduction and spread of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) and Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) was developed in a previous study (Diserens et al., 2013). The objective of the present study was to validate this model using data collected during field visits on aquaculture sites in four Swiss cantons compared to data collected through a questionnaire in the previous study. A discrepancy between the values obtained with the two different methods was found in 32.8% of the parameters, resulting in a significant difference (pranking of Swiss aquaculture facilities according to their risk of getting infected with or spreading of VHS and IHN, as the five facilities that tested positive for these diseases in the last ten years were ranked as medium or high risk. Moreover, because the seven fish farms that were infected with Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) during the same period also belonged to the risk categories medium and high, the classification appeared to correlate with the occurrence of this third viral fish disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gattás, Vera Lúcia; Lima Neto, Antonio Silva; Dimech, George Santiago; Mancini, Denise; Cantarino, Ligia Maria; Marins, José Ricardo Pio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health wor...

  18. Surveillance Tools Emerging From Search Engines and Social Media Data for Determining Eye Disease Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S; Lietman, Thomas M; McLeod, Stephen D; Chodosh, James; Porco, Travis C

    2016-09-01

    Internet-based search engine and social media data may provide a novel complementary source for better understanding the epidemiologic factors of infectious eye diseases, which could better inform eye health care and disease prevention. To assess whether data from internet-based social media and search engines are associated with objective clinic-based diagnoses of conjunctivitis. Data from encounters of 4143 patients diagnosed with conjunctivitis from June 3, 2012, to April 26, 2014, at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center, were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation of each weekly observation to compare demographics and seasonality of nonallergic conjunctivitis with allergic conjunctivitis. Data for patient encounters with diagnoses for glaucoma and influenza were also obtained for the same period and compared with conjunctivitis. Temporal patterns of Twitter and Google web search data, geolocated to the United States and associated with these clinical diagnoses, were compared with the clinical encounters. The a priori hypothesis was that weekly internet-based searches and social media posts about conjunctivitis may reflect the true weekly clinical occurrence of conjunctivitis. Weekly total clinical diagnoses at UCSF of nonallergic conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and influenza were compared using Spearman rank correlation with equivalent weekly data on Tweets related to disease or disease-related keyword searches obtained from Google Trends. Seasonality of clinical diagnoses of nonallergic conjunctivitis among the 4143 patients (2364 females [57.1%] and 1776 males [42.9%]) with 5816 conjunctivitis encounters at UCSF correlated strongly with results of Google searches in the United States for the term pink eye (ρ, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.78]; P < .001) and correlated moderately with Twitter results about pink eye (ρ, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.56]; P < .001) and with clinical diagnosis of influenza (ρ, 0

  19. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65 and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68. Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71. Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not

  20. The importance of continuing surveillance of risk factors for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Lanza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After peaking in the 1960s’, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have shown a consistent decline in western countries in recent decades [1].Despite this,CVDs remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized populations, with relevant associated socio-economical issues, while their incidence is increasing in developing countries. Several factors have likely contributed to the reduced incidence of CVDs in industrialized societies, including an increase in education and attention to health issues, lifestyle changes and improvement in diagnostic facilities and therapeutic tools. Epidemiologic studies have played an outstanding role in the decline of CVDs. Indeed, they have allowed for the identification of habits and conditions which expose healthy subjects to an increased risk of development of atherosclerosis and its complications They have also led to the implementation of appropriate programs and campaigns aimed at fighting the identified risk factors by means of changes in diet and lifestyle and the use of specific drug treatments. In particular, tight control and prevention of hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia has largely contributed to the reduction of CVDs, accounting for more than 50% of the reduction of mortality from the 1960s’ to the 1990s’ [2].This approach was also crucial in improving the clinical outcomes of secondary prevention for CVDs.

  1. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  2. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Sato, Junko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Kadota, Junichi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Fujiuchi, Satoru; Takahashi, Manabu; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Tanaka, Chie; Sugiura, Hideko; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Katono, Yasuhiro; Inose, Rika; Niki, Yoshihito; Takuma, Takahiro; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Sato, Yoshimi; Tsukada, Hiroki; Watabe, Nobuei; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ohashi, Minoru; Seki, Masafumi; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Ukimura, Akira; Miyara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Takahito; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Ui, Koji; Fukuda, Saori; Nakamura, Akihiro; Morimura, Mika; Yamashita, Mikio; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Doi, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Hino, Satoshi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Ota, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Masaki; Honda, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Kaku, Norihito; Fujita, Jiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao

    2017-09-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1236 strains (232 Staphylococcus aureus, 225 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 16 Streptococcus pyogenes, 231 Haemophilus influenzae, 147 Moraxella catarrhalis, 167 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 218 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 51.3%, and those of penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae was 0.4%. Among H. influenzae, 5.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 37.2% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 4.2% and 3.2%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance is important to determine the actual situation of the resistance shown by bacterial respiratory pathogens to antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pathak, Ram D; Raebel, Marsha A; Reid, Robert J; Selby, Joseph V; Silverman, Barbara G; Steiner, John F; Stewart, W F; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions.

  4. Construction of a Multisite DataLink Using Electronic Health Records for the Identification, Surveillance, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The SUPREME-DM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Pathak, Ram D.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Reid, Robert J.; Selby, Joseph V.; Silverman, Barbara G.; Steiner, John F.; Stewart, W.F.; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. Methods We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. Results The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. Conclusion The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions. PMID:22677160

  5. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  6. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  7. Co-variations and clustering of chronic disease behavioral risk factors in China: China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases have become the leading causes of mortality in China and related behavioral risk factors (BRFs changed dramatically in past decades. We aimed to examine the prevalence, co-variations, clustering and the independent correlates of five BRFs at the national level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance, in which multistage clustering sampling was adopted to collect a nationally representative sample of 49,247 Chinese aged 15 to 69 years. We estimated the prevalence and clustering (mean number of BRFs of five BRFs: tobacco use, excessive alcohol drinking, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity. We conducted binary logistic regression models to examine the co-variations among five BRFs with adjustment of demographic and socioeconomic factors, chronic conditions and other BRFs. Ordinal logistic regression was constructed to investigate the independent associations between each covariate and the clustering of BRFs within individuals. Overall, 57.0% of Chinese population had at least two BRFs and the mean number of BRFs is 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.78-1.83. Eight of the ten pairs of bivariate associations between the five BRFs were found statistically significant. Chinese with older age, being a male, living in rural areas, having lower education level and lower yearly household income experienced increased likelihood of having more BRFs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current BRFs place the majority of Chinese aged 15 to 69 years at risk for the future development of chronic disease, which calls for urgent public health programs to reduce these risk factors. Prominent correlations between BRFs imply that a combined package of interventions targeting multiple BRFs might be appropriate. These interventions should target elder population, men, and rural residents, especially those with lower SES.

  8. Survey on the Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Infectious Diseases Surveillance: Rapid Expansion of European National Capacities, 2015–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Revez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing (WGS has become an essential tool for public health surveillance and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases and antimicrobial drug resistance. It provides precise geographical delineation of spread and enables incidence monitoring of pathogens at genotype level. Coupled with epidemiological and environmental investigations, it delivers ultimate resolution for tracing sources of epidemic infections. To ascertain the level of implementation of WGS-based typing for national public health surveillance and investigation of prioritized diseases in the European Union (EU/European Economic Area (EEA, two surveys were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The surveys were designed to determine the national public health reference laboratories’ access to WGS and operational WGS-based typing capacity for national surveillance of selected foodborne pathogens, antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, and vaccine-preventable diseases identified as priorities for European genomic surveillance. Twenty-eight and twenty-nine out of the 30 EU/EEA countries participated in the survey in 2015 and 2016, respectively. National public health reference laboratories in 22 and 25 countries had access to WGS-based typing for public health applications in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Reported reasons for limited or no access were lack of funding, staff, and expertise. Illumina technology was the most frequently used followed by Ion Torrent technology. The access to bioinformatics expertise and competence for routine WGS data analysis was limited. By mid-2016, half of the EU/EEA countries were using WGS analysis either as first- or second-line typing method for surveillance of the pathogens and antibiotic resistance issues identified as EU priorities. The sampling frame as well as bioinformatics analysis varied by pathogen/resistance issue and country. Core genome multilocus allelic profiling, also called cgMLST, was the most frequently used annotation

  9. AFP, PIVKAII, GP3, SCCA-1 and follisatin as surveillance biomarkers for hepatocellular cancer in non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, Gary; Reeves, Helen; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Gray, Joe; Stewart, Stephen; Hudson, Mark; Day, Christopher; Trerotoli, Paolo; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Manas, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) complicating alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD and NAFLD) is rising in western societies. Despite knowing the at risk populations for HCC development, the lack of sensitive and specific means of surveillance hampers disease detection at curable stages. The most widely used serum HCC marker is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), while PIVKA-II, glypican-3 (GP3) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen -1 (SCCA-1) have been proposed as new biomarkers. Assessment of these HCC biomarkers has largely been performed in patients with viral hepatitis. We conducted a cross sectional study assessing the value of these serum proteins, as well a novel candidate biomarker -follistatin – in patients with HCC arising on a background of ALD or NAFLD. Pre-treatment serum samples from 50 patients with HCC arising on a background of ALD (n = 31) or NAFLD (n = 19) were assessed by specific ELISA assay for PIVKAII, Glypican-3, SCCA-1 and Follistatin. Results were compared and contrasted with a control patient group with biopsy proven steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis (n = 41). The diagnostic accuracy of each of the candidate biomarkers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reporting the area under the curve (AUC) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Performance was compared to that of the established biomarker, AFP. Serum levels of all proteins were assessed by specific ELISA assays. GP3, SCCA-1 and follistatin had no HCC surveillance benefit in these patients. AFP and PIVKAII were superior to the other markers, particularly in combination. We conclude that while novel means of surveillance are urgently required, the combination of AFP and PIVKAII for HCC is an improvement on AFP alone in ALD/NAFLD patients. Furthermore, our data in this homogenous subset of patients- particularly that confirming no role for SCCA-1 – suggests that the choice of optimal biomarkers for HCC

  10. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveillance of hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen with focus on skin and infectious diseases-a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Jensen, Anker; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    : Surveillance of seamen's health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure.......OBJECTIVES: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. METHODS: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994-1998 and 1999-2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were...

  12. An Integrative Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Carriers in Vietnam Achieved Through Targeted Surveillance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Pauszek, S J; Ludi, A; Huston, C L; Pacheco, J M; Le, V T; Nguyen, P T; Bui, H H; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen, T; Nguyen, T T; Ngo, L T; Do, D H; Rodriguez, L; Arzt, J

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. To address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic FMD in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV), of which 10.8% were persistent, asymptomatic carriers (2.4% of the total population). Descriptive data collected from targeted surveillance and a farm questionnaire showed a significantly lower prevalence of FMDV infection for dairy farms. In contrast, farms of intermediate size and/or history of infection in 2010 were at increased risk of FMD exposure. At the individual animal level, buffalo had the highest exposure risk (over cattle), and there was spatial heterogeneity in exposure risk at the commune level. Conversely, carrier prevalence was higher for beef cattle, suggesting lower susceptibility of buffalo to persistent FMDV infection. To characterize virus strains currently circulating in Vietnam, partial FMDV genomic (VP1) sequences from carrier animals collected between 2012 and 2013 (N = 27) and from FMDV outbreaks between 2009 and 2013 (N = 79) were compared by phylogenetic analysis. Sequence analysis suggested that within the study period, there were two apparent novel introductions of serotype A viruses and that the dominant lineage of serotype O in Vietnam shifted from SEA/Mya-98 to ME-SA/PanAsia. FMDV strains shared close ancestors with FMDV from other South-East Asian countries indicating substantial transboundary movement of the predominant circulating strains. Close genetic relationships were observed between carrier and outbreak viruses, which may suggest that asymptomatic carriers of FMDV contribute to regional disease persistence. Multiple viral sequences obtained from carrier cattle

  13. Incidence of invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; El Tayeb, Muna Ahmed; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Biggs, Holly M; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Breiman, Robert F; Campbell, James I; Cosmas, Leonard; Crump, John A; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Fields, Barry S; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Hertz, Julian T; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Im, Justin; Jaeger, Anna; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Kabore, Leon Parfait; Keddy, Karen H; Konings, Frank; Krumkamp, Ralf; Ley, Benedikt; Løfberg, Sandra Valborg; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Niang, Aissatou Ahmet; Nichols, Chelsea; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Razafindrabe, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco; Sampo, Emmanuel; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Sow, Amy Gassama; Sarpong, Nimako; Seo, Hye Jin; Sooka, Arvinda; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Thriemer, Kamala; Warren, Michelle R; Yeshitela, Biruk; Clemens, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites). We used census data and health-care records to define study catchment areas and populations. Eligible participants were either inpatients or outpatients who resided within the catchment area and presented with tympanic (≥38·0°C) or axillary temperature (≥37·5°C). Inpatients with a reported history of fever for 72 h or longer were excluded. We also implemented a health-care utilisation survey in a sample of households randomly selected from each study area to investigate health-seeking behaviour in cases of self-reported fever lasting less than 3 days. Typhoid fever and iNTS disease incidences were corrected for health-care-seeking behaviour and recruitment. Between March 1, 2010, and Jan 31, 2014, 135 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and 94 iNTS isolates were cultured from the blood of 13 431 febrile patients. Salmonella spp accounted for 33% or more of all bacterial pathogens at nine sites. The adjusted incidence rate (AIR) of S Typhi per 100 000 person-years of observation ranged from 0 (95% CI 0-0) in Sudan to 383 (274-535) at one site in Burkina Faso; the AIR of iNTS ranged from 0 in Sudan, Ethiopia, Madagascar (Isotry site), and South Africa to 237 (178-316) at the second site in Burkina Faso. The AIR of iNTS and typhoid

  14. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Xuxiao Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  15. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn; Tey, Jeannie Su Hui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  16. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  17. EpiContactTrace: an R-package for contact tracing during livestock disease outbreaks and for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2014-03-17

    During outbreak of livestock diseases, contact tracing can be an important part of disease control. Animal movements can also be of relevance for risk-based surveillance and sampling, i.e. both when assessing consequences of introduction or likelihood of introduction. In many countries, animal movement data are collected with one of the major objectives to enable contact tracing. However, often an analytical step is needed to retrieve appropriate information for contact tracing or surveillance. In this study, an open source tool was developed to structure livestock movement data to facilitate contact-tracing in real time during disease outbreaks and for input in risk-based surveillance and sampling. The tool, EpiContactTrace, was written in the R-language and uses the network parameters in-degree, out-degree, ingoing contact chain and outgoing contact chain (also called infection chain), which are relevant for forward and backward tracing respectively. The time-frames for backward and forward tracing can be specified independently and search can be done on one farm at a time or for all farms within the dataset. Different outputs are available; datasets with network measures, contacts visualised in a map and automatically generated reports for each farm either in HTML or PDF-format intended for the end-users, i.e. the veterinary authorities, regional disease control officers and field-veterinarians. EpiContactTrace is available as an R-package at the R-project website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/EpiContactTrace/). We believe this tool can help in disease control since it rapidly can structure essential contact information from large datasets. The reproducible reports make this tool robust and independent of manual compilation of data. The open source makes it accessible and easily adaptable for different needs.

  18. Open source electronic health records and chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    To study and report on the use of open source electronic health records (EHR) to assist with chronic care management within safety net medical settings, such as community health centers (CHC). The study was conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to CHC that currently use an open source EHR. Two of the sites chosen by NORC were actively using an open source EHR to assist in the redesign of their care delivery system to support more effective chronic disease management. This included incorporating the chronic care model into an CHC and using the EHR to help facilitate its elements, such as care teams for patients, in addition to maintaining health records on indigent populations, such as tuberculosis status on homeless patients. The ability to modify the open-source EHR to adapt to the CHC environment and leverage the ecosystem of providers and users to assist in this process provided significant advantages in chronic care management. Improvements in diabetes management, controlled hypertension and increases in tuberculosis vaccinations were assisted through the use of these open source systems. The flexibility and adaptability of open source EHR demonstrated its utility and viability in the provision of necessary and needed chronic disease care among populations served by CHC.

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of electronic symptom surveillance with clinician feedback using the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) in Danish prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksted, Christina; Pappot, Helle; Nissen, Aase

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim was to examine the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of electronic symptom surveillance with clinician feedback using a subset of items drawn from the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) in a cancer...

  20. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  1. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  2. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  3. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Nicole; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Vanthomme, Katrien; Van Casteren, Viviane

    2010-06-25

    In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR), knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation) and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly) extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  4. Disease Burden of Dengue in the Philippines: Adjusting for Underreporting by Comparing Active and Passive Dengue Surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Edillo, Frances E.; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V.; Alera, Maria Theresa P.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Largo, Francisco M.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department. Febrile episodes detected in a weekly follow-up of participants were tested for serotype-specific DENV by hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and acute/convalescent blood samples tested by dengue IgM/IgG enzyme immunoassay. We estimated the burden of dengue in the Philippines in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations to address uncertainty. The results showed a 21% cumulative reporting rate of symptomatic DENV infections, equivalent to an expansion factor of 4.7 (95% certainty level [CL]: 2.2–15.1). Based on surveillance data in the Philippines for 2010–2014, we estimated 794,255 annual dengue episodes (95% CL: 463,000–2,076,000) and a disease burden of 535 (95% CL: 380–994) DALYs per million population using age weights and time discounting and 997 (95% CL: 681–1,871) DALYs per million population without age and time adjustments. Dengue imposes a substantial burden in the Philippines; almost 10 times higher than estimated for rabies, about twice the burden of intestinal fluke infections, and about 10% of the burden of tuberculosis. Our estimates should inform policy makers and raise awareness among the public. PMID:28093542

  5. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Schrenzel, Jacques; Struelens, Marc Jean; Breuer, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale "microbiology laboratories network." Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s) for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  6. Control of Infectious Diseases in the Era of European Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Consolidation: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Patient and for Public Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Vandenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs, European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care. The centralization of diagnostic services over a large geographical region has given rise to the concept of regional-scale “microbiology laboratories network.” Although the volume-driven cost savings associated with such laboratory networks seem self-evident, the consequence(s for the quality of patient care and infectious disease surveillance and control remain less obvious. In this article, we describe the range of opportunities that the changing landscape of CMLs in Europe can contribute toward improving the quality of patient care but also the early detection and enhanced surveillance of public health threats caused by infectious diseases. The success of this transformation of health services is reliant on the appropriate preparation in terms of staff, skills, and processes that would be inclusive of stakeholders. In addition, rigorous metrics are needed to set out more concrete laboratory service performance objectives and assess the expected benefits to society in terms of saving lives and preventing diseases.

  7. Implementing electronic data capture at a well-established health and demographic surveillance site in rural northern Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Estelle; Dube, Albert; Saul, Jacky; Branson, Keith; Luhanga, Mabvuto; Mwiba, Oddie; Kalobekamo, Fredrick; Geis, Steffen; Crampin, Amelia C

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article aims to assess multiple issues of resources, staffing, local opinion, data quality, cost, and security while transitioning to electronic data collection (EDC) at a long-running community research site in northern Malawi. Levels of missing and error fields, delay from data collection to availability, and average number of interviews per day were compared between EDC and paper in a complex, repeated annual household survey. Three focus groups with field and data staff with...

  8. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.

  9. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8 in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24 and 71% (n = 39 of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9% when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5% when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.

  10. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

    2013-11-01

    We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.

  11. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  12. Safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus add-on therapy for rheumatoid arthritis patients without an adequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs): Post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ishida, Kota; Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Yoshiyasu, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus (TAC) add-on therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Patients with RA from 180 medical sites across Japan were registered centrally with an electronic investigation system. The observational period was 24 weeks from the first day of TAC administration concomitantly with biological DMARDs. Safety and effectiveness populations included 624 and 566 patients, respectively. Patients were predominantly female (81.1%), with a mean age of 61.9 years. Overall, 125 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred in 94 patients (15.1%), and 15 serious ADRs occurred in 11 patients (1.8%). These incidences were lower compared with previously reported incidences after TAC treatment in PMS, and all of the observed ADRs were already known. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the primary effectiveness variable of Simplified Disease Activity Index after TAC treatment; 62.7% of patients achieved remission or low disease activity at week 24. TAC is well tolerated and effective when used as an add-on to biological DMARDs in Japanese patients with RA who do not achieve an adequate response to biological DMARDs in a real-world clinical setting.

  13. Effectiveness and Cost Efficiency of Different Surveillance Components for Proving Freedom and Early Detection of Disease: Bluetongue Serotype 8 in Cattle as Case Study for Belgium, France and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, S; van Schaik, G; Veldhuis, A; Brouwer-Middelesch, H; Peroz, C; Santman-Berends, I M; Fourichon, C; Wever, P; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-12-01

    Quick detection and recovery of country's freedom status remain a constant challenge in animal health surveillance. The efficacy and cost efficiency of different surveillance components in proving the absence of infection or (early) detection of bluetongue serotype 8 in cattle populations within different countries (the Netherlands, France, Belgium) using surveillance data from years 2006 and 2007 were investigated using an adapted scenario tree model approach. First, surveillance components (sentinel, yearly cross-sectional and passive clinical reporting) within each country were evaluated in terms of efficacy for substantiating freedom of infection. Yearly cross-sectional survey and passive clinical reporting performed well within each country with sensitivity of detection values ranging around 0.99. The sentinel component had a sensitivity of detection around 0.7. Secondly, how effective the components were for (early) detection of bluetongue serotype 8 and whether syndromic surveillance on reproductive performance, milk production and mortality data available from the Netherlands and Belgium could be of added value were evaluated. Epidemic curves were used to estimate the timeliness of detection. Sensitivity analysis revealed that expected within-herd prevalence and number of herds processed were the most influential parameters for proving freedom and early detection. Looking at the assumed direct costs, although total costs were low for sentinel and passive clinical surveillance components, passive clinical surveillance together with syndromic surveillance (based on reproductive performance data) turned out most cost-efficient for the detection of bluetongue serotype 8. To conclude, for emerging or re-emerging vectorborne disease that behaves such as bluetongue serotype 8, it is recommended to use passive clinical and syndromic surveillance as early detection systems for maximum cost efficiency and sensitivity. Once an infection is detected and eradicated

  14. Avian Cholera emergence in Arctic-nesting northern Common Eiders: using community-based, participatory surveillance to delineate disease outbreak patterns and predict transmission risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Iverson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a growing concern in wildlife conservation. Documenting outbreak patterns and determining the ecological drivers of transmission risk are fundamental to predicting disease spread and assessing potential impacts on population viability. However, evaluating disease in wildlife populations requires expansive surveillance networks that often do not exist in remote and developing areas. Here, we describe the results of a community-based research initiative conducted in collaboration with indigenous harvesters, the Inuit, in response to a new series of Avian Cholera outbreaks affecting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima and other comingling species in the Canadian Arctic. Avian Cholera is a virulent disease of birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. Common Eiders are a valuable subsistence resource for Inuit, who hunt the birds for meat and visit breeding colonies during the summer to collect eggs and feather down for use in clothing and blankets. We compiled the observations of harvesters about the growing epidemic and with their assistance undertook field investigation of 131 colonies distributed over >1200 km of coastline in the affected region. Thirteen locations were identified where Avian Cholera outbreaks have occurred since 2004. Mortality rates ranged from 1% to 43% of the local breeding population at these locations. Using a species-habitat model (Maxent, we determined that the distribution of outbreak events has not been random within the study area and that colony size, vegetation cover, and a measure of host crowding in shared wetlands were significantly correlated to outbreak risk. In addition, outbreak locations have been spatially structured with respect to hypothesized introduction foci and clustered along the migration corridor linking Arctic breeding areas with wintering areas in Atlantic Canada. At present, Avian Cholera remains a localized threat to Common Eider populations in the

  15. Routine data for disease surveillance in the undeveloped region of the OR Tambo district of the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuya, Chrispin; Wright, Graham; Odama, Anthony; O'Mahoney, Don

    2014-01-01

    The research team needed to upsize the solution previously tested so that it could expand the routine data collected via tablet computers. The research team identified the general flow of data within clinics. Data was mainly collected from registers, which were later converted to electronic form and checked for duplication. A database was designed for the collection of demographic data (Patient Master Index), which was aimed at eliminating duplication of patients' data in several registers. Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect was setup on Android tablets for collecting disease related routine data, while ODK Aggregate as the storage and aggregates of data captured by ODK Collect and the Patient Master Index for demographic data, were setup on an Apple Mini Mac server. Data collection is in progress. The expected results include improved data quality, reliability and quick access to summary data. Secondly, instant retrieval of patient demographic details and clinic numbers are included. Thirdly, ability to form standard reporting from the SQL database and lastly exporting data into the TIER.net and DHIS systems via CVS files thus eliminating the need for data capturers are shown.

  16. The development of passive health surveillance by a sentinel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASPREN), a volunteer network of family practitioners in South Africa, to develop a health surveillance system through the surveillance of important health events. Motivation. The incidence of important preventable diseases and the burden of disease ...

  17. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  18. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  19. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  20. Evaluating the utility of companion animal tick surveillance practices for monitoring spread and occurrence of human Lyme disease in West Virginia, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Brian; Mark-Carew, Miguella; Conley, Jamison

    2017-11-13

    Domestic dogs and cats are potentially effective sentinel populations for monitoring occurrence and spread of Lyme disease. Few studies have evaluated the public health utility of sentinel programmes using geo-analytic approaches. Confirmed Lyme disease cases diagnosed by physicians and ticks submitted by veterinarians to the West Virginia State Health Department were obtained for 2014-2016. Ticks were identified to species, and only Ixodes scapularis were incorporated in the analysis. Separate ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial lag regression models were conducted to estimate the association between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected on pets and human Lyme disease incidence. Regression residuals were visualised using Local Moran's I as a diagnostic tool to identify spatial dependence. Statistically significant associations were identified between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected from dogs and human Lyme disease in the OLS (β=20.7, PLyme disease. Findings reinforce the utility of spatial analysis of surveillance data, and highlight West Virginia's unique position within the eastern United States in regards to Lyme disease occurrence.

  1. Designing and implementing an electronic dashboard for disease outbreaks response - Case study of the 2013-2014 Somalia Polio outbreak response dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Gathenji, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In April 2013, a case of wild polio virus (WPV) was detected in the Somalia capital Mogadishu. This inaugurated what is now referred to as the 2013-2014 Horn of Africa Polio outbreak with cases reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. By the notification of the last polio case in August 2014, 223 cases of WPV had been reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia of which 199 in Somalia alone. The outbreak response required timely exchange of information between the outbreak response coordination unit (in Nairobi) and local staff located in multiple locations inside the country. The need to track and timely respond to information requests, to satisfy the information/data needs of polio partners and to track key outbreak response performance indicators dictated the need to urgently set up an online dashboard. The Somalia Polio Room dashboard provided a graphical display of the polio outbreak data to track progress and inform decision making. The system was designed using free and open sources components and seamlessly integrated existing polio surveillance data for real time monitoring of key outbreak response performance indicators. In this article, we describe the design and operation of an electronic dashboard for disease surveillance in an outbreak situation and used the lessons learned to propose key design considerations and functional requirements for online electronic dashboards for disease outbreak response.

  2. Community-Based Entomological Surveillance Reveals Urban Foci of Chagas Disease Vectors in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynara Carvalho Parente

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral.We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014. Triatomine natural T. cruzi infection was assessed by examination of insect feces by optical microscopy. Sites of triatomine capture were georeferenced through Google Earth and analyzed with ArcGIS. A total of 191 triatomines were collected, consisting of 82.2% Triatoma pseudomaculata, 7.9% Rhodnius nasutus, 5.8% T. brasiliensis, 3.7% Panstrongylus lutzi, and 0.5% P. megistus, with an overall natural infection index of 17.8%. Most infestations were reported in the districts of Dom José (36.2%, Padre Palhano (24.7%, and Alto do Cristo (10.6%. The overwhelming majority of insects (185/96.9% were captured inside houses, and most insects tended to be collected in intermittent peaks. Moreover, captured triatomines tended to constitute colonies. The acute case reported in 2008 was found to be situated within a T. pseudomaculata hotspot.The triatomine collection events carried out by dwellers were aggregated in time and space into distinct foci, suggesting that insects are intermittently and artificially introduced into the city, possibly via accidental migration from their natural reservoirs. The relatively high T. cruzi infection rate indicates considerable circulation of the parasite in these areas, increasing the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease infection. These data suggest a need to strengthen epidemiological surveillance and integrate appropriate control actions targeting triatomines, T. cruzi reservoirs, and human populations. Our data also identify Chagas

  3. Surveillance Data Highlights Feed Form, Biosecurity, and Disease Control as Significant Factors Associated with Salmonella Infection on Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Argüello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm. A questionnaire with 33 questions regarding herd characteristics, management, feeding, biosecurity, and health was completed for 61 individual herds. After the multivariate analysis by linear regression, nine variables were retained in the final model and linked to herd seroprevalence. Home produced-feed linked to the use of meal showed an eight points reduction in Salmonella prevalence compared to purchased feed (p = 0.042. Different biosecurity measures were associated to lower seroprevalence. Changing of footwear from outside to inside the farm decreased seroprevalence nearly 20 units (p = 0.014 and policies not permitting access to the farmyard to feed trucks (p = 0.048 or avoiding the presence of cats on the farm (p = 0.05 were estimated in 10 units less of seroprevalence. In contrast, the lack of perimeter fence increased the chance to have higher seroprevalence in five units (p = 0.05. Finally, intestinal diseases such as swine dysentery (p = 0.044 and E. coli diarrhea (p = 0.1 were estimated to increase Salmonella prevalence in ~20 and 10 units, respectively, demonstrating the importance of controlling other enteric pathogens in an on-farm Salmonella control programme. These results show the usefulness of surveillance data to improve on-farm control and confirm that Salmonella infection in pigs is

  4. Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Furmanek, Stephen P; Mattingly, William A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Persaud, Annuradha K; Guinn, Brian E; Carrico, Ruth M; Arnold, Forest W; Ramirez, Julio A

    2018-02-01

    Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data. Both SPC and ABD charts detected similar data points as anomalous/out of control on most charts. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ABD chart detected an extra anomalous point that appeared to be higher than the same time period in prior years. Using a small subset of the central line-associated bloodstream infection data, the ABD chart was able to detect anomalies where the SPC chart was not. SPC charts and ABD charts both performed well, although ABD charts appeared to work better in the context of seasonal variation and autocorrelation. Because they account for common statistical issues in HAI data, ABD charts may be useful for practitioners for analysis of HAI surveillance data. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockney, Ivor J; Latham, M Cecilia; Rouco, Carlos; Cross, Martin L; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations (control) or monitoring devices (for TB surveillance), set for > 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat.

  6. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...

  7. Developing regional workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Bernard C. K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the Workers' Health Program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO is to strengthen surveillance in workers' health in the Region of the Americas in order to implement prevention and control strategies. To date, four phases of projects have been organized to develop multinational workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Region. Phase 1 was a workshop held in 1999 in Washington, D.C., for the purpose of developing a methodology for identifying and prioritizing the top three occupational sentinel health events to be incorporated into the surveillance systems in the Region. Three surveillance protocols were developed, one each for fatal occupational injuries, pesticide poisoning,4 and low back pain, which were identified in the workshop as the most important occupational health problems. Phase 2 comprised projects to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the Washington Workshop, including publications, pilot projects, software development, electronic communication, and meetings. Phase 3 was a sub-regional meeting in 2000 in Rosario, Argentina, to follow up on the progress in carrying out the recommendations of the Washington workshop and to create a Virtual Regional Center for Latin America that could coordinate the efforts of member countries. Currently phase 4 includes a number of projects to achieve the objectives of this Center, such as pilot projects, capacity building, editing a compact disk, analyzing legal systems and intervention strategies, software training, and developing an internet course on surveillance. By documenting the joint efforts made to initiate and develop Regional multinational surveillance of occupational injuries and diseases in the Americas, this paper aims to provide experience and guidance for others wishing to initiate and develop regional multinational surveillance for other diseases or in other regions.

  8. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  9. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gong

    Full Text Available Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9, 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8 per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%, respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (P<0.001, while lower incidence but higher mortality and case-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001. We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  10. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated neurological disease: results of a UK-based surveillance study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sukhvir; Hacohen, Yael; Jacobson, Leslie; Agrawal, Shakti; Gupta, Rajat; Philip, Sunny; Smith, Martin; Lim, Ming; Wassmer, Evangeline; Vincent, Angela

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis is a well-recognised clinico-immunological syndrome that presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms cognitive decline, movement disorder and seizures. This study reports the clinical features, management and neurological outcomes of paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease in the UK. A prospective surveillance study. Children with NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological diseases were voluntarily reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BPNSU) from November 2010 to December 2011. Initial and follow-up questionnaires were sent out to physicians. Thirty-one children fulfilled the criteria for the study. Eight presented during the study period giving an incidence of 0.85 per million children per year (95% CI 0.64 to 1.06); 23 cases were historical. Behavioural change and neuropsychiatric features were present in 90% of patients, and seizures and movement disorders both in 67%. Typical NMDAR-Ab encephalitis was reported in 24 children and partial phenotype without encephalopathy in seven, including predominantly psychiatric (four) and movement disorder (three). All patients received steroids, 22 (71%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, 9 (29%) received plasma exchange,and 10 (32%) received second-line immunotherapy. Of the 23 patients who were diagnosed early, 18 (78%) made a full recovery compared with only 1 of 8 (13%) of the late diagnosed patients (p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Seven patients relapsed, with four needing additional second-line immunotherapy. Paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease appears to be similar to adult NMDAR-Ab encephalitis, but some presented with a partial phenotype. Early treatment was associated with a quick and often full recovery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Awareness and knowledge of disease surveillance and notification by health-care workers and availability of facility records in Anambra state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Onwasigwe, Chika N.; Adogu, Prosper O. U; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) is part of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) which comprises databases, personnel, and materials that are organized to collect data which are utilized for informed decision making. The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the awareness and knowledge of health-care workers about DSN, and availability of facility records in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which relevant data were collected from health-care workers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health-care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively. Knowledge of use of the various forms at the facility and local government area (LGA) levels were generally low, although the observational checklist revealed that IDSR 001 and IDSR 002 forms were predominantly found in primary health-care facilities. HMIS forms were less likely to be available in secondary health-care facilities (χ2=7.67, P=0.005). Conclusions: Regular training and retraining of concerned health-care workers on DSN at the LGA level is recommended. This should run concurrently with adequate and regular provision of IDSR forms, copies of the standard case definitions, and other necessary logistics to the health-care facilities by the local and state governments. PMID:23661882

  12. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  13. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  15. The impact of active surveillance and health education on an Ebola virus disease cluster — Kono District, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha Stehling-Ariza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During December 2014–February 2015, an Ebola outbreak in a village in Kono district, Sierra Leone, began following unsafe funeral practices after the death of a person later confirmed to be infected with Ebola virus. In response, disease surveillance officers and community health workers, in collaboration with local leadership and international partners, conducted 1 day of active surveillance and health education for all households in the village followed by ongoing outreach. This study investigated the impact of these interventions on the outbreak. Methods Fifty confirmed Ebola cases were identified in the village between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015. Data from case investigations, treatment facility and laboratory records were analyzed to characterize the outbreak. The reproduction number (R was estimated by fitting to the observed distribution of secondary cases. The impact of the active surveillance and health education was evaluated by comparing two outcomes before and after the day of the interventions: 1 the number of days from symptom onset to case-patient isolation or death and 2 a reported epidemiologic link to a prior Ebola case. Results The case fatality ratio among the 50 confirmed Ebola cases was 64.0 %. Twenty-three cases occurred among females (46.0 %; the mean age was 39 years (median: 37 years; range: 5 months to 75 years. Forty-three (87.8 % cases were linked to the index case; 30 (61.2 % were either at the funeral of Patient 1 or had contact with him while he was ill. R was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.15–2.3; excluding the funeral, R was 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.11–0.53. The mean number of days in the community after onset of Ebola symptoms decreased from 4.0 days (median: 3 days; 95 % CI: 3.2–4.7 before the interventions to 2.9 days (median: 2 days; 95 % CI: 1.6–4.3 afterward. An epidemiologic link was reported in 47.6 % of case investigations prior to and 100 % after the interventions

  16. Long term risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: influence of duration of follow-up over four decades of mortality surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin; Smith, George Davey; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-09-01

    While cohort studies have revealed a range of risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke, the extent to which the strength of these associations varies according to duration of follow-up in studies with extended disease surveillance is unclear. This was the aim of the present study. Initiated in 1967/70, the original Whitehall study is an on-going cohort study of 15,402 male UK government workers free of coronary heart disease when they took part in a baseline medical examination during which a range of standard risk factors was measured. In analyses in which we stratified by duration of follow-up, there was evidence of time-dependency for most risk factor-disease relationships. Thus, the associations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and cigarette smoking with coronary heart disease and stroke diminished in strength with increasing duration of follow-up, whereas the magnitude of the body mass index-coronary heart disease relation was unchanged. For example, the age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cigarette smoking (versus never smoked) in relation to coronary heart disease were: 2.49 (1.80, 3.44), 1.65 (1.34, 2.03), 1.36 (1.15, 1.61) and 1.32 (1.10, 1.58) for follow-up periods 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30+ years, respectively. Despite a general diminution in the strength of effect over time, even in the fourth decade of follow-up, classic risk factors retained some predictive capacity for coronary heart disease and, to a lesser degree, stroke. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Incidence, disease onset and short-term outcome in urea cycle disorders -cross-border surveillance in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Susanne; Kölker, Stefan; Karall, Daniela; Häberle, Johannes; Posset, Roland; Hoffmann, Georg F; Heinrich, Beate; Gleich, Florian; Garbade, Sven F

    2017-06-15

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders. Affected individuals often present with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HE) and have an increased risk of severe neurologic disease and early death. The study aims to provide epidemiologic data and to describe the disease manifestation and short-term outcome. Cross-border surveillance of newly diagnosed patients with UCDs - below 16 years of age - was performed from July 2012 to June 2015 in Germany and Austria and from January 2012 to December 2015 in Switzerland. Inquiries were sent monthly to all Pediatric Departments in Germany and Switzerland, and quarterly to the Austrian Metabolic Group. In addition, data were collected via a second source (metabolic laboratories) in all three countries. Between July 2012 and June 2015, fifty patients (Germany: 39, Austria: 7, Switzerland: 4) with newly diagnosed UCDs were reported and later confirmed resulting in an estimated cumulative incidence of 1 in 51,946 live births. At diagnosis, thirty-nine patients were symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic [10 identified by newborn screening (NBS), 1 by high-risk-family screening (HRF)]. The majority of symptomatic patients (30 of 39 patients) developed HE with (n = 25) or without coma (n = 5), 28 of them with neonatal onset. Despite emergency treatment 15 of 30 patients with HE already died during the newborn period. Noteworthy, 10 of 11 patients diagnosed by NBS or HRF remained asymptomatic. Comparison with the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD) demonstrated that cross-national surveillance identified a higher number of clinically severe UCD patients characterized by earlier onset of symptoms, higher peak ammonium concentrations in plasma and higher mortality. Cross-border surveillance is a powerful tool to identify patients with UCDs demonstrating that (1) the cumulative incidence of UCDs is lower than originally suggested, (2) the mortality rate is still

  18. Risk based surveillance for vector-borne diseases in horses : combining multiple sources of evidence to improve decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faverjon, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases are a growing concern, especially for horse populations, which are at particular risk for disease spread. In general, horses travel widely and frequently and, despite the health and economic impacts of equine diseases, effective health regulations and biosecurity

  19. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  20. Emerging chronic non-communicable diseases in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia: evidence using population-based verbal autopsy method in Kilite Awlaelo surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ashebir, Yemane; Gebeye, Ejigu; Gebregziabiher, Tesfay; Yohannes, Mekonnen; Mussa, Seid; Berhe, Haftu; Abebe, Zerihun

    2013-12-01

    In countries where most deaths are outside health institutions and medical certification of death is absent, verbal autopsy (VA) method is used to estimate population level causes of death. VA data were collected by trained lay interviewers for 409 deaths in the surveillance site. Two physicians independently assigned cause of death using the International Classification of Diseases manual. In general, infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 35.9% of death, external causes 15.9%, diseases of the circulatory system 13.4% and perinatal causes 12.5% of total deaths. Mortalities attributed to maternal causes and malnutrition were low, 0.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Causes of death varied by age category. About 22.1, 12.6 and 8.4% of all deaths of under 5-year-old children were due to bacterial sepsis of the newborn, acute lower respiratory infections such as neonatal pneumonia and prematurity including respiratory distress, respectively. For 5-15-year-old children, accidental drowning and submersion, accounting for 34.4% of all deaths in this age category, and accidental fall, accounting for 18.8%, were leading causes of death. Among 15-49-year-old adults, HIV/AIDS (16.3%) and tuberculosis (12.8%) were commonest causes of death, whereas tuberculosis and cerebrovascular diseases were major killers of those aged 50 years and above. In the rural district, mortality due to chronic non-communicable diseases was very high. The observed magnitude of death from chronic non-communicable disease is unlikely to be unique to this district. Thus, formulation of chronic disease prevention and control strategies is recommended.

  1. Monitoring data quality in syndromic surveillance: Learnings from a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venkatarao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of integrating all disease surveillance systems with the support of a World Bank funded program called the Integrated Disease Surveillance System. In this context the objective of the study was to evaluate the components of the Orissa Multi Disease Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling was carried out, starting with four districts, followed by sequentially sampling two blocks; and in each block, two sectors and two health sub-centers were selected, all based on the best and worst performances. Two study instruments were developed for data validation, for assessing the components of the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm. The Organizational Ethics Group reviewed and approved the study. Results: In all 178 study subjects participated in the survey. The case definition of suspected meningitis in disease surveillance was found to be difficult, with only 29.94%, who could be correctly identified. Syndromic diagnosis following the diagnostic algorithm was difficult for suspected malaria (28.1%, ′unusual syndrome′ (28.1%, and simple diarrhea (62%. Only 17% could correctly answer questions on follow-up cases, but only 50% prioritized diseases. Our study showed that 54% cross-checked the data before compilation. Many (22% faltered on timeliness even during emergencies. The constraints identified were logistics (56% and telecommunication (41%. The reason for participation in surveillance was job responsibility (34.83%. Conclusions: Most of the deficiencies arose from human errors when carrying out day-to-day processes of surveillance activities, hence, should be improved by retraining. Enhanced laboratory support and electronic transmission would improve data quality and timeliness. Validity of some of the case definitions need to be rechecked. Training Programs should focus on motivating the surveillance personnel.

  2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a participatory disease surveillance method for highly pathogenic avian influenza in household chicken flocks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, M; Priyono, W B; Kim, L M; Brum, E

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a disease surveillance method for diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in household chicken flocks used by participatory disease surveillance (PDS) teams in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. The Government of Indonesia, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has implemented a PDS method for the detection of HPAI outbreaks in poultry since 2006. The PDS method in Indonesia utilizes both a clinical case definition (CD) and the result of a commercial rapid antigen test kit Yogyakarta 55611, to diagnose HPAI outbreaks, primarily in backyard chicken flocks. The following diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were obtained relative to real-time reverse transcription-PCR as the gold standard diagnostic test: 1) 89% sensitivity (CI95: 75%-97%) and 96% specificity (CI95: 89%-99%) for the PDS CD alone; 2) 86% sensitivity (CI95: 71%-95%) and 99% specificity (CI95: 94%-100%) for the rapid antigen test alone; and 3) 84% sensitivity (CI95: 68%-94%) and 100% specificity (CI95: 96%-100%) for the PDS CD result combined with the rapid antigen test result. Based on these results, HPAI outbreaks in extensively raised household chickens can be diagnosed with sufficient sensitivity and specificity using the PDS method as implemented in Indonesia. Subject to further field evaluation, data from this study suggest that the diagnostic sensitivity of the PDS method may be improved by expanding the PDS CD to include more possible clinical presentations of HPAI and by increasing the number of rapid antigen tests to three different birds with HPAI-compatible signs of same flock.

  3. Live bird markets characterization and trading network analysis in Mali: Implications for the surveillance and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Boly, Ismaël Ardho; Duboz, Raphaël; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Guitian, Javier; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2016-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in poultry. Our study had two objectives: (1) characterizing LBMs in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of AI and ND, and (2) identifying which LBMs should be targeted for surveillance and control based on properties of the live poultry trade network. Two surveys were conducted in 2009-2010: a descriptive study in all 96 LBMs of an area encompassing approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population and a network analysis study in Sikasso county, the main poultry supplying county for the capital city Bamako. Regarding LBMs' characteristics, risk factors for the presence of AI and ND viruses (being open every day, more than 2 days before a bird is sold, absence of zoning to segregate poultry-related work flow areas, waste removal or cleaning and disinfecting less frequently than on a daily basis, trash disposal of dead birds and absence of manure processing) were present in 80-100% of the LBMs. Furthermore, LBMs tended to have wide catchment areas because of consumers' preference for village poultry meat, thereby involving a large number of villages in their supply chain. In the poultry trade network from/to Sikasso county, 182 traders were involved and 685 links were recorded among 159 locations. The network had a heterogeneous degree distribution and four hubs were identified based on measures of in-degrees, out-degrees and betweenness: the markets of Medine and Wayerma and the fairs of Farakala and Niena. These results can be used to design biosecurity-improvement interventions and to optimize the prevention, surveillance and control of transmissible poultry diseases in Malian LBMs. Further studies should investigate potential drivers (seasonality, prices) of the poultry trade network and the acceptability of biosecurity and behavior-change recommendations in the Malian socio-cultural context. Copyright

  4. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  5. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  6. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jordan A.; Wang, Andrew Z.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Carpenter, William R.; Godley, Paul A.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3–T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

  7. Evaluating the utility of companion animal tick surveillance practices for monitoring spread and occurrence of human Lyme disease in West Virginia, 2014-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hendricks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs and cats are potentially effective sentinel populations for monitoring occurrence and spread of Lyme disease. Few studies have evaluated the public health utility of sentinel programmes using geo-analytic approaches. Confirmed Lyme disease cases diagnosed by physicians and ticks submitted by veterinarians to the West Virginia State Health Department were obtained for 2014-2016. Ticks were identified to species, and only Ixodes scapularis were incorporated in the analysis. Separate ordinary least squares (OLS and spatial lag regression models were conducted to estimate the association between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected on pets and human Lyme disease incidence. Regression residuals were visualised using Local Moran’s I as a diagnostic tool to identify spatial dependence. Statistically significant associations were identified between average numbers of Ix. scapularis collected from dogs and human Lyme disease in the OLS (β=20.7, P<0.001 and spatial lag (β=12.0, P=0.002 regression. No significant associations were identified for cats in either regression model. Statistically significant (P≤0.05 spatial dependence was identified in all regression models. Local Moran’s I maps produced for spatial lag regression residuals indicated a decrease in model over- and under-estimation, but identified a higher number of statistically significant outliers than OLS regression. Results support previous conclusions that dogs are effective sentinel populations for monitoring risk of human exposure to Lyme disease. Findings reinforce the utility of spatial analysis of surveillance data, and highlight West Virginia’s unique position within the eastern United States in regards to Lyme disease occurrence.

  8. Riesgo de brucela en humanos. Diseño de un sistema de vigilancia Risk of brucellosis in human being. A design of a system of disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Márquez Jaca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis es una zoonosis que se trasmite directa o indirectamente al hombre, a partir de reservorios animales, y es considerada una enfermedad ocupacional. Con el objetivo de estratificar el riesgo de brucela, para el diseño de un sistema de vigilancia, se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica bietápica durante los años 2009-2010 en el municipio San Cristóbal. Durante la primera se estratificó el riesgo de brucela y en la segunda, se diseñó un sistema de vigilancia. Las unidades de análisis para la investigación están constituidas por la totalidad de animales, pertenecientes al sector estatal del municipio, de la cual se abastece (carnes, leche y derivados, la población y la totalidad de trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente al riesgo de brucela. La brucelosis es un importante problema de salud entre la masa animal, incide en ello, los bovinos, porcinos y los búfalos, todas las fuentes de alimento de la población, las principales zonas de riesgo para la salud de los humanos se encuentran en los Consejos Populares José Martí y López Peña, considerados estos de alto riesgo epidemiológico para la salud de la población. Se propone un sistema de vigilancia conjunto con medicina veterinaria que garantizará el control de la enfermedad, tanto en los animales como en las personas.Brucellosis is a zoonosis that is directly or indirectly transmitted to human being from reservoir of animals, and it is considered an occupational disease. Aimed at stratifying the risk of brucellosis to design a system of disease surveillance a research of technological innovation was carried out in two stages from 2009-2010 in San Cristobal. During the first stage the stratification of brucellosis risk was completed; designing the system of disease surveillance on the second stage. Units of analysis were constituted from the total of animals belonging to the state sector in the municipality, from which the locality obtains

  9. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Nsubuga

    Full Text Available Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice.An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +. We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015.A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14% were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%.In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda

  10. Forecasting Zika Incidence in the 2016 Latin America Outbreak Combining Traditional Disease Surveillance with Search, Social Media, and News Report Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F McGough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 400,000 people across the Americas are thought to have been infected with Zika virus as a consequence of the 2015-2016 Latin American outbreak. Official government-led case count data in Latin America are typically delayed by several weeks, making it difficult to track the disease in a timely manner. Thus, timely disease tracking systems are needed to design and assess interventions to mitigate disease transmission.We combined information from Zika-related Google searches, Twitter microblogs, and the HealthMap digital surveillance system with historical Zika suspected case counts to track and predict estimates of suspected weekly Zika cases during the 2015-2016 Latin American outbreak, up to three weeks ahead of the publication of official case data. We evaluated the predictive power of these data and used a dynamic multivariable approach to retrospectively produce predictions of weekly suspected cases for five countries: Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, and Martinique. Models that combined Google (and Twitter data where available with autoregressive information showed the best out-of-sample predictive accuracy for 1-week ahead predictions, whereas models that used only Google and Twitter typically performed best for 2- and 3-week ahead predictions.Given the significant delay in the release of official government-reported Zika case counts, we show that these Internet-based data streams can be used as timely and complementary ways to assess the dynamics of the outbreak.

  11. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Audi, Allan; Cosmas, Leonard; Aura, Barrack; Burke, Heather; Njenga, M Kariuki; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-01-18

    Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI), diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI) among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo) and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera). Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  12. Lifestyles in Brazilian capitals according to the National Health Survey and the Surveillance System for Protective and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel), 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Santos, Maria Aline Siqueira; Andrade, Silvânia Suely de Araújo; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2015-12-01

    To describe risk and protective factors for chronic diseases, in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District, collected by the National Health Survey (PNS) and by the Surveillance System for Protective and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) in 2013. Data analysis of the studies conducted by the PNS and Vigitel in 2013 was performed. Indicators analyzed were: smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity, according to sex, with a 95% confidence interval. The prevalences found were: current cigarette smokers: PNS, 12.5% and Vigitel, 11.3%; abuse of alcoholic beverages: PNS, 14.9% and Vigitel, 16.4%; recommended intake of fruits and vegetables: PNS, 41.8% and Vigitel, 23.6%; and physical activity in leisure time: PNS, 26.6% and Vigitel, 35.8%. In the majority of indicators, the results were similar, especially when the questions and response options were equal. Surveys are useful for the monitoring of risk and protective factors of noncommunicable diseases and can support health promotion programs.

  13. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible.

  14. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  15. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors, Chronic Diseases, and Conditions, Access to Health Care, and Use of Preventive Health Services Among States and Selected Local Areas
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Gamble, Sonya; Flegel, David; Pierannunzi, Carol; Garvin, William; Town, Machell

    2016-04-29

    Chronic diseases (e.g., heart diseases, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis) and unintentional injuries are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, failure to use seat belts, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of death. Modifying these behavioral risk factors and using preventive health services (e.g., cancer screenings and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years) can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Continuous monitoring of these health-risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services are essential to the development of health promotion strategies, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county level. January-December 2012. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services related to the leading causes of death and disability. This report presents results for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, participating U.S. territories that include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico) and Guam, 187 Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MMSAs), and 210 counties (n = 475,687 survey respondents) for the year 2012. In 2012, the estimated prevalence of health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases or conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services substantially varied by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following portion of the abstract lists a summary of results by selected BRFSS measures. Each set of proportions refers to the range of

  16. A rule-based electronic phenotyping algorithm for detecting clinically relevant cardiovascular disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Santiago; Rodríguez Tablado, Manuel; Ricci, Ricardo Ignacio; Terrasa, Sergio; Kopitowski, Karin

    2017-07-14

    The implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) is becoming increasingly common. Error and data loss reduction, patient-care efficiency increase, decision-making assistance and facilitation of event surveillance, are some of the many processes that EMRs help improve. In addition, they show a lot of promise in terms of data collection to facilitate observational epidemiological studies and their use for this purpose has increased significantly over the recent years. Even though the quantity and availability of the data are clearly improved thanks to EMRs, still, the problem of the quality of the data remains. This is especially important when attempting to determine if an event has actually occurred or not. We sought to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and agreement level of a codes-based algorithm for the detection of clinically relevant cardiovascular (CaVD) and cerebrovascular (CeVD) disease cases, using data from EMRs. Three family physicians from the research group selected clinically relevant CaVD and CeVD terms from the international classification of primary care, Second Edition (ICPC-2), the ICD 10 version 2015 and SNOMED-CT 2015 Edition. These terms included both signs, symptoms, diagnoses and procedures associated with CaVD and CeVD. Terms not related to symptoms, signs, diagnoses or procedures of CaVD or CeVD and also those describing incidental findings without clinical relevance were excluded. The algorithm yielded a positive result if the patient had at least one of the selected terms in their medical records, as long as it was not recorded as an error. Else, if no terms were found, the patient was classified as negative. This algorithm was applied to a randomly selected sample of the active patients within the hospital's HMO by 1/1/2005 that were 40-79 years old, had at least one year of seniority in the HMO and at least one clinical encounter. Thus, patients were classified into four groups: (1) Negative patients (2) Patients with Ca

  17. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan; Roberts, Virginia; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Radke, Vince; Calderon, Rebecca L; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2008-09-12

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) and cases of waterborne disease. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease in the United States. Data presented summarize 28 WBDOs that occurred during January 2005--December 2006 and four previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1979--2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with recreational water, drinking water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (FAS) (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by a standard form. Only cases and outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent (WUI) are summarized in this report. Cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported in a separate Surveillance Summary. Fourteen states reported 28 WBDOs that occurred during 2005--2006: a total of 20 were associated with drinking water, six were associated with WNID, and two were associated with WUI. The 20 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 612 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 18 (90.0%) of the drinking water-associated WBDOs. Among the 18 WBDOs with identified pathogens, 12 (66.7%) were associated with bacteria, three

  18. Use of Remote Sensing Surveillance to Monitor Environmental Parameters Associated with Mosquito Abundance and Vector-borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis persists as a major cause of clinical morbidity and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development in various parts of the world including Egypt. In Egypt, filariasis has been endemic since time immemorial. Early epidemiologic studies identified Culex pipiens L. as the main vector of the disease and also showed that the geographic distribution of the disease is highly focal and concentrated in lower Egypt. Between 1950 and 1965, a large scale filariasis control program was carried out by the Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMOH) in the endemic areas. Control efforts led to a steady decrease of the disease in areas of the country previously identified as endemic. However, spot surveys conducted in various parts of the Nile Delta during the 1970's and 1980's revealed that the downward trend of the disease had stopped and that the prevalence and intensity of microfilaraemia had increased.

  19. Potential Applications and Limitations of Electronic Nose Devices for Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cellini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology has recently been applied to the detection of several plant diseases and pests, with promising results. However, in spite of its numerous advantages, including operational simplicity, non-destructivity, and bulk sampling, drawbacks include a low sensitivity and specificity in comparison with microbiological and molecular methods. A critical review of the use of an electronic nose for plant disease diagnosis and pest detection is presented, describing the instrumental and procedural advances of sensorial analysis, for the improvement of discrimination between healthy and infected or infested plants. In conclusion, the use of electronic nose technology is suggested to assist, direct, and optimise traditionally adopted diagnostic techniques.

  20. Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of

  1. Potential use of telephone surveys for non-communicable disease surveillance in developing countries: evidence from a national household survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla M; Ghandour, Lilian A; Chaaban, Rawan; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-05-31

    Given the worldwide proliferation of cellphones, this paper examines their potential use for the surveillance of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in a Middle Eastern country. Data were derived from a national household survey of 2,656 adults (aged 18 years or older) in Lebanon in 2009. Responses to questions on phone ownership yielded two subsamples, the 'cell phone sample' (n = 1,404) and the 'any phone sample' (n = 2,158). Prevalence estimates of various socio-demographics and 11 key NCD risk factors and comorbidities were compared between each subsample and the overall household sample. Adjusting for baseline age and sex distribution, no differences were observed for all NCD indicators when comparing either of subsamples to the overall household sample, except for binge drinking [(OR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.33-1.81) and (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.85) for 'cell phone subsample' and 'any phone subsample', respectively] and self-rated health (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.36) and (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.32), respectively). Differences in the odds of hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.06-1.51) was also found in the subsample of 'any phone' carriers. Multi-mode telephone surveillance techniques provide viable alternative to face-to-face surveys in developing countries. Cell phones may also be useful for personalized public health and medical care interventions in young populations.

  2. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) surveillance in commercial breeding farm in China and the characterization of Class I NDV isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beixia; Huang, Yanyan; He, Yefeng; Xu, Chuantian; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Bin; Yan, Shigan; Zhang, Xiumei

    2010-07-29

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks in Shandong province of China, extensive surveillance studies were carried out in the breeding ducks of an intensive farm from July 2007 to September 2008. Each month cloacal and tracheal swabs were taken from 30 randomly selected birds that appeared healthy. All of the swabs were negative for influenza A virus recovery, whereas 87.5% of tracheal swabs and 100% cloacal swabs collected in September 2007, were positive for Newcastle disease virus isolation. Several NDV isolates were recovered from tracheal and cloacal swabs of apparently healthy ducks. All of the isolates were apathogenic as determined by the MDT and ICPI. The HN gene and the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420) of four isolates selected at random were sequenced. A 374 bp region of F gene and the full length of HN gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. Four isolates were identified as the same isolate based on nucleotide sequences identities of 99.2-100%, displaying a closer phylogenetic relationship to lentogenic Class I viruses. There were 1.9-9.9% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I virus in the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420), whereas there were 38.5-41.2% nucleotide difference between the isolates and Class II viruses. The amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage sites in these isolates were 112-ERQERL-117. The full length of HN gene of these isolates was 1851 bp, coding 585 amino acids. The homology analysis of the nucleotide sequence of HN gene indicated that there were 2.0-4.2% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I viruses, whereas there were 29.5-40.9% differences between the isolates and Class II viruses. The results shows that these isolates are not phylogenetically related to the vaccine strain (LaSota). This study adds to the understanding of the ecology of influenza viruses and Newcastle disease viruses in

  3. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Cross-sectional STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS) Population Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) and Risk Factors in Brunei Darussalam 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Sok King; Lai, Daphne Teck Ching; Wong, Justin Yun Yaw; Si-Ramlee, Khairil Azhar; Razak, Lubna Abdul; Kassim, Norhayati; Kamis, Zakaria; Koh, David

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a cross-sectional weighted measurement of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors prevalence among Brunei adult population using WHO STEPS methodology. A 2-staged randomized sampling was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Three-step surveillance included (1) interview using standardized questionnaire, (2) blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and (3) biochemistry tests. Data weighting was applied. A total of 3808 adults aged 18 to 69 years participated in step 1; 2082 completed steps 2 and 3 measurements. Adult smoking prevalence was 19.9%, obesity 28.2%, hypertension 28.0%, diabetes 9.7%, prediabetes 2.1%, and 51.3% had fasting cholesterol level ≥5 mmol/L. Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables prevalence was high at 91.7%. Among those aged 40 to 69 years, 8.9% had a 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥30%, or with existing CVD. Population strategies and targeted group interventions are required to control the NCD risk factors and morbidities.

  6. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to