WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic devices symposium

  1. ESREF 98 - 9th European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    opposite can be observed. As the current [18,19]. Optical near-field induced current aperture acts like a dipole source, we believe that the investigations...take advantage of device internal fields of this dipole and the mirror dipole which is potential gradients leading to a separation of the induced...for the chip located at the base of the assembly (level 4). For one chip the [1] : C. Val, P. Bonnefoy, L. Drouin, Onde Electrique , place of maximum

  2. European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (5th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-07

    Associazione Elettrotecnica e Elettronica Italia Circuiti Componente Tecnologia Elettroniche CECC CENELEC Electronic Components Committee EC The Commission...In this paper we describe a new method which is based on statistical Monte Carlo analysis. 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 a 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 *1 ~ _x bIm

  3. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  4. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  5. 10. International Symposium on Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaemig, E.; Koenig, K.H.

    1980-03-01

    The report contains the abstracts to the main topics of the symposium arranged in 4 chapters. Section A: electronics instrumentation for accelerators and reactors. Section B: amplitude and time spectroscopy. Section C: measuring electronics in high energy physics. Section D: application of computer aided systems in experiments with special regard to microcomputers and the CAMAC system

  6. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  7. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  8. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  9. Symposium on applications of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The abstracts are given of thirteen papers presented at a ''SQUID Symposium'' organized by the Division of Materials Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and held March 23--25, 1978, at the University of Virginia. Since SQUID systems have already been utilized in feasibility demonstration in geothermal reservoir exploration, it was recognized that these devices also hold great potential for many other important scientific measurements. Many of these are energy-related, and others include forefront investigations in a diverse group of scientific areas, from biomedical to earthquake monitoring. Research in SQUIDs has advanced so rapidly in recent years that it was felt that a symposium to review the current status and future prospects of the devices would be timely. The abstracts given present an overview of work in this area and hopefully provide an opportunity to increase awareness among basic and applied scientists of the inherent implications of the extreme measurement sensitivity in advanced SQUID systems

  10. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    SSDC logo Preface The International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC' 2010) was held in Beijing, China, from 21 to 24 October 2010. The aim of the symposium was to provide an opportunity for international experts, academics, researchers, practitioners and students working in the areas of spintronic theories, spintronic materials, and spintronic devices to exchange information on the R&D and commercialization of spintronic materials and devices. New developments, concepts, future research trends and potential commercialization areas were also discussed. The topics covered by ISSDC' 2010 were: Fundmental Spintronic Theories/Experiments Spin polarization, spin-dependent scattering, spin relaxation, spin manipulation and optimization, as well as other related characterizations and applications, etc. Spintronic Materials Giant magnetoresistance materials, magnetic tunnel junction materials, magnetic semiconductor materials, molecular spintronic materials. Spintronic Devices Sensors, isolators, spin logic devices and magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), microwave devices, spin diodes, spin transistor, spin filters and detectors, spin optoelectronic devices, spin quantum devices, single chip computer, spin molecule and single electron devices. Other Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, magnetostriction materials. Applications of Spintronic Devices Magnetic position/angle/velocity/rotation velocity sensors, magnetic encoders, magnetic compasses, bio-medical magnetic devices and other applications. Future Research Trends and the Commercialization of Spintronic Devices Approximately 85 scientists from almost 10 countries participated in the conference. The conference featured 6 keynote lectures, 8 invited lectures, 12 contributed lectures and about 30 posters. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference

  11. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  12. Electronic security device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  13. Relativistic electron beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Yonas, G.

    1975-07-01

    A design is given for an electron beam device for irradiating spherical hydrogen isotope bearing targets. The accelerator, which includes hollow cathodes facing each other, injects an anode plasma between the cathodes and produces an approximately 10 nanosecond, megajoule pulse between the anode plasma and the cathodes. Targets may be repetitively positioned within the plasma between the cathodes, and accelerator diode arrangement permits materials to survive operation in a fusion power source. (auth)

  14. Proceedings of the 10. International Symposium on Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaemig, E.; Koenig, K.H.

    1981-02-01

    The report comprises lectures given at the X. International Symposium on Nuclear Electronics. Volume II comprehends essential topics to the development of computerized systems and the application of CAMAC modules and their connection with microprocessors in the field of high energy physics. Volume II is divided in two sections. Section C: measuring electronics in high energy physics. Section D: application of computer aided systems in experiments with special regard to microcomputer and CAMAC system

  15. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes to synthesize the conjugate and characterized its electrical properties. Negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed

  16. Device for electron beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Liebergeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for electron beam machining, in particular welding. It is aimed at continuous operation of the electron irradiation device. This is achieved by combining the electron gun with a beam guiding chamber, to which vacuum chambers are connected. The working parts to be welded can be arranged in the latter

  17. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  18. Superconductor electronic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDuzer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are becoming important in many applications where high sensitivity or speed is required. In this paper the authors give brief introduction to superconductive device physics and some comments on the role of high-temperature superconductors. They then present the basic principles of a number of applications in metrology, electromagnetic sensing, and analog and digital circuits. They conclude with the prospects for hybrid semiconductor-superconductor devices, circuits, and systems

  19. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  20. Remote detection of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen L [Los Alamos, NM; Fortgang, Clifford M [Los Alamos, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus and method for detecting solid-state electronic devices are described. Non-linear junction detection techniques are combined with spread-spectrum encoding and cross correlation to increase the range and sensitivity of the non-linear junction detection and to permit the determination of the distances of the detected electronics. Nonlinear elements are detected by transmitting a signal at a chosen frequency and detecting higher harmonic signals that are returned from responding devices.

  1. Electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Role of portal imaging; Port films vs. EPID; Image guidance: Elekta volume view; Delivery verification; Automation tasks of portal imaging; Types of portal imaging (Fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera-based imaging; Liquid ion chamber imaging; Amorpho-silicon portal imagers; Fluoroscopic portal imaging; Kodak CR reader; and Other types of portal imaging devices); QA of EPID; and Portal dosimetry (P.A.)

  2. Electron Device Contact Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    including foreign nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. MILLARD C. # IyR , PrFoject Engineer Electronic...potential ED - Ec = TD = donor potential (for Sn in GaAs nD = 5.82 meV [351 Given values for Cs and T, the computer programs find the simultaneous

  3. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  4. Capacitor ageing in electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. N. Vital

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moment when an electronic component doesn’t work like requirements, previously established is a task that need to be considered since began of a system design. However, the use of different technologies, operating under several environmental conditions, makes a component choice a complex step in system design. This paper analyzes the effects that ageing phenomenon of capacitors may introduce in electronic devices operation. For this reason, reliability concepts, processes and mechanism of degradation are presented. Additionally, some mathematical models are presented to assist maintenance activities or component replacement. The presented approach compares the operability of intact and aged components.

  5. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  6. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  7. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  8. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  9. Proceedings, strongly correlated electronic materials: The Los Alamos symposium 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The subject included such topics as high temperature superconductors, heavy-fermion insulators and superconductors, the metal-insulator transition, the superconductor-insulator transition and unusual (non-Fermi liquid) normal metallic states. The symposium was structured around 13 invited review talks; with each talk, there were several (about 30) related short presentations and discussion sections (90 pages). The review talks and short papers were processed separately for the data base

  10. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices. Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting ...

  11. XI International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings are published as a recollection of contributions presented at the XI International Symposium on “Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures” (RREPS-15), which was held in Saint Petersburg, September 6-11, 2015, Russian Federation. RREPS-15 was co-organized by Saint-Petersburg State University, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, and National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI). The main goal of the symposium was to bring together the scientists from around the world who work on designs of new radiation sources and their applications. There were 108 participants registered from 12 countries. The website of the symposium is available at http://rreps.tpu.ru/. (paper)

  12. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  13. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  14. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  15. Symposium on applications of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). [Abstracts of 13 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The abstracts are given of thirteen papers presented at a ''SQUID Symposium'' organized by the Division of Materials Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and held March 23--25, 1978, at the University of Virginia. Since SQUID systems have already been utilized in feasibility demonstration in geothermal reservoir exploration, it was recognized that these devices also hold great potential for many other important scientific measurements. Many of these are energy-related, and others include forefront investigations in a diverse group of scientific areas, from biomedical to earthquake monitoring. Research in SQUIDs has advanced so rapidly in recent years that it was felt that a symposium to review the current status and future prospects of the devices would be timely. The abstracts given present an overview of work in this area and hopefully provide an opportunity to increase awareness among basic and applied scientists of the inherent implications of the extreme measurement sensitivity in advanced SQUID systems.

  16. Graphene nanoribbons for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhansong; Granzner, Ralf; Kittler, Mario; Schwierz, Frank [FG Festkoerperelektronik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Haehnlein, Bernd; Auge, Manuel; Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Alexander A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Davydov, Valery Y. [Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanoribbons show unique properties and have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past. Intensive theoretical and experimental studies on such nanostructures at both the fundamental and application-oriented levels have been performed. The present paper discusses the suitability of graphene nanoribbons devices for nanoelectronics and focuses on three specific device types - graphene nanoribbon MOSFETs, side-gate transistors, and three terminal junctions. It is shown that, on the one hand, experimental devices of each type of the three nanoribbon-based structures have been reported, that promising performance of these devices has been demonstrated and/or predicted, and that in part they possess functionalities not attainable with conventional semiconductor devices. On the other hand, it is emphasized that - in spite of the remarkable progress achieved during the past 10 years - graphene nanoribbon devices still face a lot of problems and that their prospects for future applications remain unclear. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...... of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact...

  18. 2nd ISPRA nuclear electronics symposium, Stresa, Italy May 20-23, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Two round tables were annexed to the 2nd Ispra Nuclear Electronics Symposium. The first one was concerned with software support for the implementation of microprocessors, MOS and bipolar microporcessors, environmental data systems, and the use of microprocessors and minicomputers in nuclear, biomedical and environmental fields. Nuclear electronics future, and its diversification, gravitational waves and electronics, the environmental measurements of air and water quality were discussed during the second round table, and relevant feelings brought out during the discussion on the extension of nuclear electronics techniques to other fields

  19. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  20. Method and device for efficiently updating data in electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Espeso, Pablo Pedro; Díaz Suárez, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The invention relates to a method and a device for efficiently updating data in electronic devices, solving problems presented by existing techniques in a simple manner. The invention allows the device to be updated rapidly, with low energy consumption, and minimising the number of times the non-volatile memory unit (for example, flash) is erased, at a profitable cost. RESUMEN: Método y dispositivo para la actualización eficiente de datos en dispositivos electrónicos que resuelve...

  1. 15. International symposium on nuclear electronics and International seminar CAMAC-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 25. International symposium on nuclear electronics and the CAMAC-92 seminar are presented. The problems on creation of new effective systems for acquisition and processing the information in the field of high energies, spectroscopy and by radiation control at reactors are considered in the reports. Equipment interfaces, analogue-numerical converters, programmed controllers, etc, accomplished relative to the CAMAC and FASTBUS standards are described

  2. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  3. Program and Abstracts of the ninth Joint Uzbek-Korea Symposium Nanoscience: Problems and Prospects on Quantum Functional Materials and Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, E.A.; Kang, T.W.; Mamatkulov, Sh.; Kokhkharov, A.M.; Cho Hak Dong

    2010-11-01

    The Ninth Joint Uzbek-Korea Symposium on Quantum Functional Materials and Devices was held on November 2-5, 2010 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for Uzbekistan and Korean scientists to get together and discuss recent progress and future trends in the rapidly advancing nanoscience and nanotechnology. The symposium will promote an exchange of scientific information and a mutual collaboration. Symposium activities include in-depth coverage on materials grows, physics, characterization, device fabrication and application. The main scientific topics of the symposium: Synthesis of nanomaterials, nanocomposites and nanostructures; Structural, electrical and optical properties; New concepts of devices and related phenomena; Theoretical aspects of nanosciense. (eds.)

  4. Advanced photonic, electronic, and web engineering systems: WILGA Symposium, January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The cycle of WILGA Symposia [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of SPIE, IEEE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Multi-Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The January conference was attended by around 100 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical photonics, electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced photonic, electronic circuits and systems. The 32 nd WILGA Symposium took place on 27 May - 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. These two editions of WILGA Conferences - January and May have generated more than 250 articles, from which around 100 were chosen by the Symposium and Conference Committees to be published in this volume of Proc.SPIE. WILGA Symposium papers are traditionally submitted via the WILGA web page [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] to the SPIE Proceedings publishing system [spie.org]. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. All Wilga papers are published in journals Elektronika, IJET-PAN and in Proc.SPIE. Topical tracks of the symposium usually embrace, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium In its two editions a year is a summary of the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country and this geographical region in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also

  5. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Republic of Korea, and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  6. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    The pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for the waterproof containment and operation of a touch-screen computer or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. The case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may be a small gas cartridge (e.g., CO2), or may be provided from an external source, such as the diver\\'s breathing air. A pressure relief valve is also provided.

  8. Symposium on electron linear accelerators in honor of Richard B. Neal's 80th birthday: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1998-07-01

    The papers presented at the conference are: (1) the construction of SLAC and the role of R.B. Neal; (2) symposium speech; (3) lessons learned from the SLC; (4) alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders; (5) the NLC technical program; (6) advanced electron linacs; (7) medical uses of linear accelerators; (8) linac-based, intense, coherent X-ray source using self-amplified spontaneous emission. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinfu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  10. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  11. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, imported by Apple Inc...

  12. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Deyell, Marc W

    2018-01-08

    Over the past decade, technological advancements have transformed the delivery of care for arrhythmia patients. From early transtelephonic monitoring to new devices capable of wireless and cellular transmission, remote monitoring has revolutionized device care. In this article, we review the current evolution and evidence for remote monitoring in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. From passive transmission of device diagnostics, to active transmission of patient- and device-triggered alerts, remote monitoring can shorten the time to diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that remote monitoring can reduce hospitalization and emergency room visits, and improve survival. Remote monitoring can also reduce the health care costs, while providing increased access to patients living in rural or marginalized communities. Unfortunately, as many as two-thirds of patients with remote monitoring-capable devices do not use, or are not offered, this feature. Current guidelines recommend remote monitoring and interrogation, combined with annual in-person evaluation in all cardiac device patients. Remote monitoring should be considered in all eligible device patients and should be considered standard of care. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Animation Based Learning of Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Aharon; Zoabi, Wishah; Sabag, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Two-year college teachers face great difficulty when they teach the principle of operation of the bipolar junction transistor--a subject which forms the basis for electronics studies. The difficulty arises from both the complexity of the device and by the lack of adequate scientific background among the students. We, therefore, developed a unique…

  14. Devices for Information Presentation in Electronic Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For highly complex situations, we suggest guidance through a decision tree-like device. We assume that the solutions proposed here are not specific to one language only but can, after careful analysis, be applied to e-dictionaries in different languages across the world. Keywords: Electronic Dictionaries; User Guidance; ...

  15. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  16. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  17. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ruobing [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  18. New Trends in Electronic Publishing and Electronic Libraries. Publications of Essen University Library 6. Essen Symposium (Essen, West Germany, August 29-31, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    This symposium examined issues in the planning, development, and implementation of library automation and the effects of electronic publishing. The following presentations are included in this collection: (1) "Will There Be Electronic Anarchy?" (Helen Henderson); (2) "Ergonomics in the Electronic Era" (Andrew Torok); (3)…

  19. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  20. Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz. The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  1. Nanocoaxes for optical and electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Binod; Merlo, Juan M; Burns, Michael J; Chiles, Thomas C; Naughton, Michael J

    2015-01-07

    The evolution of micro/nanoelectronics technology, including the shrinking of devices and integrated circuit components, has included the miniaturization of linear and coaxial structures to micro/nanoscale dimensions. This reduction in the size of coaxial structures may offer advantages to existing technologies and benefit the exploration and development of new technologies. The reduction in the size of coaxial structures has been realized with various permutations between metals, semiconductors and dielectrics for the core, shield, and annulus. This review will focus on fabrication schemes of arrays of metal - nonmetal - metal nanocoax structures using non-template and template methods, followed by possible applications. The performance and scientific advantages associated with nanocoax-based optical devices including waveguides, negative refractive index materials, light emitting diodes, and photovoltaics are presented. In addition, benefits and challenges that accrue from the application of novel nanocoax structures in energy storage, electronic and sensing devices are summarized.

  2. 78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... importing wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers... filed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of...

  3. Reliability Modeling of Critical Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Electronics, Vol. QE-15, No. 1, up January 1979, pp. 11-13. 15. Newman, D.H. and Ritchie, S., Degradation Pnenomena in Gallium Aluminium Arsenide Stripe...8217RESERVOIR COLD CATHODE TRAP FIGURE 7.2-1: HELIUM-CADMIUM LASER TUBE Principle design considerations relating to the lifetime of the device include (Ref 1): o...available in two basic design types. The contact design is either screw machined or stamped and formed. The screw machined contacts are close entry

  4. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  5. Electronic equipment and software for device 'FAZA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Petrov, L.A.; Oeschler, H.; Lips, F.; Bart, R.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic equipment and software for the device FAZA are described. The device, designed for studying the nuclear multifragmentation process, consists of 5 time-of-flight telescopes, a position-sensitive avalanche chamber and 58 PM tubes. The time resolution of the time-of-flight telescopes is 0.5 ns, which allows a velocity resolution of 1.5%. The spatial resolution of the large avalanche counter is 4 mm, which allows angular resolution of 1 deg. Analogue signals from each PM tube come to two ADCs, to which strobes are supplied with a 400 ns shift. It allows codes corresponding to Cherenkov radiation and deexcitation of CsJ(Tl) to be distinguished in a two-dimensional plot. 8 refs.; 2 figs

  6. 14 CFR 91.21 - Portable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 91.21 Section... electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate, nor may any operator or pilot in command of an aircraft allow the operation of, any portable electronic device...

  7. Plasma electronics applications in microelectronic device fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory. Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plas

  8. Non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenekhe, Samson A.; Li, Haiyan; Earmme, Taeshik; Ren, Guoqiang

    2017-11-07

    Non-fullerene electron acceptors for highly efficient organic photovoltaic devices are described. The non-fullerene electron acceptors have an extended, rigid, .pi.-conjugated electron-deficient framework that can facilitate exciton and charge derealization. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can physically mix with a donor polymer and facilitate improved electron transport. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can be incorporated into organic electronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells.

  9. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  10. FOREWORD: IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander; Karataev, Pavel

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS'11) which was held at Royal Holloway, University of London on September 12-16, Egham, United Kingdom. The symposium was organized jointly by Royal Holloway, University of London and Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia. RREPS is a biennial series of symposia founded in September 1993 as an initiative of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University. The intention was to strengthen the basic and applied research focused on radiation from relativistic electrons in condensed media, particularly from natural and artificial periodic structures, and to review the research activity in this area. Since then, the symposium has developed into a forum attracting young scientists from different areas of research and from many countries. Previous successful symposia were held at Tomsk, Russia (1993, 1995, 1997, 2003), Lake Baikal, Russia (1999), Lake Aiya, Altai, Russia (2001), Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic (2007) and Zvenigorod, Moscow region, Russia (2009). As an outcome of the symposia the conference proceedings have been published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B (Vol. 145 No 1-2, October 1998; Vol. 173 No 1-2, January 2001; Vol. 201 No 1 January 2003; Vol. 227 No 1-2, January 2005; Vol. 266 No 17, September 2008) and Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 236, June 2010). The purpose of the present RREPS'11 symposium was to review the up-to-date situation in the area of electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in condensed media, and to discuss the research strategy for the near future. Nowadays, electromagnetic radiation studies cover electron energies from a few MeV up to hundreds of GeV in many laboratories throughout the world. The goal is to study the physics of the generation of various kinds of radiation and their

  11. XVI International symposium on nuclear electronics and VI International school on automation and computing in nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churin, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    Reports and papers of the 16- International Symposium on nuclear electronics and the 6- International school on automation and computing in nuclear physics and astrophysics are presented. The latest achievements in the field of development of fact - response electronic circuits designed for detecting and spectrometric facilities are studied. The peculiar attention is paid to the systems for acquisition, processing and storage of experimental data. The modern equipment designed for data communication in the computer networks is studied

  12. Materials and devices for silicon-based optoelectronics. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 486

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, A.; Coffa, S.; Soref, R.

    1998-07-01

    The field of Si-based optoelectronics is greatly expanding and attracting increased interest from the scientific community. This interest is largely motivated by the possibility of combining, on the same substrate, the excellent data-processing performances of Si-based electronic functions with the unrivaled capability of light in the transmission of information. In fact, experimental efforts have led to several breakthroughs that promise new approaches and potential commercialization of low-cost Si-based photonic devices. Physical properties and optical performance of various materials (nanocrystals, porous Si, Er-doped Si and SiGe, to mention just a few examples) are now reasonably well understood, and the requirements necessary for efficient device performances have been elucidated. The field has clearly shifted its focus from the pure engineering of materials to the use of these properties to develop and optimize novel optical devices. Experimental and theoretical contributions from academia, research laboratories and industry are presented here and highlight both the state of the art as well as future trends in this rapidly developing field. Topics include: Si-based integrated optoelectronics--state of the art and perspectives; waveguides and modulators; integrated and discrete light sources and detectors; properties and applications of silicon nanocrystals; materials for IR and visible light emission; and new materials and device concepts.

  13. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  14. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  15. Patients' knowledge and attitudes regarding living with implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaa, Kristina Hermann; Potpara, Tatjana S; Boveda, Serge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this patient survey was to analyse the knowledge, experiences, and attitudes regarding cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) in patients with pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), or cardiac resynchronization devices. Of the 1644 patients with CIEDs fr...

  16. MEMS/Electronic Device Design and Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows DoD to design and characterize state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices. Device designers develop their own...

  17. Electronic Payments using Mobile Communication Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, B.D. van der; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a first mobile communication device (1) and a second mobile communication device (2), each mobile communication device being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least one of the mobile communication devices being provided with an

  18. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  19. Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Pearton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices provides comprehensive coverage of reliability procedures and approaches for electron and photonic devices. These include lasers and high speed electronics used in cell phones, satellites, data transmission systems and displays. Lifetime predictions for compound semiconductor devices are notoriously inaccurate due to the absence of standard protocols. Manufacturers have relied on extrapolation back to room temperature of accelerated testing at elevated temperature. This technique fails for scaled, high current density devices. Device failure is driven by electric field or current mechanisms or low activation energy processes that are masked by other mechanisms at high temperature. The Handbook addresses reliability engineering for III-V devices, including materials and electrical characterization, reliability testing, and electronic characterization. These are used to develop new simulation technologies for device operation and ...

  20. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of Richardson, Texas... wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by reason...

  1. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  2. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  3. Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, William Christian

    The field of quantum chaos investigates the quantum mechanical behavior of classically chaotic systems. This dissertation begins by describing an experiment conducted on an apparatus constructed to represent a three dimensional analog of a classically chaotic system. Patterns of reflected light are shown to produce fractals, and the behavior of the fractal dimension D F is shown to depend on the light's ability to escape the apparatus. The classically chaotic system is then used to investigate the conductance properties of semiconductor heterostructures engineered to produce a conducting plane relatively free of impurities and defects. Introducing walls that inhibit conduction to partition off sections considerably smaller than the mean distance between impurities defines devices called 'billiards'. Cooling to low temperatures enables the electrons traveling through the billiard to maintain quantum mechanical phase. Exposure to a changing electric or magnetic field alters the electron's phase, leading to fluctuations in the conductance through the billiard. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in billiards have previously been shown to be fractal. This behavior has been charted using an empirical parameter, Q, that is a measure of the resolution of the energy levels within the billiard. The relationship with Q is shown to extend beyond the ballistic regime into the 'quasi-ballistic' and 'diffusive' regimes, characterized by having defects within the conduction plane. A model analogous to the classically chaotic system is proposed as the origin of the fractal conductance fluctuations. This model is shown to be consistent with experiment and to account for changes of fine scale features in MCF known to occur when a billiard is brought to room temperature between low temperature measurements. An experiment is conducted in which fractal conductance fluctuations (FCF) are produced by exposing a billiard to a changing electric field. Comparison of DF values of FCF produced by

  4. Symposium on electron linear accelerators in honor of Richard B. Neal's 80th birthday: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The papers presented at the conference are: (1) the construction of SLAC and the role of R.B. Neal; (2) symposium speech; (3) lessons learned from the SLC; (4) alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders; (5) the NLC technical program; (6) advanced electron linacs; (7) medical uses of linear accelerators; (8) linac-based, intense, coherent X-ray source using self-amplified spontaneous emission. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  6. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biomolecular electronics is rapidly evolving from physics, chemistry, biology, electronics and information technology. Organic materials such as proteins, pigments and conducting polymers have been considered as alternatives for carrying out the functions that are presently being performed by semiconductor silicon.

  7. Experimental Device for Electron Beam Micromachining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Libor; Zobač, Martin; Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, 5-6 (2006), s. 272-275 ISSN 0861-4717. [EBT 2006 - International Conference on Electron Beam Technologies /8./. Varna, 05.06.2006-10.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : electron beam drilling * quartz glass Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES TO PROVIDE THERMAL BLOCK MODE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with thermoelectric cooling (TEC device to provide thermal mode power electronics systems cluster design, are areas of constructive solutions use the feasibility study of the device, a description of the experimental facility and methodology of the experiment, the dependences of temperature on the simulator of the electronic board from the exhaust of the feasibility study power, temperatures of hot and cold junctions, the speed of the air flow and the distance between the electronic boards. 

  9. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  10. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Biomolecular electronics is rapidly evolving from physics, chemistry, biology, electron- ics and information technology. Organic materials such as proteins, pigments and conducting poly- mers have been considered as alternatives for carrying out the functions that are presently being performed by semiconductor ...

  11. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  12. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  13. The electronics companion devices and circuits for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Updated and expanded with new topics, The Electronics Companion: Devices and Circuits for Physicists and Engineers, 2nd Edition presents a full course in introductory electronics using a unique and educational presentation technique that is the signature style of the author’s companion books. This concise yet detailed book covers introductory electrical principles (DC and AC circuits), the physics of electronics components, circuits involving diodes and transistors, transistors amplifiers, filtering, operational amplifiers, digital electronics, transformers, instrumentation, and power supplies.

  14. Driver electronic device use in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  15. Investigation of Electronic Corrosion at Device Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    board assembly (PCBA) in the device is more prone to corrosion reliability and this was further analysed using thermography to detect areas that have high risk of condensation due to lower temperature under working condition. Tested PCBAs are subjected to detailed investigation before and after testing...

  16. Tissue-electronics interfaces: from implantable devices to engineered tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical electronic devices are interfaced with the human body to extract precise medical data and to interfere with tissue function by providing electrical stimuli. In this Review, we outline physiologically and pathologically relevant tissue properties and processes that are important for designing implantable electronic devices. We summarize design principles for flexible and stretchable electronics that adapt to the mechanics of soft tissues, such as those including conducting polymers, liquid metal alloys, metallic buckling and meandering architectures. We further discuss technologies for inserting devices into the body in a minimally invasive manner and for eliminating them without further intervention. Finally, we introduce the concept of integrating electronic devices with biomaterials and cells, and we envision how such technologies may lead to the development of bionic organs for regenerative medicine.

  17. An examination of safety reports involving electronic flight bags and portable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of safety considerations with the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) by examining safety reports from Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS),...

  18. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Scott, James F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-16

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E{sub g} of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  19. Atomtronics: Ultracold Atom Analogs of Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-23

    to leave the base compared to entering the col- build a transistor . Bipolar junction transistors ( BJT ) lector. Because of this, most of the current...voltage curve exploits the existence of superfluid and insulating regimes in the phase diagram. "lie atomt.roinc analog of a bipolar junction transistor ...of a bipolar junction transistor exhibits large negative gain. Our results provide the building blocks for more advanced atomtronic devices and

  20. Special issue on organic electronic bio-devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsi, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells) with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  1. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  2. Incorporating Ethical Consumption into Electronic Device Acquisition: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes that librarians practice ethical consumption when purchasing electronic devices. Though librarians have long been engaged with environmentalism and social justice, few have suggested that such issues as e-waste and sweatshop labor should impact our decisions to acquire e-readers, tablets, and other electronics. This article…

  3. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  4. Commission of HIRFL-CSRe electron cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wang; Yang Xiaodong; Li Jie; Wang Zhixue; Zhao Hongwei; Yan Hongbin; Zhang Wei; Zhang Junhui

    2005-01-01

    In CSRe electron cooling device, a special electron gun which can produce variable profile electron beam with different size and density distribution was adopted for decreasing ion losses. Electrostatic bending device was used for reducing electron beam losses and improving vacuum condition. The instability of the electron beam is suppressed because the secondary electrons from collector would come back to the collector in the same orbit finally. Longitudinal magnetic field with parallelism better than 10 -4 was achieved by adopting of independent high precise solenoid coils at cooling section. In this case, the r.m.s deviations of the transverse magnetic field at cooling section in horizontal and vertical direction are 3.298 x 10 - '5 and 2.458 x 10 -5 respectively. The characters of the gun and collector were investigated. The results were presented and indicate that it achieves the design purpose very well. (authors)

  5. Symposium N: Materials and Devices for Thermal-to-Electric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    for standard device technology. Also a first assessment based on the current commodity prices of elements of some important thermoelectric compounds...Younes. James Christofferson, Kerry Maize and Ali Shakouri; Electrical Engineering, UCSC, Santa Cruz, California. We use Thermoreflectance Thermal

  6. Computational electronics semiclassical and quantum device modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vasileska, Dragica; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the simplest semiclassical approaches and ending with the description of complex fully quantum-mechanical methods for quantum transport analysis of state-of-the-art devices, Computational Electronics: Semiclassical and Quantum Device Modeling and Simulation provides a comprehensive overview of the essential techniques and methods for effectively analyzing transport in semiconductor devices. With the transistor reaching its limits and new device designs and paradigms of operation being explored, this timely resource delivers the simulation methods needed to properly model state-of

  7. Electronic cigarette devices and oro-facial trauma (Literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. F.; Ismail, A. F.; Daud, A.

    2017-08-01

    Detrimental effects of cigarette smoking have been well described and recognized globally. With recent advancement of technology, electronic cigarette has been introduced and gained its popularity and became a global trend, especially among young adults. However, the safety of the electronic devices remains debatable. This paper aimed to compile and review the reported cases of oro-facial trauma related to the usage of electronic cigarette devices. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline in December 2016. The search terms used were a combination of “oral trauma”, “dental trauma”, “oral injury” and “electronic cigarette”. The search included all abstract published from the inception of the database until December 2016. Abstract that was written in English, case report, letter to editors, clinical and human studies were included for analysis. All selected abstract were searched for full articles. A total of 8 articles were included for review. All of the articles were published in 2016 with mostly case reports. The sample size of the studies ranged from 1 to 15 patients. Seven of the included articles are from United States of America and one from Mexico. Our review concluded that the use of electronic cigarette devices posed not only a safety concern but also that the devices were mostly unregulated. There should be a recognized authority body to regulate the safety and standard of the electronic devices.

  8. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefeni, Kebede K.; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  9. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  10. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  11. CVD diamond for electronic devices and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic diamond is diamond produced by using chemical or physical processes. Like naturally occurring diamond it is composed of a three-dimensional carbon crystal. Due to its extreme physical properties, synthetic diamond is used in many industrial applications, such as drill bits and scratch-proof coatings, and has the potential to be used in many new application areas A brand new title from the respected Wiley Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications series, this title is the most up-to-date resource for diamond specialists. Beginning with an introduction to the pr

  12. Phonon Enhancement of Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    amphoteric nature of silicon dopants in GaAs materials, the maximum attainable electron density is approximately 5xl 018/cm3. At this carrier concentration...150C for 1 minute with hotplates 18 seconds exposure; Post bake @ 120C for 1 minute with hotplates 12 seconds develop in the developer RD6 (b) Oxide ...etching before the E-Beam evaporation Etch with HCI (37%) : H20 (1:10) for 20 seconds to remove native oxides on InAs & GaSb (c) E-Beam evaporation

  13. 75 FR 10502 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-667; Investigation No. 337-TA-673] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices; Notice of... Entirety AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  14. Symposium Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen-Whitred, K.

    2015-01-01

    Overview/Highlights: To begin, I'd like to take a moment to highlight some of the novel elements of this Symposium as compared to those that have been held in the past. For the first time ever, this Symposium was organized around five concurrent sessions, covering over 300 papers and presentations. These sessions were complemented by an active series of exhibits put on by vendors, universities, ESARDA, INMM, and Member State Support Programmes. We also had live demonstrations throughout the week on everything from software to destructive analysis to instrumentation, which provided the participants the opportunity to see recent developments that are ready for implementation. I'm sure you all had a chance to observe - and, more importantly, interact with - the electronic Poster, or ePoster format used this past week. This technology was used here for the first time ever by the IAEA, and I'm sure was a first for many of us as well. The ePoster format allowed participants to interact with the subject matter, and the subject matter experts, in a dynamic, engaging way. In addition to the novel technology used here, I have to say that having the posters strategically embedded in the sessions on the same topic, by having each poster author introduce his or her topic to the assembled group in order to lure us to the poster area during the breaks, was also a novel and highly effective technique. A final highlight I'd like to touch on in terms of the Symposium organization is the diversity of participation. This chart shows the breakdown by geographical distribution for the Symposium, in terms of participants. There are no labels, so don't try to read any, I simply wanted to demonstrate that we had great representation in terms of both the Symposium participants in general and the session chairs more specifically-and on that note, I would just mention here that 59 Member States participated in the Symposium. But what I find especially interesting and

  15. Nature-Inspired Structural Materials for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; He, Ke; Chen, Geng; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-10-25

    Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques. This review covers the smart designs of structural materials inspired by natural materials and their utility in the construction of flexible devices. First, we summarize structural materials that accommodate mechanical deformations, which is the fundamental requirement for flexible devices to work properly in complex environments. Second, we discuss the functionalities of flexible devices induced by nature-inspired structural materials, including mechanical sensing, energy harvesting, physically interacting, and so on. Finally, we provide a perspective on newly developed structural materials and their potential applications in future flexible devices, as well as frontier strategies for biomimetic functions. These analyses and summaries are valuable for a systematic understanding of structural materials in electronic devices and will serve as inspirations for smart designs in flexible electronics.

  16. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  17. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  18. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  19. Introduction to organic electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Optoelectronic Materials, N. Peyghambarian and M. Fallahi Introduction to Optoelectronic Device Principles, J. Piprek Basic Electronic Structures and Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Optoelectronic Materials, S.-S. Sun Charge Transport in Conducting Polymers, V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein Major Classes of Organic Small Molecules for Electronic and Optoelectronics, X. Meng, W. Zhu, and H. Tian Major Classes of Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Strategies, Y. Li and J. Hou Low Energy Gap, Conducting, and Transparent Polymers, A. Kumar, Y. Ner, and G.A. Sotzing Conjugated Polymers, Fullerene C60, and Carbon Nanotubes for Optoelectronic Devices, L. Qu, L. Dai, and S.-S. Sun Introduction of Organic Superconducting Materials, H. Mori Molecular Semiconductors for Organic Field-Effect Transistors, A. Facchetti Polymer Field-Effect Transistors, H.G.O. Sandberg Organic Molecular Light-Emitting Materials and Devices, F. So and J. Shi Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Devices and Materials, X. Gong and ...

  20. Perspectives on climatic reliability of electronic devices and components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    The miniaturization of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components especially having metal/alloys parts exposed on the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) surface or embedded within the multi...... packing with reduction in component size and closer spacing thereby increasing the electric field, while thinner metallic parts needs only nano-grams levels of metal loss for causing corrosion failures. This paper provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components......-layer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact that these systems are built by multi-material combinations and additional accelerating factors such as corrosion causing process related residues, bias voltage, and unpredictable user environment. Demand for miniaturised device has resulted in higher density...

  1. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  2. The ninth International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications, 15-17 April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2004-01-01

    The ninth International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications - EBIS/T 2004 was held at the Tokyo Metropolitan University (TMU), 15-17 April 2004. There were about 40 participants and about 30 papers presented. The meeting has shown the remarkable progress in science and technology with the EBIS/T machines. In this meeting, besides the normal presentations related to the EBIS/T works, a special session was organized on the last day which was dedicated to Professors N Kobayashi and K Okuno, who have contributed to the EBIS/T development and to the physics of highly charged ions (HCI), to mark their retirement from the TMU in March 2004. In the evening of the first day, there was a laboratory tour where the participants enjoyed seeing the Tokyo EBIT facility and also a beer party in a small hall next to the laboratory. The banquet was held in a traditional Japanese restaurant in a village under Mt Takao with the Japanese meals and performances, after seeing the HCI-research activities in the TMU. The next EBIS/T symposium will be held in Heidelberg in the summer of 2007 as a satellite meeting of XXV ICPEAC. We are looking forward to the next exciting meeting there. Finally, we thank all of TMU staffs and students for their help during the meeting. (preface)

  3. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncheva, Mila; Gracias, David H; Jacobs, Heiko O; Whitesides, George M

    2002-04-16

    This paper introduces a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled on the folding of a chain of polypeptide structural motifs into a globular protein. Millimeter-size polyhedra-patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots-were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly, the string folded spontaneously into two domains: one functioned as a ring oscillator, and the other one as a shift register. This example demonstrates that biomimetic principles of design and self-organization can be applied to generate multifunctional electronic systems of complex, three-dimensional architecture.

  4. Plykin type attractor in electronic device simulated in MULTISIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2011-12-01

    An electronic device is suggested representing a non-autonomous dynamical system with hyperbolic chaotic attractor of Plykin type in the stroboscopic map, and the results of its simulation with software package NI MULTISIM are considered in comparison with numerical integration of the underlying differential equations. A main practical advantage of electronic devices of this kind is their structural stability that means insensitivity of the chaotic dynamics in respect to variations of functions and parameters of elements constituting the system as well as to interferences and noises.

  5. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  6. Cybersecurity for Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: What Should You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranchuk, Adrian; Refaat, Marwan M; Patton, Kristen K; Chung, Mina K; Krishnan, Kousik; Kutyifa, Valentina; Upadhyay, Gaurav; Fisher, John D; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R

    2018-03-20

    Medical devices have been targets of hacking for over a decade, and this cybersecurity issue has affected many types of medical devices. Lately, the potential for hacking of cardiac devices (pacemakers and defibrillators) claimed the attention of the media, patients, and health care providers. This is a burgeoning problem that our newly electronically connected world faces. In this paper from the Electrophysiology Section Council, we briefly discuss various aspects of this relatively new threat in light of recent incidents involving the potential for hacking of cardiac devices. We explore the possible risks for the patients and the effect of device reconfiguration in an attempt to thwart cybersecurity threats. We provide an outline of what can be done to improve cybersecurity from the standpoint of the manufacturer, government, professional societies, physician, and patient. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 11th International Symposium on superconductivity(ISS98). Application for devices; Debaisu oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Ken [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-01-25

    The research on the applications for superconductive devices became active in the world, and the attractive reports were announced regarding applications for the SQUID, the high frequency waves and the digital equipment. Seidel and others reported the results of the biomagnetism measurement using the plane type gradiometer. Tukamoto reported making of the DC-SQUID using thin films of mercury group having higher critical temperature. Sumitomo Denko announced few reports on the reduction of cost for making of the systems and on the improvement method of S/N ratio etc. In the field of the application for high frequency waves, Chen and others studied realization of wide band spectroscopy, and Kashiwagi and others studied phase characteristics of output signals from Josephson array mixers. In the field of the application for digital equipment, Hattori demonstrated the memory of the superconductive delay line, and Asahi proposed new SQF logical devices. Handai group demonstrated the secondary dimensional mapping of superconductive current and the control of the quantum of magnetic flux and described about the new application fields. (NEDO)

  8. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-850] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on May 23, 2012...

  9. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.410...

  10. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Prakash, S.; Estrada, D.; Pop, E.

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight Web Service and a Web site interface have been developed, which enable remote measurements of electronic devices as a "virtual laboratory" for undergraduate engineering classes. Using standard browsers without additional plugins (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, or even Safari on an iPhone), remote users can control a Keithley…

  11. Improvements in or relating to laser annealed electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, K.G.; Cullis, A.G.; Webber, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    A method of producing laser annealed electronic devices is described. The technique involves irradiating semiconductor material such as silicon or germanium to produce a neutron transmuted semiconductor material and laser annealing a selected region or regions in a slice of the transmuted material to a sub-micron depth. (U.K.)

  12. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Allard, B.A.M.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Meulendijks, N.M.M.; Jansen, H.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils

  13. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application...... in transistor or waveguiding devices. The desired properties have been predicted for atomically precise systems, but fabrication methods will introduce significant levels of disorder in the shape, position and edge configurations of individual antidots. We calculate the electronic transport properties of a wide...... range of finite graphene antidot devices to determine the effect of such disorders on their performance. Modest geometric disorder is seen to have a detrimental effect on devices containing small, tightly packed antidots, which have optimal performance in pristine lattices. Larger antidots display...

  14. Opto-electronic devices with nanoparticles and their assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chieu Van

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field; engineering matters at the nano-meter scale. A key nanomaterial is nanoparticles (NPs). These sub-wavelength (background noise. The second device is based on a one-dimensional (1-D) self-directed self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by dielectric materials. Depending on the coverage density of the Au NPs assembly deposited on the device, electronic emission was observed at ultra-low bias of 40V, leading to low-power plasma generation in air at atmospheric pressure. Light emitted from the plasma is apparent to the naked eyes. Similarly, 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by iron oxide was fabricated and exhibits ferro-magnetic behavior. The multi-functional 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs has great potential in modern electronics such as solid state lighting, plasma-based nanoelectronics, and memory devices.

  15. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics for mirror devices (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.F.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Casper, T.

    1985-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has proven to be a useful diagnostic in tokamaks for measuring T/sub e/ and its radial variation. The application of ECE to mirror devices is discussed here, with emphasis on measurements of the properties of energetic electrons in tandem mirror end cells, which can be viewed both parallel and perpendicular to B. The parallel or whistler view is generally optically thick and can yield a measurement of perpendicular temperature. High harmonic perpendicular emission is optically thin and can yield important information about the hot electron buildup and the energy and spatial distribution. Experimental results from TMX-U and appropriate modeling are presented

  16. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-03-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An overview on the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    The miniaturization of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components especially having metal/alloys parts exposed on t he Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) surface or embedded within the multi...... in higher density packing with reduction in component size and closer spacing thereby increasing the electric field, while thinner metallic parts needs only nano - grams levels of metal loss for causing corrosion failures. This paper provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic...... - layer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact that these systems are built by multi - material combinations and additional accelerating factors such as corrosion causing proc ess related residues, bias voltage, and unpredictable user environment. Demand for miniaturised device has resulted...

  18. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  20. On the OSL curve shape and preheat treatment of electronic components from portable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woda, Clemens; Greilich, Steffen; Beerten, Koen

    2010-01-01

    The shape of the OSL decay curve and the effect of longer time delays between accidental exposure and readout of alumina-rich electronic components from portable electronic devices are investigated. The OSL decay curve follows a hyperbolic decay function, which is interpreted as an approximation...

  1. Evaluation of Miscellaneous and Electronic Device Energy Use in Hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard E.; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about one-thirdof the primary energy used in US buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. In healthcare facilities, 30percent of the annual electricity was used by MELs in 2008. This paper presents methods and challenges for estimating medical MELs energy consumption along with estimates of energy use in a hospital by combining device-level metered data with inventories and usage information. An important finding is that common, small devices consume large amounts of energy in aggregate and should not be ignored when trying to address hospital energy use.

  2. Semi-shunt field emission in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, V. G., E-mail: victor.karpov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce a concept of semi-shunts representing needle shaped metallic protrusions shorter than the distance between a device electrodes. Due to the lightening rod type of field enhancement, they induce strong electron emission. We consider the corresponding signature effects in photovoltaic applications; they are: low open circuit voltages and exponentially strong random device leakiness. Comparing the proposed theory with our data for CdTe based solar cells, we conclude that stress can stimulate semi-shunts' growth making them shunting failure precursors. In the meantime, controllable semi-shunts can play a positive role mitigating the back field effects in photovoltaics.

  3. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-862] Certain Electronic Devices, Including...; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on November 30, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  4. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  5. Vibronic Coupling and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Molecules and Crystals: XXIII International Symposium on the Jahn-Teller Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    ForewordThis issue of J. Phys. Conf. Series contains the proceedings of the 23"r"d International Symposium on the Jahn-Teller Effect with the main title “Vibronic coupling and electron-phonon interaction in molecules and crystals”, which took place in Tartu (Estonia), August 27-September 1, 2016, bringing together over 70 participants from various fields of physics and chemistry. More information on the symposium program can be found at https://ttl.ut.ee/jt16/.The series of mostly biannual Jahn-Teller symposia started in 1976. It addresses topics involving the coupling between electronic and nuclear motions in molecules and solids in conditions of electronic degeneracy and pseudodegeneracy. The Jahn-Teller effect, pseudo Jahn-Teller effect, and related vibronic coupling and electron-phonon interactions are responsible for structural instabilities and non-trivial dynamics in polyatomic systems, including pseudo-rotations and non-adiabatic effects around conical intersections and seams, and play a key role in the explanation of seemingly diverse phenomena, such as spontaneous symmetry breakings, structural phase transitions, colossal magnetoresistance, exotic molecular magnetism, superconductivity in fullerides, giant permittivity and flexoelectricity, and chemical reactions after thermo- or photoexcitation. The meeting brings together theoreticians and experimentalists working in molecular physics and chemistry with researches working in solid state physics.A characteristic of these symposia is that they are devoted to discussion of a wide range of physical and chemical phenomena which, at first sight, are different in scope and nature, but in fact they are strongly entangled by vibronic coupling, and their joint presentation and discussion is deemed to mutually enrich the presenters from different fields with stimulating novel ideas.The 23"r"d Symposium included the following topics:• Fundamental theory, computation, and experimental observation of vibronic

  6. Investigation of ceramic devices by analytical electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, M.; Saijo, H.; Isshiki, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Sato, S.; Nomura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramics are widely used as capacitors and varistors. Their electrical properties depend on the structure, which is deeply influenced not only by the composition of raw materials and additives but also by heating treatments in the production process. This paper reviews our investigations of SrTiO 3 ceramic devices, which have been performed using various microscopy techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy (CLSEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging method in a FE-(scanning) transmission electron microscope(FE-(S)TEM). (author)

  7. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  8. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    semiconductors and their response to electric fields. This is relevant to their eventual use as advanced semiconductors in microwave devices or high speed...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 oxide, electronics, semiconductors , correlated REPORT...project include advancing our understanding of strong correlation effects in Mott semiconductors and their response to electric fields. This is relevant

  9. Ion implantation of organic thin films and electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Scidà, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have great promise in the field of electronics due to their low cost in term of fabrication on large areas and their versatility to new devices, for these reasons they are becoming a great chance in the actual technologic scenery. Some of the most important open issues related to these materials are the effects of surfaces and interfaces between semiconductor and metals, the changes caused by different deposition methods and temperature, the difficulty related to the ch...

  10. Fabricating designed fullerene nanostructures for functional electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A long-term goal within the field of organic electronics has been to developflexible and functional devices, which can be processed and patterned withlow-cost and energy-efficient solution-based methods. This thesis presents anumber of functional paths towards the attainment of this goal via thedevelopment and demonstration of novel fabrication and patterningmethods involving the important organic-semiconductor family termedfullerenes.Fullerenes are soccer-shaped small molecules, with two oft...

  11. The Molecular Electronic Device and the Biochip Computer: Present Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, R. C.; Lamola, A. A.

    1985-04-01

    The idea that a single molecule might function as a self-contained electronic device has been of interest for some time. However, a fully integrated version--the biochip or the biocomputer, in which both production and assembly of molecular electronic components is achieved through biotechnology--is a relatively new concept that is currently attracting attention both within the scientific community and among the general public. In the present article we draw together some of the approaches being considered for the construction of such devices and delineate the revolutionary nature of the current proposals for molecular electronic devices (MEDs) and biochip computers (BCCs). With the silicon semiconductor industry already in place and in view of the continuing successes of the lithographic process it seems appropriate to ask why the highly speculative MED or BCC has engendered such interest. In some respects the answer is paradigmatic as much as it is real. It is perhaps best stated as the promise of the realm of the molecular. Thus it is envisioned that devices will be constructed by assembly of individual molecular electronic components into arrays, thereby engineering from small upward rather than large downward as do current lithographic techniques. An important corollary of the construction technique is that the functional elements of such an array would be individual molecules rather than macroscopic ensembles. These two aspects of the MED/BCC--assembly of molecular arrays and individually accessible functional molecular units--are truly revolutionary. Both require scientific breakthroughs and the necessary principles, quite apart from the technology, remain essentially unknown. It is concluded that the advent of the MED/BCC still lies well before us. The twin criteria of utilization of individual molecules as functional elements and the assembly of such elements remains as elusive as ever. Biology engineers structures on the molecular scale but biomolecules

  12. Device for monitoring electron-ion ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Shalyapin, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is classified as the method of collective ion acceleration. The device for electron-ion ring parameters monitoring is described. The invention is aimed at increasing functional possibilities of the device at the expense of the enchance in the number of the ring controlled parameters. The device comprises three similar plane mirrors installed over accelerating tube circumference and a mirror manufactured in the form of prism and located in the tube centre, as well as the system of synchrotron radiation recording and processing. Two plane mirrors are installed at an angle of 45 deg to the vertical axis. The angle of the third plane mirror 3 α and that of prismatic mirror 2 α to the vertical axis depend on geometric parameters of the ring and accelerating tube and they are determined by the expression α=arc sin R K /2(R T -L), where R K - ring radius, R T - accelerating tube radius, L - the height of segment, formed by the mirror and inner surface of the accelerating tube. The device suggested permits to determine longitudinal dimensions of the ring, its velocity and the number of electrons and ions in the ring

  13. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  15. Selected papers from the 7th IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC 2016) and the 5th International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Chi-Wah; Tam, Wing-Shan

    2017-12-01

    May is a busy but fruitful month of the year 2016, in which two renowned international conferences, the 7th IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC 2016) and the 5th International Symposium on Next Generation Electronics (ISNE 2016), were successfully held in the technology hubs of Chengdu China and Hsinchu Taiwan, respectively. This special issue is a collection of selected research papers presented in these two conferences.

  16. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano-electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Duan; Wei Guowei

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano-scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano-transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano-electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  17. Negative Thermal Expansion and Ferroelectric Oxides in Electronic Device Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joy Elizabeth

    Electronic devices increasingly pervade our daily lives, driving the need to develop components which have material properties that can be designed to target a specific need. The principle motive of this thesis is to investigate the effects of particle size and composition on three oxides which possess electronic and thermal properties essential to designing improved ceramic composites for more efficient, high energy storage devices. A metal matrix composite project used the negative thermal expansion oxide, ZrW2O 8, to offset the high thermal expansion of the metal matrix without sacrificing high thermal conductivity. Composite preparation employed a powder mixing technique to achieve easy composition control and homogenous phase distribution in order to build composites which target a specific coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). A tailorable CTE material is desirable for overcoming thermomechanical failure in heat sinks or device casings. This thesis also considers the particle size effect on dielectric properties in a common ferroelectric perovskite, Ba1-xSrxTiO 3. By varying the Ba:Sr ratio, the Curie temperature can be adjusted and by reducing the particle size, the dielectric constant can be increased and hysteresis decreased. These conditions could yield anonymously large dielectric constants near room temperature. However, the ferroelectric behavior has been observed to cease below a minimum size of a few tens of nanometers in bulk or thin film materials. Using a new particle slurry approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows dielectric properties to be determined for nanoparticles, as opposed to conventional methods which measure only bulk or thin film dielectric properties. In this manner, Ba1-xSrxTiO3 was investigated in a new size regime, extending the theory on the ferroelectric behavior to film heterostructures of STO/YSZ are used in electrochemical energy devices due to their enhanced interfacial ionic conductivity. This work

  18. Critical appraisal of cardiac implantable electronic devices: complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padeletti L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The

  19. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction to Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation... of complaint entitled Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and...

  20. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2875] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received an amended complaint entitled Certain Mobile Electronic Devices...

  1. Atom-Optical Analogs of Electronic Components and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, R. A.; Cooper, J.; Anderson, D. Z.; Holland, M. J.

    The research program known as Atomtronics aims to create one-to-one analogs of electronic components and devices with ultracold atoms trapped in periodic potentials. Such an analogy can be realized with reservoirs of neutral, ultracold atoms connected to optical lattices. Due to their highly tunable band structure, the lattices can be tailored to create resonances between certain states of the system. This allows atomic transport through specific dynamical pathways of the system, while minimizing transport through others. In this presentation, a quantum master equation approach is outlined for treating the problem of two or more reservoirs of ultracold atoms, with arbitrary chemical potentials, connected to optical lattice configurations. The formalism is quite general and readily lends itself to the theoretical study of transport phenomena in open atomic systems. This theoretical approach is applied to atomtronic systems, demonstrating how certain custom lattices can mimic the behavior of the electronic semiconductor diode, field effect-transistor, and bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Logic elements, such as AND and OR gates are constructed by taking two atomtronic BJTs and combining them in a manner similar to that of conventional electronics. This is promising since it is possible that we may join basic atomtronic components to construct elementary logic devices in a fully quantum mechanical system.

  2. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  3. Use of a scanning electron microscope for characterizing semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.; Bresse, J.F.; Carme, H.; Monnier, J.

    1974-01-01

    The electron beam from the scanning microscope had three different uses: 1) in induced mode for characterizing the substrate of a P + N junction by measuring the diffusion length and in controlling surface recombination velocities; 2) for controlling Si/SiO 2 interface degradation by measuring very low frequency capacitance and for evaluating the oxide quality by measuring μ/tau: application to the fast control of any device, in this case the evolution of the current of an avalanche photodiode; 3) in using the beam as a Castaing probe for determining features of the generation volume, Si thickness on Al 2 O 3 , or Si thickness [fr

  4. Computational aspects of electronic transport in nanoscale devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Hansen, Per Christian; Stokbro, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the modeling of electronic properties of nano-scale devices. In particular the computational aspects of calculating the transmission and current-voltage characteristics of Landauer-Büttiker two-probe systems are in focus. To begin with, the main existing methods are described in detail and benchmarked. These are the Green’s function method and the wave function matching method. The methods are subsequently combined in a hybrid scheme in order to benefit from a co...

  5. An electronic device to record behavioural activity of bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, J T

    1997-06-01

    An electronic device to record the valvular movements of clams was fabricated using a Hall effect transducer. It was used to record the responses of Anadara granosa, an arcid clam harvested from coastal waters of Bombay, to a chemical toxicant (10 ppm CuSO4) after 96 hr exposure to naphthalene (5, 10 and 15 ppm). The clams exposed to naphthalene did not respond to the presence of a chemical toxicant (10 ppm CuSO4) while the control clams responded and closed their shells rapidly.

  6. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  7. Characterization of electronics devices for computed tomography dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Cinthia Marques Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an examination of high diagnostic capability that delivers high doses of radiation compared with other diagnostic radiological examinations. The current CT dosimetry is mainly made by using a 100 mm long ionization chamber. However, it was verified that this extension, which is intended to collect ali scattered radiation of the single slice dose profile in CT, is not enough. An alternative dosimetry has been suggested by translating smaller detectors. In this work, commercial electronics devices of small dimensions were characterized for CT dosimetry. The project can be divided in five parts: a) pre-selection of devices; b) electrical characterization of selected devices; e) dosimetric characterization in Iaboratory, using radiation qualities specific to CT, and in a tomograph; d) evaluation of the dose profile in CT scanner (free in air and in head and body dosimetric phantom); e) evaluation of the new MSAD detector in a tomograph. The selected devices were OP520 and OP521 phototransistors and BPW34FS photodiode. Before the dosimetric characterization, three configurations of detectors, with 4, 2 and 1 OP520 phototransistor working as a single detector, were evaluated and the configuration with only one device was the most adequate. Hence, the following tests, for all devices, were made using the configuration with only one device. The tests of dosimetric characterization in laboratory and in a tomograph were: energy dependence, response as a function of air kerma (laboratory) and CTDI 100 (scanner), sensitivity variation and angular dependence. In both characterizations, the devices showed some energy dependence, indicating the need of correction factors depending on the beam energy; their response was linear with the air kerma and the CTDI 100 ; the OP520 phototransistor showed the largest variation in sensitivity with the irradiation and the photodiode was the most stable; the angular dependence was significant in the laboratory and

  8. Passive direct methanol fuel cells for portable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, F.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Majlan, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for electricity, clean, renewable energy resources must be developed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to develop a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) for portable electronic devices. The power output of six dual DMFCs connected in series with an active area of 4 cm 2 was approximately 600 mW, and the power density of the DMFCs was 25 mW cm -2 . The DMFCs were evaluated as a power source for mobile phone chargers and media players. The results indicated that the open circuit voltage of the DMFC was between 6.0 V and 6.5 V, and the voltage under operating conditions was 4.0 V. The fuel cell was tested on a variety of cell phone chargers, media players and PDAs. The cost of energy consumption by the proposed DMFC was estimated to be USD 20 W -1 , and the cost of methanol is USD 4 kW h. Alternatively, the local conventional electricity tariff is USD 2 kW h. However, for the large-scale production of electronic devices, the cost of methanol will be significantly lower. Moreover, the electricity tariff is expected to increase due to the constraints of fossil fuel resources and pollution. As a result, DMFCs will become competitive with conventional power sources.

  9. Polarization Effects in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labram, John; Fabini, Douglas; Perry, Erin; Lehner, Anna; Wang, Hengbin; Glaudell, Anne; Wu, Guang; Evans, Hayden; Buck, David; Cotta, Robert; Echegoyen, Luis; Wudl, Fred; Seshadri, Ram; Chabinyc, Michael

    The immense success of group IV and III-V semiconductors has resulted in disruptive new photovoltaic (PV) cell technologies emerging extremely infrequently. For this reason, the recent progress in Methylammonium Lead Iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells can be viewed as a highly significant historic event. Despite the staggering recent progress made in reported power conversion efficiency (PCE), debate remains intense on the nature of the various instabilities synonymous with these devices. Using various electronic device measurements, we here present a body of experimental evidence consistent with the existence of a mobile ionic species within the MAPbI3 perovskite. Temperature-dependent transistor measurements reveal operating FET devices only below approximately 210K. This is attributed to ionic screening of the (otherwise charge-neutral) semiconductor-dielectric interface. Temperature-dependent pulsed-gate and impedance spectroscopy experiments also reveal behavior consistent with this interpretation. MAPbI3 PV cells were found to possess a PCE which decreases significantly below 210K. Combined, these set of measurements provide an interesting and consistent description of the internal processes at play within the MAPbI3 perovskite structure.

  10. 77 FR 44671 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Communications, Inc. of CA; LG Electronics, Inc. of Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. of NJ; Nintendo Co., Ltd... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2904] Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices...

  11. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Communications, Inc. of San Diego, California; LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc... Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U... wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof imported by respondents Acer, Inc. of Taipei...

  12. International symposium on radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The book contains 116 extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the symposium. They present advances in radiation processing technology including radiosterilization and radiolysis of toxic wastes; radiosterilization of food, cosmetics and medical supplies; radiation assisted synthesis of polymer materials; design of gamma irradiation devices and accelerators for electron beam processing. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  13. A Simple and Scalable Fabrication Method for Organic Electronic Devices on Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Usein; Ismailova, Esma; Takamatsu, Seiichi

    2017-03-13

    Today, wearable electronics devices combine a large variety of functional, stretchable, and flexible technologies. However, in many cases, these devices cannot be worn under everyday conditions. Therefore, textiles are commonly considered the best substrate to accommodate electronic devices in wearable use. In this paper, we describe how to selectively pattern organic electroactive materials on textiles from a solution in an easy and scalable manner. This versatile deposition technique enables the fabrication of wearable organic electronic devices on clothes.

  14. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  15. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  16. NATO International Symposium on the Electronic Structure and Properties of Hydrogen in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Satterthwaite, C

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen is the smallest impurity atom that can be implanted in a metallic host. Its small mass and strong interaction with the host electrons and nuclei are responsible for many anomalous and interesting solid state effects. In addition, hydrogen in metals gives rise to a number of technological problems such as hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen storage, radiation hardening, first wall problems associated with nuclear fusion reactors, and degradation of the fuel cladding in fission reactors. Both the fundamental effects and applied problems have stimulated a great deal of inter­ est in the study of metal hydrogen systems in recent years. This is evident from a growing list of publications as well as several international conferences held in this field during the past decade. It is clear that a fundamental understanding of these problems re­ quires a firm knowledge of the basic interactions between hydrogen, host metal atoms, intrinsic lattice defects and electrons. This understanding is made particularly di...

  17. Computational aspects of electronic transport in nanoscale devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg

    2008-01-01

    is for the calculation of the block tridiagonal matrix inverse of a block tridiagonal matrix in O(N) operations. This algorithm also leads to an optimal evaluation of the frequently used Caroli transmission formula. A modified wave function matching scheme is then developed which allows for a significant reduction...... in the cost of the self-energy matrix calculations when combined with an iterative eigensolver. Finally, such an iterative eigensolver is developed and implemented based of a shift-and-invert Krylov subspace approach. The method is applied to a selection of nano-scale systems and speed-ups of up to an order......This thesis is concerned with the modeling of electronic properties of nano-scale devices. In particular the computational aspects of calculating the transmission and current-voltage characteristics of Landauer-Büttiker two-probe systems are in focus. To begin with, the main existing methods...

  18. The Pocketable Electronic Devices in Radiation Oncology (PEDRO) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bari, Berardino; Franco, P.; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    (83.5%) of the 462 correctly filled questionnaires were statistically evaluated. Up to 65% of respondents declared to use an electronic device during their clinical activity. Conversely, 72% considered low to moderate impact of smartphones/tables on their daily practice. The daily use significantly......) members of the national radiation or clinical oncology associations of the countries involved in the study. The 15 items investigated diffusion of MEDs (smartphones and/or tablets), their impact on daily clinical activity, and the differences perceived by participants along time. Results: A total of 386...... increased from 2009 to 2012: users reporting a use ≥6 times/d raised from 5% to 39.9%. Professional needs fulfillment was declared by less than 68% of respondents and compliance to apps indications by 66%. Significant differences were seen among the countries, in particular concerning the feeling...

  19. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  20. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H

    2014-01-01

    -effectiveness of remote monitoring. METHODS: The REMOTE-CIED study is an international randomised controlled study that will include 900 consecutive heart failure patients implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) compatible with the Boston Scientific LATITUDE® Remote Patient Management system......BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...... objective of the REMOTE-CIED study is to evaluate the influence of remote patient monitoring versus in-clinic follow-up on patient-reported outcomes. Secondary objectives are to: 1) identify subgroups of patients who may not be satisfied with remote monitoring; and 2) investigate the cost...

  1. Remote management of heart failure using implantable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John M.; Kitt, Sue; Gill, Jas; McComb, Janet M.; Ng, Ghulam Andre; Raftery, James; Roderick, Paul; Seed, Alison; Williams, Simon G.; Witte, Klaus K.; Wright, David Jay; Harris, Scott; Cowie, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Remote management of heart failure using implantable electronic devices (REM-HF) aimed to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of remote monitoring (RM) of heart failure in patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIEDs). Methods and results Between 29 September 2011 and 31 March 2014, we randomly assigned 1650 patients with heart failure and a CIED to active RM or usual care (UC). The active RM pathway included formalized remote follow-up protocols, and UC was standard practice in nine recruiting centres in England. The primary endpoint in the time to event analysis was the 1st event of death from any cause or unplanned hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, death from cardiovascular reasons, death from cardiovascular reasons and unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization, unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization, and unplanned hospitalization. REM-HF is registered with ISRCTN (96536028). The mean age of the population was 70 years (range 23–98); 86% were male. Patients were followed for a median of 2.8 years (range 0–4.3 years) completing on 31 January 2016. Patient adherence was high with a drop out of 4.3% over the course of the study. The incidence of the primary endpoint did not differ significantly between active RM and UC groups, which occurred in 42.4 and 40.8% of patients, respectively [hazard ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–1.18; P = 0.87]. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the secondary endpoints or the time to the primary endpoint components. Conclusion Among patients with heart failure and a CIED, RM using weekly downloads and a formalized follow up approach does not improve outcomes. PMID:28575235

  2. Fundamentals of photoelectric effects in molecular electronic thin film devices: applications to bacteriorhodopsin-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F T

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial lecture focuses on the fundamental mechanistic aspects of light-induced charge movements in pigment-containing membranes. The topic is relevant to molecular electronics because many prototypes optoelectronic devices are configured as pigment-containing thin films. We use reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin membranes as an example to illustrate the underlying principle of measurements and data interpretation. Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, is the only protein component in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. It resembles the visual pigment rhodopsin chemically but performs the function of photosynthesis. Bacteriorhodopsin thus offers an unprecedented opportunity for us to compare the visual photoreceptor and the photosynthetic apparatus from a mechanistic point of view. Bacteriorhodopsin, well known for its exceptional chemical and mechanical stability, is also a popular advanced biomaterial for molecular device construction. The tutorial approaches the subject from two angles. First, the fundamental photoelectric properties are exploited for device construction. Second, basic design principles for photosensors and photon energy converters can be elucidated via 'reverse engineering'. The concept of molecular intelligence and the principle of biomimetic science are discussed.

  3. Challenges for single molecule electronic devices with nanographene and organic molecules. Do single molecules offer potential as elements of electronic devices in the next generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Interest in utilizing organic molecules to fabricate electronic materials has existed ever since organic (molecular) semiconductors were first discovered in the 1950s. Since then, scientists have devoted serious effort to the creation of various molecule-based electronic systems, such as molecular metals and molecular superconductors. Single-molecule electronics and the associated basic science have emerged over the past two decades and provided hope for the development of highly integrated molecule-based electronic devices in the future (after the Si-based technology era has ended). Here, nanographenes (nano-sized graphene) with atomically precise structures are among the most promising molecules that can be utilized for electronic/spintronic devices. To manipulate single small molecules for an electronic device, a single molecular junction has been developed. It is a powerful tool that allows even small molecules to be utilized. External electric, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical perturbations can change the physical and chemical properties of molecules in a way that is different from bulk materials. Therefore, the various functionalities of molecules, along with changes induced by external perturbations, allows us to create electronic devices that we cannot create using current top-down Si-based technology. Future challenges that involve the incorporation of condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry calculations, organic synthetic chemistry, and electronic device engineering are expected to open a new era in single-molecule device electronic technology.

  4. Fine chemicals for the electronics industry: the proceedings of a symposium organised by the Fine Chemicals and Medicinals Group of the Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry, Bath, UK, 2-4 April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamfield, P.

    1986-01-01

    Most business surveys on electronic chemicals emphasise the importance of semi-conductor materials, printed circuit board chemicals, hybrid circuit materials and others, e.g. liquid crystal materials. This was expanded in this symposium to include chemicals consumed by the telecommunications, optoelectronics, reprographics, displays, and energy conversion sectors. The burgeoning area of molecular electronics was also considered to be important. (author)

  5. 12th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The EBIST symposia date back to 1977 and have taken place every 3 to 4 years to specifically discuss progress and exchange ideas in the design, development, applications of electron beam ion sources and traps, and the physics with highly charged ions. The topics to be covered in 2014 are: - Progress and status of EBIS/T facilities, - Atomic spectroscopy of highly charged ions, - Charge-exchange and surface interaction with highly charged ions, - Charge breeding of stable and radioactive isotopes, - Nuclear physics with highly charged ions.

  6. Prospective clinical evaluation of an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Graham, Mary V.; Bosch, Walter R.; Wong, John; Gerber, Russell L.; Cheng, Abel; Tinger, Alfred; Valicenti, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the clinical implementation of an electronic portal imaging device can improve the precision of daily external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In 1991, an electronic portal imaging device was installed on a dual energy linear accelerator in our clinic. After training the radiotherapy technologists in the acquisition and evaluation of portal images, we performed a randomized study to determine whether online observation, interruption, and intervention would result in more precise daily setup. The patients were randomized to one of two groups: those whose treatments were actively monitored by the radiotherapy technologists and those that were imaged but not monitored. The treating technologists were instructed to correct the following treatment errors: (a) field placement error (FPE) > 1 cm; (b) incorrect block; (c) incorrect collimator setting; (d) absent customized block. Time of treatment delivery was recorded by our patient tracking and billing computers and compared to a matched set of patients not participating in the study. After the patients radiation therapy course was completed, an offline analysis of the patient setup error was planned. Results: Thirty-two patients were treated to 34 anatomical sites in this study. In 893 treatment sessions, 1,873 fields were treated (1,089 fields monitored and 794 fields unmonitored). Ninety percent of the treated fields had at least one image stored for offline analysis. Eighty-seven percent of these images were analyzed offline. Of the 1,011 fields imaged in the monitored arm, only 14 (1.4%) had an intervention recorded by the technologist. Despite infrequent online intervention, offline analysis demonstrated that the incidence of FPE > 10 mm in the monitored and unmonitored groups was 56 out of 881 (6.1%) and 95 out of 595 (11.2%), respectively; p 10 mm was confined to the pelvic fields. The time to treat patients in this study was 10.78 min (monitored) and 10.10 min (unmonitored

  7. Modeling of Electronic Properties in Organic Semiconductor Device Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Chuang

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently become viable for a wide range of electronic devices, some of which have already been commercialized. With the mechanical flexibility of organic materials and promising performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic bulk heterojunction devices, OSCs have been demonstrated in applications such as radio frequency identification tags, flexible displays, and photovoltaic cells. Transient phenomena play decisive roles in the performance of electronic devices and OFETs in particular. The dynamics of the establishment and depletion of the conducting channel in OFETs are investigated theoretically. The device structures explored resemble typical organic thin-film transistors with one of the channel contacts removed. By calculating the displacement current associated with charging and discharging of the channel in these capacitors, transient effects on the carrier transport in OSCs may be studied. In terms of the relevant models it is shown that the non-linearity of the process plays a key role. The non-linearity arises in the simplest case from the fact that channel resistance varies during the charging and discharging phases. Traps can be introduced into the models and their effects examined in some detail. When carriers are injected into the device, a conducting channel is established with traps that are initially empty. Gradual filling of the traps then modifies the transport characteristics of the injected charge carriers. In contrast, dc measurements as they are typically performed to characterize the transport properties of organic semiconductor channels investigate a steady state with traps partially filled. Numerical and approximate analytical models of the formation of the conducting channel and the resulting displacement currents are presented. For the process of transient carrier extraction, it is shown that if the channel capacitance is partially or completely discharged through the channel

  8. Effect of interior geometry on local climate inside an electronic device enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Electronic enclosure design and the internal arrangement of PCBs and components influence microclimate inside the enclosure. This work features a general electronic unit with parallel PCBs. One of the PCB is considered to have heat generating components on it. The humidity and temperature profiles...... geometry of the device and related enclosure design parameters on the humidity and temperature profiles inside the electronic device enclosure....

  9. The cardiac implantable electronic device power source: evolution and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, Harry G; Freitag, Gary

    2014-12-01

    Although the first power source for an implantable pacemaker was a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery, it was rapidly replaced by an unreliable short-life zinc-mercury cell. This sustained the small pacemaker industry until the early 1970s, when the lithium-iodine cell became the dominant power source for low voltage, microampere current, single- and dual-chamber pacemakers. By the early 2000s, a number of significant advances were occurring with pacemaker technology which necessitated that the power source should now provide milliampere current for data logging, telemetric communication, and programming, as well as powering more complicated pacing devices such as biventricular pacemakers, treatment or prevention of atrial tachyarrhythmias, and the integration of innovative physiologic sensors. Because the current delivery of the lithium-iodine battery was inadequate for these functions, other lithium anode chemistries that can provide medium power were introduced. These include lithium-carbon monofluoride, lithium-manganese dioxide, and lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride hybrids. In the early 1980s, the first implantable defibrillators for high voltage therapy used a lithium-vanadium pentoxide battery. With the introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, the reliable lithium-silver vanadium oxide became the power source. More recently, because of the demands of biventricular pacing, data logging, and telemetry, lithium-manganese dioxide and the hybrid lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride laminate have also been used. Today all cardiac implantable electronic devices are powered by lithium anode batteries. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojan P. Pavunny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the ternary dielectric, LaGdO3, synthesized and qualified in our laboratory as a novel high-k dielectric material for logic and memory device applications in terms of its excellent features that include a high linear dielectric constant (k of ~22 and a large energy bandgap of ~5.6 eV, resulting in sufficient electron and hole band offsets of ~2.57 eV and ~1.91 eV, respectively, on silicon, good thermal stability with Si and lower gate leakage current densities within the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS specified limits at the sub-nanometer electrical functional thickness level, which are desirable for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS, bipolar (Bi and BiCMOS chips applications, is presented in this review article.

  11. Anesthesia and perioperative pain management during cardiac electronic device implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biocic M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marina Biocic,1 Dijana Vidosevic,2 Matija Boric,1,3 Teo Boric,4 Lovel Giunio,2 Damir Fabijanic,2 Livia Puljak1,5 1Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Abdominal Surgery, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Split, Split, 5Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Zagreb, Croatia Background: The degree of pain caused by the implantation of cardiac electronic devices (CEDs and the type of anesthesia or perioperative pain management used with the procedure have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to analyze perioperative pain management, as well as intensity and location of pain among patients undergoing implantation of CED, and to compare the practice with published guidelines. Patients and methods: This was a combined retrospective and prospective study conducted at the tertiary hospital, University Hospital Split, Croatia. The sample included 372 patients who underwent CED implantation. Perioperative pain management was analyzed retrospectively in 321 patients who underwent CED implantation during 2014. In a prospective study, intensity and location of pain before, during, and after the procedure were measured by using a numerical rating scale (NRS ranging from 0 to 10 in 51 patients at the same institution from November 2014 to August 2015. Results: A quarter of patients received analgesia or sedation before surgery. All the patients received local lidocaine anesthesia. After surgery, 31% of patients received pain medication or sedation. The highest pain intensity was observed during CED implantation with the highest NRS pain score being 8. Some patients reported severe pain (NRS >5 also at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. The most common pain locations were surgical site, shoulder, and chest. Adherence to guidelines for acute

  12. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM) decided in 1992 to sponsor the fourth Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, Sendai/Japan, 1994. The objectives of the present Symposium were to deepen the fundamental knowledge of stability and laminar­ turbulent transition in three-dimensional and compressible flows and to contribute to recent developing technologies in the field. This Symposium followed the three previous IUTAM-Symposia (Stuttgart 1979, Novosibirsk 1984 and Toulouse 1989). The Scientific Committee selected two keynote lectures and 62 technical papers. The Symposium was held on the 5th to 9th of September, 1994, at the Sendai International Center in Sendai. The participants were 82 scientists from 10 countries. The keynote lectures have critically reviewed recent development of researches concerning the laminar-to-turbulent transition phenomena from the fundamental and the application aspects. Many papers presented were concerned about the detailed mechanism of the bo...

  13. A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachal, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the framework of a symposium to present an imagined discussion by historical figures about whether and how knowledge might be acquired. Discussants include Democritus, Protagoras, Heraclitus, Socrates, Jesus, Gorgias, Nietzsche, Buddha, and Kierkegaard. (Contains 40 endnotes.) (SK)

  14. Surgical management of infected cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Umar A R; Harling, Leanne; Ashrafian, Hutan; Athanasiou, Christina; Tsipas, Pantelis; Kokotsakis, John; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-01-15

    The growing use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) has led to infections requiring intervention. These are traditionally managed using a percutaneous transvenous approach to fully extract the culpable leads. Indications for such strategies are well-established and range from simple traction to the use of powered extraction tools including laser sheaths. Where such attempts fail, or if there are further complications, then there may be need for a cardiothoracic surgical approach. Limited evidence is currently available on the merits of individual strategies, and these are mainly drawn from case reports or series. Most utilise cardiopulmonary bypass, cardioplegic arrest and entry within the right atrium to allow direct visualisation of any vegetation and safely explant all CIED components whilst avoiding perforation, valvular and paravalvular damage. In this review, we describe a number of these and the unique challenges faced by surgeons when attempting to extract CIED. It is clear that future work should concentrate on creating clear consensus and guidelines on indications, risks and measures of efficacy outcomes for various surgical techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Chen, Sih-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices. The effects of heat load of heater and input current to thermoelectric cooler are experimentally determined. A theoretical model of thermal analogy network is developed to predict the thermal performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module. The result shows that the prediction by the model agrees with the experimental data. At a specific heat load, the thermoelectric air-cooling module reaches the best cooling performance at an optimum input current. In this study, the optimum input currents are from 6 A to 7 A at the heat loads from 20 W to 100 W. The result also demonstrates that the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs better performance at a lower heat load. The lowest total temperature difference-heat load ratio is experimentally estimated as -0.54 W K -1 at the low heat load of 20 W, while it is 0.664 W K -1 at the high heat load of 100 W. In some conditions, the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs worse than the air-cooling heat sink only. This article shows the effective operating range in which the cooling performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module excels that of the air-cooling heat sink only.

  16. Electronic security systems and active implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnich, Werner

    2002-08-01

    How do active implantable medical devices react in the presence of strong magnetic fields in the frequency range between extremely low frequency (ELF) to radiofrequency (RF) as they are emitted by electronic security systems (ESS)? There are three different sorts of ESSs: electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices, metal detector (MDS) devices, and radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. Common to all is the production of magnetic fields. There is an abundance of literature concerning interference by ESS gates with respect to if there is an influence possible and if such an influence can bear a risk for the AIMD wearers. However, there has been no attempt to study the physical mechanism nor to develop a model of how and under which conditions magnetic fields can influence pacemakers and defibrillators and how they could be disarmed by technological means. It is too often assumed that interference of AIMD with ESS is inevitable. Exogenous signals of similar intensity and rhythm to heart signals can be misinterpreted and, thus, confuse the implant. Important for the interference coupling mechanism is the differentiation between a "unipolar" and a "bipolar" system. With respect to magnetic fields, the left side implanted pacemaker is the most unfavorable case as the lead forms approximately a semicircular area of maximum 225 cm2 into which a voltage can be induced. This assumption yields an interference coupling model that can be expressed by simple mathematics. The worst-case conditions for induced interference voltages are a coupling area of 225 cm2 that is representative for a large human, a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the area formed by the lead, and a unipolar ventricular pacemaker system that is implanted on the left side of the thorax and has the highest interference sensitivity. In bipolar systems the fields must be 17 times larger when compared to a unipolar system to have the same effect. The magnetic field for interfering with ICDs

  17. Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browning, Nigel D; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2000-01-01

    ..., and microanalysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Ensuing chapters examine identi®cation of new superconducting compounds, imaging of superconducting properties by lowtemperature scanning electron microscopy, imaging of vortices by electron holography and electronic structure determination by electron energy loss spectro...

  18. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  19. On the OSL curve shape and preheat treatment of electronic components from portable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.woda@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Greilich, Steffen [Riso National Laboratory, Radiation Research Department, Roskilde (Denmark); Beerten, Koen [SCK-CEN, Radiation Protection Dosimetry and Calibration, Mol (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    The shape of the OSL decay curve and the effect of longer time delays between accidental exposure and readout of alumina-rich electronic components from portable electronic devices are investigated. The OSL decay curve follows a hyperbolic decay function, which is interpreted as an approximation of several closely spaced or even a continuous distribution of single trap OSL decay functions. Longer time delays between exposure and readout lead to a rising dose vs. OSL integration time plot, when applying a low preheat. Supplementary TL investigations indicate a distribution in activation energies for the main dosimetric (190 {sup o}C) peak and that the lower temperature part could fade with a higher rate than the higher temperature part. Consequences for the applied preheat treatment prior to dose measurement are discussed.

  20. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  1. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  2. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sahil Jaykumar

    Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge, have gained considerable interest for their use in future computing technologies. For optimal performance, a pure spin current, where all electrons have aligned spins, must be generated and transmitted across many interfaces and through many types of materials. While conventional spin sources have historically been elemental ferromagnets, like Fe or Co, these materials pro duce only partially spin polarized currents. To increase the spin polarization of the current, materials like half-metallic ferromagnets, where there is a gap in the minority spin density of states around the Fermi level, or topological insulators, where the current transport is dominated by spin-locked surface states, show promise. A class of materials called Heusler compounds, with electronic structures that range from normal metals, to half metallic ferromagnets, semiconductors, superconductors and even topological insulators, interfaces well with existing device technologies, and through the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) high quality heterostructures and films can be grown. This dissertation examines the electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces of both topological insulator (PtLuSb-- and PtLuBi--) and half-metallic ferromagnet (Co2MnSi-- and Co2FeSi--) III-V semiconductor heterostructures. PtLuSb and PtLuBi growth by MBE was demonstrated on Alx In1--xSb (001) ternaries. PtLuSb (001) surfaces were observed to reconstruct with either (1x3) or c(2x2) unit cells depending on Sb overpressure and substrate temperature. viii The electronic structure of these films was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and photoemission spectroscopy. STS measurements as well as angle resolved photoemission spectropscopy (ARPES) suggest that PtLuSb has a zero-gap or semimetallic band structure. Additionally, the observation of linearly dispersing surface

  3. INFECTION ASSOCIATED WITH THE IMPLANTATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR IMPLANTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dvoretsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the frequency, nature, risk factors and diagnosis of infectious complications (IC in patients with cardioimplanted electronic devices (CED — artificial rhythm drivers, cardiodefibrillators, devices for cardiosynchronizing therapy — often prognostically unfavorable, accompanied by high mortality, are given in the article. The data of a large-scale retrospective analysis of 200 219 patients with CED are given during the 3-year period after implantation. It was noted that among persons with IC there was a higher mortality rate compared to patients without signs of infection. In the analysis of cases of IC, the main risk factors for their development are identified, including. Presence of concomitant pathology. This article discusses the basic types of microorganisms were isolated from patients with the presence of IC, IC clinical symptoms, provides a diagnostic algorithm for suspected IC. A feature of the clinical case presented in the article is a relatively early development of IC with damage to the valve structures (tricuspid valve — the first symptoms of bacterial damage appeared 6 months after the operation. Usually infectious endocarditis in patients with CED was verified at various times after implantation — from 1 to 72 months, and in most cases not earlier than 3 months later. The main clinical manifestations of the disease were recurrent fever, which is why the patient was repeatedly hospitalized for several months in various medical institutions. In each hospital, the patient management tactics were different and did not meet the accepted standards of diagnostic search in a febrile patient with CED. Only with the third hospitalization of the patient (November 2015 during the transthoracic echocardiography were revealed vegetations on the valves of the tricuspid valve. The given clinical observation testifies not only to the difficulties of diagnosing IE in patients with the presence of CED, but also about the inevitable

  4. The Effect of Electronic Devices Self-Efficacy, Electronic Devices Usage and Information Security Awareness on Identity-Theft Anxiety Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Identity-theft means stealing someone's personal information and using it without his or her permission. Each year, millions of Americans are becoming the victims of identity-theft, and this is one of the seriously growing and widespread issues in the U.S. This study examines the effect of electronic devices self-efficacy, electronic devices…

  5. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade... certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of the infringement of claims of six...

  6. 77 FR 32995 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the...

  7. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has issued (1) a limited exclusion order against infringing electronic devices...

  8. 77 FR 31875 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the Commission is...

  9. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  10. Development of an electronic device quality aluminum antimonide (AlSb) semiconductor for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, John W; Yee, Jick Hong; Combs, III, Arthur W

    2014-11-11

    Electronic device quality Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystals produced by controlled atmospheric annealing are utilized in various configurations for solar cell applications. Like that of a GaAs-based solar cell devices, the AlSb-based solar cell devices as disclosed herein provides direct conversion of solar energy to electrical power.

  11. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  12. iPosture: The Size of Electronic Consumer Devices Affects our Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Maarten W.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether incidental body posture, prompted by working on electronic devices of different sizes, affects power-related behaviors. Grounded in research showing that adopting expansive body postures increases psychological power, we hypothesized that working on larger devices, which forces people to physically expand, causes users to behave more assertively. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with one of four electronic devices that varied in size: an iPod Touch, an iPad,...

  13. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelaw, James; Wung, T

    1992-01-01

    A Symposium on Aerothermodynamics of Combustors was held at the Institute of Applied Mechanics of the National Taiwan University from 3 to 5 June 1991 and was attended by 130 delegates from eight countries. The topics of the forty formal presentations included measurements and calculations of isothermal simulations and of combusting flows with one and two phases, and with consideration of configurations ranging from simple diffusion to gas-turbine flows. The discussions inside and outside of the Symposium Hall were lively and an open forum session demonstrated the range of opinions currently and strongly held. The International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics initiated the Symposium under the chairmanship of Professor R S L Lee and with the Scientific Committee listed below. It benefited from sponsorship, again as listed below, and from contributors who presented interesting and up-to-date descriptions of their research. Invited lectures were delivered by Professors R Bilger and F Weinberg and set ...

  14. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  15. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  16. Functional nanomaterials and devices for electronics, sensors and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between “More Moore” and “More than Moore” are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.

  17. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... electronic digital media devices and components thereof imported by respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of Richardson, Texas (collectively ``Samsung''), and cease and desist orders against...

  18. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-11-11

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed electronics have been based on organic molecular electronics. Still some fundamental challenges remain: thermal instability, modest charge transport characteristics, and limited lithographic resolution. In the last decade, one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, like carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires, followed by two-dimensional materials, like graphene and transitional dichalcogenide materials, have shown interesting promise as next-generation printed electronic materials. Challenges, such as non-uniformity in growth, limited scalability, and integration issues, need to be resolved for the viable application of these materials to technology. Recently, the concept of printed high-performance complementary metal\\\\text-oxide semiconductor electronics has also emerged and been proven successful for application to electronics. Here, we review progress in CMOS technology and applications, including challenges faced and opportunities revealed.

  19. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  20. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University,. New Delhi. 5. ... (1) Showcasing the work done by Indian Women Scientists. (2) Panel Discussion on Gender Issues in Indian Science. Program: 09.00 a.m. – 09.10 a.m.. : Welcome ...

  1. Modern Electronic Devices: An Increasingly Common Cause of Skin Disorders in Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Minghetti, Sara; Bertoldi, Alberto Maria; Martina, Emanuela; Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    : The modern conveniences and enjoyment brought about by electronic devices bring with them some health concerns. In particular, personal electronic devices are responsible for rising cases of several skin disorders, including pressure, friction, contact dermatitis, and other physical dermatitis. The universal use of such devices, either for work or recreational purposes, will probably increase the occurrence of polymorphous skin manifestations over time. It is important for clinicians to consider electronics as potential sources of dermatological ailments, for proper patient management. We performed a literature review on skin disorders associated with the personal use of modern technology, including personal computers and laptops, personal computer accessories, mobile phones, tablets, video games, and consoles.

  2. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Laxminarayan L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); PanneerChelvam, PremKumar [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Levko, Dimtry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  3. Perioperative management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Jaramillo, R; Castro-Arias, H D; Vallejo-Zarate, C; Ramos-Hurtado, L F

    2017-05-01

    The use of implantable cardiac devices in people of all ages is increasing, especially in the elderly population: patients with pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy devices regularly present for surgery for non-cardiac causes. This review was made in order to collect and analyze the latest evidence for the proper management of implantable cardiac devices in the perioperative period. Through a detailed exploration of PubMed, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), ClinicalKey, Cochrane (Ovid), the search software UpToDate, textbooks and patents freely available to the public on Google, we selected 33 monographs, which matched the objectives of this publication. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-701] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission... States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players...

  5. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  6. Recent developments of truly stretchable thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Chi, Zhihe; Yang, Zhan; Chen, Xiaojie; Arnold, Michael S; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2018-03-29

    Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e.g. buckling), and the whole device can be bent, twisted, or stretched to meet the demands for practical applications, which are beyond the capability of conventional flexible devices that can only bend or twist. Recently, great achievements have been made toward truly stretchable electronics. Here, the contribution of this review is an effort to provide a panoramic view of the latest progress concerning truly stretchable electronic devices, of which we give special emphasis to three kinds of thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices: (1) thin film transistors, (2) electroluminescent devices (including organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells and perovskite light-emitting diodes), and (3) photovoltaics (including organic photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells). We systematically discuss the device design and fabrication strategies, the origin of device stretchability and the relationship between the electrical and mechanical behaviors of the devices. We hope that this review provides a clear outlook of these attractive stretchable devices for a broad range of scientists and attracts more researchers to devote their time to this interesting research field in both industry and academia, thus encouraging more intelligent lifestyles for human beings in the coming future.

  7. Renormalized molecular levels in a Sc3N@C-80 molecular electronic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Zheng, Q. R.

    2001-01-01

    We address several general questions about quantum transport through molecular systems by an ab initio analysis of a scandium-nitrogen doped C-80 metallofullerene device. Charge transfer from the Sc3N is found to drastically change the current-voltage characteristics: the current through the Sc3N...... @ C-80 device is double that through a bare C-80 device. We provide strong evidence that transport in such molecular devices is mediated by molecular electronic states which have been renormalized by the device environment, such as the electrodes and external bias V-b. The renormalized molecular...

  8. Electronic properties of organic monolayers and molecular devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institut d'Electronique, de Micro-electronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS, Molecular Nanostructures and Devices Group, BP69, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France; Centre de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication, Université de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 ...

  9. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  10. Electron transport in nano-scaled piezoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengping; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Tan, Yaohua; Newns, Dennis M.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Boykin, Timothy B.; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-05-01

    The Piezoelectronic Transistor (PET) has been proposed as a post-CMOS device for fast, low-power switching. In this device, the piezoresistive channel is metalized via the expansion of a relaxor piezoelectric element to turn the device on. The mixed-valence compound SmSe is a good choice of PET channel material because of its isostructural pressure-induced continuous metal insulator transition, which is well characterized in bulk single crystals. Prediction and optimization of the performance of a realistic, nano-scaled PET based on SmSe requires the understanding of quantum confinement, tunneling, and the effect of metal interface. In this work, a computationally efficient empirical tight binding (ETB) model is developed for SmSe to study quantum transport in these systems and the scaling limit of PET channel lengths. Modulation of the SmSe band gap under pressure is successfully captured by ETB, and ballistic conductance shows orders of magnitude change under hydrostatic strain, supporting operability of the PET device at nanoscale.

  11. Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

    1995-09-01

    Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

  12. Flexible and stretchable electronics for wearable health devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. van den; Kok, M. de; Koetse, M.; Cauwe, M.; Verplancke, R.; Bossuyt, F.; Jablonski, M.; Vanfleteren, J.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of human health and well-being is one of the key growth areas in our society. Preferably, these measurements are done as unobtrusive as possible. These sensoric devices are then to be integrated directly on the human body as a patch or integrated into garments. This requires

  13. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  14. 78 FR 56737 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motion To Amend the Complaint and Notice of Investigation...

  15. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  16. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-853] Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Concerning an Initial Determination Granting a Motion To Amend Complaint and Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  17. System Testability Analysis for Complex Electronic Devices Based on Multisignal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B; Tian, S L; Huang, J G

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider the system testability problems for electronic devices during their early design phase because modern electronic devices become smaller and more compositive while their function and structure are more complex. Multisignal model, combining advantage of structure model and dependency model, is used to describe the fault dependency relationship for the complex electronic devices, and the main testability indexes (including optimal test program, fault detection rate, fault isolation rate, etc.) to evaluate testability and corresponding algorithms are given. The system testability analysis process is illustrated for USB-GPIB interface circuit with TEAMS toolbox. The experiment results show that the modelling method is simple, the computation speed is rapid and this method has important significance to improve diagnostic capability for complex electronic devices

  18. On board electronic devices safety subject to high frequency electromagnetic radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Smirnova, M. N.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spacecraft on board electronic devices are subjected to the effects of Space environment, in particular, electromagnetic radiation. The weight limitations for spacecraft pose an important material and structures problem: developing effective protection for on board electronic devices from high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the present paper the problem of the effect of external high frequency electromagnetic field on electronic devices shielding located on orbital platforms is investigated theoretically. It is demonstrated that the characteristic time for the unsteady stage of the process is negligibly small as compared with characteristic time of electromagnetic field diffusion into a conductor for the studied range of governing parameters. A system of governing material parameters is distinguished, which contribute to protecting electronic devices from induced electrical currents.

  19. BEHAVIOUR OF ELECTRONIC BLOCKS AND DEVICES UNDER ACTION OF IMPACT LOADS AT ROAD ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torlin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of impact loads action on vehicle’s design elements that contain electronic devices intended for maintenance of its passive safety is considered. The action time is compared to the speed of shock wave propagation.

  20. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  1. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Interface Analysis Center, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J. [Element-Six Technologies, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices.

  2. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices

  3. Human Powered PiezoelectricBatteries to Supply Power to Wearable Electronic Devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jose' Luis; Rubio, Antonio; Moll, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Consumer electronic equipments are becoming small, portable devices that provide users with a wide range of functionality, from communication to music playing. The battery technology and the power consumption of the device limit the size, weight and autonomous lifetime. One promising alternative to batteries (and fuel cells, that must be refueled as well) is to use the parasitic energy dissipated in the movement of the wearer of the device to power it. We analyze in this work the current stat...

  4. An assessment of relativistic electron beam for plasma heating in magnetically confined devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paithankar, A.S.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The status and progress of various techniques employed for heating the plasma to thermonuclear temperature in magnetically confined devices are presented. The merits and demerits of each technique are critically studied with a view to assess the potential of Relativistic Electron Beam (REB) heating technique, which is a new comer in the field. It has been concluded that REB heating is very much suitable for linear solenoidal reactor devices and is also a potential future candidate for plasma heating for torodial devices. (auth.)

  5. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  6. 78 FR 4418 - Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... export certificates. The advantages to industry will be: Certificate processing time will be greatly...] Electronic Submission Process for Requesting Export Certificates From the Center for Devices and Radiological... requesting export certificates for products regulated by FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health...

  7. Improvement of functioning of executive devices of radio electronic facilities

    OpenAIRE

    V. G. Smolyaninov; A. N. Sukhopara

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of functioning of RES which electromagnetic executive devices (EIU), mechanisms and engines, enter in the complement of, determined their power and dynamic descriptions which provide of the continuous mode of operations of RES with maximal KPD. Possibility of improvement of functioning of EIU is rotined by a construct effektive managements without additional sensors, due to control of electromagnetic procesov in the own construction of EIU through control of size of current i...

  8. Contact degradation of GaAs transferred electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmstroem, C.J.; Morgan, D.V.; Howes, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The migration of contact material into the GaAs devices may degrade the device performance (noise, power output) and can shorten the mean time to failure of operational devices. In order to understand contact degradation the interdiffusion of gold/germanium contacts on gallium arsenide has been studied using Rutherford backscattering, ion microprobe (SIMS) and microbeam techniques. Both the depth profiling and imaging properties of the ion microprobe have been used. The microbeam was used for focused Rutherford backscattering giving a lateral resolution approximately 10 μm. When used in conjunction with angle lapped samples it allows analysis to be conducted to greater depths and hence one may use thicker contact films. The use of these techniques has enabled both the lateral and depth distributions of gold, germanium, gallium and arsenic to be obtained. These distributions have revealed gold and germanium spike formation beneath the contact. The information obtained provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of ohmic contacts to gallium arsenide. The degradation of such contacts as a result of thermal and electrical effects is discussed. (Auth.)

  9. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanou, George

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Multiscale Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification of Materials and Structures that was held at Santorini, Greece, September 9 – 11, 2013. It consists of 20 chapters which are divided in five thematic topics: Damage and fracture, homogenization, inverse problems–identification, multiscale stochastic mechanics and stochastic dynamics. Over the last few years, the intense research activity at microscale and nanoscale reflected the need to account for disparate levels of uncertainty from various sources and across scales. As even over-refined deterministic approaches are not able to account for this issue, an efficient blending of stochastic and multiscale methodologies is required to provide a rational framework for the analysis and design of materials and structures. The purpose of this IUTAM Symposium was to promote achievements in uncertainty quantification combined with multiscale modeling and to encourage research and development in this grow...

  10. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    Science and a few young women scientists as well who will give a perception of those who are entering the field now. The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium which will start at 9.00 a.m. We envisage a talk by each panelist for about 5-7 minutes, followed by a discussion and then ...

  11. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Shioiri, Jumpei

    1996-01-01

    The IUTAM Symposium on Constitutive Relation in High/Very High Strain Rates (CRHVHSR) was held October 16 - 19, 1995, at Seminar House, Science University of Tokyo, under the sponsorship of IUTAM, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, The Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition (1970), Inoue Foundation for Science, The Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and Science University of Tokyo. The proposal to hold the symposium was accepted by the General Assembly of IUT AM held in Haifa, Israel, in August 1992, and the scientists mentioned below were appointed by the Bureau of IUTAM to serve as members of the Scientific Committee. The main object of the symposium was to make a general survey of recent developments in the research of constitutive relations in high and very high strain rates and related problems in high velocity solid mechanics, and to explore further new ideas for dealing with unresolved problems of a fundamental nature as well as of practical importance. The su...

  12. Spike protection device for electronics and communication appliances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experience shows that most failures of electronic and communication equipment result from damage caused by external electrical disturbances in the form of overvoltage, undervoltage, surge, sag, spike, or voltage dropout (blackout), the status of which is determined by the amplitude and duration of the disturbance. Spikes ...

  13. Radiation Effects On Emerging Electronic Materials And Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-17

    Van de Graaff microbeam, the Department of Physics at the University of Jyväskylä (JYFL, in Finland) using a K-130 cyclotron, and the Grand...Conclusion .............................................................................................74 3.26 A Generalized SiGe HBT Single-Event Effects... generated electron-hole pairs as a function of depth (z) and > uniaxial tensile stress

  14. The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report compliance rate was 89% for daily SMS and 100% for weekly SMS versus 76% for weekly paper reports. Electronic data collection and reporting is feasible and cost-efficient in low-resource settings. Keywords: mobile phones, text messaging, database management systems, census methods, sentinelsurveillance ...

  15. Recent Advances in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Based on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDCs offer several attractive features for use in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Device applications of TMDCs have gained much research interest, and significant advancement has been recorded. In this review, the overall research advancement in electronic and optoelectronic devices based on TMDCs are summarized and discussed. In particular, we focus on evaluating field effect transistors (FETs, photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photodetectors, lasers, and integrated circuits (ICs using TMDCs.

  16. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Commission received seven comments from consumer groups, electronics associations, companies, and individuals... that use solar power or other power sources), such as music players, headphones, some toys and games... electronics devices would be banned if they were intended primarily for children. The likely substitute for...

  17. 78 FR 16707 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2943] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting... International Trade Commission (USITC): http://edis.usitc.gov . \\3\\ Electronic Document Information System (EDIS...; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  18. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2869] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting... Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electronic...

  19. 78 FR 2437 - Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2927] Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic...: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices...

  20. Device with foil corrector for electron optical aberrations at low energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Van Aken, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    An electron optical device for, in use, creating negative spherical and chromatic aberration and reducing the energy spread in an electron beam travelling on an optical axis, including: at least one conducting plate substantially perpendicular to the optical axis with a first aperture having a first

  1. Design of multiprobe devices for electronic components with ball leads testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevlyudov I. Sh.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article design and technological features of multiprobe connecting device for testing the electronic components with matrix ball leads are described and substantiated. Such test fixture has probes made as two separated flatcontact lands that can be used for testing BGA/CSP components or microelectromechanical devices. Only in case, when two parts of probe contact lands are pressed to according lead of electronic component, electrical circuit between them closes. This fact confirms presence of contact between testing fixture probe and tested lead of BGA device and can be considered as way of testing reliability increasing. Due to the proposed new form of contact probe for electronic component testing it became possible to simplify the topology of connecting circuit board. Developed commutative board with ZIF connectors allows realizing multiprobe device connection to automated measuring systems, providing also the possibility of its future application to test other electronic components with more leads. Also the results of experimental and modeling research of developed device prototype are presented and explained. Obtained results substantiate the basic requirements for the multiprobe connecting device that should be observed during its contacting to the unit under test. Designed test fixture is more simple and cheap in comparison with its analogues. Also developed method of testing effectively provides the necessary contact pressure between test fixture and unit under test without hazard of its deformation which can appear in similar devices.

  2. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  4. Electronic spectrum of a deterministic single-donor device in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A.; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a single-electron transistor (SET) based on an individual phosphorus dopant that is deterministically positioned between the dopant-based electrodes of a transport device in silicon. Electronic characterization at mK-temperatures reveals a charging energy that is very similar to the value expected for isolated P donors in a bulk Si environment. Furthermore, we find indications for bulk-like one-electron excited states in the co-tunneling spectrum of the device, in sharp contrast to previous reports on transport through single dopants

  5. Chaotic noisy transport of electron pairs in a superconducting junction device: thermal-inertia ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-hui

    2006-07-01

    Chaotic noisy transport of electron pairs in a superconducting junction device (thermal-inertia ratchets) is investigated. The study shows that when the temperature is low enough, the transport of the electron pairs can be mainly chaotic; when the temperature is high enough, it can be mainly stochastic. By controlling the temperature and the amplitude of the input ac signal, the current of electron pairs can be reversed.

  6. Complex influence of space environment on materials and electronic devices in the conditions of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayev, T.; Zhantayev, Zh.; Grichshenko, V.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new physical model describing the processes in materials and electronic devices under the influence of cosmic rays in microgravity. The model identifies specific features of formation of the area of radiation defects (ARD) in the electronic materials in microgravity. The mechanism of interaction between the ARD and memory modules in microgravity causing malfunction and failure of onboard electronics is considered. The results of failure of memory modules under real conditions are presented.

  7. Design and Testing of Electronic Devices for Harsh Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nico, Costantino

    This thesis reports an overview and the main results of the research activity carried out within the PhD programme in Information Engineering of the University of Pisa (2010-2012). The research activity has been focused on different fields, including Automotive and High Energy Physics experiments, according to a common denominator: the development of electroni c devices and systems operating in harsh environments. There are many applications that forc e the adoption of design methodologies and strategies focused on this type of envir onments: military, biom edical, automotive, industrial and space. The development of solutions fulfilling specific operational requirements, therefore represents an interesting field of research. The first research activity has been framed within the ATHENIS project, funded by the CORDIS Commission of the European Community, and aiming at the development of a System-on-Chip, a r egulator for alternators employed on vehicles, presenting both configurability an d t...

  8. 29th International Symposium on Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface It is our pleasure to report that the Proceedings of the 29 th International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS2016) held at Tokyo International Forum, Japan, December 13–15, 2016, are now published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS). ISS2016, organized by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), was aimed to gather many scientists, engineers, academic students, corporate executives and other participants from all over the world, and to facilitate fruitful discussions to promote superconductivity technologies. 427 scientists and engineers from 15 countries participated in ISS2016, and the symposium was successfully held. Total of 321 papers were presented, which includes 6 plenary lectures, 38 invited talks, 67 contributed oral presentations and 210 poster presentations. The papers published in JPCS were categorized into the following four fields; (a) Physics and Chemistry, (b) Wires and Bulk, (c) Electronic Devices, (d) Large Scale System Applications, and arranged in such a way that oral presentations come first, followed by poster presentations in relevant topics. To ensure the high publication standard mandated by JPCS, every paper was peer reviewed by a reviewer with expertise, and in some cases by two reviewers before it was accepted for publication. As editors of the Proceedings, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all the reviewers involved in the evaluation of the papers for their invaluable contribution. Our special thanks go also to session chairs who recommended appropriate reviewers. List of Editors and Committees are also available in this PDF. (paper)

  9. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  10. Single-electron thermal devices coupled to a mesoscopic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Thierschmann, Holger; Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2017-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of heat currents in a three-terminal quantum dot engine. Electron–electron interactions introduce state-dependent processes which can be resolved by energy-dependent tunneling rates. We identify the relevant transitions which define the operation of the system as a thermal transistor or a thermal diode. In the former case, thermal-induced charge fluctuations in the gate dot modify the thermal currents in the conductor with suppressed heat injection, resulting in huge amplification factors and the possible gating with arbitrarily low energy cost. In the latter case, enhanced correlations of the state-selective tunneling transitions redistribute heat flows giving high rectification coefficients and the unexpected cooling of one conductor terminal by heating the other one. We propose quantum dot arrays as a possible way to achieve the extreme tunneling asymmetries required for the different operations.

  11. Basic Mechanisms of Radiation Effects in Electronic Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    field Is ,𔃽 X 10-4 s. Interface, has been successfully described by a continuous-time-random-walk ( CTRW ) formalism The specific Interslte hopping...curve In figure 16 Is lowing pulsed LINAC electron-beam exposure for 96.5.nm the calculated response based on the CTRW model oxide MOS capacitor at 80... CTRW MODEL Q 194 K(a-=0.25) 181 K 0.75 - 160 K 0 141K 0 124 K Io . 10-8 i0-1 10i- 10.8 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 101 10 4 101 10a SCALED TME (Vt

  12. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  13. Symposium Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-11-01

    This proceeding summarizes the highlights of IAU 329, ``The Lives and Death-Throes of Massive Stars'', held in Auckland, NZ from 28 Nov - 2 Dec. I consider the progress that has been made in the field over the course of these ``beach symposia'', outline the overall content of the conference, and discuss how the current subfields in massive stellar astrophysics have evolved in recent years. I summarize some of the new results and innovative approaches that were presented during the symposium, and conclude with a discussion of how current and future resources in astronomy can serve as valuable tools for studying massive stars in the coming years.

  14. Biotechnology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    in both the plant and animal world; and chemical de- tection at a threshold as sensitive as ten molecules of sex attractant by the cockroach . In...34 J. Biomedical Material Research Symposium, Vol. 1, 1971, pp. 225-235. 4. Bradley, J.S. and Hastings, G.W., "Carbon F’ber Reinforced Plastics for...on the Compressive and Short Beam Shear Properties of Fiberite T300/976 Fabric," J_ Reinforced Plastics and Composites. Vol. 7, 1988, 120-135. 18

  15. Investigating the use of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and prompt device: influence and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Madeo, Maurice

    2017-11-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) prevents the transmission of healthcare-associated infections. Electronic HH monitoring and prompt devices have been developed to overcome problems with monitoring HH and to improve compliance. Devices monitor room entry and exit and soap use through communication between ceiling sensors and badges worn by practitioners and the badges sense alcohol rub. To investigate (1) the impact of devices on HH compliance, (2) how devices influence behaviour and (3) the experience and opinions of practitioners on the use devices. HH compliance was monitored (before, during and after system installation) by observations and alcohol rub usage. Compliance during installation was also monitored by the device. Healthcare practitioner interviews (n = 12) explored how the device influenced behaviour and experiences and opinions of wearing the device. HH compliance improved during the period the device was installed. Practitioners reported the device increased their awareness, enhancing their empathy for patients and encouraged patients and colleagues to prompt when HH was needed. Practitioners' reported better HH, gaming the system and feelings of irritation. HH prompt and monitoring systems seem to improve compliance but improvements may be undermined by practitioner irritation and system gaming.

  16. Electronic adherence monitoring device performance and patient acceptability: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Stewart, Alistair William; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter Nigel; Mitchell, Edwin Arthur; Foster, Juliet Michelle

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the performance and patient acceptability of an inhaler electronic monitoring device in a real-world childhood asthma population. Children 6 to 15 years presenting with asthma to the hospital emergency department and prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were included. Participants were randomized to receive a device with reminder features enabled or disabled for use with their preventer. Device quality control tests were conducted. Questionnaires on device acceptability, utility and ergonomics were completed at six months. A total of 1306 quality control tests were conducted; 84% passed pre-issue and 87% return testing. The most common failure reason was actuation under-recording. Acceptability scores were high, with higher scores in the reminder than non-reminder group (median, 5 th -95 th percentile: 4.1, 3.1-5.0 versus 3.7, 2.3-4.8; p 90%) rated the device easy to use. Feedback was positive across five themes: device acceptability, ringtone acceptability, suggestions for improvement, effect on medication use, and effect on asthma control. This study investigates electronic monitoring device performance and acceptability in children using quantitative and qualitative measures. Results indicate satisfactory reliability, although failure rates of 13-16% indicate the importance of quality control. Favorable acceptability ratings support the use of these devices in children.

  17. Electron spin resonance study of interface states induced by electron injection in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikawa, R. E.; Lenahan, P. M.

    1986-03-01

    We find that electrons emitted from silicon into the oxide of metal-oxide-silicon devices generate amphoteric trivalent silicon (Pb center) defects at the Si/SiO2 interface. The Pb centers are generated in numbers approximately equal to that of the electron injection induced interface states. The effects of electron injection are similar to those of ionizing radiation to the extent that in both cases Pb centers are generated at the Si/SiO2 interface. However, the effects are not identical; ionizing radiation creates another trivalent silicon defect, termed E', in the oxide. We are unable to observe any E' generation in oxides subjected to electron injection. There appears to be a strong correlation between the number of trapped electrons and the electron injection induced Pb center interface states; this observation suggests that the trapping of electrons in the bulk of the oxides is in some way related to the creation of the Pb center interface state defects. We find that dry oxides subjected to a deuterium/nitrogen anneal exhibit less electron trapping than otherwise identical oxides which have been subjected to a hydrogen/nitrogen anneal. This observation is consistent with the idea that a hydrogen bond breaking event may be involved in electron capture.

  18. Ignitor electrode system design for the pulses electron irradiators device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lely Susita RM; Ihwanul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The designed ignitor electrode system is a system used to initiate the plasma discharge. It consists of two pieces which are placed on both side of the plasma vessel. Each of the ignitor electrode system consists of a cathode, an anode and insulator between the cathode and the anode. The best cathode material for ignitor electrode system is Mg due to its lowest ion erosion rate (γi =11.7 μg/C) and its low cohesive energy (1.51 eV). The specifications of ignitor electrode system designed for the pulse electron irradiators is as follow: Mg cathode materials in the form of rod having a diameter of 6.35 mm and length of 76.75 mm. Anode material are made of non magnetic of SS 304 cylinder shaped with an outer diameter of 88.53 mm, an inner diameter of 81.53 mm and a thickness of 3.50 mm. Insulating material between the cathode and the anode is made of teflon cylinder shaped, outer diameter of 9.50 mm, an inner diameter of 6.35 mm and a length of 30 mm. Based on the ignitor electrode system design, the next step is construction and function test of the ignitor electrode system. (author)

  19. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.

  20. Demonstration of molecular assembly on Si (100) for CMOS-compatible molecule-based electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Lee J; Richter, Curt A

    2008-04-02

    In this work, we establish the potential of a UV-promoted direct attachment of alkanes with alcohol and thiol linkers to the silicon (100) surfaces for use in molecular electronic devices with increased potential for integration with existing CMOS technologies. Characterization of the self-assembled monolayers via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy shows that the films assembled on the Si (100) are comparable in quality, aliphatic monolayer coverage, and extent of substrate oxidation to those assembled on the more extensively studied Si (111) crystal face. Simple Si (100)-based electronic devices fabricated with the monolayers exhibited molecule-dependent electrical characteristics. These data highlight the effectiveness of the assembly on Si (100), the ability to fabricate enclosed Si (100)-based molecular devices, and the potential for the future integration of these devices with more conventional technologies.

  1. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices. (paper)

  2. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pedley, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The IUTAM Symposium on Flow in Collapsible Tubes and Past Other Highly Compliant Boundaries was held on 26-30 March, 2001, at the University of Warwick. As this was the first scientific meeting of its kind we considered it important to mark the occasion by producing a book. Accordingly, at the end of the Symposium the Scientific Committee met to discuss the most appropriate format for the book. We wished to avoid the format of the conventional conference book consisting of a large number of short articles of varying quality. It was agreed that instead we should produce a limited number of rigorously refereed and edited articles by selected participants who would aim to sum up the state of the art in their particular research area. The outcome is the present book. Peter W. Ca rpenter, Warwick Timothy J. Pedley, Cambridge May, 2002. VB SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Co-Chair: P.W. Carpenter, Engineering, Warwiek, UK Co-Chair: TJ. Pedley, DAMTP, Cambridge, UK V.V. Babenko, Hydromechanics, Kiev, Ukraine R. Bannasch, Bionik...

  3. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  4. Terahertz and Microwave Devices Based on the Photo-Excited Low Dimensional Electronic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    2010 12-Nov-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Continuation: Terahertz and Microwave Devices Based on the Photo...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Terahertz , Microwaves, 2 Dimensional... Terahertz and Microwave Devices Based on the Photo-Excited Low Dimensional Electronic System Report Title This experimental project funded by the ARO

  5. Theory of semiconductor junction devices a textbook for electrical and electronic engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Leck, J H

    1967-01-01

    Theory of Semiconductor Junction Devices: A Textbook for Electrical and Electronic Engineers presents the simplified numerical computation of the fundamental electrical equations, specifically Poisson's and the Hall effect equations. This book provides the fundamental theory relevant for the understanding of semiconductor device theory. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the application of band theory to the special case of semiconductors, both intrinsic and extrinsic. This text then describes the electrical properties of conductivity, semiconductors, and Hall effe

  6. Medical device integration: CIOs must bridge the digital divide between devices and electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2009-02-01

    To get funding approved for medical device integration, ClOs suggest focusing on specific patient safety or staff efficiency pain points. Organizations that make clinical engineering part of their IT team report fewer chain-of-command issues. It also helps IT people understand the clinical goals because the engineering people have been working closely with clinicians for years. A new organization has formed to work on collaboration between clinical engineers and IT professionals. For more information, go to www.ceitcollaboration.org. ECRI Institute has written a guide to handling the convergence of medical technology and hospital networks. Its "Medical Technology for the IT Professional: An Essential Guide for Working in Today's Healthcare Setting" also details how IT professionals can assist hospital technology planning and acquisition, and provide ongoing support for IT-based medical technologies. For more information, visit www.ecri.org/ITresource.

  7. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube-Based Vacuum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Murthy, Rakesh (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention proficiently produce carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic devices. In one embodiment a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic device includes: growing carbon nanotubes onto a substrate to form a cathode; assembling a stack that includes the cathode, an anode, and a first layer that includes an alignment slot; disposing a microsphere partially into the alignment slot during the assembling of the stack such that the microsphere protrudes from the alignment slot and can thereby separate the first layer from an adjacent layer; and encasing the stack in a vacuum sealed container.

  8. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  9. Radiation effects and soft errors in integrated circuits and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fleetwood, D M

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a detailed treatment of radiation effects in electronic devices, including effects at the material, device, and circuit levels. The emphasis is on transient effects caused by single ionizing particles (single-event effects and soft errors) and effects produced by the cumulative energy deposited by the radiation (total ionizing dose effects). Bipolar (Si and SiGe), metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), and compound semiconductor technologies are discussed. In addition to considering the specific issues associated with high-performance devices and technologies, the book includes th

  10. Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices: a paradigm shift for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Varma, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    Traditional follow-up of cardiac implantable electronic devices involves the intermittent download of largely nonactionable data. Remote monitoring represents a paradigm shift from episodic office-based follow-up to continuous monitoring of device performance and patient and disease state. This lessens device clinical burden and may also lead to cost savings, although data on economic impact are only beginning to emerge. Remote monitoring technology has the potential to improve the outcomes through earlier detection of arrhythmias and compromised device integrity, and possibly predict heart failure hospitalizations through integration of heart failure diagnostics and hemodynamic monitors. Remote monitoring platforms are also huge databases of patients and devices, offering unprecedented opportunities to investigate real-world outcomes. Here, the current status of the field is described and future directions are predicted.

  11. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-04

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  12. Emission analysis of large number of various passenger electronic devices in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüür, Jens; Oppermann, Lukas; Enders, Achim; Nunes, Rafael R.; Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    2016-09-01

    The ever increasing use of PEDs (passenger or portable electronic devices) has put pressure on the aircraft industry as well as operators and administrations to reevaluate established restrictions in PED-use on airplanes in the last years. Any electronic device could cause electromagnetic interference to the electronics of the airplane, especially interference at receiving antennas of sensitive wireless navigation and communication (NAV/COM) systems. This paper presents a measurement campaign in an Airbus A320. 69 test passengers were asked to actively use a combination of about 150 electronic devices including many attached cables, preferentially with a high data load on their buses, to provoke maximal emissions. These emissions were analysed within the cabin as well as at the inputs of aircraft receiving antennas outside of the fuselage. The emissions of the electronic devices as well as the background noise are time-variant, so just comparing only one reference and one transmission measurement is not sufficient. Repeated measurements of both cases lead to a more reliable first analysis. Additional measurements of the absolute received power at the antennas of the airplane allow a good estimation of the real interference potential to aircraft NAV/COM systems. Although there were many measured emissions within the cabin, there were no disturbance signals detectable at the aircraft antennas.

  13. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  14. Synthesis of graphene-conjugated polymer nanocomposites for electronic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoying; Tan, Chaoliang; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2013-02-21

    Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites have attracted increasing interest because of their superior physicochemical properties over polymers. Semiconductor conjugated polymers (CPs) with excellent dispersibility and stability, and efficient electronic and optical properties have been recently integrated with graphene to form a new class of functional nanomaterials. In this minireview, we will summarize the recent advances in the development of graphene-CP nanocomposites for electronic device applications.

  15. Complex influence of factors of a Space on materials and devices of electronics in the microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichshenko, Valentina; Zhantayev, Zhumabek

    In work the new physical model of the processes occurring in materials and devices of electronics by influence of the Cosmic Rays in the conditions of the microgravity is presented. The model describes features of formation of the area of radiation defects (ARD) in electronics materials in the conditions of the microgravity. The mechanism of interaction of ARD with the memory in microgravity conditions reduce to failures of the onboard is considered. Results of failures of memory in Space will be included.

  16. Proceedings of the international nuclear power plant aging symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, A.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the International Nuclear Power Plant Aging Symposium that was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 30-31 and September 1, 1988. The Symposium was presented in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. There were approximately 550 participants from 16 countries at the Symposium

  17. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying (Iris); Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  18. SPPEXA Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Philipp; Nagel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The research and its outcomes presented in this collection focus on various aspects of high-performance computing (HPC) software and its development which is confronted with various challenges as today's supercomputer technology heads towards exascale computing. The individual chapters address one or more of the research directions (1) computational algorithms, (2) system software, (3) application software, (4) data management and exploration, (5) programming, and (6) software tools. The collection thereby highlights pioneering research findings as well as innovative concepts in exascale software development that have been conducted under the umbrella of the priority programme "Software for Exascale Computing" (SPPEXA) of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and that have been presented at the SPPEXA Symposium, Jan 25-27 2016, in Munich. The book has an interdisciplinary appeal: scholars from computational sub-fields in computer science, mathematics, physics, or engineering will find it of particular interest...

  19. IUTAM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Bui, Huy

    1993-01-01

    Inverse problems occur in a wide variey of fields. In general, the inverse problem can be defined as one where one should estimate the cause from the result, while the direct problem is concerned with how to obtain the result from the cause. The aim of this symposium was to gather scientists and researchers in engineering mechanics concerned with inverse problems in order to exchange research result and develop computational and experimentalapproaches to solve inverse problems. The contributions in this volume cover the following subjects: mathematical and computational aspects of inverse problems, parameter or system identification, shape determination, sensitivity analysis, optimization, material property characterization, ultrasonic nondestructive testing, elastodynamic inverse problems, thermal inverse problems, and other miscellaneous engineering applications.

  20. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  1. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  2. Near field resonant inductive coupling to power electronic devices dispersed in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Bruning, H.; Bakker, S.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate inductive coupling as a way to wirelessly power electronic devices dispersed in water. The most important parameters determining this efficiency are: (1) the coupling between transmitting and receiving coils, (2) the quality factors of the transmitting

  3. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review n Initial Determination Granting Google, Inc.'s Unopposed Motion To Intervene AGENCY: U.S. International...

  4. 78 FR 72712 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Granting Google, Inc.'s Motion To Intervene AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  5. Five Ways to Hack and Cheat with Bring-Your-Own-Device Electronic Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Bring-your-own-device electronic examinations (BYOD e-exams) are a relatively new type of assessment where students sit an in-person exam under invigilated conditions with their own laptop. Special software restricts student access to prohibited computer functions and files, and provides access to any resources or software the examiner approves.…

  6. The stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber electronic portal imaging devices for dosimetry purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwe, R. J. W.; Tielenburg, R.; van Ingen, K. M.; Mijnheer, B. J.; van Herk, M. B.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber (LiFi-type) electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for dosimetric purposes. The short- and long-term stability of the response was investigated, as well as the importance of factors influencing the

  7. Electronic Device of Didactic and Electrometric Interest for the Study of RLC Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Angel L. Perez; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presents a method of studying RLC circuits with the help of the oscilloscope in the XYZ mode, complemented by an electronic device which generates a marker-trace on the screen and which is used to measure frequencies without the need of a reference point on the screen. (Author/GA)

  8. 77 FR 31039 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-843] Certain Electronic Devices Having a... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on April 18, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  9. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-771] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices...; Notice of Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on...

  10. 78 FR 32689 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices... Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled...

  11. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having... pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on March 12, 2013...

  12. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on May 2, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930...

  13. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-831] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on January 10, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  14. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-726] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of....S. International Trade Commission on May 13, 2010, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  15. 75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-701] In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on December...

  16. 76 FR 50253 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-797] Certain Portable Electronic Devices and....C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on July 8, 2011, under section...

  17. 78 FR 116 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2927] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has...

  18. 76 FR 60870 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-808] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices... Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on August 16, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U...

  19. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2896] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile... Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint...

  20. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-724] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade...

  1. 76 FR 47610 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-796] Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and.... 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on July 5, 2011, under section...

  2. 78 FR 6834 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-867] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on...

  3. 77 FR 68828 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-861] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with...

  4. 77 FR 20847 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on February 7, 2012, and an amended complaint was filed with the U.S...

  5. 76 FR 70490 - Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-813] Certain Electronic Devices With... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on September 22, 2011, under section 337 of...

  6. Bistable switching in supercritical n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Peter; Jeppesen, Palle; Jeppson, Bert

    1976-01-01

    Bistable switching in supercritically doped n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices (TED's) is investigated experimentally and interpreted in computer simulations, for which details of the computer program are given. Three switching modes all leading to stable anode domains are discussed, namely...

  7. Complex composition film condensation in the sluice device of an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuev, V.I.; Lesovoj, M.V.; Vlasov, D.A.; Malygin, M.V.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Tomashpol'skij, Yu.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the sluice device of an electron microscope a system is developed for material laser evaporation and vapor condensation on a substrate, situated in the microscope specimen holder. Substrate heating by laser radiation to 100 deg C is used. The system is applied for investigating growth of high-temperature superconductor films

  8. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the

  9. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Finding the Sole Remaining...) issued by the presiding administrative law judge (``ALJ'') on July 29, 2013, finding the last remaining...

  10. Effect of interface of electronics devices constructed with different materials to X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Weibing; Chen Panxun

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of X-ray nearby interface which is constructed with different materials is introduced in this paper. And the affect to electronics devices of this behavior is analyzed, the affect factors of four interfaces are calculated by Monte-Carlo method

  11. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  12. Nanocellulose-enabled electronics, energy harvesting devices, smart materials and sensors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Aleksey Yermakov; Chiu Tai Law; Rani Elhajjar

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials have a number of interesting and unique properties that make them well-suited for use in electronics applications such as energy harvesting devices, actuators and sensors. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have good mechanical properties, high transparency, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, among other properties that facilitate...

  13. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  14. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  15. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-01-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes. (review)

  16. Imaging Electron Motion in a Few Layer MoS2 Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Wang, K.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kim, P.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Ultrathin sheets of MoS2 are a newly discovered 2D semiconductor that holds great promise for nanoelectronics. Understanding the pattern of current flow will be crucial for developing devices. In this talk, we present images of current flow in MoS2 obtained with a Scanned Probe Microscope (SPM) cooled to 4 K. We previously used this technique to image electron trajectories in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and graphene. The charged SPM tip is held just above the sample surface, creating an image charge inside the device that scatters electrons. By measuring the change in resistance ΔR while the tip is raster scanned above the sample, an image of electron flow is obtained. We present images of electron flow in an MoS2 device patterned into a hall bar geometry. A three-layer MoS2 sheet is encased by two hBN layers, top and bottom, and patterned into a hall-bar with multilayer graphene contacts. An SPM image shows the current flow pattern from the wide contact at the end of the device for a Hall density n = 1.3×1012 cm-2. The SPM tip tends to block flow, increasing the resistance R. The pattern of flow was also imaged for a narrow side contact on the sample. At density n = 5.4×1011 cm-2; the pattern seen in the SPM image is similar to the wide contact. The ability to image electron flow promises to be very useful for the development of ultrathin devices from new 2D materials.

  17. Microdiffraction imaging—a suitable tool to characterize organic electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Liewald

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring device architecture and active film morphology is crucial for improving organic electronic devices. Therefore, knowledge about the local degree of crystallinity is indispensable to gain full control over device behavior and performance. In this article, we report on microdiffraction imaging as a new tool to characterize organic thin films on the sub-micron length scale. With this technique, which was developed at the ID01 beamline at the ESRF in Grenoble, a focused X-ray beam (300 nm diameter, 12.5 keV energy is scanned over a sample. The beam size guarantees high resolution, while material and structure specificity is gained by the choice of Bragg condition.Here, we explore the possibilities of microdiffraction imaging on two different types of samples. First, we measure the crystallinity of a pentacene thin film, which is partially buried beneath thermally deposited gold electrodes and a second organic film of fullerene C60. The data shows that the pentacene film structure is not impaired by the subsequent deposition and illustrates the potential of the technique to characterize artificial structures within fully functional electronic devices. Second, we investigate the local distribution of intrinsic polymorphism of pentacene thin films, which is very likely to have a substantial influence on electronic properties of organic electronic devices. An area of 40 μm by 40 μm is scanned under the Bragg conditions of the thin-film phase and the bulk phase of pentacene, respectively. To find a good compromise between beam footprint and signal intensity, third order Bragg condition is chosen. The scans show complementary signal distribution and hence demonstrate details of the crystalline structure with a lateral resolution defined by the beam footprint (300 nm by 3 μm.The findings highlight the range of applications of microdiffraction imaging in organic electronics, especially for organic field effect transistors and for organic solar

  18. Study of device of electron-ion treatment of mother baking yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapenkov, A.M.; Merinov, N.S.; Nazarov, V.N.; Balan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Devices for electron- ion treatment of mother baking yeasts are considered and classified by the way of aerions removal from the ionization zone: the first ones - by means of the electric field, the other - by air directed flux. Devices of the first type require high voltage - 20-60 kV. Electrodynamic ion generator has been applied as a device of the second type; considered is its construction, principal of operation, given are diagrams of ion flux dependence. The methods of process calculations in the generator and experimental results are presented. The main advantage of the generator of the second type is operation at low (3-5 kV) voltages. It is shown, that the yeast growth module can achieve 36% at essential increase of biomass when using these yeasts as sowing. The device can be used for biostimulation and antisepting of food raw materials

  19. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik

    2010-01-01

    and were randomized to either electronic compliance monitoring with a reminder and monitoring device or standard therapy for 6 months. Both groups were crossed over after 6 months. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using self-reported compliance and BP. RESULTS: Data from 398 patients were analysed......BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) significantly increases overall cardiovascular risk, the incidence of ischemic heart disease and stroke. One of the most important causes of insufficient BP control is low treatment compliance. Reminders and electronic compliance monitoring have been shown...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...

  20. Magnetic field measurement of HIRFL-CSR experimental ring electron cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Lijun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yang Xiaodong; Li Jie; Lu Wang; Wang Zhixue; Yan Hongbin; Zhang Wei; Zhang Junhui; Zhao Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    The cooling time and cooling efficiency in electron cooling device strongly depend on the transverse temperature of electron beam. In order to reduce this temperature, a new type of cooling section solenoid composed of 68 coils was used in the HIRFL-CSR electron cooling device to produce a high parallelism magnetic field. With the Hall probe, the components of the magnetic field along the ion beam orbit were measured, and using the compass method the magnetic field parallelism in cooling section was measured. According to the measured results, the magnetic axis angle of each coil with respect to the geometric axis was regulated correspondingly. The magnetic field nonparallelism in the cooling section less than 1 x 10 -4 was achieved and a magnetic induction strength of 0.078 T was obtained. (authors)

  1. Stretchable carbon nanotube charge-trap floating-gate memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Park, Minjoon; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-26

    Electronics for wearable applications require soft, flexible, and stretchable materials and designs to overcome the mechanical mismatch between the human body and devices. A key requirement for such wearable electronics is reliable operation with high performance and robustness during various deformations induced by motions. Here, we present materials and device design strategies for the core elements of wearable electronics, such as transistors, charge-trap floating-gate memory units, and various logic gates, with stretchable form factors. The use of semiconducting carbon nanotube networks designed for integration with charge traps and ultrathin dielectric layers meets the performance requirements as well as reliability, proven by detailed material and electrical characterizations using statistics. Serpentine interconnections and neutral mechanical plane layouts further enhance the deformability required for skin-based systems. Repetitive stretching tests and studies in mechanics corroborate the validity of the current approaches.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on magnetic mirror device MM-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Weishu; Cheng Shiquing; Xing Dazhong; Duan Shuyun; Wang Jinhe; Chen Dingguo

    1986-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments have been carried out on a simple magnetic mirror device (MM-2). The intensity of the magnetic field in the center of the device is around 3 x 10 -1 T. The mirror ratio equals to 2.64:1. The mirror space is 60 cm. The inner diameter of the vacuum chamber is 20 cm. The plasma is produced and heated by the microwave radiation fed into the chamber radially in the midplane. The microwave power source is a gyrotron which produces 30 kW output power in 15 GHz frequency within 10 ms pulse duration. The hard X-ray signal is observed while the diamagnetism signal appars. The analysis of the bremsstrahlung emission shows that the temperature of the hot electron is about 25-30 KeV. The electron densit measured by the multigrid energy analyzer is about (1.1-3.9) x 10 -3

  3. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    is monitored using the calibrated resistance of the metal layer. The MIS hot electron emitters are cleaned in-situ in a background pressure of 3 £ 10¡7 mbar O2. Thermal desorption experiments with labeled CO are carried out with a reproducibility of 7%. The detection limit of labeled CO for the mass...... spectrometer setup is estimated to 3 £ 109 s¡1 from the desorption experiments. The theoretical hot electron induced desorption rate is estimated to 2£104 s¡1....

  4. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology was held February 14-16, 2001 in San Diego, California, USA. This symposium was jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The symposium featured sixty nine presentations covering a wide variety of technical topics relevant to Terahertz Technology. The presentations can be divided into five broad technology areas: Hot Electron Bolometers, superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) technology, local oscillator (LO) technology, Antennas and Measurements, and Direct Detectors. The symposium provides scientists, engineers, and researchers working in the terahertz technology and science fields to engineers their work and exchange ideas with colleagues.

  5. Advanced Electronic Systems for HEP Experiments, Astroparticle Physics, Accelerator Technology, FELs and Fusion; 2013 WILGA January Symposium (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The cycle of WILGA conferences [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of IEEE, SPIE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The conference was attended by over 60 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced electronic circuits and systems. The next 32 WILGA Conference will take place on 27 May – 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. Proposed conference papers are submitted via the WILGA Conference web page. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. The papers are published in journals Elektronika, I...

  6. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G., E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.i [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A. [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O.Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mehta, K. [Arbeiterstrandbad Strasse 72, Vienna, A-1210 (Austria); Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S. [Aerial, Parc d' Innovation Rue Laurent Fries F-67400 Illkirch (France)

    2010-03-11

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  7. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  8. Contributions to the 14th Symposium on fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ENEA contributions to the 14. Symposium on fusion technology is represented by 15 papers. They are dealing mainly with the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade), a device under construction, through which high densities and confinement times will be obtained

  9. Processing and characterization of device solder interconnection and module attachment for power electronics modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shatil

    This research is focused on the processing of an innovative three-dimensional packaging architecture for power electronics building blocks with soldered device interconnections and subsequent characterization of the module's critical interfaces. A low-cost approach termed metal posts interconnected parallel plate structure (MPIPPS) was developed for packaging high-performance modules of power electronics building blocks (PEBB). The new concept implemented direct bonding of copper posts, not wire bonding of fine aluminum wires, to interconnect power devices as well as joining the different circuit planes together. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this packaging approach by constructing PEBB modules (consisting of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs), diodes, and a few gate driver elements and passive components). In the 1st phase of module fabrication with IGBTs with Si3N 4 passivation, we had successfully fabricated packaged devices and modules using the MPIPPS technique. These modules were tested electrically and thermally, and they operated at pulse-switch and high power stages up to 6kW. However, in the 2nd phase of module fabrication with polyimide passivated devices, we experienced significant yield problems due to metallization difficulties of these devices. The under-bump metallurgy scheme for the development of a solderable interface involved sputtering of Ti-Ni-Cu and Cr-Cu, and an electroless deposition of Zn-Ni-Au metallization. The metallization process produced excellent yield in the case of Si3N4 passivated devices. However, under the same metallization schemes, devices with a polyimide passivation exhibited inconsistent electrical contact resistance. We found that organic contaminants such as hydrocarbons remain in the form of thin monolayers on the surface, even in the case of as-received devices from the manufacturer. Moreover, in the case of polyimide passivated devices, plasma cleaning introduced a few carbon constituents on the

  10. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengseng [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Kailiang, E-mail: kailiang_zhang@163.com [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Ruixia, E-mail: yangrx@hebut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  11. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mengseng; Zhang, Kailiang; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  12. Effects and Satisfaction of Medical Device Safety Information Reporting System Using Electronic Medical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Jung; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Nam Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes an evaluation study on the effectiveness of developing an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system for managing safety information, including adverse incident data related to medical devices, following the enactment of the Medical Device Act in Korea. Medical device safety information reports were analyzed for 190 cases that took place prior to the application of a medical device safety information reporting system and during a period when the reporting system was used. Also, questionnaires were used to measure the effectiveness of the medical device safety information reporting system. The analysis was based on the questionnaire responses of 15 reporters who submitted reports in both the pre- and post-reporting system periods. Sixty-two reports were submitted in paper form, but after the system was set up, this number more than doubled to 128 reports in electronic form. In terms of itemized reporting, a total of 45 items were reported. Before the system was used, 23 items had been reported, but this increased to 32 items after the system was put to use. All survey variables of satisfaction received a mean of over 3 points, while positive attitude , potential benefits , and positive benefits all exceeded 4 points, each receiving 4.20, 4.20, and 4.13, respectively. Among the variables, time-consuming and decision-making had the lowest mean values, each receiving 3.53. Satisfaction was found to be high for system quality and user satisfaction , but relatively low for time-consuming and decision-making . We were able to verify that effective reporting and monitoring of adverse incidents and the safety of medical devices can be implemented through the establishment of an in-hospital medical device safety information reporting system that can enhance patient safety and medical device risk management.

  13. Use of high-thermal conductive aluminum nitride based ceramics in vacuum UHF electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasnyk V. I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of properties and characteristics of the alumina, beryllium oxide and aluminum nitride based ceramic materials used in UHF electronic devices has been made. It was shown that the complex of parameters including structural and functional characteristics of the high-thermal conductive aluminum nitride ceramics prevail over all types of alumina ceramics and is not lower than the same characteristics of the beryllium oxide ceramics especially at the temperatures higher than 450 °C. The examples of the prevailing use of the aluminum nitride ceramics inside vacuum UHF-region devices: TWT’s and klystrons.

  14. Radiation hardness and qualification of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, A.; Payat, R.

    1984-05-01

    After a brief review of radiation effects in semiconductors and radiation damage in semiconductor devices, the problems of qualification of electronic equipment to be used in nuclear reactors are compared to those relative to nuclear weapons or space experiments. The conclusion is that data obtained at very high dose rates or under pulsed irradiation in weapons and space programs should not be directly applied to nuclear plant instrumentation. The need for a specific qualification of semiconductor devices appropriate for nuclear reactors is emphasized. Some irradiation studies at IRDI/DEIN (CEN-Saclay) are related [fr

  15. Thin film diamond. Electronic devices for high temperature, high power and high radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, L.Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the ideal form diamond displays extreme physical, optical and electronic properties, making this material interesting for many device applications. However, natural or high pressure, high temperature synthesised forms of diamond are not useful since they are only available as small irregular crystallites and are expensive. The emergence of commercially accessible techniques for the formation of thin films of diamond over relatively large areas has changed this situation, enabling the prospects for the use of diamond as an electronic material to be truly evaluated. Thin film diamond is a defective polycrystalline material. It is difficult to dope n- and p-type and resists conventional chemical etching. Thus, despite the superlative properties of ideal diamond, the realisation of useful devices from this material is far from simple. This thesis considers how the problems may be overcome such that high performance diamond devices can be realised for use in high temperature, high power and high radiation environments. Following a review of the current state-of-the-art in diamond device technology the experimental techniques used throughout this study are summarised. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been designed for operation at high (>300 deg. C) temperatures. Boron-doped (p-type) diamond was used to form the active channel, with insulating diamond acting as the gate to the FET structure. Polycrystalline diamond devices with the highest yet reported transconductance values, which display full turn-off characteristics have been produced. To enable room temperature operation, where boron is an ineffective dopant, a novel doping approach has been established using hydrogen; devices with transconductance, power handling and full pinch-off characteristic have been realised for the first time with this approach. More complex devices require patterning of the diamond substrate material; reactive ion etching using oxygen and chlorinated fluorocarbons have been studied

  16. The Impact of Electronic Mobility Devices for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Systematic Review of Effects and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Soede, Mathijs; de Witte, Luc P.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of the international literature was conducted to investigate the effects and effectiveness of electronic mobility devices. Of the 13 studies that were reviewed, all but one demonstrated effects of the use of these devices, and generally, users evaluated the devices' functionality as beneficial. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Low-Dimensional Heterogeneous Systems: Materials and Device Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Mahesh Raj

    Due to the aggressive miniaturization of memory and logic devices, the current technologies based on silicon have nearly reached their ultimate size limit. One method to maintain the trend in device scaling observed by Moore's law is to create a heterostructure from existing materials and utilize the underlying electronic and optical properties. Another radical approach is the conceptualization of a new device design paradigm. The central objective of this thesis is to use both of these approaches to address issues associated with the aggressive scaling of memory and logic devices such as leakage current, leakage power, and minimizing gate oxide thickness and threshold voltage. In the first part of the dissertation, an atomistic, empirical tight binding method was used to perform a systematic investigation of the effect of physical (shape and size), and material dependent (heterogenity and strain) properties on the device related electronic and optical properties of the Germanium (Ge)/Silicon (Si) nanocrystal (NC) or quantum dot (QD). The device parameters pertaining to Ge-core/Si-shell NC-based floating gate memory and optical devices such as confinement energy, retention lifetimes and optical intensities are captured and analyzed. For both the memory and optical device applications, regardless of the shape and size, the Ge-core is found to play an important role in modifying the confinement energy and carrier dynamics. However, the variation in the thickness of outer Si-shell layer had no or minimal effect on the overall device parameters. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a systematic study of the effect of atomistic heterogeneity on the vibrational properties of quasi-2D systems and recently discovered 2D materials such as graphene, while investigating their applicabilities in future devices applications. At first, we investigate the vibrational properties of an experimentally observed misoriented bilayer graphene (MBG) system, a

  18. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of implanting electronic devices such as transmitters and data loggers into captive and free-ranging animals has increased greatly in the past two decades. The devices have become smaller, more reliable, and more capable (Printz 2004; Wilson and Gifford 2005; Metcalfe et al. 2012). Compared with externally mounted devices, implanted devices are largely invisible to external viewers such as tourists and predators; exist in a physically protected, thermally stable environment in mammals and birds; and greatly reduce drag and risk of entanglement. An implanted animal does not outgrow its device or attachment method as can happen with collars and harnesses, which allows young animals to be more safely equipped. However, compared with mounting external devices, implantation requires greater technical ability to perform the necessary anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery. More than 83% of publications in the 1990s that used radiotelemetry on animals assumed that there were no adverse effects on the animal (Godfrey and Bryant 2003). It is likely that some studies using implanted electronic devices have not been published due to a high level of unexpected mortality or to aberrant behavior or disappearance of the implanted animals, a phenomenon known as the “file drawer” problem (Rosenthal 1979; Scargle 2000). The near absence of such studies from the published record may be providing a false sense of security that procedures being used are more innocuous than they actually are. Similarly, authors sometimes state that it was unlikely that device implantation was problematic because study animals appeared to behave normally, or authors state that previous investigators used the same technique and saw no problems. Such statements are suppositions if no supporting data are provided or if the animals were equipped because there was no other way to follow their activity. Moreover, such suppositions ignore other adverse effects that affect behavior indirectly, and

  19. Measurement and production of electron deflection using a sweeping magnetic device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damrongkijudom, N.; Oborn, B.; Rosenfeld, A.; Butson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deflection and removal of high energy electrons produced by a medical linear accelerator has been attained by a Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) permanent magnetic deflector device. This work was performed in an attempt to confirm the theoretical amount of electron deflection which could be produced by a magnetic field for removal of electrons from a clinical x-ray beam. This was performed by monitoring the paths of mostly monoenergetic clinical electron beams (6MeV to 20MeV) swept by the magnetic fields using radiographic film and comparing to first order deflection models. Results show that the measured deflection distance for 6 MeV electrons was 18 ± 6 cm and the calculated deflection distance was 21.3 cm. For 20 MeV electrons, this value was 5 ± 2 cm for measurement and 5.1 cm for calculation. The magnetic fields produced can thus reduce surface dose in treatment regions of a patient under irradiation by photon beams and we can predict the removal of all electron contaminations up to 6 MeV from a 6 MV photon beam with the radiation field size up to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The model can also estimate electron contamination still present in the treatment beam at larger field sizes

  20. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  1. Electron beam gun with kinematic coupling for high power RF vacuum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, Philipp

    2016-11-22

    An electron beam gun for a high power RF vacuum device has components joined by a fixed kinematic coupling to provide both precise alignment and high voltage electrical insulation of the components. The kinematic coupling has high strength ceramic elements directly bonded to one or more non-ductile rigid metal components using a high temperature active metal brazing alloy. The ceramic elements have a convex surface that mates with concave grooves in another one of the components. The kinematic coupling, for example, may join a cathode assembly and/or a beam shaping focus electrode to a gun stem, which is preferably composed of ceramic. The electron beam gun may be part of a high power RF vacuum device such as, for example, a gyrotron, klystron, or magnetron.

  2. Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

  3. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment...... therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged ≥66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6...... (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88...

  4. A novel and compact nanoindentation device for in situ nanoindentation tests inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanomechanical tests provide a unique insight into mechanical behaviors of materials, such as fracture onset and crack propagation, shear band formation and so on. This paper presents a novel in situ nanoindentation device with dimensions of 103mm×74mm×60mm. Integrating the stepper motor, the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge, the device can realize coarse adjustment of the specimen and precision loading and unloading of the indenter automatically. A novel indenter holder was designed to guarantee that the indenter penetrates into and withdraws from the specimen surface vertically. Closed-loop control of the indentation process was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator and to enrich the loading modes. The in situ indentation test of Indium Phosphide (InP inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM was carried out and the experimental result indicates the feasibility of the developed device.

  5. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  6. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator.

  7. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-25

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, solar cells, or all-optical switches. In the present document, we choose to focus the discussion on organic all-optical switching applications. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  8. Electronic and Microbiological Detection, Investigation, and Surveillance for Potential Hospital- Acquired Device Associated Infections at ERCP.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Duodenoscopy, done 700,000 times annually, is potentially life saving in biliary and pancreatic disease. ERCP is prone to device associated infections due to a complex elevator mechanism and slim margin of safety in scope reprocessing with a high microbial burden. Nosocomial infections are difficult to detect without a marker organism or antibiotic phenotype. A cluster of ESBL infections was detected by electronic surveillance in 2014 in a large 865 bed facility. Methods U...

  9. Hydrogen doped thin film diamond. Properties and application for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The face centered cubic allotrope of carbon, diamond, is a semiconducting material which possesses a valuable combination of extreme properties such as super-hardness, highest thermal conductivity, chemical hardness, radiation hardness, wide bandgap and others. Advances in chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have lead to diamond becoming available in previously unattainable forms for example over large areas and with controllable purity. This has generated much research interest towards developing the knowledge and processing technology that would be necessary to fully exploit these extreme properties. Electronic devices fabricated on oxidised boron doped polycrystalline CVD diamond (PCD) displayed very poor and inconsistent characteristic. As a result, many electronic applications of polycrystalline diamond films were confined to ultra-violet (UV) and other forms of device which relied on the high intrinsic resistivity on undoped diamond films. If commercially accessible PCD films are to advance in areas which involve sophisticated electronic applications or to compete with existing semiconductors, the need for a more reliable and fully ionised dopant is paramount. This thesis describes a unique dopant discovered within the growth surface of PCD films. This dopant is related to hydrogen which arises during the growth of diamond films. The aim of this study is to characterise and identify possible applications for this form of dopant. The mechanism for carrier generation remains unknown and based on the experimental results in this work, a model is proposed. The Hall measurements conducted on this conductive layer revealed a p-type nature with promising properties for electronic device application. A more detail study based on electrical and surface science methods were carried out to identify the stability and operating conditions for this dopant. The properties of metal-semiconductor contacts on these surfaces were investigated. The fundamental knowledge

  10. Conjugated polymer covalently modified graphene oxide quantum dots for ternary electronic memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Yaming; Yang, Xutong; Gu, Junwei; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-03

    Zero dimensional graphene oxide (GO) quantum dots (GOQDs) have been expected to play an important role in the development of new memory materials. When the size of GO was reduced to that of GOQDs, both the electron affinity and ionization potential of GO were found to be decreased, and this was followed by the elevation of lowest energy unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level. This implies that the electron withdrawing ability of GOQDs is weaker than that of GO. In this work, a novel arylamine-based polyazomethine covalently functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots (TPAPAM-GOQDs), which was synthesized using an amidation reaction, was for the first time used to fabricate a ternary memory device with a configuration of gold/TPAPAM-GOQDs/indium tin oxide. The current ratio of OFF : ON-1 : ON-2 was found to be 1 : 60 : 3000. Its conductive nature was also revealed using an in situ conductive atomic force microscopy technique. This memory device could potentially increase the memory capacity of the device from the conventional 2 n to 3 n when compared to binary memory devices.

  11. Design of Control System Device for Electron Gun Power Supply of 350 keV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Priyono; Budi Santosa; Taxwim

    2003-01-01

    The electron gun power supply control system of electron beam machine has been designed. Using this design regulator device for the electron gun power supply will be constructed. This regulator device was designed that it can be operated manually or automatically. Beside that, this was also provided with the safety system which is useful to scram the MBE when something wrong happened. The main components of the device are remote data communication system using infra red and fiber optic module, DC motor driver system, regulated transformer coupled by DC motor and operation panel system. (author)

  12. Interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator activity during electronic dental device use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, Jason J; Shah, Jignesh; Elayi, Claude Samy; Miller, Craig S

    2010-05-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine if electromagnetic interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) activity occurs during the operation of electronic dental devices. The authors tested nine electronic dental devices in vitro to assess their ability to interfere with the function of two pacemakers and two ICDs as determined by electrocardiographic telemetry. The pacing activity of both pacemakers and the dual-chamber ICD were inhibited during operation of the battery-operated composite curing light at between 2 and 10 centimeters from the generator or leads. The use of the ultrasonic scaler interfered with the pacing activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 17 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, the single-chamber pacemaker at 15 cm from the generator or leads and both ICDs at 7 cm from the leads. The operation of the ultrasonic cleaning system interfered with the activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 15 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, and of the single-chamber pacemaker at 12 cm. Operation of the electric toothbrush, electrosurgical unit, electric pulp tester, high- and low-speed handpieces, and an amalgamator did not alter pacing function. Select electronic dental devices interfere with pacemakers' and ICDs' sensing and pacing activity in vitro. Use of the ultrasonic scaler, ultrasonic cleaning system and battery-operated composite curing light may produce deleterious effects in patients who have pacemakers or ICDs.

  13. The Structural Characterisation of Risk in the R&D Process of Functional Raw Materials for Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chikamori, Yoji; Nasu, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    The electronic materials and electronics device industries remain important to Japan in spite of the general decline of the Japanese electronics industry. There is risk and uncertainty when developing functional materials in the electronics industry. However, studies examining the uncertainty and risk variables in the development of functional materials are scarce. This study examines incremental research and development (R&D) developed for raw functional materials for electronics. Our analys...

  14. 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Abstracts of the 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century are presented. The symposium was held 24-29 October 2010 in Moscow. The symposium included the following microsymposiums: Electrical double layer and electrochemical kinetics (from phenomenological to molecular level); New processes, materials and devices for successful electrochemical transformation of energy; Corrosion and protection of materials; General and local corrosion; Electroactive composition materials; Bioelectrochemistry. The Frumkin symposium includes plenary lectures, oral and poster presentations. Official language of the symposium is English [ru

  15. CHAIRMAN'S FOREWORD: First International Symposium on Advanced Nanodevices and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yoshinobu; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2008-03-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers from the First International Symposium on Advanced Nanodevices and Nanotechnology. This conference is a merging of the two previous series New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures and the Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices. This year's conference was held 2-7 December 2007 at the Waikoloa Beach Marriott on the Kohala coast of the big island of Hawaii. The scope of ISANN spans nano-fabrication through complex phase coherent mesoscopic systems including nano-transistors and nano-scale characterization. Topics of interest included: Nano-scale fabrication (high-resolution electron lithography, FIB nano-patterning SFM lithography, SFM stimulated growth, novel patterning, nano-imprint lithography, special etching, and SAMs) Nano-characterization (SFM characterization, BEEM, optical studies of nanostructures, tunneling, properties of discrete impurities, phase coherence, noise, THz studies, electro-luminescence in small structures) Nano-devices (ultra-scaled FETs, quantum SETs, RTDs, ferromagnetic, and spin devices, superlattice arrays, IR detectors with quantum dots and wires, quantum point contacts, non-equilibrium transport, simulation, ballistic transport, molecular electronic devices, carbon nanotubes, spin selection devices, spin-coupled quantum dots, nano-magnetics) Quantum coherent transport (quantum Hall effect, ballistic quantum systems, quantum computing implementations and theory, magnetic spin systems, quantum NEMs) Mesoscopic structures (quantum wires and dots, chaos, non-equilibrium transport, instabilities, nano-electro-mechanical systems, mesoscopic Josephson effects, phase coherence and breaking, Kondo effect) Systems of nano-devices (QCAs, systolic SET processors, quantum neural nets, adaptive effects in circuits, molecular circuits, NEMs) Nanomaterials (nanotubes, nanowires, organic and molecular materials, self-assembled nanowires, organic devices) Nano-bio-electronics

  16. Analysis of a hot electron light emitting device at low and high electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teke, A. [Baikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2001-08-16

    The electrical characterization of a tunable wavelength surface light-emitting device is reported. The device consists of p-GaAs and n-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As heterojunction containing an inversion layer on the p-side, and GaAs quantum wells on the n-side, and is referred to as HELLISH-2 (hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor heterojunction). We studied two HELLISH-2 devices by using standard Hall, SdH (Shubnikov de Haas) and high-speed I-V measurement techniques. 2D carrier density and transport mobility were obtained from standard Hall measurements and quantum lifetime and quantum mobility were determined from SdH measurements. A detailed analysis of the results has been performed to understand the scattering processes involved in device operation. We have concluded that a good knowledge of electrical parameters is important in order to optimize the device structures based on our model calculations. (orig.)

  17. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  18. Directed self-assembly of nanoparticle array: A single electron device platform to make novel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang

    The biggest attraction of building nanometer structures is the emergence of novel properties and phenomena at these length scales. In the discipline of electronics particularly, nanoscale bridges the gap between the microscopic quantum world to the macroscopic classical world. The bridge can be tailored to effectively affect the material properties. One of the well-known phenomena that is altered at the nanoscale is the electron transport through a metal, i.e. the Ohm's law. As the size of the metal particle reduces to nanometer, Ohm's law breaks down due to trapping of a single electron charge, i.e. local charging, that prohibits the subsequent steam of electrons to pass through. This phenomenon is referred to as the Coulomb blockade, where the current is blocked below a threshold bias, VT. However, to observe a robust VT, the system has to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Here, fabrication and construction of a nano-system using directed self-assembled network of 1D necklace of 10 nm Au particles are described, which exhibits a robust single electron effect with a record high VT of 7.5 V at room temperature and a subsequent current, I rise as ( V/VT -- 1)ζ, where ζ is a critical constant, usually around 2. These physical parameters can be precisely tuned by tailoring the dimension and topology of the ensemble. The finding is important as nanoparticle based Single Electron Devices (SEDs) have become of great interest due to their orders of magnitude high sensitivity to gating. For over six decades of research on SEDs, it is clear that V T > 2 V at room temperature is required to make a robust device to eliminate the omnipresent "quantum noise" in these systems. Our system has not only shown a room temperature VT of well above 2 V but also its easy integrability with microelectronics circuits. Detailed scientific studies have been performed on the formation and structure of necklace array to understand the assembly process. Subsequent modification of the

  19. Electron dynamics and energy conversion in O-type linear-beam devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, H. K.; Rowe, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A general nonlinear interaction theory is used to investigate the effects of transverse fields (i.e., radial circuit fields and radial space-charge fields) in traveling-wave amplifiers for a variety of beam-focusing conditions. Magnetic focusing fields which are periodic or tapered (increased) with distance along the device are considered in addition to uniform magnetic fields. Results are presented for Brillouin flow and near-Brillouin flow, and the minimum magnetic field strength required to effectively constrain the electron beam is determined as a function of the operating parameters for the various focusing systems. Confined flow is also examined for the uniform-field case in order to have a basis of comparison from which the effects of radial motion of the beam electrons can be determined. The results indicate the importance of transverse effects and further yield information on the stability of strongly modulated cylindrical electron beams.-

  20. Nanosecond-timescale spin transfer using individual electrons in a quadruple-quantum-dot device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Jovanovic, N.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech and Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-25

    The ability to coherently transport electron-spin states between different sites of gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots is an essential ingredient for a quantum-dot-based quantum computer. Previous shuttles using electrostatic gating were too slow to move an electron within the spin dephasing time across an array. Here, we report a nanosecond-timescale spin transfer of individual electrons across a quadruple-quantum-dot device. Utilizing enhanced relaxation rates at a so-called hot spot, we can upper bound the shuttle time to at most 150 ns. While actual shuttle times are likely shorter, 150 ns is already fast enough to preserve spin coherence in, e.g., silicon based quantum dots. This work therefore realizes an important prerequisite for coherent spin transfer in quantum dot arrays.

  1. [A design and study of a novel electronic device for cuff-pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shupeng; Li, Wei; Li, Wen; Song, Dejing; Chen, Desheng; Duan, Jun; Li, Chen; Li, Gang

    2017-06-01

    To design a novel electronic device for measuring the pressure in the cuff of the artificial airway; and to study the advantage of this device on continuous and intermittent cuff pressure monitoring. (1) a portable electronic device for cuff pressure measurement was invented, which could turn pressure signal into electrical signal through a pressure transducer. Meantime, it was possible to avoid pressure leak from the joint and the inside of the apparatus by modified Luer taper and sophisticated design. If the cuff pressure was out of the normal range, the apparatus could release a sound and light alarm. (2) Six traditional mechanical manometers were used to determine the cuff pressure in 6 tracheal tubes. The cuff pressure was maintain at 30 cmH 2 O (1 cmH 2 O = 0.098 kPa) by the manometer first, and repeated every 30 seconds for 4 times. (3) Study of continuous cuff pressure monitoring: We used a random number generator to randomize 6 tracheal tubes, 6 mechanical manometers and 6 our products by number 1-6, which has the same number of a group. Every group was further randomized into two balanced groups, one group used the mechanical manometer first, and the other used our product first. The baseline pressure was 30 cmH 2 O, measurement was performed every 4 hours for 6 times. When traditional mechanical manometer was used for cuff pressure monitoring, cuff pressure was decreased by an average of 2.9 cmH 2 O for each measurement (F = 728.2, P = 0.000). In study of continually monitoring, at each monitoring point, the pressure measured by electronic manometer was higher than the mechanical manometer. All the pressures measured by mechanical manometer were dropped below 20 cmH 2 O at 8th hour, and there was no pressure decrease below 20 cmH 2 O measured by electronic manometer in 24 hours by contrast. In study of intermittent monitoring, the same result was found. The pressure was dropped significantly with time when measured by mechanical manometer (F = 61.795, P

  2. Design and Fabrication of Nanoscale IDTs Using Electron Beam Technology for High-Frequency SAW Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency Rayleigh-mode surface acoustic wave (SAW devices were fabricated for 4G mobile telecommunications. The RF magnetron sputtering method was adopted to grow piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN thin films on the Si3N4/Si substrates. The influence of sputtering parameters on the crystalline characteristics of AlN thin films was investigated. The interdigital transducer electrodes (IDTs of aluminum (Al were then fabricated onto the AlN surfaces by using the electron beam (e-beam direct write lithography method to form the Al/AlN/Si3N4/Si structured SAW devices. The Al electrodes were adopted owing to its low resistivity, low cost, and low density of the material. For 4G applications in mobile telecommunications, the line widths of 937 nm, 750 nm, 562 nm, and 375 nm of IDTs were designed. Preferred orientation and crystalline properties of AlN thin films were determined by X-ray diffraction using a Siemens XRD-8 with CuKα radiation. Additionally, the cross-sectional images of AlN thin films were obtained by scanning electron microscope. Finally, the frequency responses of high-frequency SAW devices were measured using the E5071C network analyzer. The center frequencies of the high-frequency Rayleigh-mode SAW devices of 1.36 GHz, 1.81 GHz, 2.37 GHz, and 3.74 GHz are obtained. This study demonstrates that the proposed processing method significantly contributes to high-frequency SAW devices for wireless communications.

  3. 4th Abel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Eric; Jahren, Björn; Østvær, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Abel Symposium took place at the University of Oslo in August 2007. The goal of the symposium was to bring together mathematicians whose research efforts have led to recent advances in algebraic geometry, algebraic K-theory, algebraic topology, and mathematical physics. A common theme of this symposium was the development of new perspectives and new constructions with a categorical flavor. As the lectures at the symposium and the papers of this volume demonstrate, these perspectives and constructions have enabled a broadening of vistas, a synergy between once-differentiated subjects, and solutions to mathematical problems both old and new.

  4. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  5. Self-modulated field electron emitter: Gated device of integrated Si tip-on-nano-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhijun; Huang, Yifeng; Pan, Zhangxu; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Jun; Xu, Ningsheng

    2016-12-01

    We report the featured gated field electron emission devices of Si nano-tips with individually integrated Si nano-channels and the interpretation of the related physics. A rational procedure was developed to fabricate the uniform integrated devices. The electrical and thermal conduction tests demonstrated that the Si nano-channel can limit both the current and heat flows. The integrated devices showed the specialties of self-enhancement and self-regulation. The heat resistance results in the heat accumulation at the tip-apex, inducing the thermally enhanced field electron emission. The self-regulated effect of the electrical resistance is benefit for impeding the current overloading and prevents the emitters from a catastrophic breakdown. The nano-channel-integrated Si nano-tip array exhibited emission current density up to 24.9 mA/cm2 at a gate voltage of 94 V, much higher than that of the Si nano-tip array without an integrated nano-channel.

  6. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Rohit S; Burr, Geoffrey W; Virwani, Kumar; Jackson, Bryan; Padilla, Alvaro; Narayanan, Pritish; Rettner, Charles T; Shelby, Robert M; Bethune, Donald S; Rice, Philip M; Topuria, Teya; Kellock, Andrew J; Kurdi, Bülent; Raman, Karthik V; BrightSky, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Gopalakrishnan, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3–30× contrast), the operation of large (> 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (> 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1–7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (>1e7), a significant voltage margin V m (over which current <10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (< 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions < 30 nm and thicknesses < 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on Cu + mediated hole conduction. Circuit

  7. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Rohit S.; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Virwani, Kumar; Jackson, Bryan; Padilla, Alvaro; Narayanan, Pritish; Rettner, Charles T.; Shelby, Robert M.; Bethune, Donald S.; Raman, Karthik V.; BrightSky, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Kellock, Andrew J.; Kurdi, Bülent; Gopalakrishnan, Kailash

    2014-10-01

    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3-30× contrast), the operation of large (\\gt 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (\\gt 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1-7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (\\gt 1e7), a significant voltage margin {{V}m} (over which current \\lt 10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (\\lt 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions \\lt 30 nm and thicknesses \\lt 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on C{{u}+} mediated hole

  8. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Martínez-Domingo, Carme [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ramon, Eloi, E-mail: eloi.ramon@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Carrabina, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.carrabina@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gomes, Henrique Leonel, E-mail: hgomes@ualg.pt [Universidade do Algarve, Institute of Telecommunications, Faro (Portugal); Baumann, Reinhard R., E-mail: reinhard.baumann@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department of Printed Functionalities, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  9. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as "Bridging Platform". This transfer to "Bridging Platform" from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  10. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit

  11. Results of remote follow-up and monitoring in young patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvetti, Massimo S; Saputo, Fabio A; Palmieri, Rosalinda; Placidi, Silvia; Santucci, Lorenzo; Di Mambro, Corrado; Righi, Daniela; Drago, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Remote monitoring is increasingly used in the follow-up of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Data on paediatric populations are still lacking. The aim of our study was to follow-up young patients both in-hospital and remotely to enhance device surveillance. This is an observational registry collecting data on consecutive patients followed-up with the CareLink system. Inclusion criteria were a Medtronic device implanted and patient's willingness to receive CareLink. Patients were stratified according to age and presence of congenital/structural heart defects (CHD). A total of 221 patients with a device - 200 pacemakers, 19 implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and two loop recorders--were enrolled (median age of 17 years, range 1-40); 58% of patients were younger than 18 years of age and 73% had CHD. During a follow-up of 12 months (range 4-18), 1361 transmissions (8.9% unscheduled) were reviewed by technicians. Time for review was 6 ± 2 minutes (mean ± standard deviation). Missed transmissions were 10.1%. Events were documented in 45% of transmissions, with 2.7% yellow alerts and 0.6% red alerts sent by wireless devices. No significant differences were found in transmission results according to age or presence of CHD. Physicians reviewed 6.3% of transmissions, 29 patients were contacted by phone, and 12 patients underwent unscheduled in-hospital visits. The event recognition with remote monitoring occurred 76 days (range 16-150) earlier than the next scheduled in-office follow-up. Remote follow-up/monitoring with the CareLink system is useful to enhance device surveillance in young patients. The majority of events were not clinically relevant, and the remaining led to timely management of problems.

  12. 3S'83 Symposium on surface science. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Betz, G.; Husinsky, W.; Soellner, E.; Stoeri, H.; Varga, P.

    1983-01-01

    This symposium included the topics: electronic structure; ion-surface-interaction; surface structure; adsorption and reactivity; surface analysis; 60 papers were presented, only part of which pertain to INIS. (G.Q.)

  13. Electrochemistry, polymers and opto-electronic devices: a combination with a future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Marco-A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry came into life with the invention of the pile, by Volta in 1800. He combined different metal discs with a piece of tissue, swollen with an aqueous salt solution. The so-called Pila di Volta used a polymer for the first time in an electrochemical device and can be seen as a powerful idea to create new devices. Recently, polymers became an alternative to make thin and flexible devices. Thus, we find transparent plastic electrodes based on poly(ethylene terephtalate coated with a transition metal oxide. There are also polymer electrolytes based on complexes of inorganic salts and poly(ethylene oxide derivatives, with reasonable ionic conductivity in the absence of solvents. Finally, the electroactive polymers are efficient substitutes for the inorganic semiconductors because they can be synthetically tailored to produce the desired electronic answer. Combining these materials it is possible to assemble different types of electro-optical devices, like electrochromic, photoelectrochemical and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

  14. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  15. Infections in Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Diagnosis and Management in a Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Carretero, Encarnación; Arana Rueda, Eduardo; Lomas Cabezas, José Manuel; Laviana Martínez, Fernando; Villa Gil-Ortega, Manuel; Acosta Martínez, Jesús; Pedrote Martínez, Alonso; de Alarcón González, Arístides

    2017-05-01

    Infections in cardiac implantable electronic devices are increasing due to the expansion of the indications of these devices. The management of some aspects is controversial. Here, we report our broad experience. Between 1985 and 2015, 325 infections (196 local and 129 systemic) were registered; 28.5% of them were referred from other centers: 229 pacemakers, 69 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and 27 patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy. The follow-up was at least 1 year after hospital discharge. Percutaneous traction (PCT) was the most frequent procedure (n=280) in local (n=166) and systemic infections (n=114), with complete extraction of the system in 82.5% of the patients, clinical success in 89%, and few complications (2 deaths attributable to the technique). Overall mortality was 1% in local infections and 8% in systemic infections. After 212 complete PCT, a new device was placed in 209: of these, a contralateral system was implanted in the same procedure in 152 (73%) and in a second procedure in 57, with no differences in relapses (2 in the 1-stage procedure, and 1 in the 2-stage procedure). Percutaneous traction in experienced hands has good results with very few complications. It is possible to perform contralateral implantation of the new device on the same day without increasing the risk of relapse. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Electronic Devices Based On Electrooptical Behavior Of Heme-Like Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic-Glavaski, B.

    1986-02-01

    This paper discusses application of the electrically modulated and unusually strong Raman emitted light produced by an adsorbed monolayer of phthalocyanine molecules on silver electrode or silver bromide substrates and on neural membranes. The analysis of electronic energy levels in semiconducting silver bromide and the adsorbed phthalocyanine molecules suggests a lasing mechanism as a possible origin of the high enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman scattering. Electrically modulated Raman scattering may be used as a carrier of information which is drawn fran the fast intramolecular electron transfer aN,the multiplicity of quantum wells in phthalocyanine molecules. Fast switching times on the order of 10-13 seconds have been measured at room temperature. Multilevel and multioutput optical signals have also been obtained fran such an electrically modulated adsorbed monolayer of phthalocyanine molecules which can be precisely addressed and interrogated. This may be of practical use to develop Nlecular electronic devices with high density memory and fast parallel processing systems with a typical 1020 gate Hz/cm2 capacity at room temperature for use in optical computers. The paper also discusses the electrooptical modulation of Raman signals obtained from adsorbed bio-compatible phthalocyanine molecules on nerve membranes. This optical probe of neural systems can be used in studies of complex information processing in neural nets and provides a possible method for interfacing natural and man-made information processing devices.

  17. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.

    2015-08-06

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  18. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application. PMID:29510497

  19. Modal description of longitudinal space-charge fields in pulse-driven free-electron devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Lurie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In pulsed-beam free-electron devices, longitudinal space-charge fields result in collective effects leading to an expansion of short electron bunches along their trajectory. This effect restricts an application of intense ultrashort electron pulses in free-electron radiation sources. A careful theoretical treatment is required in order to achieve an accurate description of the self-fields and the resulted electron beam dynamics. In this paper, longitudinal space-charge fields are considered in the framework of a three-dimensional, space-frequency approach. The model is based on the expansion of the total electromagnetic field (including self-fields in terms of transverse eigenmodes of the (cold cavity, in which the field is excited and propagates. The electromagnetic field, originally obtained in the model as a solution of the wave equation, is shown to satisfy also Gauss’s law. We applied the theory to derive an analytical expression for the longitudinal electric field of a pointlike charge, moving along a waveguide at a constant velocity. This enables consideration and study of the role played by different terms of the resulted expressions, such as components arising from forward and backward waves, propagating waves, and under cutoff frequencies, and so on. Possible simplifications in evaluation of longitudinal space-charge fields are discussed.

  20. Toward sensitive graphene nanoribbon-nanopore devices by preventing electron beam-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, Matthew; Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Balan, Adrian; Drndić, Marija

    2013-12-23

    Graphene-based nanopore devices are promising candidates for next-generation DNA sequencing. Here we fabricated graphene nanoribbon-nanopore (GNR-NP) sensors for DNA detection. Nanopores with diameters in the range 2-10 nm were formed at the edge or in the center of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with widths between 20 and 250 nm and lengths of 600 nm, on 40 nm thick silicon nitride (SiN(x)) membranes. GNR conductance was monitored in situ during electron irradiation-induced nanopore formation inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating at 200 kV. We show that GNR resistance increases linearly with electron dose and that GNR conductance and mobility decrease by a factor of 10 or more when GNRs are imaged at relatively high magnification with a broad beam prior to making a nanopore. By operating the TEM in scanning TEM (STEM) mode, in which the position of the converged electron beam can be controlled with high spatial precision via automated feedback, we were able to prevent electron beam-induced damage and make nanopores in highly conducting GNR sensors. This method minimizes the exposure of the GNRs to the beam before and during nanopore formation. The resulting GNRs with unchanged resistances after nanopore formation can sustain microampere currents at low voltages (∼50 mV) in buffered electrolyte solution and exhibit high sensitivity, with a large relative change of resistance upon changes of gate voltage, similar to pristine GNRs without nanopores.

  1. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Steven; Deferme, Wim

    2018-03-03

    Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  2. Magy: Time dependent, multifrequency, self-consistent code for modeling electron beam devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botton, M.; Antonsen, T.M.; Levush, B.

    1997-01-01

    A new MAGY code is being developed for three dimensional modeling of electron beam devices. The code includes a time dependent multifrequency description of the electromagnetic fields and a self consistent analysis of the electrons. The equations of motion are solved with the electromagnetic fields as driving forces and the resulting trajectories are used as current sources for the fields. The calculations of the electromagnetic fields are based on the waveguide modal representation, which allows the solution of relatively small number of coupled one dimensional partial differential equations for the amplitudes of the modes, instead of the full solution of Maxwell close-quote s equations. Moreover, the basic time scale for updating the electromagnetic fields is the cavity fill time and not the high frequency of the fields. In MAGY, the coupling among the various modes is determined by the waveguide non-uniformity, finite conductivity of the walls, and the sources due to the electron beam. The equations of motion of the electrons are solved assuming that all the electrons traverse the cavity in less than the cavity fill time. Therefore, at each time step, a set of trajectories are calculated with the high frequency and other external fields as the driving forces. The code includes a verity of diagnostics for both electromagnetic fields and particles trajectories. It is simple to operate and requires modest computing resources, thus expected to serve as a design tool. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  4. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  5. Using an electronic portal imaging device for exit dose measurements in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganowicz, M.; Wozniak, B.; Bekman, A.; Maniakowski, Z.

    2003-01-01

    To present a method of determining the exit dose with the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The device used was the Portal Vision LC250 (Varian). The EPID signals on the central beam axis have been related to the exit dose. The exit dose measurements were performed with the ionisation chamber in the slab phantom at the distance of dose maximum from the exit surface of the phantom. EPID reading was investigated as a function of field size, phantom thickness and source-detector distance. The relation between dose rate and the EPID reading is described with empirical functions applicable to the obtained data. The exit dose is calculated from the EPID reading as a product of the calibration factor and appropriate correction factors. The determination of the exit dose rate from the EPID signal requires the knowledge of many parameters and earlier determination of essential characteristics. (author)

  6. Perioperative management for the prevention of bacterial infection in cardiac implantable electronic device placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Imai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have become important in the treatment of cardiac disease and placement rates increased significantly in the last decade. However, despite the use of appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates are increasing disproportionately to the implantation rate. CIED infection often requires explantation of all hardware, and at times results in death. Surgical site infection (SSI is the most common cause of CIED infection as a pocket infection. The best method of combating CIED infection is prevention. Prevention of CIED infections comprises three phases: before, during, and after device implantation. The most critical factors in the prevention of SSIs are detailed operative techniques including the practice of proper technique by the surgeon and surgical team.

  7. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  8. First rib and venous anomalies – Anatomical challenges for transvenous implantation of cardiac electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest W. Lau, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atypical anatomy may be encountered unexpectedly and undiagnosed in clinical practice, and this is especially important during the performance of interventional procedures such as transvenous implantation of cardiac electronic devices. The body of the first rib can be absent. If this not noticed, pneumo-/haemothroax may be induced during subclavian vein puncture as the needle may enter the first intercostal space rather than the costo-clavicular angle. The cephalic vein may pursue a supraclavicular course, the axillary vein may drain into an intercostal vein rather than the axillary vein, and the entire length of the axillary-subclavian-brachio-cephalic vein may be absent. Device implanters should be vigilant about the possibility of these anatomical variations, and be equipped with the knowledge and spectrum of alternative techniques needed to deal with them.

  9. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  10. Electron beam and mechanical lithographies as enabling factors for organic-based device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visconti, P.; Pisignano, D.; Della Torre, A.; Persano, L.; Maruccio, G.; Biasco, A.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Organic-based photonics and molecular electronics are attracting an increasing interest in modern science. The realization of high-resolution master structures by electron beam lithography (EBL) and their transfer to different organic functional materials by mechanical lithographies allow to fully exploit the wide flexibility of molecular systems for opto- and nanoelectronic devices. Planar nanojunctions, consisting of two metallic electrodes separated by an insulating medium, permit to test the molecular conduction properties. Since the typical size of a biomolecule is of the order of a few nanometer, hybrid molecular electronic (HME) devices need metallic electrodes separated by a nanometer-scale channel. Conversely, photonic applications often require 100 nm to 1 μm features on large areas. In this work, we report on the fabrication of both large-area periodic master structures with resolution down to 200 nm, and planar metallic electrodes with sub-10 nm separation obtained by EBL followed by metal electroplating deposition. The fabricated 3-terminal bio-nanodevices show a transistor-like behaviour with a maximum voltage gain of 0.76. Moreover, we developed a number of mechanical patterning methods, including soft hot embossing, rapid prototyping, sub-micrometer fluidics, high- and room-temperature nanoimprinting, to fabricate planar nanostructures on both biomolecular and organic materials. These allowed us a high-fidelity pattern transfer up to 100-nm scale resolution, without reducing the emission yields of light-emitting organics, thus opening the way to the one-step realization of organic-based confined optoelectronic devices

  11. Reliability of an Electronic Inspiratory Loading Device for Assessing Pulmonary Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Bong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jeong, Ju-Ri; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2016-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of an electronic inspiratory loading device for the assessment of pulmonary functions: maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity. Subjects were 50 patient volunteers in a rehabilitation hospital who had experienced their first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis during the previous 6 months (26 men, 24 women; mean age [±SD], 55.96 [±12.81] years), with no use of medications that could induce drowsiness, evidence of restrictive lung disease, history of asthma, use of psychotropic drugs, or alcohol consumption habit. Maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity for pulmonary functions were assessed using an electronic inspiratory loading device (PowerBreathe, K5, 2010) by 2 examiners, with patients in an unassisted sitting position, and 1 examiner re-assessed with same patients at the same time of a day after 1 week. Intra-class correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability. Intra-rater reliability ranged from intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)=0.959 to 0.986 in variables. For the inter-rater reliability between 2 examiners, the ICCs ranged from 0.933 to 0.985. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were good in variables (maximal inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity). The intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the pulmonary function measurements, maximum inspiratory pressure, peak inspiratory flow, and vital capacity, for the post-stroke patients was very high. The results suggest that the electronic inspiratory loading device would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment of pulmonary function.

  12. Electronic Properties and Device Applications of van-der-Waals Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Jacqueline de Dios

    Successful exfoliation of graphene and discoveries of its unique electrical and thermal properties have motivated searches for other quasi two-dimensional (2D) materials with interesting properties. The layered van der Waals materials can be cleaved mechanically or exfoliated chemically by breaking the relatively weak bonding between the layers. In this dissertation research I addressed a special group of inorganic van der Waals materials -- layered transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2, where M=Mo, W, Nb, Ta or Ti and X=S, Se or Te). The focus of the investigation was electronic properties of thin films of TaSe2 and MoS2 and their device applications. In the first part of the dissertation, I describe the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with the TaSe2 thin-film conducting channel. The layers of 2H-TaSe2 were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. It was established that devices with nanometer-scale thickness channels exhibited strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. It was found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe2--Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. In the second part of the dissertation, I describe the fabrication, electrical testing and measurements of the low-frequency 1/f noise in three-terminal devices with the MoS2 thin-film channel (f is the frequency). Analysis of the experimental data allowed us to distinguish channel and contact noise contributions for both as fabricated and aged devices. The noise characteristics of MoS 2--Ti/Au devices are in agreement with the McWhorter model description. The latter is contrary to what is observed in

  13. Polycrystalline intrinsic zinc oxide to be used in transparent electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, A.; Fortunato, E.; Goncalves, A.; Marques, A.; Aguas, H.; Pereira, L.; Ferreira, I.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present results of intrinsic/non-doped zinc oxide deposited at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering able to be used as a semiconductor material on electronic devices, like for example ozone gas sensors, ultra-violet detectors and thin film transistors. These films present a resistivity as high as 2.5x10 8 Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%. Concerning the structural properties, these films are polycrystalline presenting a uniform and very smooth surface

  14. [Evaluation of the dustiness of a bakery: an integrated system with an experimental electronic device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, R; Uva, J; Trani, G; Falco, S; Ancona, V; Petrera, L

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to environmental control in a bakery, based on an integration system of qualitative and quantitative information. The aim is to identify prevention policy for allergic disease. Specifically, the dust concentration evaluated continuously by deposimeters and the realization of chemical-analytical investigations on flours samples, used in the production cycle, have given qualitative evaluation on powders dispersion; the integration of an electronic device, characterized by measurement reliability and low cost implementation, supported the development and evaluation of an environmental monitoring system in a bakery. The environmental control system could be used in other work environments where occupational asthma occurred.

  15. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  16. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  17. Image timing and detector performance of a matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Oncology Centre of Auckland Hospital recently purchased a Varian PortalVision TM electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Image acquisition times, input-output characteristics and contrast-detail curves of this matrix liquid ion-chamber EPID have been measured to examine the variation in imaging performance with acquisition mode. The variation in detector performance with acquisition mode has been examined. The HV cycle time can be increased to improve image quality. Consideration should be given to the acquisition mode and HV cycle time used when imaging to ensure adequate imaging performance with reasonable imaging time. (author)

  18. Review of electron beam microinstabilities and their relevance to EBIS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory and some examples of microinstabilities are briefly reviewed. Although the velocity space configuration of any EBIS is inherently susceptible to a number of classical beam microinstabilities, the small radial dimension of an EBIS plasma may prevent modes from occurring in EBIS traps due to physical limitation. In EBIS devices with high electron beam compression, where the potential for beam microinstabilities is great, the radial dimension is smaller than the Debye length, which renders plasma kinetic theory invalid. Potential for parametric instabilities exists due to coupling of structure excited modes into plasma modes by various mode-mode coupling ''decay'' processes

  19. Device controllers using an industrial personal computer of the PF 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Kakihara, Kazuhisa; Ogawa, Yujiro; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Shidara, Tetsuo; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Device controllers for electron guns and slits using an industrial personal computer have been designed and installed in the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK. The design concept of the controllers is to realize a reliable system and good productivity of hardware and software by using an industrial personal computer and a programmable sequence controller. The device controllers have been working reliably for several years. (author)

  20. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  1. Corrosion failure due to flux residues in an electronic add-on device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion of components and sub-assemblies on an electronic Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) is a major reliability concern. Both process and user related contamination will influence the corrosion reliability of a PCBA and the electronic device as a whole. An important process related...... contamination is solder flux residues which can act as a corrosion promoter in humid atmosphere due to the presence of ionic substances and a resin component. The presence of ionic substances will increase the conductivity of a condensed water layer and influence corrosion processes, depending on the species...... of the electrochemical behavior metallic materials (alloys) used in the switch and risk of electrochemical migration (ECM) between the switch components in presence of flux residues was also carried out. Investigations included potentiodynamic polarization measurements on the switch electrodes using a micro...

  2. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  3. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  4. Performance evaluation of aluminum/phosphate cell for powering small electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gymama Slaughter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an innovative membrane-free aluminum/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminum (Al as anodic material using ZnO nanocrystal in phosphate rich electrolyte that is capable of generating sufficient power to power a light-emitting diode (LED, selected as a model of a small electronic device. The energy from the cell is periodically supplied in high power bursts due to the charge and discharge cycle of the capacitor. The entire process is controlled by a switched capacitor regulator. The Al/phosphate cell was studied in neutral 100 mM phosphate buffer solution (7.4 at a temperature of 25 °C. We demonstrate that two Al/phosphate cells connected in series can generate an open circuit voltage (Voc up to 1.66 V to continuously power a LED via a switched capacitor regulator circuit. The switched capacitor regulator circuit enabled the 1 μF capacitor to store the incoming power from the cell and discharge it in a large power burst to supply the necessary drive strength required by the LED. This new Al/phosphate cell configuration is a ‘green’ alternative to the use of glucose abiotic and biofuel cells for powering ultra-low power implantable electronic devices.

  5. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Software Element of the NASA Portable Electronic Device Radiated Emissions Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Williams, Reuben A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory (HIRF Lab) recently conducted a series of electromagnetic radiated emissions tests under a cooperative agreement with Delta Airlines and an interagency agreement with the FAA. The frequency spectrum environment at a commercial airport was measured on location. The environment survey provides a comprehensive picture of the complex nature of the electromagnetic environment present in those areas outside the aircraft. In addition, radiated emissions tests were conducted on portable electronic devices (PEDs) that may be brought onboard aircraft. These tests were performed in both semi-anechoic and reverberation chambers located in the HIRF Lab. The PEDs included cell phones, laptop computers, electronic toys, and family radio systems. The data generated during the tests are intended to support the research on the effect of radiated emissions from wireless devices on aircraft systems. Both tests systems relied on customized control and data reduction software to provide test and instrument control, data acquisition, a user interface, real time data reduction, and data analysis. The software executed on PC's running MS Windows 98 and 2000, and used Agilent Pro Visual Engineering Environment (VEE) development software, Common Object Model (COM) technology, and MS Excel.

  7. Dose patient verification during treatment using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Today, amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (aSi EPID) are currently used to check the accuracy of patient positioning. However, they are not use for dose reconstruction yet and more investigations are required to allow the use of an aSi EPID for routine dosimetric verification. The aim of this work is first to study the dosimetric characteristics of the EPID available at the Institut Curie and then, to check patient dose during treatment using these EPID. First, performance optimization of the Varian aS500 EPID system is studied. Then, a quality assurance system is set up in order to certify the image quality on a daily basis. An additional study on the dosimetric performance of the aS500 EPID is monitored to assess operational stability for dosimetry applications. Electronic portal imaging device is also a useful tool to improve IMRT quality control. The validation and the quality assurance of a portal dose image prediction system for IMRT pre-treatment quality control are performed. All dynamic IMRT fields are verified in clinical routine with the new method based on portal dosimetry. Finally, a new formalism for in vivo dosimetry using transit dose measured with EPID is developed and validated. The absolute dose measurement issue using aSi EPID is described and the midplane dose determination using in vivo dose measurements in combination with portal imaging is used with 3D-conformal-radiation therapy. (author) [fr

  8. Investigation of the Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) Electron Resist as Insulating Material in Phase Change Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Ji, Hongkai; Lan, Tian; Yan, Junbing; Zhou, Wenli; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) affords many advantages over conventional solid-state memories due to its nonvolatility, high speed, and scalability. However, high programming current to amorphize the crystalline phase through the melt-quench process of PCRAM, known as the RESET current, poses a critical challenge and has become the most significant obstacle for its widespread commercialization. In this work, an excellent negative tone resist for high resolution electron beam lithography, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), has been investigated as the insulating material which locally blocks the contact between the bottom electrode and the phase change material in PCRAM devices. Fabrications of the highly scaled HSQ nanopore arrays (as small as 16 nm) are presented. The insulating properties of the HSQ material are studied, especially under e-beam exposure plus thermal curing. Some other critical issues about the thickness adjustment of HSQ films and the influence of the PCRAM electrode on electron scattering in e-beam lithography are discussed. In addition, the HSQ material was successfully integrated into the PCRAM devices, achieving ultra-low RESET current (sub-100 μA), outstanding on/off ratios (~50), and improved endurance at tens of nanometers.

  9. Thermal dissipation media for high power electronic devices using a carbon nanotube-based composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Hung Thang; Nguyen, Van Chuc; Pham, Van Trinh; Ngo, Thi Thanh Tam; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2011-01-01

    Challenges in the thermal dissipation of an electronic package arise from the continuous increase in power density of higher-power devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known as the highest thermal conductivity material (2000 W mK −1 ). This excellent thermal property suggests an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dispersion materials to solve the aforementioned problems. In this work, we present an effect of thermal dissipation of the CNTs in the high-brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED) and micro-processor. For the thermal dissipation of the HB-LED, a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) film on a Cu substrate was applied. Meanwhile, for the thermal dissipation of a micro-processor, the composite of commercial thermal paste/CNTs was used instead of the VA-CNTs. The experimental and simulation results have confirmed the advantages of the VA-CNT film and thermal paste/CNT composite as excellent thermal dissipation media for HB-LEDs, μ-processors and other high power electronic devices

  10. Improvement of radiotherapy treatment delivery accuracy using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkx, M. L. P.; De Boer, J. C. J.; Heijmen, B. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable application of advanced external beam techniques for the treatment of patients with cancer, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, requires an adequate quality assurance programme for the verification of the dose delivery. Accurate patient positioning is mandatory because of the steep dose gradients outside the tumour volume. Owing to the increased complexity of the treatment planning and delivery techniques, verification of the dose delivery before and during the actual patient treatment is equally important. For this purpose, a quality assurance programme has been established in our clinic that is primarily based on measurements with electronic portal imaging devices. To minimise systematic set-up errors, the patient positioning is measured in the first few treatment fractions and a set-up correction is applied in the subsequent ones. Before the first treatment fraction, portal dose measurements are performed for each treatment field with the electronic portal imaging device to verify that the planned fluence distribution is correctly delivered at the treatment unit. Dosimetric measurements are also performed during patient treatment to derive the actually delivered fluence maps. By combining this information with knowledge on the patient set-up, the delivered 3-D dose distribution to both the tumour and sensitive organs may be assessed. However, for the highest accuracy, exact knowledge on the (internal) patient geometry during treatment, e.g. using a cone-beam CT, is required. (authors)

  11. Enhancement of Natural Convection by Carbon Nanotube Films Covered Microchannel-Surface for Passive Electronic Cooling Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Jiang, Shaohui; Yao, Wei; Liu, Changhong

    2016-11-16

    Owing to the outstanding properties of thermal conduction, lightweight, and chemical durability, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have revealed promising applications in thermal management materials. Meanwhile, the increasingly popular portable electronics and the rapid development of space technology need lighter weight, smaller size, and more effective thermal management devices. Here, a novel kind of heat dissipation devices based on the superaligned CNT films and underlying microchannels is proposed, and the heat dissipation properties are measured at the natural condition. Distinctive from previous studies, by combining the advantages of microchannels and CNTs, such a novel heat dissipation device enables superior natural convection heat transfer properties. Our findings prove that the novel CNT-based devices could show an 86.6% larger total natural heat dissipation properties than bare copper plate. Further calculations of the radiation and natural convection heat transfer properties demonstrate that the excellent passive cooling properties of these CNT-based devices are primarily caused by the reinforcement of the natural convection heat transfer properties. Furthermore, the heat dissipation mechanisms are briefly discussed, and we propose that the very high heat transfer coefficients and the porous structures of superaligned CNT films play critical roles in reinforcing the natural convection. The novel CNT-based heat dissipation devices also have advantages of energy-saving, free-noise, and without additional accessories. So we believe that the CNT-based heat dissipation devices would replace the traditional metal-finned heat dissipation devices and have promising applications in electronic devices, such as photovoltaic devices, portable electronic devices, and electronic displays.

  12. Determination of Receiver Susceptibility to Radio Frequency Interference from Portable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing pressures to allow wireless devices on aircraft, the susceptibility of aircraft receivers to interference from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) becomes an increasing concern. Many investigations were conducted in the past, with limited success, to quantify device emissions, path loss, and receiver interference susceptibility thresholds. This paper outlines the recent effort in determining the receiver susceptibility thresholds for ILS, VOR and GPS systems. The effort primarily consists of analysis of data available openly as reported in many RTCA and ICAO documents as well as manufacturers data on receiver sensitivity. Shortcomings with the susceptibility threshold data reported in the RTCA documents are presented, and an approach for an in-depth study is suggested. In addition, intermodulation products were observed and demonstrated in a laboratory experiment when multiple PEDs were in the proximity of each other. These intermodulation effects generate spurious frequencies that may fall within aircraft communication or navigation bands causing undesirable effects. Results from a preliminary analysis are presented that show possible harmful combinations of PEDs and the potentially affected aircraft bands.

  13. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  14. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Henry L; Roth, Daniel B; Fine, Howard F; Prenner, Jonathan L; Modi, Kunjal K; Feuer, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims . To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods . A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF), iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF), Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM) and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA). Results . Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0), iPad2 at 12PF (209.1), Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3), Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7), and printed book at 12PF (176.8). Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions . Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  15. Study of the effect of heavy ion energy on the sensitivity of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the sensitivity of advanced electronic devices in radiative environments. The work deals with the detailed modeling of the deposited energy induced by heavy-ion in matter, and the influence of taking it into account in the tools simulating the response of irradiated devices. To do so, a simulation chain was developed, combining different calculation codes at various scales. In a first step, the particle-matter interaction code Geant4 is used to model the heavy ion track. These tracks are then implemented in a TCAD simulator, in order to study the response of elementary transistors to these detailed energy deposits. This step is completed with experimental measurements. Finally, the study is extended to the circuit level, by interfacing the heavy ion tracks with a SEE prediction tool. These different steps evidence the need for taking into account the radial extension of the ion track to all simulation levels, to adequately model the response of advanced devices under heavy ion irradiations. (author) [fr

  16. Nanoscale RRAM-based synaptic electronics: toward a neuromorphic computing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangsu; Noh, Jinwoo; Choo, Myung-lae; Sheri, Ahmad Muqeem; Jeon, Moongu; Lee, Byung-Geun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Chang, Man; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Chang Jung; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop scalable learning algorithms for implementation of networks of spiking neurons in silicon have been hindered by the considerable footprints of learning circuits, which grow as the number of synapses increases. Recent developments in nanotechnologies provide an extremely compact device with low-power consumption. In particular, nanoscale resistive switching devices (resistive random-access memory (RRAM)) are regarded as a promising solution for implementation of biological synapses due to their nanoscale dimensions, capacity to store multiple bits and the low energy required to operate distinct states. In this paper, we report the fabrication, modeling and implementation of nanoscale RRAM with multi-level storage capability for an electronic synapse device. In addition, we first experimentally demonstrate the learning capabilities and predictable performance by a neuromorphic circuit composed of a nanoscale 1 kbit RRAM cross-point array of synapses and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor neuron circuits. These developments open up possibilities for the development of ubiquitous ultra-dense, ultra-low-power cognitive computers. (paper)

  17. Clinical Inferences of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Analysis at Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-09-20

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) removal and interrogation are recommended at autopsy in suspected cases of sudden cardiac death, but data on the role of nonselective post-mortem CIED (pacemaker or defibrillator) analysis in this setting are lacking. This study undertook an institutional registry analysis to determine the utility of systematic routine CIED removal, interrogation, and analysis at autopsy. From May 19, 2009, to May 18, 2015, autopsy subjects with a CIED at a Johns Hopkins University medical institution (Baltimore, Maryland) underwent CIED removal and interrogation by an electrophysiologist for clinical alerts. The CIED was then submitted for technical analysis by the manufacturer. The CIED interrogation, the manufacturer's technical analysis, and the final autopsy report were all cataloged in the Johns Hopkins Post-mortem CIED Registry. A total of 2,025 autopsies were performed; 84 subjects had CIEDs removed and analyzed. These devices included 37 pacemakers and 47 defibrillators. Overall, 43 subjects had died suddenly, and 41 had not died suddenly. Significant clinical alerts (sustained tachyarrhythmias or an elevated fluid index value) were seen in 62.8% cases of sudden deaths. In the nonsudden death cohort, 19.5% displayed a significant clinical alert. Significant association of CIED alerts were noted when comparing sudden deaths versus nonsudden deaths (p autopsies and to assist manufacturers in identifying potentially fatal device failures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF, iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF, Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA. Results. Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0, iPad2 at 12PF (209.1, Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3, Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7, and printed book at 12PF (176.8. Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions. Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  19. Conformable Skin-Like Conductive Thin Films with AgNWs Strips for Flexible Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang SUN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good conductivity at high stretching strain is one of the main requirements for the fabrication of flexible electronic devices. The elastic nature of siloxane-based elastomers enables many innovative designs in wearable sensor devices and non-invasive insertion instruments, including skin-like tactile sensors. Over the last few years, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS thin films have been widely used as the substrates in the fabrication of flexible electronic devices due to their good elasticity and outstanding biocompatibility. However, these kind of thin films usually suffer poor resistance to tearing and insufficient compliance to curved surfaces, which limits their applications. Currently no three-dimensionally mountable tactile sensor arrays have been reported commercially available. In this work, we developed a kind of mechanically compliant skin-like conductive thin film by patterning silver nano wire traces in strip-style on Dragon Skin® (DS substrates instead of PDMS. High cross- link quality was achieved then. To further improve the conductivity, a thin gold layer was coated onto the silver nanowires (AgNWs strips. Four different gold deposition routines have been designed and investigated by using different E-beam and spin coating processing methods. Owning to the intrinsically outstanding physical property of the Dragon Skin material and the uniform embedment built in the gold deposition processes, the DS/AgNWs thin films showed convincible advantages over PDMS/AgNWs thin films in both mechanical capability and conductive stability. Through experimental tests, the DS/AgNWs electrode thin films were proven to be able to maintain high conductivity following repeated linear deformations.

  20. The 1956 CERN Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    CERN, currently the largest organization in the world for particle physics, was founded in 1954. Originally located in Meyrin, at the outskirts of the city of Geneva in Switzerland, it has with time extended into neighboring France. The Theoretical Study Division of CERN, however, was created already in 1952, i.e., before the official inauguration of CERN. It was situated in Copenhagen. Christian Møller [1] was appointed (part-time) as the Director and there were two full time senior staff members, Gunnar Källén and Ben R. Mottelson. While constructing buildings and accelerators were in progress, an international conference was organized by CERN in the city of Geneva. This “CERN Symposium on High Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics”, 11–23 June 1956, attracted about 250 participants from outside CERN, among them at least 18 Nobel Laureates or future Laureates. Unfortunately, the participants from CERN are not listed in the Proceedings [2]. The conference focused on measuring devices such as bubbl...

  1. Anomalous electron transport in metal/carbon multijunction devices by engineering of the carbon thickness and selecting metal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Dhand, Chetna; Rawal, Ishpal; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2017-06-01

    A longstanding concern in the research of amorphous carbon films is their poor electrical conductivity at room temperature which constitutes a major barrier for the development of cost effective electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we propose metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices as a promising facile way to overcome room temperature electron transport issues in amorphous carbon films. By the tuning of carbon thickness and swapping metal layers, we observe giant (upto ˜7 orders) reduction of electrical resistance in metal/carbon multijunction devices with respect to monolithic amorphous carbon device. We engineer the maximum current (electrical resistance) from about 10-7 to 10-3 A (˜107 to 103 Ω) in metal (Cu or Ti)/carbon hybrid multijunction devices with a total number of 10 junctions. The introduction of thin metal layers breaks the continuity of relatively higher resistance carbon layer as well as promotes the nanostructuring of carbon. These contribute to low electrical resistance of metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices, with respect to monolithic carbon device, which is further reduced by decreasing the thickness of carbon layers. We also propose and discuss equivalent circuit model to explain electrical resistance in monolithic carbon and metal/carbon multijunction devices. Cu/carbon multijunction devices display relatively better electrical transport than Ti/carbon devices owing to low affinity of Cu with carbon that restricts carbide formation. We also observe that in metal/carbon multijunction devices, the transport mechanism changes from Poole-Frenkel/Schottky model to the hopping model with a decrease in carbon thickness. Our approach opens a new route to develop carbon-based inexpensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Effects of Thermal Resistance on One-Dimensional Thermal Analysis of the Epidermal Flexible Electronic Devices Integrated with Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Cui, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, flexible electronic devices are increasingly used in direct contact with human skin to monitor the real-time health of human body. Based on the Fourier heat conduction equation and Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, this paper deduces the analytical solutions of one - dimensional heat transfer for flexible electronic devices integrated with human skin under the condition of a constant power. The influence of contact thermal resistance between devices and skin is considered as well. The corresponding finite element model is established to verify the correctness of analytical solutions. The results show that the finite element analysis agrees well with the analytical solution. With bigger thermal resistance, temperature increase of skin surface will decrease. This result can provide guidance for the design of flexible electronic devices to reduce the negative impact that exceeding temperature leave on human skin.

  3. Personal medical electronic devices and walk-through metal detector security systems: assessing electromagnetic interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; Witters, Donald

    2017-03-20

    There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system. Magnetic fields from sample WTMD systems were characterized for emissions and exposure of certain PMEDs. A WTMD simulator system designed and evaluated by FDA in previous studies was used to mimic the PMED exposures to the waveform from sample WTMDs. The simulation system allows for controlled PMED exposure enabling careful study with adjustable magnetic field strengths and exposure duration, and provides flexibility for PMED exposure at elevated levels in order to study EMI effects on the PMED. The PMED samples consisted of six implantable cardiac pacemakers, six implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), five implantable neurostimulators, and three insulin pumps. Each PMED was exposed in the simulator to the sample WTMD waveforms using methods based on appropriate consensus test standards for each of the device type. Testing the sample PMEDs using the WTMD simulator revealed EMI effects on two implantable pacemakers and one implantable neurostimulator for exposure field strength comparable to actual WTMD field strength. The observed effects were transient and the PMEDs returned to pre-exposure operation within a few seconds after removal from the simulated WTMD exposure fields. No EMI was observed for the sample ICDs or insulin pumps. The findings are consistent with earlier studies where certain sample PMEDs exhibited EMI effects. Clinical implications were not addressed in this study. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential PMED

  4. Non-volatile memory devices based on polystyrene derivatives with electron-donating oligofluorene pendent moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Liang; Hsu, Jung-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chang; Sugiyama, Kenji; Hirao, Akira

    2009-09-01

    We report bistable non-volatile memory devices based on polystyrene derivatives containing pendent electron-donating mono-, di-, and tri(9,9-dihexylfluorene), which are denoted as poly(St-Fl), poly(St-Fl(2)), and poly(St-Fl(3)), respectively. The effects of the oligofluorene chain lengths and polymer surface structures on the memory characteristics were explored. Poly(St-Fl)-, poly(St-Fl(2))-, and poly(St-Fl(3))-based devices exhibited a flash memory characteristic with different turn-on threshold voltages of 2.8, 2.0, and 1.8 V, respectively, which was on the reverse trend with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of -5.86, -5.80, and -5.77 eV. Moreover, the memory device showed a high ON/OFF current ratio of 2.5 x 10(4) and a long retention time of 10(4) s. The possible mechanism of the switching behavior was explained by the space-charge-limited-current theory and filamentary conduction. The larger aggregation domain size of the polymer thin film processed from the mixed solvent of chlorobenzene/N,N-dimethylformamide probably promoted the diffusion of the Al atoms into the polymer film and formed the conduction channel. Thus, it significantly reduced the turn-on threshold voltage on the studied polymer memory devices. The present study suggested that the polymer memory characteristics could be efficiently tuned through the pendent conjugated chain length and surface structures.

  5. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  6. Ultra-low-power electronics and devices for a multisensing RFID tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampolli, Stefano; Elmi, Ivan; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Scorzoni, Andrea; Cicioni, Michele; Marco, Santiago; Palacio, Francisco; Gómez-Cama, Jose M.; Sayhan, Ilker; Becker, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    A multisensing flexible Tag microlab (FTM) with RFID communication capabilities and integrated physical and chemical sensors for logistic datalogging applications is being developed. For this very specific scenario, several constraints must be considered: power consumption must be limited for long-term operation, reliable ISO compliant RFID communication must be implemented, and special encapsulation issues must be faced for reliable sensor integration. In this work, the developments on application specific electronic interfaces and on ultra-low-power MOX gas sensors in the framework of the GoodFood FP6 Integrated Project will be reported. The electronics for sensor control and readout as well as for RFID communication are based on an ultra-low-power MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments together with a custom RFID front-end based on analog circuitry and a CPLD digital device, and are designed to guarantee a passive ISO15693 compliant RFID communication in a range up to 6 cm. A thin film battery for sensor operation is included, allowing data acquisition and storage when no reader field is present. This design allows the user to access both the traceability and sensor information even when the on-board battery is exhausted. The physical sensors for light, temperature and humidity are commercially available devices, while for chemical gas sensing innovative MOX sensors are developed, based on ultra-low-power micromachined hotplate arrays specifically designed for flexible Tag integration purposes. A single MOX sensor requires only 8.9 mW for continuous operation, while temperature modulation and discontinuous sensor operation modes are implemented to further reduce the overall power consumption. The development of the custom control and RFID electronics, together with innovative ultra-low-power MOX sensor arrays with flexible circuit encapsulation techniques will be reported in this work.

  7. Influence of etching processes on electronic transport in mesoscopic InAs/GaSb quantum well devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atindra Nath Pal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the electronic characterization of mesoscopic Hall bar devices fabricated from coupled InAs/GaSb quantum wells sandwiched between AlSb barriers, an emerging candidate for two-dimensional topological insulators. The electronic width of the etched structures was determined from the low field magneto-resistance peak, a characteristic signature of partially diffusive boundary scattering in the ballistic limit. In case of dry-etching the electronic width was found to decrease with electron density. In contrast, for wet etched devices it stayed constant with density. Moreover, the boundary scattering was found to be more specular for wet-etched devices, which may be relevant for studying topological edge states.

  8. Influence of etching processes on electronic transport in mesoscopic InAs/GaSb quantum well devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Atindra Nath; Müller, Susanne; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Tschirky, Thomas; Charpentier, Christophe; Wegscheider, Werner [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich - 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    We report the electronic characterization of mesoscopic Hall bar devices fabricated from coupled InAs/GaSb quantum wells sandwiched between AlSb barriers, an emerging candidate for two-dimensional topological insulators. The electronic width of the etched structures was determined from the low field magneto-resistance peak, a characteristic signature of partially diffusive boundary scattering in the ballistic limit. In case of dry-etching the electronic width was found to decrease with electron density. In contrast, for wet etched devices it stayed constant with density. Moreover, the boundary scattering was found to be more specular for wet-etched devices, which may be relevant for studying topological edge states.

  9. Surface engineered two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials for electronic and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiang

    As the sizes of individual components in electronic and optoelectronic devices approach nano scale, the performance of the devices is often determined by surface properties due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. Surface phenomena have become one of the cornerstones in nanoelectronic industry. For this reason, research on the surface functionalization has been tremendous amount of growth over the past decades, and promises to be an increasingly important field in the future. Surface functionalization, as an effective technique to modify the surface properties of a material through a physical or chemical approach, exhibits great potential to solve the problems and challenges, and modulate the performance of nanomaterials based functional devices. Surface functionalization drives the developments and applications of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated by nanomaterials. In this thesis, I demonstrate two surface functionalization approaches, namely, surface transfer doping and H2 annealing, to effectively solve the problems and significantly enhance the performance of 2D (single structure black phosphorus (BP) and heterostructure graphene/Si Schottky junction), and quasi-1D (molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) nanobelt) nanomaterials based functional devices, respectively. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements were also carried out to explore the interfacial charge transfer occurring at the interface between the nanostructures and doping layers, and the gap states in MoO 3 thin films, which provides the underlying mechanism to understand and support our device measurement results. In the first part of this thesis, I will discuss the first surface functionalization approach, namely, surface transfer doping, to effectively modulate the ambipolar characteristics of 2D few-layer BP flakes based FETs. The ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors were effectively modulated through in situ surface functionalization with cesium carbonate (Cs2

  10. Diagnosis of acute puerperal metritis by electronic nose device analysis of vaginal discharge in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Bruins, M; Bos, A; Sannmann, I; Voigtsberger, R; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of an electronic nose device using vaginal discharge samples to diagnose acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows. Uterine fluid was sampled manually with a gloved hand and under sterile conditions for electronic nose device analysis (day in milk (DIM) 2, 5, and 10) and bacteriologic examination (DIM 5), respectively, and on additional days, if APM was diagnosed during the daily clinical examinations. A dataset containing samples from 70 cows was used to create a model and to validate the APM status predicted by this model, respectively. Half of the dataset (n = 35; 14 healthy and 21 metritic cows) was provided with information regarding the APM diagnosis and contained all three measurements (DIM 2, 5, and 10) for each cow and was used as a training set whereas the second half was blinded (n = 35; 14 healthy and 21 metritic cows) and contained only the samples collected on DIM 5 of each cow and was used to validate the created prediction model. A receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated using the prediction results of the validation test. The best observed sensitivity was 100% with specificity of 91.6% when using a threshold value of 0.3. The calculated P-value for the receiver operating characteristic curve was less than 0.01. Overall, Escherichia coli was isolated in eight of 28 (28.6%) and 22 of 42 (52.4%) samples collected from healthy and metritic cows, respectively. Trueperella pyogenes and Fusobacterium necrophorum were isolated in 14 and six of 28 (50.0% and 21.4%) and 17 and 16 of 42 (40.5% and 38.1%) samples collected from healthy and metritic cows, respectively. The prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes was similar in the samples obtained from metritic cows used for the training set and the validation test. The results are promising especially because of the objective nature of the measurements obtained by the electronic nose device. Copyright

  11. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Peter; wegener, rebekah

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... feedback and general advice in a constructive atmosphere. Doctoral researchers will present and discuss their research in a supportive atmosphere with other doctoral researchers and an international panel of established researchers that provide expert feedback. The workshop will take place on a single full...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  12. Electronic transport in semiconductor nanowires: physics studies and possible device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lars

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are attractive for physics as well as for applications due to the highly ideal character of their electronic and structural properties. We grow our III-V nanowires by what can be described as guided self-assembly, by which we can accurately control location as well as dimensions of epitaxially nucleated nanowires. The level of control of growth allows controlled formation of axial as well as radial heterostructures. I will describe studies of charge transport via single, double and multiple quantum dots positioned inside InAs/InP nanowires. Such studies have allowed detailed studies of the addition of electrons one-by-one, from the very first electron into an empty quantum dot to the addition of up to 50 electrons. By replacing the one-dimensional emitter by a small quantum dot in a double-dot configuration, the discrete character of the injecting state allows ever more detailed spectroscopic studies of the charge additions to the second dot. Comparisons will be made with transport through quantum dots defined by tunnel barriers induced via gating techniques. Finally, a recently developed technique for the formation vertical wrap-gate field-effect transistors around InAs nanowires will be described, suggesting interesting opportunities for the realization of high-speed and low-power transistors and circuits. The geometrical design of such nanowire wrap-gate field-effect transistors, offers exciting ways of formation of ultra-short transistor gate-lengths as well as the use of heterostructures to further enhance the performance of such devices.

  13. Development of control system for critical parameters of medical device sterilization at an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shlyakhov, I.N.; Tenishev, A.Eh.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The hard- and software interfaces that provide on-line control and archiving of the basic parameters of the medical device sterilization (electron energy, beam current, width and shape of the beam scan, the conveyor speed and the absorbed dose in the treated products) have been developed at a radiation-industrial installation LU-10 of NSC KIPT. The main primary sensor of the control system is a stack-type monitor-absorber of the beam located behind the line of movement of the processed objects. Continuous monitoring of the processing parameters is performed by measuring and analyzing the currents from the plates of the monitor in a mode of ''radiation shadow'' created by irradiated objects. The structure of the control system, how it works and the calibration procedures for measuring channels are described.

  14. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  15. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  16. Cardiac implantable electronic device and associated risk of infective endocarditis in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Bundgaard, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) are at increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) as are patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). However, few data exist on the IE risk after AVR surgery in patients with a CIED. Methods and results: Using the Danish...... administrative registries, we identified patients undergoing AVR from January 1996 to December 2015. Patients were categorized by CIED and non-CIED and followed up till hospitalization due to IE, death, 10 years after AVR discharge, end of study period (December 2015) or emigration, whichever came first. Using...... multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard analysis with time-varying exposure, we investigated whether CIED was associated with an increased risk of IE. We included 15 538 patients (median age 71.4 years, 25th-75th percentiles 63.7-77.1, and 65.2% male). There were 890 patients with a CIED; 531...

  17. Electronic frequency tuning of the acousto-optic mode-locking device of a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, L. N.; Balakshy, V. I.; Mantsevich, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of the electronic tuning of the acoustic resonances in an acousto-optic mode-locking device of a laser is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The problem of the excitation of a Fabry-Perot acoustic resonator by a plate-like piezoelectric transducer (PET) is solved in the approximation of plane acoustic waves taking into consideration the actual parameters of an RF generator and the elements for matching the PET to the generator. Resonances are tuned by changing the matching inductance that was connected in parallel to the transducer of the acousto-optic cell. The cell used in the experiment was manufactured from fused silica and included a lithium niobate PET. Changes in the matching inductance in the range of 0.025 to 0.2 μH provided the acoustic-resonance frequency tuning by 0.19 MHz, which exceeds the acoustic- resonance half-width.

  18. Radiotherapy-Induced Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Dysfunction in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Chamula, Mathilde; Brouillard, Émilie; Lavoie, Caroline; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Archambault, Louis; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Gaudreault, Valérie; Joncas, Sébastien X; Israeli, Zeev; Parviz, Yasir; Mamas, Mamas A; Lavi, Shahar

    2017-01-15

    Radiotherapy can affect the electronic components of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) resulting in malfunction and/or damage. We sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of CIED dysfunction (CIED-D) after radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Clinical characteristics, cancer, different types of CIEDs, and radiation dose were evaluated. The investigation identified 230 patients, mean age 78 ± 8 years and 70% were men. A total of 199 patients had pacemakers (59% dual chamber), 21 (9%) cardioverter-defibrillators, and 10 (4%) resynchronizators or defibrillators. The left pectoral (n = 192, 83%) was the most common CIED location. Sixteen patients (7%) experienced 18 events of CIED-D after radiotherapy. Reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction, and only 1 (6%) patient of those with CIED-D experienced symptoms of atrioventricular dyssynchrony. Those who had CIED-D tended to have a shorter device age at the time of radiotherapy compared to those who did not (2.5 ± 1.5 vs 3.8 ± 3.4 years, p = 0.09). The total dose prescribed to the tumor was significantly greater among those who had CIED-D (66 ± 30 vs 42 ± 23 Gy, p radiotherapy for cancer treatment, the occurrence of newly diagnosed CIED-D was 7%, and the reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction. The total dose prescribed to the tumor was a predictor of CIED-D. Importantly, although the unpredictability of CIEDs under radiotherapy is still an issue, none of our patients experienced significant symptoms, life-threatening arrhythmias, or conduction disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychiatrists’ Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtmann, Laura J.; Clarke, Diana E.; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K.; Plovnick, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists’ Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists’ comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted. PMID:26667248

  20. Radiographic implications of procedures involving cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs – Selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Steckiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED implantation procedures require the use of X-rays, which is reflected by such parameters as total fluoroscopy time (TFT and dose-area product (DAP – defined as the absorbed dose multiplied by the area irradiated. Material and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 522 CIED implantation (424 de novo and 98 device upgrade and new lead placement procedures in 176 women and 346 men (mean age 75±11 years over the period 2012–2015. The recorded procedure-related parameters TFT and DAP were evaluated in the subgroups specified below. The group of 424 de novo procedures included 203 pacemaker (PM and 171 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD implantation procedures, separately stratified by single-chamber and dual-chamber systems. Another subgroup of de novo procedures involved 50 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT devices. The evaluated parameters in the group of 98 upgrade procedures were compared between 2 subgroups: CRT only and combined PM and ICD implantation procedures. Results: We observed differences in TFT and DAP values between procedure types, with PM-related procedures showing the lowest, ICD – intermediate (with values for single-chamber considerably lower than those for dual-chamber systems and CRT implantation procedures – highest X-ray exposure. Upgrades to CRT were associated with 4 times higher TFT and DAP values in comparison to those during other upgrade procedures. Cardiac resynchronization therapy de novo implantation procedures and upgrades to CRT showed similar mean values of these evaluated parameters. Conclusions: Total fluoroscopy time and DAP values correlated progressively with CIED implantation procedure complexity, with CRT-related procedures showing the highest values of both parameters. Med Pr 2017;68(3:363–374

  1. Transaxillary Subpectoral Placement of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Young Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe current indications of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have expanded to include young patients with serious cardiac risk factors, but CIED placement has the disadvantage of involving unsightly scarring and bulging of the chest wall. A collaborative team of cardiologists and plastic surgeons developed a technique for the subpectoral placement of CIEDs in young female patients via a transaxillary approach.MethodsFrom July 2012 to December 2015, subpectoral CIED placement via an axillary incision was performed in 10 young female patients, with a mean age of 25.9 years and mean body mass index of 20.1 kg/m2. In the supine position, with the patient's shoulder abducted, an approximately 5-cm linear incision was made along one of the deepest axillary creases. The submuscular plane was identified at the lateral border of the pectoralis major, and the dissection continued over the clavipectoral fascia until the subpectoral pocket could securely receive a pulse generator. Slight upward dissection also exposed an entrance to the subclavian vein, allowing the cardiology team to gain access to the vein. One patient with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent augmentation mammoplasty and CIED insertion simultaneously.ResultsOne case of late-onset device infection occurred. All patients were highly satisfied with the results and reported that they would recommend the procedure to others.ConclusionsWith superior aesthetic outcomes compared to conventional methods, the subpectoral placement of CIEDs via a transaxillary approach is an effective, single-incision method to hide operative scarring and minimize bulging of the device, and is particularly beneficial for young female or lean patients.

  2. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  3. Electrospinning Technique for Organic Semiconductive Polymers Composites Coaxial Nanofibers for Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Garcia, William; Thomas, Sylvia

    This work is motivated by the need of new 1D structures for organic flexible electronic devices that does not rely on silicon. Formation of organic semiconductors coaxial p-n junctions and sensors using the electrospinning technique will be studied. Actual progressions in coaxial fibers lead to an advance in the usage of fibers in many fields, but, for the first time, two organic semiconductor polymers will form a p-n junction in a coaxial nanofiber structure, expecting functional diodes in the 100 nm range in diameter. Semiconducting polymers as P3HT and BBL, p- and n-type respectively, will be studied under the presence of UV radiation and organic gases. Is been shown in recent research on single fiber and fibrous electrospun p-n junctions shows an ideality factor of 2 and less when rectifying signals. Also, with high surface area to volume ratio can serve not only as a single fiber sensor but as a yarn sensor enhancing the sensitivity of the device. In regards to organic semiconducting coaxial p-n junction nanofibers, no reported studies have been conducted, making this study fundamental and essential for organic semiconducting flexible nanodevices. NSF Florida Georgia Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (FGLSAMP) Program.

  4. COST 516 Tribology Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    Cost 516 Tribology action is the first joint European research action focusing on tribology, which originates in the approval of its Memorandum of understanding in February 1994. The COST 516 Tribology Symposium took place in Espoo, Finland from 14th to 15th May 1998. This was the first Symposium of the COST 516 Tribology action. The large number of research contributions at the Symposium, altogether almost SO, and their scientific and technical level, is an indication of the importance and significance of tribology research. The symposium proceedings contain papers in a wide variety of subjects, covering the three categories of the COST 516 Tribology action, namely Grease lubrication (GRIT), Tribology of renewable environmentally adapted lubricants (REAL) and Coatings and surface treatments (CAST). (orig.)

  5. Effectiveness of mobile electronic devices in weight loss among overweight and obese populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jones, Jessica; Ronksley, Paul E; Armstrong, Marni J; Caird, Jeff; Rabi, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, have emerged as potentially useful tools in the facilitation and maintenance of weight loss. While RCTs have demonstrated a positive impact of mobile interventions, the extent to which mobile electronic devices are more effective than usual care methods is still being debated. Electronic databases were systematically searched for RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of mobile electronic device interventions among overweight and obese adults. Weighted mean difference for change in body weight was the primary outcome. The search strategy yielded 559 citations and of the 108 potentially relevant studies, six met the criteria. A total of 632 participants were included in the six studies reporting a mean change in body weight. Using a random-effects model, the WMD for the effect of using mobile electronic devices on reduction in body weight was -1.09 kg (95% CI -2.12, -0.05). When stratified by the type of mobile electronic device used, it suggests that interventions using mobile phones were effective at achieving weight loss, WMD = -1.78 kg (95% CI -2.92, -0.63). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that mobile electronic devices have the potential to facilitate weight loss in overweight and obese populations, but further work is needed to understand if these interventions have sustained benefit and how we can make these mHealth tools most effective on a large scale. As the field of healthcare increasingly utilizes novel mobile technologies, the focus must not be on any one specific device but on the best possible use of these tools to measure and understand behavior. As mobile electronic devices continue to increase in popularity and the associated technology continues to advance, the potential for the use of mobile devices in global healthcare is enormous. More RCTs with larger sample sizes need to be conducted to look at the cost-effectiveness, technical and financial feasibility of adapting such m

  6. SASP - Symposium on atomic, cluster and surface physics '94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Schrittwieser, R.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This international symposium (Founding Chairman: W. Lindinger, Innsbruck) is one in a continuing biennial series of conferences which seeks to promote the growth of scientific knowledge and its effective exchange among scientists in the field of atomic, molecular, cluster and surface physics and related areas. The symposium deals in particular with interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules, and clusters and their interactions with surfaces. (author)

  7. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  8. Modeling and Design of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors through Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Riccardo

    In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the

  9. Development of an improved Kelvin probe force microscope for accurate local potential measurements on biased electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, N B; Giraudet, L; Simonetti, O; Molinari, M

    2017-09-01

    An improved setup for accurate near-field surface potential measurements and characterisation of biased electronic devices using the Kelvin Probe method has been developed. Using an external voltage source synchronised with the raster-scan of the KPFM-AM, this setup allows to avoid potential measurement errors of the conventional Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in the case of in situ measurements on biased electronic devices. This improved KPFM-AM setup has been tested on silicon-based devices and organic semiconductor-based devices such as organic field effect transistors (OFETs), showing differences up to 25% compared to the standard KPFM-AM lift-mode measurement method. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Bulk GaN and its application as substrates in building quantum nanostructures for some electronic and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    The use of GaN crystals grown by three methods (and their combinations): Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE), high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) and ammonothermal method for optoelectronic (laser diodes) and electronic (transistors) devices is presented. After a brief review on the development of the three crystallization methods, the GaN crystals' uniform and unique properties, which allow to use them as substrates for building devices, are shown. The Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOCVD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technologies for growing the nitride quantum nanostructures as well as the structures' properties and processing of devices are demonstrated. Future challenges and perspectives for application of bulk GaN as substrates in building quantum nanostructures for some electronic and optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  11. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Nizar, F Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  12. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  13. Corrosion of silicon integrated circuits and lifetime predictions in implantable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoestenberghe, A.; Donaldson, N.

    2013-06-01

    Corrosion is a prime concern for active implantable devices. In this paper we review the principles underlying the concepts of hermetic packages and encapsulation, used to protect implanted electronics, some of which remain widely overlooked. We discuss how technological advances have created a need to update the way we evaluate the suitability of both protection methods. We demonstrate how lifetime predictability is lost for very small hermetic packages and introduce a single parameter to compare different packages, with an equation to calculate the minimum sensitivity required from a test method to guarantee a given lifetime. In the second part of this paper, we review the literature on the corrosion of encapsulated integrated circuits (ICs) and, following a new analysis of published data, we propose an equation for the pre-corrosion lifetime of implanted ICs, and discuss the influence of the temperature, relative humidity, encapsulation and field-strength. As any new protection will be tested under accelerated conditions, we demonstrate the sensitivity of acceleration factors to some inaccurately known parameters. These results are relevant for any application of electronics working in a moist environment. Our comparison of encapsulation and hermetic packages suggests that both concepts may be suitable for future implants.

  14. Overcoming Challenges in Kinetic Modeling of Magnetized Plasmas and Vacuum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Yuri; Na, Dong-Yeop; Teixeira, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    We transform the state-of-the art of plasma modeling by taking advantage of novel computational techniques for fast and robust integration of multiscale hybrid (full particle ions, fluid electrons, no displacement current) and full-PIC models. These models are implemented in 3D HYPERS and axisymmetric full-PIC CONPIC codes. HYPERS is a massively parallel, asynchronous code. The HYPERS solver does not step fields and particles synchronously in time but instead executes local variable updates (events) at their self-adaptive rates while preserving fundamental conservation laws. The charge-conserving CONPIC code has a matrix-free explicit finite-element (FE) solver based on a sparse-approximate inverse (SPAI) algorithm. This explicit solver approximates the inverse FE system matrix (``mass'' matrix) using successive sparsity pattern orders of the original matrix. It does not reduce the set of Maxwell's equations to a vector-wave (curl-curl) equation of second order but instead utilizes the standard coupled first-order Maxwell's system. We discuss the ability of our codes to accurately and efficiently account for multiscale physical phenomena in 3D magnetized space and laboratory plasmas and axisymmetric vacuum electronic devices.

  15. Effects of magnetic barriers on transport and magnetoresistance in a two-dimensional electronic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically the giant magnetoresistance (GMR effect of 2-dimensional electron system (2DES by the transfer matrix method. To produce the inhomogeneous magnetic field, two magnetic strips are pre-deposited on the surface of 2DES. In our work, we fix the magnetization M in one magnetic strip and adjust the tilting angle θ of magnetization in the other. The result shows that the electronic transmission and conductance vary significantly for different θ. The minimum conductance can be obtained at θ = π which corresponds to the magnetization anti-parallel alignment. The magnetoresistance ratio (MRR calculation also indicates we would get the maximum in that case. Furthermore, we consider the magnetization M dependence of MRR in this work. When M increases, MRR peaks get higher and broader and more numbers of peaks can be observed. These results offer an alternative to get a tunable GMR device which can be controlled by adjusting the magnetization M and the magnetized angle θ.

  16. Macroscale and microscale fracture toughness of microporous sintered Ag for applications in power electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuantong; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Zhang, Hao; Iwashige, Tomohito; Sugiura, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The application of microporous sintered silver (Ag) as a bonding material to replace conventional die-bonding materials in power electronic devices has attracted considerable interest. Characterization of the mechanical properties of microporous Ag will enable its use in applications such as lead-free solder electronics and provide a fundamental understanding of its design principles. However, the material typically suffers from thermal and mechanical stress during its production fabrication, and service. In this work, we have studied the effect of microporous Ag specimen size on fracture toughness from the microscale to the macroscale. A focused ion beam was used to fabricate 20-, 10- and 5-μm-wide microscale specimens, which were of the same order of magnitude as the pore networks in the microporous Ag. Micro-cantilever bending tests revealed that fracture toughness decreased as the specimen size decreased. Conventional middle-cracked tensile tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness of the macroscale specimens. The microscale and macroscale fracture toughness results showed a clear size effect, which is discussed in terms of both the deformation behavior of crack tip and the influence of pore networks within Ag with different specimen sizes. Finite element model simulations showed that stress at the crack tip increased as the specimen size increased, which led to larger plastic deformation and more energy being consumed when the specimen fractured.

  17. Engaging and Assessing Students through their Electronic Devices and Real Time Quizzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ferrándiz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a teaching experience using Socrative, a third party electronic tool, for real-time questioning in lectures of Econometrics.  Econometrics is a theoretical-practical subject, but traditionally a large proportion of our students tend to focus on the practical and discard the theory, often skipping classes on theory and avoiding studying its content, probably motivated by its complexity. As a consequence, students’ marks obtained in the theoretical part of the exam are usually low. In this context, we put forward a change in our teaching methodology to include the use of Socrative, a freely available app, that allows students to answer teachers’ short, true/false, or multiple choice questions posed during each class using their smartphones (or other electronic devices with Internet connection. The objectives of this project are twofold: 1 to engage students and increase attendance at lectures; 2 to improve feedback on the learning process. The results of a survey of a sample of 186 students reveal that Socrative has been an effective tool for achieving these objectives.

  18. Constructal design of phase change material enclosures used for cooling electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbasi, Rasool; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in cooling methods for portable electronic devices have heightened the need for using the large latent heat capacity of phase change materials (PCM). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the thermal characteristics of a PCM-based heat sink with high conductive materials. The solution is acquired as a procession of optimization stages which starts with the elemental area and proceeds toward the first assembly. Every optimization stage is the result of maximizing the safe operation time without allowing the electronics to reach the critical temperature. Primarily, the degrees of freedom and constrains were defined and then by changing the geometrical parameters, the target function which is the maximization of operation time, was optimized. Results show that the melting process in rectangular enclosures with vertical fins attached to the heated bottom surface can be affected by the contact surface between the fin and PCM and the convection of the melted PCM. For a rectangular enclosure with a constant area, it is better to use wider enclosure than the square and thin one. Also results indicate that the ratio of the vertical fin thickness to the horizontal one does not have a considerable effect on performance. By increasing the number of enclosures, the contact surface is raised, but the performance is not necessarily improved. - Highlights: • Thermal characteristics of a finned PCM-based heat sink are studied. • Constructal theory was used to optimize the PCM enclosures. • By increasing the number of enclosures, the performance is not necessarily improved

  19. The dosimetric Properties of Electron Beam Using Lyon Intraoperative Device for Intraoperative Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kye Jun; Park, Kyung Ran; Lee, Jong Young; Kim, Hie Yeon; Sung, Ki Joon; Chu, Sung Sil

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the dosimetric properties of electron beam using Lyon intraoperative device for intraoperative radiation therapy. The dosimetry data had compiled in such a way that a quick and correct decision regarding the cone shape, energy, and accurate calculations could be made. Using 3 dimensional water phantom, we have got the following data: cone output ratios, surface dose, dmax, dgo, flatness, symmetry, beam profiles, isodose curve, and SSD correction factors. The cone output ratios were measured with straight and bevelled cone, respectively. As the cone size and the energy were reduced, the cone output ratios decreased rapidly. With the flattening filter, the surface dose increased by electron beam to 85.3%, 89.2%, and 93.4%, for 6MeV, 9MeV, and 12MeV, respectively. It is important to increase the surface dose to 90% or more. Inspite of diminishing dose rate and beam penetration, this flattening filter increases the treatment volume significantly. With the combination of the three levels collimation and the flattening filter, we achieved good homogeneity of the beam and better flatness and the diameter of the 90% isodose curve was increased. It is important to increase the area that is included in the 90% isodose level. The value of measured and calculated SSD correction factors did not agree over the clinically important range from 100 cm to 110 cm

  20. IAEA symposium on international safeguards. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The most important subjects treated in 188 papers presented by the participants from member state and IAEA Safeguards Inspectors at the Symposium were as follows: implementation of IAEA safeguards; national support programs to the IAEA safeguards; experiences in application of safeguard monitoring devices; improved methods for verification of plutonium; highly enriched uranium; surveillance of spent fuel storage facilities, reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants; excess weapon grade plutonium and other fissile materials

  1. Synthesis of carbon and zinc oxide nanotubes and their applications in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaikun

    clean substrate. Time-resolved absorption and emission spectra indicate an increasing conjugation length with the storage time for an initially homogeneous solution. AFM micrographs show growing rod-like aggregates in solution over time. Bulk heterojunction solar cells have been fabricated with a layered structure of glass-substrate/graphene/ZnO NTs/P3HT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)/Au, in which vertically aligned ZnO NTs are electron donors, P3HT is the acceptor, and a highly conductive graphene film is the transparent electrode. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency have been measured to discuss the potential of such energy harvesting devices.

  2. Electrical characteristics of an electronic control device under a physiologic load: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Donald M; Ho, Jeffrey D; Kroll, Mark W; Miner, James R

    2010-03-01

    Law enforcement officers use electronic control devices (ECDs), such as the TASER X26 (TASER International, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ, USA), to control resisting subjects. Some of the debate on the safety of the devices has centered on the electrical characteristics of the devices. The electrical characteristics published by TASER International have historically based on discharges into a 400 Omega resistor. There are no studies that the authors are aware of that report the electrical characteristics under a physiologic load. In this study, we make an initial attempt to determine the electrical characteristics of the TASER X26 during a 5-second exposure in human volunteers. Subjects received an exposure to the dry, bare chest (top probe), and abdomen (bottom probe) with a standard TASER X26 in the probe deployment mode for 5 seconds. There were 10-11 pulse captures during the 5 seconds. Resistance was calculated using the sum of the absolute values of the instantaneous voltage measurements divided by the sum of the absolute values of the instantaneous current measurements (Ohm's Law). For the eight subjects, the mean spread between top and bottom probes was 12.1 inches (30.7 cm). The mean resistance was 602.3 Omega, with a range of 470.5-691.4 Omega. The resistance decreased slightly over the 5-second discharge with a mean decrease of 8.0%. The mean rectified charge per pulse was 123.0 microC. The mean main phase charge per pulse was 110.5 microC. The mean pulse width was 126.9 micros. The mean voltage per pulse was 580.1 V. The mean current per pulse was 0.97 A. The average peak main phase voltage was 1899.2 V and the average peak main phase current was 3.10 A. The mean tissue resistance was 602.3 Omega in this study. There was a decrease in resistance of 8% over the 5-second exposure. This physiologic load is different than the 400 Omega laboratory load used historically by the manufacturer. We recommend future characterization of these devices use a physiologic load

  3. Exploring the efficacy of electronic response devices in ninth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, John A., Jr.

    Student use of electronic response technology has been prevalent in postsecondary institutions and is beginning to penetrate K--12 classroom settings. Despite these trends, research exploring the impact of this technology in these settings has been limited. The extant research has relied heavily on survey methodologies and largely has focused on student/teacher perception or implementation practices while remaining silent on learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to broaden the scope of research models used to explore electronic response technology and its impact on student learning. The study took place in a ninth-grade science classroom at a large high school with a comprehensive curriculum. Study participants were first-year high school students enrolled in one of two sections of the freshman science sequence focusing on Physical Science content. One section, serving as the Treatment group, used electronic response devices on a daily basis to respond to preplanned teacher questions. The other section, serving as the Comparison group, relied on traditional methods of interaction such as raising hands to respond to questions. They responded to the same set of preplanned questions and differed only in the manner of response, with the teacher asking the class and then calling on one of the students to answer. The study focused on academic achievement, as measured by student performance on a pre- and posttest, as well as student engagement, measured by momentary time sample data taken throughout the entire class with focused attention on periods of teacher questioning. The analysis of academic achievement employed an ANOVA, and no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. Engagement data were analyzed using an independent samples t test, and statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. Findings from this study indicated that, when using electronic response technology in their science classes, students

  4. The stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber electronic portal imaging devices for dosimetry purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwe, R J W; Tielenburg, R; van Ingen, K M; Mijnheer, B J; van Herk, M B

    2004-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the stability of liquid-filled matrix ionization chamber (LiFi-type) electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for dosimetric purposes. The short- and long-term stability of the response was investigated, as well as the importance of factors influencing the response (e.g., temperature fluctuations, radiation damage, and the performance of the electronic hardware). It was shown that testing the performance of the electronic hardware as well as the short-term stability of the imagers may reveal the cause of a poor long-term stability of the imager response. In addition, the short-term stability was measured to verify the validity of the fitted dose-response curve immediately after beam startup. The long-term stability of these imagers could be considerably improved by correcting for room temperature fluctuations and gradual changes in response due to radiation damage. As a result, the reproducibility was better than 1% (1 SD) over a period of two years. The results of this study were used to formulate recommendations for a quality control program for portal dosimetry. The effect of such a program was assessed by comparing the results of portal dosimetry and in vivo dosimetry using diodes during the treatment of 31 prostate patients. The improvement of the results for portal dosimetry was consistent with the deviations observed with the reproducibility tests in that particular period. After a correction for the variation in response of the imager, the average difference between the measured and prescribed dose during the treatment of prostate patients was -0.7%+/-1.5% (1 SD), and -0.6%+/-1.1% (1 SD) for EPID and diode in vivo dosimetry, respectively. It can be concluded that a high stability of the response can be achieved for this type of EPID by applying a rigorous quality control program.

  5. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  6. Device for irradiation of a target surface by a variable electron beam, especially electron beam generator, in order to produce semiconductor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    For the lithographic device there is used a field emission source for thermal ions with a tungsten cathode and a zirconium top as an electron gain. For production of IC chips the electron beam of 1000 A/cm 2 can be focused on a mask template, mounted on a x/Y table, by means of a system of lenses. The electromagnetic focusing device with a small aberration coefficient is designed in such a way that there is obtained a large focal length on the image side as compared to the focal length on the object side. Thereby a small angular deflection of the beam in the focusing device causes a large deflection at the target. The control is performed by a processor. (RW) [de

  7. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  8. Remote monitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices in the Netherlands An expert consensus report of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, C. C.; Elders, J.; van Hemel, N. M.; van den Broek, K.; van Erven, L.; de Mol, B.; Talmon, J.; Theuns, D. A. M. J.; de Voogt, W.

    2012-01-01

    Remote monitoring of cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIED: pacemaker, cardiac resynchronisation therapy device and implantable cardioverter defibrillator) has been developed for technical control and follow-up using transtelephonic data transmission. In addition, automatic or patient-triggered

  9. Large area plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline graphite on insulator for electronic device application

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Marek E.; Xu, Cigang; Cooke, Mike; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Chong, H.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on large area plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of nanocrystalline graphite (NCG) on thermally grown SiO2 wafer, quartz and sapphire substrates. Grown films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrical characterization and optical transmission measurementsindicate promising properties of this material for use as transparent electrodes and for electronic device applicati...

  10. Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing/Metrology Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    International Electron Devices and Materials Symposium (IEDMS), Haulien, Taiwan. (Nov19-21, 2014) (9) Wei-Ting Lai, Kuo-Ching Yang, Ting- Chia Hsu, Po...International Conference on Solid-State Devices and Materials, Tsukuba, Japan (Sep. 8-11, 2014). (12) Wei-Ting Lai, Kuo-Ching Yang, Ting- Chia Hsu, Po...Ting- Chia Hsu, Tzu-Hsuan Cheng, Tzu-Min Hsu, and Pei-Wen Li, 2014, ”Size Tunable Strain and Interfacial Engineering of Germanium Quantum Dots,” 2014

  11. A WiFi Tracking Device Printed Directly on Textile for Wearable Electronics Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Krykpayev, Bauyrzhan

    2015-12-01

    Wearable technology is quickly becoming commonplace in our everyday life - fit-ness and health monitors, smart watches, and Google Glass, just to name a few. It is very clear that in near future the wearable technology will only grow. One of the biggest wearable fields is the E-textiles. E-textiles empower clothes with new functionality by enhancing fabrics with electronics and interconnects. The main obstacle to the development of E-textile field is the relative difficulty and large tolerance in its manufacturing as compared to the standard circuit production. Current methods such as the application of conductive foils, embroidering of conductive wires and treatment with conductive coatings do not possess efficient, fast and reliable mass production traits inherent to the electronic industry. On the other hand, the method of conductive printing on textile has the potential to unlock the efficiency similar to PCB production, due to its roll-to-roll and reel-to-reel printing capabilities. Further-more, printing on textiles is a common practice to realize graphics, artwork, etc. and thus adaptability to conductive ink printing will be relatively easier. Even though conductive printing is a fully additive process, the end circuit layout is very similar to the one produced via PCB manufacture. However, due to high surface roughness and porosity of textiles, efficient and reliable printing on textile has remained elusive. Direct conductive printing on textile is possible but only on specialized dense and tightly interwoven fabrics. Such fabrics are usually uncommon and expensive. Another option is to employ an interface layer that flattens the textile surface, thus allowing printing on it. The interface layer method can be used with a variety of textiles such as polyester/cotton that can be found in any store, making this method promising for wearable electronics. Very few examples and that too of simple structures such as a line, square patch or electrode have been

  12. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology-a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  13. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology--a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  14. Assessing electronic cigarette effects and regulatory impact: Challenges with user self-reported device power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Alyssa K; Leventhal, Adam M; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids for user inhalation that usually contain nicotine. ECIG nicotine emission is determined, in part, by user behavior, liquid nicotine concentration, and electrical power. Whether users are able to report accurately nicotine concentration and device electrical power has not been evaluated. This study's purpose was to examine if ECIG users could provide data relevant to understanding ECIG nicotine emission, particularly liquid nicotine concentration (mg/ml) as well as battery voltage (V) and heater resistance (ohms, Ω) - needed to calculate power (watts, W). Adult ECIG users (N=165) were recruited from Los Angeles, CA for research studies examining the effects of ECIG use. We asked all participants who visited the laboratory to report liquid nicotine concentration, V, and Ω. Liquid nicotine concentration was reported by 89.7% (mean=9.5mg/ml, SD=7.3), and responses were consistent with the distribution of liquids available in commonly marketed products. The majority could not report voltage (51.5%) or resistance (63.6%). Of the 40 participants (24.8%) who reported voltage and resistance, there was a substantial power range (2.2-32,670W) the upper limit of which exceeds that of the highest ECIG reported by any user to our knowledge (i.e., 2512W). If 2512W is taken as the upper limit, only 30 (18.2%) reported valid results (mean 237.3W, SD=370.6; range=2.2-1705.3W). Laboratory, survey, and other researchers interested in understanding ECIG effects to inform users and policymakers may need to use methods other than user self-report to obtain information regarding device power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of an electronic portal imaging device for exit dosimetry and quality control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Michael C.; Williams, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine ways in which electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could be used to (a) measure exit doses for external beam radiotherapy and (b) perform quality control checks on linear accelerators. Methods and Materials: When imaging, our fluoroscopic EPID adjusts the gain, offset, and frame acquisition time of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera automatically, to allow for the range of photon transmissions through the patient, and to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. However, our EPID can be programmed to act as an integrating dosemeter. EPID dosemeter measurements were made for 20 MV photons, for different field sizes and thicknesses of unit density phantom material placed at varying exit surface to detector distances. These were compared with simultaneous Silicon diode exit dose measurements. Our exit dosimetry technique was verified using an anthropomorphic type phantom, and some initial measurements have been made for patients treated with irregularly shaped 20 MV x-ray fields. In this dosimetry mode, our EPID was also used to measure certain quality control parameters, x-ray field flatness, and the verification of segmented intensity modulated field prescriptions. Results: Configured for dosimetry, our EPID exhibited a highly linear response, capable of resolving individual monitor units. Exit doses could be measured to within about 3% of that measured using Silicon diodes. Field flatness was determined to within 1.5% of Farmer dosemeter measurements. Segmented intensity modulated fields can be easily verified. Conclusions: Our EPID has the versatility to assess a range of parameters pertinent to the delivery of high quality, high precision radiotherapy. When configured appropriately, it can measure exit doses in vivo, with reasonable accuracy, perform certain quick quality control checks, and analyze segmented intensity modulated treatment fields

  16. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  17. A simple respiratory indicator for irradiation during voluntary breath holding: a one-touch device without electronic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Hideyuki; Marino, Kan; Komiyama, Takafumi; Kuriyama, Kengo; Araya, Masayuki; Saito, Ryo; Aoki, Shinichi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the use, structural principles, operation, and acquired reproducibility of a respiratory monitoring device to be used for voluntary patient breath holding. Evaluation was performed of a respiratory monitoring device that enables determination of the respiratory level in a patient by measuring the movement of two contacts on the abdomen and chest wall. Neither metallic nor electronic materials are used in the mechanics for this device. The initial study group comprised 21 consecutive patients (15 men, six women; mean age, 75 years; range, 56-92 years) with lung or abdominal tumors who underwent examination with the device and computed tomography (CT) for three-dimensional reproducibility of lung base position during voluntary breath holding with or without use of the device. One patient with mild dementia was excluded; in most of the remaining 20 patients, high reproducibility of the breath-holding position was achieved in a short time with the device. In these 20 patients who were able to adapt to use of the device, three-dimensional mean maximum differences in lung base position during three random voluntary breath holds were 2.0 mm along the cranial-caudal axis, 1.5 mm along the anterior-posterior axis, and 1.2 mm along the right-left axis. The differences in all axes were significantly smaller with use of the respiratory monitoring device than without the device. The device demonstrates satisfactory reproducibility of voluntary patient breath holding easily and inexpensively and may offer a convenient device for easy use during irradiation with voluntary breath-holding conditions that require a small internal margin. Copyright RSNA, 2010

  18. Just-in-Time or Plenty-of-Time Teaching? Different Electronic Feedback Devices and Their Effect on Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Martinez, Brandon; Seli, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how incorporating different electronic feedback devices (i.e., clickers versus web-based polling) may affect specific types of student engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), whether students' self-efficacy for learning and performance may differ between courses that have integrated clickers and…

  19. 75 FR 28651 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-718] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: International Trade... that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on April 19, 2010, under...

  20. 75 FR 34484 - In the Matter of: Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-721] In the Matter of: Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on May 12, 2010, under section 337 of the Tariff Act...